Transall C-160

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Transall C-160
Transall LTG 62 1983.jpeg
An Air Force Transall C-160D
Type: Military transport plane
Design country:

GermanyGermany Germany France


Transporter Allianz,
a consortium

First flight:

February 25, 1963



Production time:

1965 to 1985

Number of pieces:


Transall from Armée de l'Air and Luftwaffe in comparison
Flight demonstration of a Transall C-160

The Transall C-160 is an in the 1960s by the German-French company consortium Trans porter All ianz developed tactical transport aircraft , which by the air forces of Germany , France and Turkey is used. The type designation of the shoulder- wing wing propelled by two propeller turbines is made up of the purpose (C for cargo ) and the wing area (160 m²).

The aircraft, which was designed for military use, became known, among other things, for aid flights that the Air Force carried out to Africa, particularly in the 1970s and 1980s. The Transall was also used civilly on a smaller scale. In the air forces of the three current user states, it has been gradually being replaced by the Airbus A400M since 2013 .



Schematic representation of the concepts examined in advance

In 1957, when the Nord 2501 Noratlas was still in the preparatory stage, the first plans for the development of a successor model began independently in France and Germany. While Nord Aviation and Sud-Aviation / Hurel-Dubois dealt with the project in France , in Germany these were Weserflug and Hamburger Flugzeugbau (HFB). The German designs with four engines clearly showed the influences of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules . The French proposals, on the other hand, tended more towards a twin-engine solution that should be suitable for strategic long-haul operations. From a German perspective, however, the focus should be on the procurement of a tactical transporter with a relatively short range. However, both countries agreed on the requirement of STOL properties and the ability to be used on unprepared slopes.

The studies carried out by the HFB led to the draft HFB P.311 at the beginning of 1958, which provided for the possibility of simultaneous loading and unloading via loading flaps under the bow and at the stern. The planned drive consisted of four Allison T56 turbo props and the wing area should be 150 m². Weserflug also proposed a four-engine design, but a larger wing area of ​​180 m² and a more voluminous fuselage with tailgates. A peculiarity that both concepts exhibited was the split vertical stabilizer with overhead horizontal stabilizer. A second draft by Weserflug concerned a smaller twin-engine aircraft with 150 m² and a central tail unit. The HFB P.311 was finally deleted in favor of the two proposals worked out by Weserflug. After the formation of the first provisional “Transporter Working Group”, the two Weser flight projects were given the designations AT 180 and AT 150. The C 40 proposed by Nord-Aviation in France was very similar to the AT 150 in terms of its twin-engine design. In collaboration with Sud Aviation, Hurel-Dubois developed the SA-HD 120, in which a wide-span wing with a large aspect ratio was provided.

At the end of April 1958, the first project planning phase was completed in both countries. Italy, as a third partner country, was also interested in participating in the project to replace its Fairchild C-119 . A committee made up of members of the three countries drew up a specification and handed it over to representatives of the German and French aviation industries on June 12, 1958. The committee discussed the concepts presented and finally recommended that the Nord-Aviation and Weserflug drafts be pursued further. On the German side, the engineering office Blume joined the planning group, while in France Sud-Aviation and Hurel-Dubois were eliminated. France and Germany decided to continue the further planning together under the leadership of Weserflug, while Italy left the program due to funding concerns.

On January 28, 1959, the four companies now united in the “Transporter Alliance” (Weserflug, HFB, Blume and Nord-Aviation) signed a basic agreement in Bonn for the planned joint development. In February 1959 then the Franco-German consortium was TRANSALL ( Trans porter All ianz) by Nord Aviation (North) (Paris), Weser Flugzeugbau ( Lemwerder ), Hamburger Flugzeugbau (HFB) (Hamburg) and W. Flower - lightweight construction and aviation technology (Blume) (Duisburg), which was to build the aircraft, now known as the C-160, in versions F (France) and D (Germany). In December 1959, a preliminary contract was signed at the government level, which provided for the construction and testing of three flying prototypes, as well as the construction of a break cell for static and dynamic testing. Each country should assume 50% of the costs.

In January 1960, the actual development of the C-160 Transall began. The Rolls-Royce Tyne, which is much more powerful than the T56, with almost 5000  WPS , was now available as a drive . The procurement plan approved by both governments provided for 50 aircraft for the French and 110 for the German air force. In 1962, an additional order to build six pilot series aircraft was added. The two countries placed the order to build the 160 series aircraft on September 24, 1964. According to the production plan, the three main plants, Nord-Aviation, Weserflug (now VFW ) and HFB, were to deliver one third each. The development and production of the assemblies was distributed as follows:

  • Nord-Aviation: wings and engine nacelles
  • VFW: main fuselage, tailplane
  • HFB: nose fuselage, tail fuselage and tail unit parts

The individual segments and aircraft from all three manufacturers were assembled and flown in.

British industry was also involved by supplying the Rolls-Royce engines and the De Havilland propellers. Normalair also supplied the pressure and air conditioning systems. The chassis was developed by the French company Messier .

The procurement of the Transall was preceded by controversial meetings in the Defense Committee of the German Bundestag . There was agreement that the Nord Noratlas had to be replaced as soon as possible, but in addition to the development and manufacture of its own aircraft by the Transporter Alliance, the purchase or license construction of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules in the E version was also up for discussion. One of the main advantages of the American Transporter during the negotiations in 1963 was that it had already proven its suitability for use in the Vietnam War , while only the prototypes of the Transall existed. The C-130 also offered larger and cheaper transport services. Ultimately, however, the decision was made in favor of the Transall, albeit mainly for political reasons, because the German government did not want to snub its ally France and also because the federal government, following the corruption allegations that arose in connection with the procurement of the Lockheed F-104 Starfighter ( Starfighter Affair ) Lockheed did not want to place another order in this size.

Prototypes and pre-series machines

Transall 50 + 14 on the runway at Langenhagen Airport, 2006

The test program was carried out with three Transall, which were designated as test samples (V) 1 to 3. The C-160 V1 was the first of the three prototypes to start its 55-minute first flight on February 25, 1963 in Melun-Villaroche (France) with test pilot Jean Lanvario at the wheel. On May 25, 1963 the V2 followed in Lemwerder near Bremen and on February 19, 1964 the V3 in Hamburg-Finkenwerder .

In addition to these machines, two break cells for ground tests and six pre-production aircraft A-01 to A-06 were produced. Based on the experience gained during the test flights, the fuselage of the Transall on pre-series and series machines was enlarged by a rib, about 51 cm, compared to the prototypes, and the wings were swept by 2 ° 10 ".

After the first flight, the machines were stationed at the Franco-German test center in Istres , where, in addition to the French test pilot school EPNER, there was for a long time a branch of the test center 61 (today Defense Technology Service 61 ) and most of the test flight program was carried out.

Test sample Mark Manufacturer First flight Testing areas
V1 D-9507 North February 25, 1963 1 Adjustment of engine and GTG, testing of flight characteristics and de-icing system (in Vidsel , Sweden )
V2 D-9508 VFW May 25, 1963 Testing of flight characteristics / flight performance, electrics, avionics and flutter testing; Testing under “hot-and-high” conditions (high temperatures and pressures) in Addis Ababa and Djibouti
V3 D-9509 HFB 19th February 1964 Tests of the aircraft structure, loading tests, lowering of loads and parachutists, testing of the use of unprepared slopes
Pre-serial number annotation
A-01 D-9524
YA + 051
50 + 03
North May 21, 1965 According to other information, two machines were built by Nord, VFW and HFB.
A-02 61-MI VFW June 23, 1965
A-03 D-9525
YA + 052
50 + 04
HFB August 27, 1965
A-04 61-BI January 31, 1966
A-05 50 + 05 5th February 1966
A-06 61-ZB April 28, 1966
1 The crew of the first flight consisted of the responsible test pilot Jean Lanvario together with the flight engineers Jean Caillard, Lucien Goypieron and Louis Bonfand.


C-160D 50 + 61 of the LTG 63 at the ILA 2016

The first official delivery of a series machine took place on August 2, 1967 in Lemwerder to the French Air Force (Armée de l'air) . On April 30, 1968 the Luftwaffe received its first Transall C-160 with the tactical registration number 50 + 06.

In the first lot 169 Transall C-160s were produced, of which 50 were delivered to the Armée de l'air, 9 to South Africa and 110 to the Air Force. The French final assembly line was in Bourges (North), the German in Finkenwerder (HFB) and Lemwerder (VFW).

Of the aircraft built for Germany, 20 were sold to Turkey in 1971/72. This was preceded by the fact that as early as 1967 the Bundeswehr planned to buy no longer 110, but only 60 aircraft. This idea, officially the result of a downsizing of the Bundeswehr and the military budget, could be thwarted by the French side, as the contract between France and Germany would have had to be changed on both sides to reduce the number of units, but this was done by the French side on May 10, 1967 in talks between Defense Ministers Gerhard Schröder and Pierre Messmer was rejected.

Nouvelle generation

After a letter of intent for the purchase of 25 more Transall C-160s by the Armée de l'air, a second lot was launched in 1976. Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB), Aérospatiale and VFW-Fokker took part in this program , some of which resulted from mergers of the companies involved in the previous series. The Transall ordered by France were given the designation C-160 NG (Nouvelle Generation). In addition to the 25 Transall C-160NGs already ordered by France, another four machines were added that were specially equipped for special missions. Indonesia also ordered six "new generation" machines.

The first Transall C-160NG took off on April 9, 1981 with Jean Franchi on its maiden flight. The final assembly of the series aircraft took place at the Saint Martin du Touch plant in Toulouse. Aircraft from the manufacturer Avions de Transport Régional (ATR) are assembled in the hangar today .


Transall C-160
Transall C-160D cockpit
The loading ramp, here with a French wheeled armored vehicle ERC-90


The hull of the Transall is constructed in an all-metal half-shell construction with an approximately circular cross-section. The cockpit is slightly raised compared to the load compartment floor and can be reached via a short flight of stairs. The entire interior is designed as a pressurized cabin. This is pressurized by a Normalair-Garrett system with 0.32 bar so that up to an altitude of 8000 m the cabin pressure does not exceed 3500 m. The crew entrance is located between the cockpit and the cargo area, as is the front loading door in the front area of ​​the cargo area on the left.

Since this loading door means an intervention in the structure, was only rarely used and the curb weight increases compared to a hull without a door, this was not done with the C-160NG. In the rear area of ​​the hold there are parachutist doors on both sides in front of the transition to the tail unit. The loading ramp and the rear loading gate can be opened on the ground and in flight. The latter is used to set down larger loads in flight using specified procedures. The ramp can be lowered to the ground after opening the rear loading gate, which is pulled up into the hull.

The cargo hold itself, designed according to the international railroad profile , is 13.5 m long and 3.15 m wide and has a height of 2.98 m, so the cargo area is 42.5 m² and the cargo volume is 126.72 m³ . Freight can be loaded on pallets or in containers up to a maximum of 16,000 kg. There is also space for several vehicles such as trucks (one five-ton or two three-ton), off-road vehicles or several weapon carriers Wiesel (four Wiesel 1 or two Wiesel 2). Loads up to 8000 kg can be dropped. A maximum of 93 seats are available for passenger transport.

From a medevac mission ( Med ical Evac uation ) three seriously injured can provide intensive care for up to twelve doctors and medics on so-called patient-transport units. In addition, there is space for 14 slightly injured people on stretchers.

If the machine is equipped for the dropping of paratroopers, 58 jumpers with jump luggage or 77 jumpers without jump luggage can be dropped off in Germany when jumping with automatic parachutes . If the two weaners also jump off, there are two more men each. All spaces can be used when dropping free fallers.

Cockpit / avionics

Depending on the model, the cockpit is equipped with conventional instruments or screens. During a major renovation from 1994 to 1998, the flight navigation instruments of the German version were completely rewired and the avionics were comprehensively renewed. As part of the so-called ANA / FRA (autonomous navigation system / flight control system) upgrade, the aircraft received a flight management system , military GPS receivers, an inertial navigation system with laser gyroscopes , two electronic horizontal situation indicators for ground-independent navigation and two new autopilots with flight director for largely automated flight operations. Due to these innovations, the on-board radio operator (BNF) was no longer required.

Until then, it was his job to determine the position of the Transall with a sextant , LORAN- C and Doppler navigation or with the weather / navigation radar . This radar was also used to flow instrument approaches , the so-called airborne radar approaches (ARA), in which the navigation radar illuminates metal reflectors next to a runway and determines the position of the aircraft after the echo.

From the end of August 2011, the Air Force tested tablet computers for a short time at the LTG 63 in Hohn near Rendsburg as a supplement to the existing avionics and as a replacement for conventional flight cards.


The structure consists of a three-part all-metal shell wing with two spars . Two trapezoidal outer wings adjoin the rectangular center piece . The NACA profiles 632-A-218 (center piece) and 633-A-314 (wing tip) with relative thicknesses between 18 and 14% were used for the wings . Hydraulically operated double slit flaps are used as landing flaps. There are also two air brakes on the top and bottom. The ailerons are supported on each side by a spoiler that is automatically extended when the aileron is operated.

Tail unit

The tail unit is self-supporting and also made entirely of metal. The fin has three spars and is connected to the fuselage with 16 bolts. The two elevators each consist of one piece, they are operated hydraulically like ailerons, rudder and flaps. The leading edges of the rudder and elevator fins are electrically de-iced.

landing gear

View of the main landing gear of the Transall

The landing gear of the Transall consists of a twin-tire nose landing gear and two main landing gear axles, which are also housed in gondolas and also have twin tires. The main landing gear is braked hydraulically via disc brakes, the nose landing gear has an overrun brake. The low-pressure tires (3.0 to 3.3 bar) and the suspension struts of the chassis make it possible to land and take off on unpaved airfields.


Transall on approach for landing, Landsberg Air Base

The Transall is powered by two Rolls-Royce Tyne  Mk.22 turboprop engines , each of which drives a four-blade propeller via a planetary gear . In the right-hand landing gear nacelle there is a water-methanol tank, from which the mixture is taken at the start and injected into the compressor. The water- methanol mixture in the intake air increases its density through evaporative cooling , which enables the combustion of the maximum amount of kerosene and thus the same thrust up to 19 degrees above the standard temperature . The propeller, which is hydromechanically adjustable and has a diameter of 18 ft (5.486 m), is made of duralumin in the D and F versions . The hydromechanical adjustment of the propellers takes place over a range of + 86 ° ( sail position ) to the brake thrust position (reversion, −14 °) automatically via the power levers .

In addition to the aluminum propellers used, from 1969 to at least 1974 the Luftwaffe tested a different propeller shape made of wood with a diameter of 5 and 5.4 meters, with the aim of reducing the noise in the hold and the vibrations of the airframe through the vibrations of the engines reduce; 427 hours of tests on the ground and 348 hours of flight with the prototype V2 were flown, but ultimately no improvement over the propeller still used today could be determined. From affected residents in the places that were flown over, there were repeatedly complaints about aircraft noise , which z. B. also dealt with the citizenship in Bremen .

On the French aircraft of the NG and R version, a propeller made of composite material is optionally used; the Transall can be operated with both propeller types in parallel.

Other systems

Hydraulics and power supply

An auxiliary equipment carrier is attached to each engine, which drives a generator with 60 kVA, a generator with 9 kVA, two hydraulic pumps and a cabin loader for the pressurized cabin. If the propeller speed is below 2000 min −1 , the propellers can be brought to a stop with a propeller brake.

Auxiliary unit

In the left landing gear nacelle, the Transall is equipped with an auxiliary turbine (called GTG = gas turbine generator) of the AiResearch GTCP 85-160A type with 203 hp. The outlet is in front of the wheels of the main landing gear (see picture above). It supplies the aircraft on the ground (especially on makeshift or field airfields) with electrical energy, compressed air and hydraulic pressure before the engines are started. In the air, the auxiliary turbine is only operated in emergencies, since the power supply is ensured by the generators of the engines during flight. At low temperatures, both engines can be preheated using GTG bleed air with the aid of a device set.

Fuel system

The versions C-160D and F have four tanks - two each in the left and right wing - which together hold a maximum of 16,410 liters of kerosene and supply the two engines and the auxiliary power unit. The NG version has larger flat tanks and an additional tank in the wing center section with a capacity of 28,050 liters. In addition, the machines of the NG and R series can be refueled in the air using a refueling probe , which enables these machines to a limited extent for strategic air transport .

air conditioning

Air conditioning ensures temperatures between 16 and 18 degrees Celsius when cruising, and cooling by up to 10 degrees Celsius is possible when the outside temperature is higher.

Self-protection system

With the foreign missions in the Balkans and Afghanistan , the installation of a self-defense system was deemed necessary, especially after an Italian military transport of the type Fiat G.222 was shot down by a surface-to-air missile approaching Sarajevo in September 1992 . In addition, part of the German Transall fleet received the AN / AAR-54 (V) missile warning system from Northrop Grumman , which is operated by a tactical systems officer (TSO). The TSO occupies the former seat of the on-board radio operator.

Evolution of versions

Realized versions

C-160 V1… V3

Pre-series C-160A

The manufacturer consortium first produced three prototypes of the C-160 , designated as V1 to V3, and from the experience gained in the following tests, a version C-160A designated as " pilot series" , which had a fuselage that was half a meter longer and with the license plate A-01 to A-06 has been registered. Here, too, the three manufacturers divided the number of aircraft among themselves in equal proportions.

Series version C-160D, C-160F, C-160NG, C-160T, C-160Z

After the end of the test, 110 series copies of the C-160D version were produced for the Air Force . However, since there was never nearly enough crew available for this number of aircraft, twenty machines were handed over to Turkey as early as 1971. There they were given the type designation C-160T , even if they did not differ from the Luftwaffe machines.

The Armée de l'air ordered 50 first generation machines, which were named C-160F when they were delivered. Four F-specimens converted for mail transport were designated as C-160P . From 1981, the squadrons of the French Air Force reached the first of 25 machines of the Nouvelle Génération. under the designation C-160NG . Individual aircraft that have been converted from the F to the NG standard fly as the C-160R for the French name Renové . These machines can be refueled in the air, are equipped with an additional tank and have been equipped with more modern avionics. Ten NG-Transall are equipped in the left landing gear nacelle with a device to refuel other aircraft in the air.

The nine machines supplied to South Africa by Aérospatiale were given the designation C-160Z .

Special versions C-160G, C-160H

Picture of a Gabriel-Transall (2005), the additional antennae can be seen on the fuselage

Two sub-types for special tasks emerged from these standard versions in France, on the one hand the C-160H Astarté , four machines converted into relay stations for the French nuclear force (Astarté: A vion Sta tion R elais de T ransmissions E xceptionnelles, in German about "Luftfunkstation for important transmissions ”), as well as the C-160G Gabriel , two NG machines equipped with numerous antennas for electronic reconnaissance . The Astarté version was equipped with VLF (Very Low Frequency, Longitudinal Wave ) receivers and transmitters from Thales , which virtually cannot be disturbed by enemy forces in order to be able to exchange information with submerged submarines with nuclear armament. France decommissioned this version in 2002. The reconnaissance facilities of the Gabriel aircraft with the registration number “GT” (serial number F216) and “GS” (serial number F221) were modernized by Thales from 2008 onwards.

Unrealized versions

Two proposals for military versions did not come on the stage of the project out - on the one hand a so-called C-160S (also C-160ASF called), a proposal for a maritime patrol , and as C-160AAA designated design for an early warning version, each with a radar of the type Marconi APY-920 in bow and stern.

Sketch of the planned civil variant C-161. The shaded areas should be copied from the C-160.

A first civilian variant was also considered in the early stages of the Transall program. This should be usable as a pure cargo aircraft, as a passenger aircraft with 130 seats or as a combined cargo / passenger aircraft. In the studies it was assumed that the basic cell of the C-160 could be taken over unchanged and only the military equipment would be omitted. However, after the assessment by potential operators of the model, these plans were dropped as not being feasible. Study C-161 Transall was another variant examined that showed greater overall differences from the original design. Here, the cargo hold volume should be increased considerably without any significant change in the external dimensions. The main plan was to change the bow and stern so that 189 m³ of cargo space were available instead of 139 m³. Similar to the Lockheed C-5 solution, the bow should be able to be folded up like a visor and the cockpit raised. The stern ramp should be omitted. There was also no practical implementation in this project.




Transall C-160 (Germany)
Hohn Air Base, LTG 63
Hohn Air Base, LTG 63
Wunstorf Air Base, LTG 62 / Pilot School "S"
Wunstorf Air Base, LTG 62 / Pilot School "S"
Landsberg Air Base, LTG 61
Landsberg Air Base, LTG 61
Ingolstadt / Manching Air Base, WTD 61
Ingolstadt / Manching Air Base, WTD 61
Transall stationed in Germany
Transall of the Air Force in special livery

The Luftwaffe took over 110 machines from April 1968, 20 of which were later given to Turkey. They fly with the air transport squadrons 61 ( Landsberg ), 63 ( Hohn ) as well as with the Wehrtechnischen Dienststelle 61 ( Manching ). The Lufttransportgeschwader 62 , with which the aircraft had been stationed since 1969 (or until 1978 with the predecessor association, the pilot school "S" ), handed over its last three Transall on July 3, 2015 to Hohn.

The number of machines in use was reduced from 80 (as of Oct. 2011) to around 60 aircraft before the Airbus A400M was introduced . In August 2014, 56 Transall were still in service.

For major overhauls (so-called periodic inspections, similar to a C-Check for civil aircraft), all Transall of the Air Force are flown to Landsberg at three-year intervals, where this work can be carried out by the remote area of ​​the Aircraft Technology System Center. Major overhauls are being carried out at Airbus Defense and Space , also in Manching, and the former Transall manufacturers have now been absorbed by the Franco-German group. Spare parts for the entire fleet are manufactured at Premium Aerotec in Varel (until December 31, 2010 at EADS Military Aircraft Lemwerder , originated from Weser Flugzeugbau), where various larger components are also repaired. The air force celebrated the 40th anniversary of the introduction of the Transall and the one millionth flight hour of the entire fleet in 2011 with a ceremony in Wunstorf and Hohn. On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first flight, a ceremony took place in Landsberg on May 24, 2013, which was also attended by delegations from the French and Turkish air forces.

On April 1, 2014, Air Transport Wing 63 was declared a training association. The 3rd season of LTG 62, which had carried out the course-related practical and theoretical Transall training since the introduction of the model, was released from this assignment; the training is now taking place at the Hohn air base. Training on the Transall-C-160 flight simulator will continue at Wunstorf Air Base , but under the responsibility of LTG 63.

Transall's flight operations have been carried out exclusively from LTG61 ( Landsberg / Lech Air Base ) and LTG63 ( Hohn Air Base ) since July 3, 2015 . These two associations should fly the C-160 until around 2018/2019, with Hohn maintaining the Transall operation for the longest and taking over machines from Landsberg.

In December 2015 the Federal Ministry of Defense decided , due to the operational readiness of the Airbus A400M in tactical air transport, which could not be achieved by 2018 , the Transall in the configuration with extended self-protection (ESS version) in the LTG 63 at the Hohn location until 2021 and the location not to close until mid-2022. The LTG 61 from Penzing was dissolved at the end of 2017.


Transall C-160 (France)
Evreux Escadre de Transport 64
Escadre de
Transport 64
Orleans-Bricy Escadre de Transport 61

Escadre de
Transport 61
Metz-Frescaty Escadron Electronique Tactique 01.054
Tactique 01.054
BA101, Toulouse;  Center d'Instruction de Equipages de Transport
Center d'Instruction
de Equipages de
The Transall squadrons ( Escadron de transport and Escadron électronique aéroporté ) are stationed in France.
(active bases in red, former in gray)

The Armée de l'air initially received 50 F version Transall and later another 29 NG version machines. From October 1967 the transport squadrons 1/61 "Touraine" and 3/61 "Poitou" of the Escadre de Transport (ET) 61 in Orléans-Bricy were equipped with the F version, the NG version went to the squadrons 1/64 " Bearn ”and 2/64“ Anjou ”des Escadre de Transport (ET) 64 in Évreux . In addition, the specially equipped Gabriel reconnaissance aircraft fly with the EE 1/54 "Dunkerque", and the C-160H Astarte with the EE 11/54. Both squadrons were stationed in Metz-Frescaty until the end of 2011 ; the 1/54 now also flies from Évreux. Four C-160s were temporarily in use as mail planes with Air France livery and civil license plates .

In addition to the squadrons and squadrons on the French mainland, the Armée de l'air also set up squadrons overseas, which were called Escadron de Transport d 'Outre Mer (ETOM) and had an additional name after their location. There were three of these squadrons, ETOM 00.050 “ Réunion ”, ETOM 00.055 “Ouessant” (based in Dakar in Senegal) and ETOM 00.058 “ Gouadeloupe ”. The machines for these squadrons were provided by the ET 61 and ET 64 squadrons when required.

The training of the French Transall crews took place from 1969 to 2008 in Toulouse-Francazal at the 340 Center d 'Instruction des Equipages de Transport (CIET 340). First, the CIET was assigned aircraft of the ET 61 for training, then in 1977 the ET 62 was dissolved and the former first squadron of the association was integrated into the school.

The Armée de l'air initially planned to reduce its Transall fleet to 15 aircraft by 2015 and wanted to completely replace the model by 2018 with the Airbus A400M, which has been running since 2013, and the existing C-130H-30 Hercules . In the course of 2011 five machines were taken out of service; In 2012, nine more should follow. In 2013 it was announced that the procurement of the A400M Atlas was being stretched due to budget problems, so fourteen Transall should fly by 2023.


Transall C-160 (Turkey)
Erkilet / Kayseri;  221 Filo
Erkilet / Kayseri; 221 Filo
Transall stationed in Turkey

20 aircraft were sold to Turkey by the Air Force in 1971 because the Bundeswehr saw no need for the machines. These were the serial numbers D19 to D24 , D26 to D36 and D38 to D40 . In the first half of 1971, training courses for Turkish soldiers were carried out at the manufacturing companies and the Air Force. To overhaul the machines, a VFW team flew to Turkey in at least three cases and carried out major overhauls there. The machines are in use at the 221 Filo in Kayseri . The red and white lacquered Transall that flies with the Turkish Stars also belongs to the 221 Filo. The Turkish Air Force (Türk Hava Kuvetleri) is also introducing the A400M as a replacement . The delivery of the first A400M took place in April 2014.

South Africa

Transall C-160 (South Africa)
Waterkloof AFB, No.  28 Squadron
Waterkloof AFB, No. 28 Squadron
Transall stationed in South Africa

Nine aircraft (registration numbers 331 to 339 ) were delivered by Aérospatiale between July 1969 and July 1970 . The machines were at No. 28 Squadron used, from 1996 they were decommissioned. They were parked at AFB Waterkloof and except for one (registration number 337 ) were scrapped in the course of 2009.


SwitzerlandSwitzerland Switzerland - Balair

On behalf of the Red Cross (ICRC) , Balair flew relief flights to Biafra . For this purpose, the Air Force made the third prototype of the C-160, the V3, available to the international Red Cross for a period of four months. The Transall was painted in the colors of the Red Cross for the relief mission and was registered as a civilian. With the machine, now registered as HB-ILN, a total of 198 aid flights were carried out from Cotonou in Benin between 1968 and 1969 .

FranceFrance France - Poste Française
Transall in the postal service of Air France

Between 1973 and 1978 Air France used four converted military aircraft of the Transall C-160F variant to transport airmail within France. This was a service on behalf of the Center d'Exploitation Postal Métropolitain (CEPM), which was characterized by exceptional punctuality and regularity in all-weather flight operations. Air France previously used the DC-3 C for this, which was then replaced by the DC-4 and later by the Fokker F-27 . The C-160 was modified for mail transport so that the aircraft could be loaded and unloaded within twelve minutes. The four Transall were used exclusively on the Paris - Bastia (Corsica) route and each time transported around 13.5 tons of airmail. Two aircraft were stationed at each end point. On average, the Transalls carried 1.8 million letters each night. The punctuality rate was almost 98 percent during the entire duration of the mission.

GabonGabon Gabon

The prototype V3 was sold to Gabon in July 1976 and used at Air Affaires Gabon .

IndonesiaIndonesia Indonesia - Pelita Air Service

In 1980, an eight-month loan agreement was signed between the Transall consortium and the Indonesian government. The Federal Ministry of Defense made two Transall available for the relocation of Indonesian people from Java to other islands. For this purpose, the two machines received a formal civilian license, civilian paintwork as well as steps on the jumpers' doors and additional navigation equipment. Between August 1981 and May 1982, 38,000 Indonesians were resettled from Java to other islands in around 1,500 deployments. Following this successful program, the Indonesian government purchased six Transall NGs to further relocate the population of Java to less densely populated islands. Later some of the machines flew at Manunggal Air .

Tasks, procedures and missions

Steep approach, BIAF Airshow 2011

The main tasks of the Transall are the transport of material and personnel, the dropping of paratroopers and loads as well as the transport of the injured with medical supervision from a danger zone, also known as MedEvac.

The Transall is designed to be able to land and take off on short and poorly developed runways in difficult-to-fly terrain. It can perform a rapid descent (steep approach) with an angle of up to 20 °. For the steep approach, the landing flaps and air brakes are fully extended, so 185 km / h are not exceeded. Airfields with obstacles near the runway can thus be approached, and the risk of being fired from the ground near such an airfield can also be reduced. The C-160 needs a taxiing distance of 700 meters to take off and about 450 meters to land.

The so-called dropping from extremely low heights , known colloquially as the Africa procedure , was used to set down loads in rough terrain . Goods (e.g. sacks of rice) are dropped from a height of approx. 20 feet without a parachute. The Transall flies at such a high angle of attack that the load automatically falls to the ground via the ramp after the safety device has been removed. This option of supply was given the name Africa Procedure because it became known through the Ethiopia Aid in 1984.

In addition, the Transall was used in France as a relay station and is used for electronic warfare.


Humanitarian operations

Transall during load shedding

Various humanitarian missions by the Air Force were carried out in Africa, where crews and planes earned the reputation of angels of the air . Examples of these missions are the 1974/75 flights by Lufttransportgeschwader 63 to Ethiopia , Sudan and Chad . The same region was flown to again ten years later as part of such relief operations (see Famine in Ethiopia 1984–1985 ). In addition, countries in the Sahel zone (e.g. Mauritania , Mali , Niger ) were also destinations for the transport aircraft loaded with food.

Deployment in Somalia 1993

With the Transall in 1993, the Luftwaffe's air transport squadrons also took part in the first armed German armed forces abroad after the Second World War. Several aircraft were stationed in Beledweyne (often transcribed as Belet Huen in the media ). The first machine with the advance command on board was greeted personally by the then Defense Minister Volker Rühe.



As part of Opération Serval , the Armée de l'air moved a C-160 to Mali alongside other transport aircraft in January 2013. German Transall were also used in Mali from the beginning of 2013 to mid-2014 to bring soldiers from the ECOWAS alliance to Bamako as part of the AFISMA and MINUSMA missions .

However, the restrictions that have now been imposed on operations in extreme heat and in the dark have reduced the range of operations so much that the leadership of the UN peacekeeping force in Mali, MINUSMA , has not used the Air Force Transall since July 2014. As early as May 2014, the Bundeswehr had refused to carry out a rescue flight for injured African soldiers from the embattled Kidal because it was slowly getting dark. The “Air Transport Base” in Dakar was officially closed on July 10, 2014; According to the German Armed Forces, the Transall fleet flew from the beginning of the mission on January 19, 2013 to the end in 1050 flights about 3000 flight hours, with 6500 passengers and 1650 tons of cargo were transported.

From 2015

Since 2016 Transall have been used again as part of the MINUSMA mission. You are stationed in Niamey , the capital of Niger , and fly from there to destinations in northern Mali.

Ebola Aid 2014

After the Ebola fever epidemic spread in Sierra Leone , Liberia and Guinea in the first half of 2014 , the German government decided in September to provide logistical help in combating the virus. For this purpose, Transall flew from Dakar in Senegal and Accra in Ghana on behalf of the United Nations Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER) to the capitals of the three countries, Freetown , Monrovia and Conakry . Mainly food and medical supplies were transported. The mission ended in March 2015.

UN Shuttle 1978

During the Lebanese Civil War , blue helmet soldiers from Nepal were deployed in the south of the country to end or at least alleviate the conflict. In order to supply these troops, an airlift was set up in April 1978 between the then Fürstenfeldbruck air base in Bavaria and Ben Gurion Airport in the Israeli city of Tel Aviv , via which Bundeswehr material, including trucks and other vehicles, was transported to Israel from where it was brought to the units to be supplied at hot spots in Lebanon.


An air transport system called Lutrans was set up within Germany and to the tactical training commandos in Decimomannu (Sardinia) and Beja in Portugal in order to be able to transport personnel and material quickly to the locations to be supplied. After a test phase, the route Hohn –Ahlhorn – Cologne – Stuttgart – Landsberg was flown as standard with two C-160s from March 4, 1975 . From these airfields, the goods were transported on by road to the depots or units that needed them. Certain goods could be transported to their destination within 24 hours. These flights covered a quarter of the Air Force's transportation needs.

Bosnian War

From July 4, 1992, the German air transport squadrons, together with international partners, supplied the areas in the former Yugoslavia affected by the Bosnian war . Some of the approaches were carried out under fire, resulting in 277 incidents, of which 205 were rated as "hostile". Up to the end of February 1995, up to 22 acts of conflict per month were registered, only in December 1994 there were no incidents. 66.2% of the incidents occurred in flight.

It was not until September 1992 that the protective equipment of the Transall was adapted to the threat situation by adding Kevlar plates in the cockpit area and installing a defense system against heat-seeking and radar-guided missiles. A tactical measure against fire was the steep approach developed in this scenario, commonly known as the Sarajevo approach .

In addition to the flights to Sarajevo, the Bundeswehr's Transall were used to drop supplies over contested areas such as Srebrenica at night. On 400 missions, 2,346 flight hours were flown and 2,194 tons of relief supplies were deposited.


From 2001 to 2014, the Air Force participated, among other things, with air transport capacities in the operation in Afghanistan (ISAF). For this purpose, several Transall were stationed in Termiz in Uzbekistan until 2008 and in Mazar-e Sharif from 2008 to 2014 . A maximum of eight aircraft were under the command of the Mazar-e Sharif squadron at the airport in the northern Afghan city . One of these machines was in MedEvac readiness during the mission and could be used within three hours within Afghanistan. The goals of the German Transall included the larger airports in Kabul , Bagram , Kandahar and Herat , but also smaller airports such as Kunduz to supply the soldiers stationed there.

The heat and high altitude in Afghanistan made the twin-engine Transall particularly difficult to operate. High temperatures up to about 35 ° C at sea level can be compensated for by the water-methanol system; The high-altitude Afghan airfields such as Kabul (around 1800 meters) limit the take-off weight to around 40 tons and thus the payload to just 4 tons. The low summit altitude with only one running engine (3000 meters) in the Hindu Kush, which is up to 5000 meters high there , also requires routes that enable the crews to get to an airport safely even if one engine fails, which in turn requires more fuel and the Payload further reduced.

Fire extinguisher kit

After large areas of heathland and forest were destroyed in the 1975 fire in northern Lower Saxony and a large number of disaster control forces such as the fire brigade and technical relief organization had been on duty for weeks, thought was given of how large quantities of extinguishing water could be applied to a fire source in a short time. In 1976, MBB was therefore commissioned to test the equipment of the Transall with an appropriate upgrade kit. The submitted draft provided for a 12,000 liter tank to be fixed in the cargo hold, which could be filled in four to five minutes via fire hoses on the floor and the water was to be discharged via the opened loading ramp. In 1977 flight tests began, u. a. in France, which were supplemented by a troop test at the LTG 62 from 1979, whereby the results were similar to those of the Canadair CL-215 , which was also used as a fire-fighting aircraft , but which absorbs the water in flight over a lake. Inserts the two conversion kits produced were rarely known an insert July 26, 1983 on the testing ground Knesebeck by Volkswagen , one using two C-160 in August 1983 to Sardinia and the Borstler Moor fire in spring 1988th

Measurements of the ozone layer in the Arctic

From 1991 to 1995 the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology carried out tests with the machine 50 + 89 of the WTD 61 in order to determine the composition of the earth's atmosphere , in particular the ozone layer , near the Arctic . The machine flew for this purpose from Andøya in Norway or Kiruna in Sweden in an area that stretched from Greenland in the northwest and the Urals in the northeast to Cape Verde and North Africa in the south. A total of 136 flights were carried out and flown almost 750 hours.

Accidents and incidents

The Air Force has so far lost three C-160s in fatal accidents. At least three were also damaged in accidents, one of which was so bad that it was written off after the accident. Seven Transall were destroyed in operation at the Armée de l'air, and the Turkish Air Force lost one aircraft. There are also two accidents involving the civilian operator Manunggal Air.

air force

  • On May 11, 1990 the 50 + 39 of the Lufttransportgeschwader 62 near Lohr am Main was flown into a slope in the Spessart in bad weather conditions (controlled flight into terrain). The machine was on a flight from its home base in Wunstorf to Kaufbeuren. In this accident, too, none of the ten people on board survived the accident.
  • On February 6, 1993, during the siege of Sarajevo and the associated airlift, the 50 + 54 of Lufttransportgeschwader 62 were hit by a missile from a 9K32 Strela-2 weapon system on the approach to the Bosnian capital near Karlovac . A propeller blade on the right engine splintered; The cargo master was hit by the flying parts and seriously injured. He survived after an emergency operation in the American military hospital in Zagreb, where the crew had landed. After the repair at the industry in Lemwerder , the machine could be used again.
  • On October 22, 1995, the last accident with total loss of a German Transall occurred. The 50 + 43 of Lufttransportgeschwader 61 was on its way to the United States of America. The aircraft landed in Ponta Delgada in the Azores to refuel before it was supposed to fly on to St. John's ( Newfoundland , Canada). After an unsuccessful abortion due to an engine failure, she touched a high-voltage pylon and fell into the sea. All seven crew members were killed.
  • During a flight, initially under instruments - and at the time of the incident visual flight rules , the Air Force 50 + 50 touched several treetops near Frielendorf in Hesse on September 22, 2008 , with parts of a horizontal stabilizer being cut off. The machine of the LTG 63 flew as far as Wunstorf. Because of the damage, it was ultimately decided not to repair the aircraft, but instead to remove usable parts and then scrap the airframe.
  • On May 14, 2008 there was a near collision on the ground ( runway incursion ) at Zweibrücken airfield . A Luftwaffe C-160 Transall rolled onto the runway without clearance, a civilian Airbus A319 took off from the opposite side over the military transporter and flew over it at a height of around 400 feet. See also Zweibrücken Airfield # Incidents .

Armée de l'Air

  • On November 23, 1984, planes 61-ZV and 64-GI , both of which had started independently, collided near Castres and crashed. All thirteen crew members of the two machines were killed.
  • On April 6, 1995, the crew of the C-160NG 64-GV made a spectacular emergency landing when the aircraft hit the steeply sloping terrain at Col de Marsolino after taking off from Calvi Airport on Corsica . All six crew members survived.

Türk Hava Kuvetleri

On November 14, 1988, the Transall, registered as 69-030 , had an accident, previously registered in Germany as 50 + 22 . There is no information about the fate of the crew or the whereabouts of the cell.

Manunggal Air

  • On June 15, 2001 the PK-VTP of Manunggal Air had an accident , the pilots of which made an emergency landing in Sentani ( Indonesia ) after problems with the engines. The machine came off the runway and rammed a fence, killing one of the 16 occupants. The plane was supposed to fly to Wamena .
  • On March 6, 2008, the civil operator's second accident also occurred in Wamena. The PK-VTQ went up in flames after landing and burned down completely, passengers and crew were able to save themselves unharmed.

Technical specifications

Parameter C-160D C-160NG
Length:    32.40 m 32.40 m (33.60 m with tank probe)
Wingspan:    40.00 m 40.00 m
Wing area:    160 m² 160 m²
Wing loading :    294 kg / m² (nominal) k. A.
Height:    12.36 m 11.65 m
Empty weight:    28,946 kg 28,000 kg
Normal takeoff weight:    approx. 46,000 kg k. A.
Maximum take-off weight:    49,150 kg 51,000 kg
Payload:    up to 16,000 kg or 93 soldiers
(73 for flights over sea)
+ 5 crew   
up to 16,000 kg or 93 soldiers
+ 3 crew
Top speed:    513 km / h 513 km / h
Service ceiling:    8,230 m 8,200 m
Climb rate:    6.67 m / s k. A.
Range with 14 t payload:    approx. 1,200 km approx. 1,200 km
Air refueling system:    no Tank probe
Takeoff route:    650 m k. A.
Landing route:    580 m k. A.
Drive:    2 × Rolls-Royce - Tyne Mk.22 -Propellerturbinen    2 × Rolls-Royce - Tyne Mk.45 -Propellerturbinen 
Power:    2 × 4,222 kW (5,738 hp) 2 × 4485 kW (6,100 PS)
Power to weight ratio :    180 W / kg (nominal) k. A.
Crew:    5 or 6:
Copilot On
Board Technician TSO (Tactical Systems Officer) one or two cargo masters
depending on the purpose of the task
and the number of passengers
Electronics equipment:    k. A.

Comparison with other types

Payloads of tactical transport aircraft

The C-160 Transall is one of the standard transporters of the NATO countries, alongside the C-130 Hercules , which are built in far larger numbers . With comparable dimensions and even larger cargo space, it is inferior to the four-engine C-130 due to the overall weaker drive power in terms of payload, speed and peak altitude. Smaller comparable transport aircraft are the Alenia C-27 and the CASA C-295 . The A400M as the successor to the C-160 and partly also the C-130 can carry a significantly larger load. The Ukrainian Antonov An-70 was also under discussion as the successor to Transall in Germany . Older, comparable models from this manufacturer are the Antonow An-12 Cub , which has been in Soviet and later Russian military services since 1963, and the smaller Antonow An-26 Curl , which has been in service with the Warsaw Pact countries since the early 1970s .


The search for a new air transporter to replace the Transall began in the states that operated the C-160 as early as the 1980s, since estimates at the time said that the Transall and Hercules would have reached their maximum service life around 2000. This became even more urgent due to the changed requirements for military transporters in Germany after the end of the Cold War .

The Transall was intended as a transporter for use within a battlefield (tactical transport, see also Operation (military) ) and was also built for the European climate. The Bundeswehr, on the other hand, has been demanding since the late 1990s to be able to relocate troops to more distant operational areas as part of the common European security and defense policy (strategic air transport). Since the start of the Afghanistan mission in 2001 at the latest, it has not been able to meet these requirements as it would have been able to do in a “hot” Cold War in Europe.

Despite the adjustments made to the aircraft in the 1990s, just to give the Transall another ten years before the A400M was introduced, maintenance is becoming more and more complex. Because of the delays at Airbus, especially in the area of ​​the self-protection system, the Transall will be operated at LTG 63 in Hohn until the end of 2021. However, individual copies have already been and will be scrapped.

Preserved machines in museums

51 + 01 in Wernigerode

With the slow decommissioning of the Transall, several copies have so far found their way to a wide variety of museums and exhibition locations.

GermanyGermany Germany
  • The 50 + 07 of the LTG 61 has been at the Ballenstedt airfield since October 16, 2012 and should be transferred to the Wernigerode Aviation Museum . Even after 51 + 01 landed in Ballenstedt on December 18, 2017, 50 + 07 will remain at Ballenstedt airfield.
  • On March 20, 2012 the 50 + 37 of the LTG 62 was transferred from Wunstorf to the Damme airfield and is exhibited there by the Museum of Technology, Nature and Aviation.
  • The 50 + 56 of LTG 63 has been in the Military History Museum of the Bundeswehr on the former military airfield Berlin-Gatow since September 19, 2011 .
  • On May 13, 2014 the 50 + 62 was transferred from the LTG 62 to the Airbus factory airport Hamburg-Finkenwerder and is to be exhibited there at its production facility.
  • The 50 + 64 of the LTG 63, which was stationed as one of the last "Tralls" of the LTG 61 in Penzing until the end of 2017, is to be exhibited in the Schleissheim aircraft yard in the future.
  • The 50 + 85 of the LTG 63 has been standing as a so-called "Gate Guard" directly at the main guard of the Hohn Air Base since 2015. It bears a special painting that was made in 2011 for the 50th anniversary of the LTG 63.
  • The Dutchman Piet Smedts also bought one of the vans and has been exhibiting it in Baarlo since December 6, 2011 . The machine flew with the Bundeswehr under the registration number 50 + 98 , most recently for the LTG 61 in Landsberg, Bavaria. This machine has been exhibited as an attraction in the Kevelaer Freizeitpark Irrland since 2015 .
  • The 50 + 99 of the LTG 61 has been in the Technik-Museum Speyer since April 13, 2011 .
  • The 51 + 00 , last used with the LTG 62, was transferred to the Lausitz airfield Finsterwalde / Schacksdorf on January 22, 2013 and is to be used there to train aircraft technicians.
  • The 51 + 01 of the LTG 61 was transferred from Penzing to the Ballenstedt airfield on December 18, 2017 and transported to the Wernigerode Aviation Museum on October 9, 2018. The 51 + 01 bears the special painting "Silver Gams". It can be viewed on the museum roof.
  • On October 7, 2014, the 51 + 02 was transferred from LTG 61 to Altenburg Airfield in the Museum Flugwelt Altenburg .
  • The 51 + 07 of the LTG 62 since June 20, 2011 in the outdoor area of ​​the Ju-52 hall in front of the gates of the Wunstorf air base.
  • A Transall has been standing behind the "old station" in Hohn since September 2018 .
  • The 50 + 54 was transferred from Hohn to Hanover on March 5, 2019 and is to be used there to train employees and the fire brigade of the airport.
AustriaAustria Austria
South AfricaSouth Africa South Africa
TurkeyTurkey Turkey
  • Turkey is exhibiting the 69-022 (formerly 50 + 14 ) in Istanbul and the 69-039 (formerly 50 + 31 ) in Ankara / Etimesgut .
FranceFrance France
The French Transall R18 has been in the Musée de l'air et de l'espace at Le Bourget Airport since August 22, 2012 .
NetherlandsNetherlands Netherlands
The 50 + 95 with the anniversary livery 55 years LTG 63 has been on display in Eindhoven in front of the EATC since September 12, 2016 . ( Position 2016 )

See also


  • Hans-Werner Ahrens : The airlift to Sarajevo 1992 to 1996 The air force transport planes and the war in Yugoslavia . 1st edition. Rombach, Freiburg im Breisgau, Berlin, Vienna 2012, ISBN 978-3-7930-9695-5 .
  • Jochen K. Beeck: Commercial aircraft of the world 1919-2000 . History - classes - types. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-613-02008-4 .
  • Gert W. Heumann: C-160 Transall, demonstration of Franco-German cooperation . In: Flug Revue International . June 1967, p. 40-45 .
  • Gerhard Lang: Transall . 1st edition. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2014, ISBN 978-3-613-03713-7 .
  • Siegfried guard: Transall C-160 D . In: F-40 aircraft of the Bundeswehr . tape 47 . Bmvd, Buchholz 2004, ISBN 3-935761-47-3 .
  • Franz-Herbert Wenz: Transall C160 . Development, production and use of a transport aircraft that became a legend. 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Stedinger, Lemwerder 2002, ISBN 3-927697-28-1 .
  • Rolf Wurster: 50 years of German powered aircraft . Books on Demand ( Libri ) / Rolf Wurster, Battenberg (Biedenkopferstraße 15) 2001, ISBN 3-8311-1854-X , p. 136 .
  • Dietmar Plath , Horst Walter: Transall. Angel of the air . 3. Edition. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-613-01208-1 , p. 104-112 .

Web links

Commons : Transall C-160  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 19 ff. (F-40 - The Aircraft of the Bundeswehr. Volume 47)
  2. ^ Heumann: C-160 Transall, demonstration of German-French cooperation . In: Flug Revue International . June 1967, p. 40-44 .
  3. Test undesirable . In: Der Spiegel . No. 45 , 1963 ( online - Nov. 6, 1963 ).
  4. a b Mano Ziegler: The transporter question - Hercules or Transall . In: Flight Revue . October 1963, p. 14-16 ( online [accessed January 29, 2015]).
  5. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 21.
  6. ^ Long: Transall. 2014, p. 12.
  7. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 27.
  8. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 217 .
  9. ^ Test & Research Pilots, Flight Test Engineers: Jean Lanvario 1919–1996. The Tartanterror (blog), September 12, 2008, accessed February 8, 2012 .
  10. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 36.
  11. Frank Höfer: Transall farewell flight: The "Rendsburg" remains on the ground. (PDF; 274 kB) In: Schleswig-Holsteinischer Zeitungsverlag. January 11, 2012, accessed July 27, 2012 .
  12. C-160 Transall - Development and Procurement., accessed on February 8, 2012 .
  13. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 37 f. (It is also described that another reason was the procurement of the CH-53G for the army, which had meanwhile taken place; the targeted transport capacities therefore no longer had to be provided by the air force)
  14. See also: TRANSALL: Simply mothball . In: Der Spiegel . No. 29 , 1968, p. 24-25 ( online - 15 July 1968 ).
  15. James Gardner: F204 / 64-GD (cn 204) ., February 19, 2005, accessed January 23, 2012.
  16. a b c d e f g h i j Lang: Transall. 2014, pp. 197-207.
  17. Note: The possible 16 tons of cargo cannot be thrown because this would change the center of gravity so much that the aircraft would no longer be controllable. See also the Center of Mass and Buoyancy Point section in the Weight and Balance article
  18. Transall C160D - possible uses., accessed on March 3, 2012 .
  19. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 45.
  20. Fifty Herculean Years: The C-130's Golden Anniversary
  21. Julia Weigelt: The new lightness . In: Y - The Bundeswehr magazine . October 2012, p. 64-67 .
  22. ^ Hans-Jürgen Jensen: Pilot project with tablet computer. The LTG 63 in Hohn tests the iPad in military flight operations / Less paper and fresher data in the cockpit / Two devices in each Transall. Kieler Nachrichten , August 31, 2011, accessed on February 10, 2012 .
  23. a b Transall C-160D
  24. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 34.
  25. ^ Long: Transall. 2015, pp. 108-109.
  26. Day of the Bundeswehr: The last major mission , on
  27. Like an old hose . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 1969, p. 38-43 ( Online - Apr. 28, 1969 ).
  28. Second air force transporter A400M replacement for Transall , on
  29. T. Laurent: R217 / 64-GQ (cn 220) Performing an impresive tactital short final. Note the two different propellers types., April 6, 2006, accessed on February 8, 2012 (English, The picture shows the use of a composite material (left) together with an aluminum propeller (right)).
  30. T. Laurent: R205 / 64-GE (cn 206) Captured on short final 03 during a training session., February 20, 2008, accessed on February 8, 2012 (English, the machine in this picture is equipped with two composite propellers).
  31. Ken Iwelumo: R97 / 61-ZA (cn 97)., September 18, 2007, accessed on February 8, 2012 (English, two aluminum propellers are used in this picture).
  32. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 96.
  33. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 97.
  34. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 100.
  35. Chuck Sudetic: UN Relief Plane Reported Downed On Bosnia Mission. New York Times, September 4, 1992, accessed February 8, 2012 .
  36. ^ Combat approach on Sarajevo. German pilots complain about the conditions of use for the aid flights to Bosnia . In: Der Spiegel . No. 38 , 1992 ( online - 14 September 1992 ).
  37. ^ Long: Transall. 2014, p. 52.
  38. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 26.
  39. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 21 .
  40. C-160 Transall Cargo and Tactical Transport Aircraft, France., accessed on February 10, 2012 (English): " Four communications relay aircraft, designation C-160H Astarte, were delivered to the French Air Force between 1981 and 1987. The aircraft's main mission was communications with the submerged nuclear ballistic missile submarines of the French fleet. The aircraft were equipped with unjammable VLF communications including a Rockwell VLF transmitter and a Thales communications center. The VLF system includes dual trailing wire antennae. The French Air Force retired the C-160H Astarte aircraft in 2002. "
  41. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 57.
  42. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 52 .
  43. ^ Heumann: C-160 Transall, demonstration of German-French cooperation . In: Flug Revue International . June 1967, p. 45 .
  44. Tyler Larkin: Pilot training via OWL: Air Force transport planes practice 360-degree turns and engine failures. (No longer available online.) In: Mindener Tageblatt . August 17, 2013, archived from the original on November 1, 2013 ; Retrieved August 30, 2013 .
  45. a b Bundeswehr decommissioned Transall in Wunstorf. In: June 30, 2015, accessed on June 30, 2015 : “On Thursday, the farewell will also be celebrated with an appeal. In future, only a new generation of aircraft will be stationed at the base of Lufttransportgeschwader 62 (LTG 62). In future, only the new A400M military aircraft will be responsible for the transfer of troops and the transport of materials. "
  46. a b Tilmann Post: Growth for Hohner Flieger. In: Schleswig-Holsteinische Landeszeitung, July 4, 2015, accessed on July 5, 2015 : “As of yesterday, the last three aircraft from Lufttransportgeschwader (LTG) 62 from Wunstorf in Lower Saxony have been stationed in Hohn. The LTG 63 now has 23 aircraft. […] There are even 27 aircraft in the Hohner booking inventory. However, four of them are currently being subjected to the "major inspection" at the Airbus plant in Manching. "
  47. ^ Minister de Maizière approves conversion., October 21, 2011, accessed on February 11, 2012 .
  48. Missing mechanics: Many Bundeswehr aircraft are not operational. Spiegel Online , August 14, 2014, accessed September 30, 2014 .
  49. Florian Wipke: The “Angel of the Skies ” celebrates its birthday., 2008, accessed on February 23, 2012 .
  50. Timo Braam, Alexander Bräutigam: Transall C-160 flies one millionth flight hour., October 5, 2011, accessed on February 23, 2012 : “ After 43 years in the service of the Air Force, the Transall C-160 made its one millionth flight hour. To mark this occasion, the Air Force held an anniversary event on October 4, 2011 at the Hohn airfield. This special event was celebrated with the most traditional transport machine. "
  51. Siegfried Spörer: The Air Force celebrates its "Angel of the Skies". In: Kreisbote (online edition). May 27, 2013, accessed on May 29, 2013 : “ The LTG 61 air transport squadron celebrated the 50th birthday of their“ work device ”- the twin-engine C160 Transall transporter. "
  52. D. Jennert: Mecca of the Transall pilots. Schleswig-Holsteinische Landeszeitung, April 3, 2014, accessed on April 19, 2014 .
  53. Realization plan for taking over the air force structure. (PDF; 686 kB) Federal Ministry of Defense, June 12, 2012, accessed on July 3, 2012 (available at
  54. Matthias Müller: LTG 63 will fly with Transall until 2021., December 14, 2015, accessed on December 15, 2015 .
  55. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 145 .
  56. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 150 .
  57. ^ Henri-Pierre Grolleau: Army de l'Airs Quiet Revolution . In: Air International . Key Publishing, Stamford April 2012 (English).
  58. ^ Long: Transall. 2014, pp. 153–155.
  59. ^ Long: Transall . 2014, p. 156 .
  60. Dean Wingrin: Transalls get the final chop. defenseWeb, April 1, 2009, accessed February 11, 2012 .
  61. Marcel Tschudin: ICRC - International Red Cross Transall C-160 HB-ILN c / n: D03. In: Retrieved on September 1, 2014 (picture of HB-ILN (V03) in the color scheme of the International Red Cross).
  62. Chillon, Dubois and Wegg 1980, pp. 116-126.
  63. ^ Plath, Walter: Transall . Stuttgart 1993, p. 104-112 .
  64. Defense. Volume 17, Verlag Europäische Wehrkunde, 1968, p. 319 Wehrkunde: Organ of the Society for Wehrkunde - Google Books
  65. a b Aerospatiale: Transall. Strategy behind a tactical aircraft. Flightglobal, 1979, accessed February 11, 2012 (English, Aerospatiale advertisement for the C-160NG).
  66. Henning Sußebach Schulz back in peace. In: The time . May 21, 2007, accessed December 22, 2014 .
  67. The long-term flier - The Transall. Bundeswehr, December 3, 2013, accessed on December 16, 2014 : “ In addition to routine operations, the focus was again and again on humanitarian missions, for example the 1984 famine in Ethiopia, a first major test for the Transall. The so-called Africa Procedure was practiced during the mission. Aid goods were dropped in low flight without the machines having to land. "
  68. Almir Hrnic: With your toes on the loading ramp. In: Bundeswehr, May 22, 2009, accessed on December 16, 2014 : “ The so-called Africa procedure is very rare and is only trained in Altenstadt, Bavaria. In this process, the contents, mostly food, are packed in wooden pallets, tied with straps and secured on the rail system with straps. At a height of 20 feet (7 meters), the loading ramp is opened and the transport lock is removed; the pallets slide backwards using the angle of attack and acceleration and fall to the floor. "
  69. Guard: C-160D Transall. 2004, p. 68ff.
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  71. Thomas Wiegold : France's “Operation Serval” in Mali: air strikes on targets in the north. In: eyes straight ahead! (Blog). January 12, 2013, accessed on January 15, 2013 (French original quote from a statement by the French armed forces): “ Ce sont ainsi actuellement, en plus des deux Mirage F1 CR, six Mirage 2000D, 3 C135, 1 C 130 et 1 Transall C160 qui arment le groupement air de la force Epervier. "
  72. ^ Daniel Brössler , Christoph Hickmann, Martin Winter: Bundeswehr sees scope for Mali operations. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . January 15, 2013, accessed on January 15, 2013 : “ In Berlin, the dispatch of four Transall transport aircraft and an Airbus is being examined, reported the German Press Agency. Following a request from the French government, the command and control command of the German Armed Forces reported that appropriate transport assistance was available; Defense Minister Thomas de Maizière (CDU) must now decide on this. "
  73. ^ Mathis Feldhoff: Desperate Germany. (No longer available online.) In: ZDF heute. January 16, 2013, archived from the original on February 17, 2013 ; Retrieved January 16, 2013 .
  74. ^ Thomas Wiegold : Mali: New mandate, order ended. In: eyes straight ahead! (Blog). June 25, 2014, accessed on September 25, 2014 : “ However, the United Nations had already declared last week that it would no longer use the German Transall aircraft in the future: the old machines can only be used to a limited extent for the requirements profile in Mali. "
  75. Matthias Gebauer: UN rejects Transall for Mali. In: Spiegel Online. June 21, 2014, accessed December 12, 2014 .
  76. Dieter Baumann: Closing roll call to dissolve the air transport base in Dakar. In: Bundeswehr, July 10, 2014, accessed on December 12, 2014 : “ On January 19, 2013 the first two DEU Transall C-160s arrived in DAKAR. Since then, within the framework of the support of the African-led support mission for MALI (AFISMA), which was subsequently transferred to the UN-led stabilization mission MINUSMA, over 6500 passengers and 1650 tons of material in the form of food, devices and vehicles have been transported in 1,050 flights and almost 3,000 flight hours The cargo hold of the transport aircraft. "
  77. Stephan Detjen: "Africa is probably in the German interest". In: Deutschlandfunk. October 9, 2016. Retrieved November 19, 2016 .
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  79. ^ Ralf Bonk, Frank Bötel: Overview: The Bundeswehr helps in the fight against Ebola. Bundeswehr, December 12, 2014, accessed on December 13, 2014 : “ Since mid-October there have been flights with two Transall transport aircraft to the capitals of the crisis areas and to Accra in Ghana almost every day. [...] The flights are commissioned by the UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response (UNMEER). Aid supplies, equipment and vehicles are currently being transported to the capitals of Liberia (Monrovia), Sierra Leones (Freetown) and Guinea (Conakry). "
  80. ^ Bundeswehr ends aid mission in Liberia. In: Handelsblatt. March 7, 2015, accessed April 6, 2015 .
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  86. Michael Martens: The longest bridge in history . When the German Air Force helped to supply the Bosnian capital Sarajevo from the air. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . No. 152 . Frankfurt am Main July 3, 2012, p. 8 .
  87. a b The misunderstood war effort . In: Der Spiegel . No. 14 , 1993 ( online - April 5, 1993 ). , accessed on November 1, 2013: “Immediately after being dropped, the crates dissolve into specially welded packages weighing 700 grams, which sail individually to the ground. You land in a field 200 by 400 meters in size. According to a Bundeswehr officer, the risk of murder and manslaughter occurring in the fight for the care packages is much smaller. [...] Your Transall machines have been equipped with additional protection systems against enemy air defense. As soon as an enemy missile approaches, the Transall drops tinfoil, fiberglass and burning cartridges. These measures disrupt and deceive the control of the rocket. "
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  89. a b Peter Dörnach (Staff Captain, German Air Force): Afghan Workhorse . In: Air Forces Monthly . February 2012, p. 42-44 (English).
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  114. Thomas Bauer: Airbus A-400M as a contribution to the strategic transport and deployment capability of the Bundeswehr. In:, 2003, accessed on February 24, 2012 : “ In the reform plans of the Federal Ministry of Defense (BMVg), the strategic ability of the Bundeswehr to transport and deploy as a new capability profile of the armed forces is at the fore. This aspect had been discussed for a long time not only in the national context. Rather, the EU member states have emphasized the European character of this relocability by formulating the Head-Line-Goals (HLG) at their Helsinki conference. […] Most of the 400 or so military transport aircraft in Europe are more than 25 years old. The main existing model is the C-160 Transall, a twin-engined shoulder-wing aircraft that is simply too small for most of the existing and future planned wheeled or tracked vehicles of the European armed forces. Germany had this bitter experience during the 1990 Gulf War, when it had to fall back on Russian help to transport the Patriot anti-aircraft systems to Turkey because the US Air Force (USAAF) needed all of its transport potential for its own troop transfers . "
  115. LTG 63 will fly with Transall until 2021. In: December 14, 2015, accessed December 23, 2015 .
  116. Hauke ​​Friederichs: Looking for a way out of the billion-dollar grave. In: Zeit Online . Die Zeit, January 14, 2010, accessed on February 23, 2012 : “ The Bundeswehr urgently needs the transport aircraft to replace the aging Transall C-160 D. The so-called workhorse of the Air Force was developed 50 years ago and has been in permanent service since 1967. Transall's production was stopped 20 years ago, and ordering spare parts requires a lot of logistics. However, the cargo plane is not in sight. "We will use the Transall until 2020 and beyond," says a spokesman for the Defense Ministry. With several modernizations and retrofits, the Bundeswehr has repeatedly extended the Transall's service life. But the three air transport squadrons have long needed new machines - also to meet the changed requirements for the armed forces in Afghanistan and the Horn of Africa. Since the Transall cannot transport enough payload, Antonov cargo planes from Ukraine have to be rented again and again to bring heavy vehicles to Afghanistan. "
  117. Georg Schalk: It turns a large Transall into 50 centimeter aluminum parts. Augsburger Allgemeine , September 29, 2010, accessed on February 23, 2012 : “ At the Gröger raw material recycling plant in Günzburg, the term disarmament is taken literally. A good week ago, the company and the Prünstner company from Ichenhausen in Landsberg scrapped the first Transall nationwide. Last weekend, the second of the outdated transport aircraft of the German armed forces arrived there. Another 14 machines are to follow by the end of 2012. "
  118. Regina Urbat: Transall "lands" on the roof. In: September 21, 2015, accessed October 17, 2018 .
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This article was added to the list of excellent articles in this version on December 21, 2014 .