Airbus A310-300 of Air Comet
|Type:||Twin-engine wide-body aircraft|
April 3, 1982
March 29, 1983
1982 to 1998
|Number of pieces:||
The Airbus A310 is a twin- engine wide - body aircraft produced by the European aircraft manufacturer Airbus . The shortened and further developed variant of the Airbus A300 was designed for medium and long-haul flights. A total of 255 Airbus A310s were ordered and delivered between 1983 and 1998.
As early as 1970, Airbus determined in customer surveys that there was a fundamental need for an aircraft with a capacity of 200 passengers and greater range and improved performance than the A300B2 and A300B4. Development started in 1978 under the internal name A300B10MC ("MC" = Minimum Change stands for the only minor technical changes to this version with a shortened fuselage derived from the A300B2). At the same time, Boeing and McDonnell Douglas also announced new aircraft of this size, compared to which the A300B10MC project was technically far inferior. The Lufthansa , which was instrumental in the design of the model and drove forward the project wanted to use their machines mainly for short-distance connections and called for a machine with minimal wing area and wingspan to minimize the weight. This could only be achieved with a completely new development of the wing. However, Airbus did not want to tailor the new aircraft to a single airline and designed other innovations. The cockpit was designed as a two-man cockpit and a corresponding automation with the help of computers was introduced. The option of being able to significantly expand the range in terms of design was also left open, since Swissair was meanwhile also interested in the revised aircraft but wanted to use it for medium-haul routes. In order to highlight these developments for customers, the name A300B10 was changed to A310 and the aircraft was marketed as an independent model. It was the first time for Airbus that firm orders were received from several airlines before the first flight. Due to the great similarities in production, the A300 and A310 were manufactured on the same production line in Toulouse - the first A310 was the 162nd Airbus from this production.
On April 3, 1982, the first flight of the Airbus A310-200 took place in Toulouse, it was F-WZLH and was equipped with Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines. This prototype with the serial number MSN 162 flew until 2015, most recently since 1997 as a rebuilt cargo aircraft at FedEx under the registration number N450FE .
First customers were Lufthansa and Swissair, who were able to take over their first aircraft on March 29, 1983. The last aircraft built went to Uzbekistan Airways on June 15, 1998 .
Most of the A310-200 versions that are still flying and more and more of the -300 version are being converted into cargo planes. In addition, the A310 is used by some armed forces as a troop transport or government aircraft. Since 2011, a rear fuselage segment of an A310 (formerly Air India ) has found an unusual use and purpose at the Training Academy of Eurocopter Deutschland GmbH in the Marbachshöhe technology park in Kassel. Equipped with a kitchen, toilets, seating and additional interior, it is used (in addition to some helicopters) as a practical training object for prospective aircraft mechanics and electronics as well as certifying staff according to EASA Part 66. The segment was given the call sign D-AETA (for Eurocopter Training Academy) provided and baptized with the name "Kassel".
In October 2016 TAROM flew one of its A310s for the last time and Azores Airlines was the last European airline to fly its A310-300 with the registration CS-TGV from Ponta Delgada to Lisbon on October 15, 2018. Around the world, around 44 active A310s remain with 16 operators, among others with various air forces, including the German one , in the Arab region, especially in Iran, and with FedEx .
Manufacturing and logistics
From the beginning, Airbus did not produce at one location, but complete assemblies were produced in the individual founding countries. The wings were made in Great Britain, the horizontal stabilizer came from Spain. The fuselage, the vertical stabilizer and the moving parts of the wings such as landing flaps and slats were manufactured at the German locations, the cockpit section in France. Smaller components were produced in the partner countries Belgium and the Netherlands. The finally finished aircraft was then built in Toulouse. The interior work as the last production step was again carried out in Hamburg -Finkenwerder. The machines were then returned to Toulouse, where the delivery center is located. The Super Guppy transport aircraft derived from the Boeing 377 mainly transported the parts between the locations before the Airbus Beluga took over this task.
With the A310 series, Airbus introduced some revolutionary innovations both in aircraft construction and in the aircraft itself. For the first time , components made of fiber composite materials were used to a greater extent instead of metal. The most far-reaching innovations, however, concerned the cockpit: this was equipped with an EFIS ( Electronic Flight Instrument System, "glass cockpit") for two pilots (without a flight engineer ). For the first time, Airbus’s own FFCC (Forward Facing Cockpit Crew) concept was implemented completely with screens. The flight engineer has been largely replaced by ECAM ( Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitoring ) . This constantly monitors almost all aircraft systems and warns the crew if limit values are exceeded. In addition, the concept of the dark cockpit was introduced. This means that if all systems are working normally nothing lights up; the crew is only informed by warning tones and lights in the event of errors. This significantly reduced the workload and the flight engineer could be removed from the cockpit concept. Many of these innovations were later adopted by Airbus in the A300 with the A300B4-600 version . This enabled the pilots to fly all versions of the A310 and the A300-600 (R) with the same license. Many of these innovations were improved on all other Airbus models and are now standard in commercial aircraft. In April 1986 the A310 received ETOPS certification. Pan Am was the first airline to fly over the Atlantic with Airbus planes in accordance with ETOPS regulations.
The fuselage of the Airbus A310 is a variant of the first Airbus A300 that has been shortened by seven meters (16 frames ) , but has been redesigned in many areas. It consists of a half-shell aluminum construction with a round cross-section and is divided into nine sections to make transport easier. The fuselage is completely pressurized, only the landing gear shafts, air conditioning sections and the rear with the APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) are not air conditioned. For the first time (in aircraft of this size) a larger proportion was made of fiber composite materials, which resulted in considerable weight savings. Thus the A310 was the first airliner with such materials in the primary structure. Due to the lower passenger capacity compared to the A300, the Airbus A310 only has four large passenger doors in the front and rear of the fuselage and two emergency exits above the wings. The lower cargo holds are accessible through two large cargo gates. They are designed for all common container types and are equipped with a roller conveyor system. A large part of these innovations - including the entire stern - were adopted in the A300 as the A300B4-600 .
The A310 is designed as a low-wing aircraft. The wings are a new development and consist of a self-supporting metal construction made of high-strength aluminum with two box spars. The sweep of the wings is 28 °. They are firmly connected to the wing box integrated in the fuselage. Two fuel tanks are integrated into the wings, and another tank is located in the middle section of the wing on all versions. In terms of aerodynamics, they were given a supercritical profile , which meant that the wingspan and wing area could be kept small. Here too, cladding and spoilers were made from fiber composite materials. As buoyancy aids three-piece slats are at the leading edge (slats) mounted that are not interrupted at the engine mounting. In addition, all versions of the A310 have Kruger flaps at the transition from fuselage to wing. If required, the slats can be thermally de-iced with hot engine bleed air. Slotted Fowler flaps (flaps) are attached on the inside of the rear edge, normal Fowler flaps on the outside. The landing flaps are interrupted at the level of the engine; the aileron is attached here. The A310 has no ailerons at the outer ends of the wing. The inner ailerons are supported by spoilers on the top of the wing. These spoilers are also used as air brakes . With the A310-300, winglets (in the form of wingtip fences) were used for the first time in passenger aircraft construction, which reduce the induced drag and thus enable lower fuel consumption. These were often retrofitted to older -200 copies. The wings of the A310 are still considered state-of-the-art today , and their basic design was the model for all subsequent Airbus models.
The tail unit is self-supporting and has an arrow-shaped conventional construction of fins and oars and is made entirely of carbon fiber composites. It is not equipped with a de-icing facility. The horizontal stabilizer has been made slightly smaller than that of the A300 and can be adjusted hydraulically for trimming. With the introduction of the A310-300 version, a trim tank was installed in the horizontal stabilizer , which also serves as an additional fuel tank, but mainly a fully automatic system for shifting the center of gravity in flight. This optimizes the center of gravity by pumping the fuel back and forth and thus results in lower consumption. From this point on, the trim tank was installed in all versions to simplify production, with the difference that in version -200 it was shut down ex works. This version did not have any of the other necessary components installed.
The landing gear of the A310 consists of a nose landing gear with twin tires and two main landing gear, which are designed as tandem landing gear with four tires each. It is designed as a conventional retractable landing gear and is operated hydraulically. The nose wheel steering is also done hydraulically. All eight main landing gear wheels are equipped with carbon disc brakes, which are also operated hydraulically. They also have an anti-lock system and are temperature-monitored.
The flight is controlled conventionally via cables and control rods. However, for the first time, significant electronic controls were used to save the weight of cables and hydraulic lines. On the A310, the spoilers are electronically and hydraulically operated. Conventional ailerons are now only in the inner part of the wing. The trim is operated electrically around all three axes, the horizontal stabilizer can also be adjusted by hand using a trim wheel. The slats and flaps are controlled electrically via a common lever in the cockpit. All A310 versions have a powerful autopilot that is also approved for fully automatic landing in accordance with CAT IIIb . This was continuously improved over the course of the versions. The A310 also has a very functional flight management system .
Originally the General Electric CF6 and the Pratt & Whitney JT9D were available as engine types, later the successor model Pratt & Whitney PW4000 . A version with Rolls-Royce engines was planned, but was not realized.
|Version and engines|
|A310-203||1985||General Electric CF6-80A3|
|A310-204||1987||General Electric CF6-80C2A2|
|A310-221||1985||Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7R4D1|
|A310-222||1985||Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7R4E1|
|A310-304||1988||General Electric CF6-80C2A2|
|A310-308||1991||General Electric CF6-80C2A8|
|A310-322||1987||Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7R4E1|
|A310-324||1987||Pratt & Whitney PW4152|
|A310-325||1996||Pratt & Whitney PW4156A|
A planned short-haul version of the A310, which was not implemented due to lack of demand.
This first built version had no winglets in the earlier production batches and a maximum take-off weight of 142,000 kg. It could be ordered with General Electric CF6 or Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines. Due to the possible range, the A310-200 was suitable for medium and shorter long distances. The maximum seating capacity is 280 passengers. Later construction lots were given the wing tip fences of the following A310-300s, but older aircraft were often retrofitted. 85 aircraft of this version were built. The first three prototypes from 1982 initially remained with Airbus and were handed over to Swissair and Lufthansa in 1984 and to Air France in 1986 ; the last machine was delivered to Hapag-Lloyd in 1988 .
The last passenger aircraft of this type, the A310-200, was operated by the Thai company PC Air and went out of service when it was dissolved in November 2012. The last aircraft converted into cargo planes were taken out of service by FedEx in 2016, including the first aircraft ever built, which was phased out in 2015 and is the only A310 prototype that has survived.
This is an A310-200 with a side loading door on the upper deck. In this version, the seats can be removed and the interior can be converted to carry cargo. This variant was added to the fleet by the Dutch company Martinair in 1984.
A pure freight version. It was offered by Airbus ex works, but no freighter could be sold new. There are only subsequent modifications. A side loading gate was added to the upper deck and the entire interior was equipped with a system for container loading. This version was first brought into service by FedEx in the early 1990s. The basis were passenger versions bought second-hand from Lufthansa.
This is an enhanced model of the A310-200. The A310-300 outperforms all versions of the A300 and A310 in range. The take-off weight was increased in the last expansion stage to up to 164,000 kg and the range was increased by installing a trim tank in the horizontal stabilizer. With this tank, a new system for automatic shifting of the center of gravity during the flight was introduced, which leads to fuel savings over longer distances. This system was adopted in the A300-600R and was used in all Airbus long-haul aircraft until the A350 was introduced. Additional tanks could also be ordered in the hold, with which the range could be increased again. With this variant, wingtip fences were also introduced at the wing tips, which were later also used in other Airbus series. The engines that could be ordered were the General Electric CF6 and Pratt & Whitney PW4000 in various configurations. In later years only the A310-300 was offered by Airbus. The first flight was on July 8, 1985, and in 1986 the first customer Swissair took over the first aircraft.
The convertible freight / passenger version, as already offered with the -200 version.
This is a pure freight version. A side loading gate was added to the upper deck and the entire interior was equipped with a system for container loading. This version was not offered by Airbus ex works, but is only available as a conversion.
A310-300 as a government aircraft
For trips by the German Federal Government , the Luftwaffe operated two A310-304s with VIP equipment, which came from the inventory of the former GDR airline Interflug . They were delivered in June and October 1989 and taken over by the Air Force in May 1991. , The first machine was sold and taken out of service in June 2011 for 3.1 million euros, the second was to follow in the course of summer 2011. The Theodor Heuss with the military registration number 10 + 22 was transferred to the Kiev Borispol Airport on June 27th after the sale and flown to Tehran on November 18th, 2011 , as it was acquired by the Iranian Mahan Air . The second machine ( Konrad Adenauer , ex DDR-ABA, D-AOAA, 10 + 21) was only decommissioned in June 2014 because it became apparent that the successor A340 z. B. is not suitable for the flight to Mongolia , as the runway in the capital Ulan Bator is too short for him and the Chancellor had to use the A310. As a result, the Konrad Adenauer was modified for parabolic flights and has been used for this purpose as the A310 ZERO-G since May 2015 . It replaces the A300 ZERO-G , which was decommissioned at the end of October 2014. France , Canada , and Spain also maintain A310-300s specially converted for members of the government. Compared to normal A310-300s, these aircraft have an increased range (thanks to additional tanks in the hold). In some cases, military navigation and communication devices were retrofitted.
In order to solve various tasks with just one type of aircraft, the A310-300 MRT (Multi Role Transport) was developed, the first user of which was the German Air Force. The four MRTs of the Air Force were created in the late 1990s from Lufthansa A310-300s bought second-hand. These were converted at EADS Elbe Flugzeugwerke in Dresden and Lufthansa Technik in Hamburg. The first flight of an MRT was on March 25, 1999 in the form of the 10 + 24 Otto Lilienthal . The most striking feature is the large cargo door on the left front of the fuselage. After a conversion time of three to seven days, this model can be used either as a passenger aircraft for up to 214 passengers, as a transport aircraft for standard pallets and up to 57 passengers or as a transport aircraft for the wounded, injured and sick. The range with additional tanks is 10,000 km. Since the end of 2010, all MRT machines of the Air Force have been on the MRTT (Multi Role Transport Tanker) stand , but if necessary they can be upgraded to the MRT standard within five days.
A310-300 MRT / MRTT MedEvac
The MedEvac variant (hospital aircraft) has a special installation kit. This can basically be built into any passenger version of the A310, but the MRT (T) have a side loading door that makes access considerably easier, as well as some openings to the lower cargo holds that are required for patient oxygen supply. This installation kit has been specially developed for the transport of injured and wounded people, especially the seriously and seriously injured. The Air Force always has one fully equipped aircraft on standby. The individual MedEvac has up to six patient transport units (PTE). These are beds that are equipped similarly to intensive care beds in hospitals. The PTE are used to fly people with severe injuries for treatment. If a few PTEs are not installed, more easily injured people who still have to lie down can be transported. If you do not use PTE at all, the maximum number of 56 reclining people can be transported.
This aircraft is one of the world's leading MedEvac systems. Only a few nations have such permanently installed or flexible ambulance systems.
The Airbus A310-304 MRTT ( Multi-Role-Transport-Tanker ) is a further development of the A310-304 MRT, which can also be used as a tanker . For this purpose, the machines will receive extensive changes to the fuel system, special fittings and operator consoles as well as two air refueling tanks of type MK 32B-907E from Cobham plc (formerly Flight Refueling ) on the wings. A hose up to 23 m long can be rolled out from these to the recipient aircraft. The A310-304 MRTT is equipped with up to five additional fuel tanks with a maximum capacity of 36,000 liters of kerosene . These additional tanks are installed in the lower cargo hold and each have a capacity of 7,200 liters or approx. 5.7 t.
The A310 MRTT of the German and Canadian air forces are equipped with four additional tanks. These machines only have a maximum take-off weight of 157 t and do not have the 164 t required for five additional tanks of the last expansion stage of the A310-300. As a tanker, the Air Force's MRTT has a maximum fuel capacity of 89,890 l or approx. 72 t, which is made up of the standard fuel quantity of 61,090 l and the additional tanks filled with 28,800 l (the specified masses refer to a kerosene density of 0.8 kg / l). The MRTT is thus able to deliver 65 tons of fuel to recipient aircraft at a distance of up to 1000 km from the take-off and landing site. With an extended radius of action over a distance of 4600 km, 30 tons of fuel can still be dispensed.
The most important changes compared to the base aircraft are:
- the installation of additional fuel pumps in the main tanks (three hydraulically driven pumps in the middle tank and two electric pumps each in the left and right inner flat tanks)
- the installation of the pipeline system in the wings from the pumps in the central tank to the air refueling tanks (AAR gallery), as well as the installation of the operator console behind the cockpit (fuel operator station).
- In addition, there is the installation of additional computers to control and monitor the refueling process and the amount of fuel available in the aircraft as well as the instruments and displays in the cockpit necessary for refueling.
- In contrast to the pressure-ventilated additional tanks in civil Airbus aircraft, two electric fuel pumps are installed in each of the additional tanks of the MRTT in order to ensure the high fuel throughput during air-to-air refueling . The maximum possible fuel throughput when refueling is 1,600 liters per minute on each side (depending on the recipient aircraft).
- If necessary, the MRTT can be upgraded to the MRT or MedEvac standard within 5 days by removing three additional tanks, dismantling the air refueling containers and deactivating the refueling computer.
The first copy (10 + 27 August Euler) was presented in 2003 at the EADS Elbe Flugzeugwerke in Dresden.
As of the end of 2011, there are four A310-304 MRT / T (10 + 24, 10 + 25, 10 + 26, 10 + 27) with the German Air Force, which are operated by the BMVg flight readiness , as well as two A310-304 MRT and two A310-304 MRTTs in service with the Royal Canadian Air Force as CC-150 Polaris ; two machines for the Chilean armed forces have again been canceled.
The larger A330 MRTT is also offered within the Airbus family .
|Air forces and version|
|Belgium||2||A310-222 pax||Decommissioned in 2009/10, scrapped|
|Germany||7th||A310-304 VIP / MRTT / Pax||2 x VIP 2011/2014 decommissioned|
|France||3||A310-304 VIP / Pax|
|Canada||5||A310-304 VIP / MRT / MRTT (CC-150 Polaris)|
|Pakistan||1||A310-304 VIP||Decommissioned in 2013|
|Thailand||1||A310-324 VIP||Decommissioned in 2016|
|Qatar||2||A310-304 VIP / A310-308 VIP||Decommissioned in 2007/2017|
After being used as passenger aircraft, the A310-200 and A310-300 versions were converted into cargo aircraft ( Passenger to Freighter Conversion , P2F). The seats, kitchens and passenger toilets were removed, doors and windows that were no longer needed were locked, the hull and floor were reinforced, a safety partition wall to the cockpit and a cargo door were installed on the left front. The modifications were carried out by the Elbe Flugzeugwerke in Dresden. Well-known users are DHL Aviation and Fedex .
From the first flight in 1982 to November 2018, eleven total write-offs occurred with the Airbus A310. 831 people were killed in eight of them. Extracts:
- On July 31, 1992 the pilots of an A310-300 of Thai Airways ( aircraft registration number (HS-TID) ) had to abort the approach to Kathmandu airport after a malfunction of the landing flaps , which are absolutely necessary for this airport, occurred. When the disruption could be rectified, a few flight maneuvers were necessary for a new approach in the mountainous terrain. Due to inadequate communication with air traffic control and subsequent navigation errors, the machine collided with a mountain, killing all 113 occupants, 99 passengers and 14 crew members. This was the first total loss of an Airbus A310 (see also Thai Airways flight 311 ) .
- On 23 March 1994 an A310-300 crashed the Aeroflot (F-OGQS) on the way from Moscow to Hong Kong near mezhdurechensk from. All 75 people were killed (see also Aeroflot flight 593 ) .
- On March 31, 1995, a TAROM A310-300 (YR-LCC) crashed near Baloteşti on the way from Bucharest to Brussels shortly after take-off. All 60 occupants died (see also TAROM flight 371 ) .
- On 11 December 1998 the third landing attempt collapsed Airbus A310-200 of the Thai Airways (HS-TIA) at Surat Thani Airport , Thailand , during a tropical storm off. Of the 146 people on board the A310-200, 101 died (see also Thai Airways flight 261 ) .
- On January 30, 2000, a Kenya Airways (5Y-BEN) A310-300 crashed into the sea shortly after taking off from Abidjan Airport on the Ivory Coast. 169 of the 179 occupants were killed (see also Kenya Airways flight 431 ) .
- On July 12, 2000, an A310-300 of the Hapag-Lloyd Flug (D-AHLB) had to make an emergency landing on the way from Crete to Hanover at Vienna Airport . The landing gear could not be fully retracted after takeoff. Despite the increased air resistance, the captain decided to continue the flight to Munich , but fuel consumption rose sharply due to the deterioration in aerodynamics . After 2:35 hours of flight time, both engines failed due to lack of fuel. Only with a lot of luck succeeded in a gliding flight landing at Vienna-Schwechat airport , during which the aircraft was irreparably damaged. Of the 142 occupants, 26 were injured (see also Hapag-Lloyd flight 3378 ) .
- On July 9, 2006, an Airbus A310-300 of the Russian S7 Airlines (F-OGYP) launched in Moscow at Irkutsk Airport came off the runway at high speed during landing, hit a concrete wall and into a building, where it was in Flames went up. 125 of the total of 203 inmates were killed. The trigger was a previously defective thrust reversal and a completely uncoordinated approach by the pilots, which resulted in renewed forward thrust of the other engine, retraction of the braking spoilers on the wings and deactivation of the automatic braking system.
- On March 12, 2007, the nose landing gear collapsed during the take-off of an Airbus A310-300 operated by Biman Bangladesh Airlines (S2-ADE) at Dubai Airport . There were no casualties among the 250 people on board, but the machine was irreparably damaged and later scrapped.
- On June 10, 2008, an A310-324 operated by Sudan Airways (ST-ATN) with 203 passengers and 11 crew members rolled over the end of the runway by a good 200 meters when landing at Khartoum airport . The machine was damaged and caught fire on the right side. The pilots had received incorrect wind information from the tower and were actually approaching with a tailwind of almost 30 km / h. In addition, an engine's thrust reverser had been defective for some time . Ultimately, the airport fire brigade did not respond quickly, appropriately or in an orderly manner, as there was an acute shortage of staff and the fire engines had no radio link whatsoever. The fire then also hit the fuselage area, and the machine burned out completely. The death toll was 30 people; 184 people were able to escape the fire.
- On June 30, 2009, a Yemenia A310-300 (7O-ADJ) crashed into the Indian Ocean with 153 people on board. During the approach to the airport Moroni-Hahaya ( Comoros ) there was a stall , with the machine falling into the sea about 15 kilometers from the main island of Grande Comore. There was one survivor (see also Yemenia flight 626 ) .
- On October 31, 2010, an A310-300F of Turkish Airlines Cargo (TC-JCV) came off the runway to the left when landing at Casablanca Airport . The pilots managed to steer the machine back onto the runway, but one of the engines had been damaged by earth. The 22 year and 9 month old machine was written off as a total economic loss due to the incident.
|Wing swept||28 °|
|Hull diameter||5.64 m|
|capacity||218 to 240 seats||33 tons of freight||240 seats||33 tons of freight|
|MTOW||157,036 kg (154,000 daN )||164,000 kg (160,829 daN ) 1|
|Empty weight||80,142 kg (78,592 daN)||72,400 kg (71,000 daN)||83,100 kg (81,493 daN)||73,900 kg (72,471 daN)|
|Tank capacity||55,200 l||75,470 l|
|Cruising speed ( M )||0.80 (850 km / h)|
|Top speed (M)||0.84 (901 km / h)|
|Service ceiling||12,500 m (41,000 ft)|
|Thrust (× 2) (lb)||50,000-53,200||56,000-59,000|
|Engines||P&W JT9D-7R4 or CF6-80C2A2||PW4156A or CF6-80C2A8|
|Range||3,600 NM (6,800 km)||3,000 NM (5,560 km)||5,200 NM (9,630 km)||3,960 NM (7,330 km)|
Further technical details (A310-200)
The following technical data refer to the construction of the A310-200:
|Parameter||Wing data||Tailplane data||Vertical tail data|
|Span b; b h ; b v 2||43.90 m||16.26 m||8.3 m|
|Wing area S; S h ; S v||219 m²||64 m²||42.2 m²|
|Wing depth l a ; l h ; l v 3||5.83 m||3.94 m||5.79 m|
|Arrow 25%||28 °||33 °||40 °|
|V position||4.7 °||6 °||-|
|Profile thickness (in%) at the root / at the kink / at the tip; Average profile thickness 4||15.2% / 11.8% / 10.8%||10%||11%|
|Wing loading||685 kg / m² (672 daN / m²)||-||-|
Sales and usage
|List of orders and deliveries|
|A310-200 / -300|
|The biggest buyers of the Airbus A310|
|Airbus A310-200 / -300|
|The currently largest operator of the Airbus A310|
|Airbus A310-200 / -300, passenger and cargo versions|
|ULS Airlines Cargo||3|
|Iran Air / Ariana Afghan Airlines||2|
|(All data as of December 23, 2018)|
- Five orders placed by Iraqi Airways for the A310 were only officially canceled by Airbus in July 2008, long after production had ceased.
- Gustav Westphal: The Airbus A310. In: Horst Skull (ed.): Fliegerkalender der DDR 1990. Military Publishing House of the GDR, Berlin 1989, pp. 116–122.
- Günter Endres: Airlife's Airliners 10: Airbus A310. Airlife Publishing Ltd, 2000, ISBN 1-85310-958-4 .
- Norbert Andrup: Airbus. From the A300 to the A380 and A350 . 1st edition. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-613-03330-6 , p. 24-33 .
- A310 on the Airbus website
- FAA-TCDS-A35EU (PDF; 206 kB) - FAA type certification of the A310
- Planespotters.net - Airbus A310 Production List
- Chancellor's plane
- BWB press release on the MRTT
- Airbus A310 MRTT: Rare all-rounder in the air
- ↑ Federal Express N450FE (Airbus A310 - MSN 162) (Ex F-GPDJ HB-IPE). www.airfleets.net, accessed January 13, 2016 .
- ↑ N450FE Federal Express (FedEx) Airbus A310-222 (F). www.planespotters.net, accessed January 13, 2016 .
- ^ Romania's Tarom ends A310 operations. ch-aviation, November 1, 2016, accessed April 22, 2017.
- ↑ Timo Nowack: Farewell to the Airbus model: the last European airline sends A310 into retirement. In: aero Telegraph. October 18, 2018, accessed October 22, 2018.
- ↑ TYPE-CERTIFICATE DATA SHEET AIRBUS A300, A310 and A300-600. (PDF; 207 kB) (No longer available online.) EASA , p. 7 , archived from the original on March 17, 2017 ; accessed on October 22, 2018 (English).
- ↑ Helmut Kreuzer: Jetliner: From the Comet to the Airbus A321 . Air-Gallery-Verlag, Ratingen / Erding 1991, ISBN 3-9802101-4-6 .
- ↑ planespotters.net
- ^ Detlev Billig, Manfred Meyer: Airplanes of the GDR. Type book military and civil aviation . 1st edition. tape 3 . Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-613-02285-0 .
- ↑ Alexander Groom: The End of the Era A310-304 VIP. Luftwaffe, April 6, 2011, accessed on May 9, 2012 : "It is likely that the 10 + 21" Konrad Adenauer "will also start their last trip for the Bundeswehr in the summer of this year."
- ↑ FliegerRevue January 2012, pp. 20–21, Kanzlerjet in Tehran
- ↑ Volker Mais: An era is coming to an end. Luftwaffe, June 19, 2014, archived from the original on August 1, 2014 ; accessed on March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ FliegerRevue January 2012, p. 21, Kanzlerjet in Tehran
- ↑ a b ZERO-G: From Chancellor Airbus to parabolic aircraft. aero.de, May 4, 2015, accessed May 5, 2015 .
- ↑ Former Interflug-Airbus becomes astronaut trainer: flight readiness decommissioned VIP-A310. Flugrevue, June 16, 2014, accessed on July 22, 2014 .
- ↑ A310 MRTT. Air Force, accessed March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Airbus A310. Luftwaffe, accessed on March 31, 2017 : "The Luftwaffe uses five Airbus A310-304s in different versions."
- ↑ Accident statistics Airbus A310 , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 15, 2018.
- ^ Accident report A310 HS-TID , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 14, 2018.
- ↑ Accident report A310 F-OGQS , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 14, 2018.
- ↑ Accident report A310 YR-LCC , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 15, 2018.
- ↑ Accident report A310 HS-TIA , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 15, 2018.
- ^ Accident report A310 5Y-BEN , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 15, 2018.
- ↑ Accident Report A310 D-AHLB , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on 15 December 2018th
- ↑ Accident Report A310 F-OGYP , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on 15 December 2018th
- ↑ Accident report A310 S2-ADE , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 31, 2019.
- ^ Accident report A310 ST-ATN , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on June 21, 2016.
- ^ Accident report A310 7O-ADJ , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on December 15, 2018.
- ↑ accident report A310F TC-JCV , Aviation Safety Network (English), accessed on January 31 of 2019.
- ↑ Klaus Hünecke: The technology of the modern airliner . 1st edition. Motorbuch Verlag, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-613-02896-8 .
- ↑ List of orders and deliveries of the Airbus A310
- ↑ Airbus: Detailed order and delivery list (linked as an Excel file on the page), accessed on July 14, 2018