Hawk T1 of the Red Arrows
In series production since 1974
|Number of pieces:||
approx. 600 without T-45 (as of 2007)
The BAE Hawk is a light British jet trainer and is designed as a fighter aircraft for close air support . The first flight took place in 1974 under the name Hawker Siddeley HS 1182 . The Hawk is still produced by BAE Systems to this day .
In the 1960s, the UK's Royal Air Force (RAF) needed a new aircraft to train their fighter pilots. It was supposed to replace the aging Folland Gnat . The SEPECAT Jaguar was originally intended for this task, but it turned out to be too complicated for flight training. In 1968 Hawker-Siddeley (now BAE SYSTEMS ) began developing a simple two-seat fighter aircraft. In contrast to the Folland Gnat, the Hawk ( German Habicht ) should not only be designed for aerial combat, but also for light bombing attacks in order to expand the training possibilities. One innovation was the raised rear pilot's seat, with which a better view forward was made possible. This concept was later adopted by many other manufacturers.
The first flight of the prototype took place in 1974. Two years later, the first machines were put into service with the RAF. A total of 105 Hawks are still in service with the RAF today. The jet proved itself both in training for air combat and in bombing raids. Due to its flight characteristics and maneuverability, student pilots can perform all flight maneuvers that are also possible on larger fighter aircraft. Although the Hawk can only fly in the subsonic range in regular flight, the construction is nevertheless designed for a maximum speed of Mach 1.2. This enables the pilot students to practice the transition to the supersonic range in a dive.
The Royal Navy took over twelve Hawks from the RAF in the 1990s. These simulate attacking fighter planes during air defense exercises by British warships.
The BAE Hawk achieved worldwide fame through the RAF aerobatic team, the " Red Arrows ". This has been using nine red painted hawks in their flight demonstrations since 1980. The Finnish aerobatic team " Midnight Hawks " and the Saudi aerobatic team " Saudi Hawks " also use this aircraft.
During an act of sabotage against British Aerospace on January 29, 1996 , activists severely damaged a BAE Hawk destined for Indonesia.
Versions of the United Kingdom Armed Forces
- Hawk T.1
- The Hawk T.1 is the basic version, which entered service in 1976. A total of 176 machines were ordered by the RAF, later 12 copies were taken over by the Royal Navy .
- Hawk T.1A
- From 1983 to 1986, 88 of these machines were converted for the use of AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles. This version was named T.1A. Since 2001 the Hawk T.1 aircraft have been converted, with parts of the fuselage being replaced. These are intended to reduce the weight of the machines and create additional storage space for weapons and additional tanks. With the exception of the Red Arrows, the still active machines are to be decommissioned by 2015; the end of service is targeted for the latter in 2018
- Hawk T.2
- The RAF calls the Hawk T.2 the Hawk Mk.128, see below
Hawk 50 series
The Hawk 50 and all other series, with the exception of the Mk.128, were intended for export. It differs only slightly from the T.1. The main difference lies in the armament, since the type in Finland , Kenya and Indonesia should be used primarily as a combat aircraft and not as a training aircraft. A total of 89 machines were delivered to these three countries.
- Hawk Mk.51
- Basic version for the Finnish Air Force , 50 built, delivered from 1980 to 1985
- Hawk Mk.51A
- Version for the Finnish Air Force with light structural reinforcements, seven built
- Hawk Mk.52
- Version for the Kenyan Air Force , built 12, delivered in 1980/1981
- Hawk Mk.53
- Version for the Indonesian Air Force , built 20, delivered from 1980 to 1984
Hawk 60s series
The Hawk 60 was developed on the basis of the Hawk 50. It has more modern engines and a modified fuselage, which significantly reduces the weight of the machine. The maximum weapon load is about 500 kg higher than that of the Hawk 50 / T.1.
- Hawk Mk.60
- Export version for the Air Force of Zimbabwe , equipped with a braking parachute and equipped to accommodate an air reconnaissance tank, built eight, delivered in 1982
- Hawk Mk.60A
- Backordered copies for Zimbabwe, five built, delivered in 1992
- Hawk Mk. 61
- Export version for the Air Force of the United Arab Emirates , nine built, eight delivered in 1983 and one delivered in 1988
- Hawk Mk.63
- Another version for the United Arab Emirates, built 16, 1984/1985
- Hawk Mk.63A
- Modernized Mk.63 with Adour 871 engines, four underwing weapon stations and two wing tip mounting rails for air-to-air missiles as well as the wings of the Hawk 100, 15 converted from October 1991
- Hawk Mk.63C
- New builds identical to the Mk. 63A, four built, delivered from 1995
- Hawk Mk.64
- Export version for the Kuwait Air Force , built 12, delivered 1985/1986
- Hawk Mk.65
- Export version for the Royal Saudi Air Force , built 30, delivered in 1987/1988
- Hawk Mk.65A
- Improved version for Saudi Arabia, 20 built, delivered in 1997
- Hawk Mk.66
- Export version for the Swiss Air Force , 20 built of which 19 in Emmen, Switzerland, units assembled by RUAG , delivered from 1989–1991
- The Swiss Air Force ordered 20 Hawk Mk.66 training aircraft in 1987, which were delivered between 1990 and 1991. In December 2002 the last Hawk of the Swiss Air Force was taken out of service. Until the introduction of the Pilatus PC-21 , the task of the Hawk was continued with the F-5F Tiger. In August 2007 Finland acquired 18 of these machines for the price of two new Hawks. In the five years between the decommissioning and the sale to Finland, the remaining 18 aircraft were stored in the aircraft cavern at Buochs airfield (one aircraft was lost in a crash at Nesthorn in 1990 , another was given to the Dübendorf Aviation Museum).
- Hawk Mk.67
- Export version for the South Korean Air Force , equipped with the extended nose of the Hawk 100 to accommodate a controllable nose wheel and other avionics, built 20, delivered in 1993
Hawk 100 series
The Hawk 100 is the further development of the Hawk 50. It can be equipped with an additional infrared camera , a so-called Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR), in the front fuselage and has improved wings, at the tips of which recordings for air-to-air missiles can be attached. The new HOTAS system makes it easier to control the machine despite additional electronics.
- Hawk Mk.102
- Export version for the Air Force of the United Arab Emirates, equipped with mounts for air-to-air missiles and Racal “Prophet” Radar Warning Receiver (RWR), built 18, delivered in 1993/1994
- Hawk Mk.103
- Beginner hunting trainer of the Royal Air Force of Oman , equipped with FLIR and laser rangefinder in the extended nose, BAE "Sky Guardian" RWR and mounting rails for air-to-air missiles on the wing tips, four built, delivered in 1993/1994
- Hawk Mk.108
- Export version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force , equipped with BAE "Sky Guardian" RWR and mounting rails for air-to-air missiles on the wing tips, 10 built, delivered in 1994/1995
- Hawk Mk.109
- Export version for the Indonesian Air Force, eight built
- Hawk Mk.115
- Export version for today's Royal Canadian Air Force , local designation CT-155 Hawk, built 19, delivered in 2000/2001
Hawk 120/130/160 series
The latest versions of the Hawk have been in development since the mid-1990s. Thanks to new materials and the latest electronics, they have little in common with the original T.1. The jets are designed for a service life of over 50 years, more than twice as long as the previous models.
- Hawk Mk.120
- Beginner hunting trainer of the South African Air Force with Adour 951 engines, 24 ordered, shipped from 2000
- Hawk Mk.127
- Beginner's hunting trainer of the Royal Australian Air Force with Adour 871 engines, 33 built, including 21 examples assembled in Australia, delivered in 2000/2001, later modernized to the Mk.128 standard
- Hawk Mk.128
- RAF advanced jet trainers with Adour 951 engines and new EFIS displays, as they are also used in the Eurofighter Typhoon , 30 ordered, delivered from 2011
- Hawk Mk.129
- Export version for Bahrain , six built, delivered from 2003
- Hawk Mk.132
- Execution of the Indian Air Force and the Indian Navy with Adour 871 engines, 24 built by BAE, the rest by HAL, a total of 105 for the Air Force and 17 for the Navy (currently in progress)
- Hawk i
- Modification of the Mk.132 version produced at HAL with an Indian mission computer, digital map and a few other minor changes, so far a converted copy
- Hawk Mk.165
- Advanced jet trainer of the Royal Saudi Air Force , identical to the Mk.128, 44 ordered, delivery since 2016, 22 of which will be assembled in the country
- Hawk Mk.166
- Advanced jet trainer of the Royal Air Force of Oman , identical to the Mk.128, 8 ordered, delivery since 2017
Hawk 200 series
The Hawk 200 was developed as a single-seat, low-cost, multi-role fighter aircraft for export customers who are primarily intended to replace the Hawk 50 and 60 series. The technical equipment is essentially based on the 120 series. A total of 62 machines have been ordered so far.
- Hawk Mk.203
- Version for the Royal Air Force of Oman, built 12
- Hawk Mk.205
- planned version for Saudi Arabia, which was not implemented
- Hawk Mk.208
- Version for the Royal Malaysian Air Force with the possibility of air refueling, built 18
- Hawk Mk.209
- Version for the Indonesian Air Force, built 32
The T-45 Goshawk was developed as a carrier-supported version for the US Navy by British Aerospace and McDonnell Douglas (Boeing since 1997) based on the Mk.60 for the VTXTS tender. Compared to the Hawk, the machine had a catch hook under the stern for carrier landings, a raised main landing gear and an extended, reinforced nose landing gear with double tires for catapult launches. In addition, the flight characteristics in speed ranges below 200 km / h were improved by means of slats extending over the entire span in order to enable the slow approach to aircraft carriers. In addition, two retractable air brakes were attached to the rear. The tail surfaces have also been enlarged; the bow of the fuselage was designed sloping down more to improve visibility. In November 1981 the decision was made to buy this machine, which was then named T45TS (T-45 Training System). The actual development began in 1984 and two prototypes were built in 1986. The first flight took place on April 16, 1988 and the first series copies were delivered to the US Navy in early 1991.
The first carrier testing began in December 1991 on the USS John F. Kennedy ; In February 1992, the T-45A officially entered service in several training squadrons (e.g. VT-21 and VT-22 at Navy Air Station in Kingsville , Texas). Of the 221 units ordered, the first 83 machines (serial numbers A001 to A083) were delivered as T-45A, before production was switched to the more modern T-45C in 1997 (serial numbers A084 to A221). This had its first flight in October 1997 and was put into service from 1999. It differs from the A variant in that it has a modernized cockpit with multifunctional screens and digital avionics.
The last of a total of 221 machines was delivered to the US Navy on October 20, 2009. The remaining T-45A will be brought to the T-45C booth by 2013 as part of the Required Avionics Modernization Program (RAMP). Actually, the procurement of 300 aircraft was planned, as a land-based version was planned with the T-45B. However, this became superfluous due to the extension of the use of the previous models TA-4J Skyhawk and T-2C Buckeye . By August 26, 2010, the three training units “Training Air Wing” 1, 2 and 6 had completed over one million flight hours on the T-45. It should remain in service until 2035. In April 2017, a persistent problem with the aircraft's oxygen supply became known, which led to the US Navy temporarily decommissioning its entire fleet.
BAE Systems and Hindustan Aeronautics present their jointly improved Advanced Hawk jet trainer at Aero India in Bengaluru. The new version has been worked on with company funds for about two years. The Advanced Hawk demonstrator took off on its maiden flight at BAE Systems in Warton in early June 2017. Among other things, a current cockpit configuration with large screens and the LiteHUD is planned for the aircraft. The wings are given slats to increase maneuverability and reduce take-off and landing distances. A new self-protection system can also be installed. An air refueling probe is also installed. HAL and BAE Systems also offer a weapon system. Up to 3000 kg payload can be carried at eight stations, including precision bombs.
- 33 (33 × Hawk T.Mk.127, are essentially to be modernized to the T.Mk.2 standard)
- 6 (6 × Hawk T.Mk.129)
- 221 (176 × Hawk T.Mk.1 / T.Mk.1A / T.Mk.1W from 1976/1983/1990 and 28 × Hawk T.Mk.2; in supply since July 2009)
- 75 (50 × Hawk T.Mk.51, 7 × Hawk T.Mk.51A and 18 × Hawk T.Mk.66; still coming)
- 126 (106 × Hawk T.Mk.132, initially 66 × ordered in 2003, 40 × reordered in 2010 and 20 × reordered in 2012, 24 built at BAE Systems, the rest at HAL , in stock since 2007)
- 17 (17 × Hawk T.Mk.132, ordered July 2010, construction by HAL)
- 60 (Hawk T.Mk.53, 8 × Hawk T.Mk.109, 32 × Hawk T.Mk.209)
- 21 (21 × Hawk T.Mk.115 / CT-155)
- 9 (appointed in 2018, delivery from 2021)
- 12 (12 × Hawk T.Mk. 52)
- 12 (12 × Hawk T.Mk.64)
- 28 (10 × Hawk T.Mk.108, 18 × Hawk T.Mk.208)
- 24 (5 × Hawk T.Mk.103, 12 × Hawk T.Mk.203, 8 × Hawk T.Mk.128 last delivery 2017)
- 50 (30 × Hawk T.Mk.65 / 20 × Hawk T.Mk.65A)
- 20 (20 × Hawk T.Mk.66; retired, 18 sold to the Finnish Air Force ) 1 crashed, 1 in the Flieger-Flab-Museum .
- 8 (8 × Hawk T.Mk.60; retired)
- 20 (20 × Hawk T.Mk.67)
- 24 (24 × Hawk T.Mk.120)
- 223 (223 × T-45A / C "Goshawk")
- 39 (Hawk T.Mk.61, Hawk T.Mk.63A / C, Hawk T.Mk.102)
Aircraft on display
- 1 Hawk Mk. 66 U-1251 of the Swiss Air Force in the Flieger-Flab-Museum , Dübendorf, Switzerland
- 1 BAE Hawk 115 (CT-155) 155209 Royal Canadian Air Force in the Canadian Warplane Heritage Museum, Hamilton Ontario, Canada
- 1 BAe Hawk T.1 Mod XX343 3 ETPS (bow only) of the Royal Air Force of the Boscombe Down Aviation Collection, Old Sarum, Salisbury GB
- 1 BAe Hawk 53 of the Indonesian Air Force in front of the Dirgantara Mandala Museum, Indonesia
|Parameter||Data of the Hawk Mk.128||Data from the T-45C Goshawk|
|Type||Training and ground attack aircraft||Training aircraft|
|length||12.43 m||11.97 m|
|span||9.94 m||9.39 m|
|Wing area||16.69 m²||16.69 m²|
|height||3.98 m||4.09 m|
|Empty mass||4570 kg||4263 kg|
|Max. Takeoff mass||approx. 9100 kg||6387 kg|
|Top speed||Mach 0.85 or 1040 km / h (at optimal flight altitude)||
|Marching speed||1019 km / h (at sea level)||k. A.|
|Service ceiling||13,565 m||12,955 m|
|Max. Rate of climb||47.25 m / s||35.47 m / s|
|Transfer range||2584 km||1850 km|
|Max. Gun load||3085 kg||k. A.|
|Engine||a turbofan engine Rolls-Royce Adour Mk.951||a Rolls-Royce Adour F405-PR-401 turbofan engine|
|Thrust||28.89 kN||25.98 kN|
|costs||approx. 15 million euros per aircraft||k. A.|
- Explosive ordnance up to 3,085 kg at five external load stations
- Air-to-air guided missile
- 2 × LAU-7 / A start rails for one Raytheon AIM-9L “Sidewinder” each - infrared-guided for short distances
- 2 × starting rails for one MBDA AIM-132 ASRAAM each
- 2 × APU-60-1 start rails for one MKB Wympel R-60M (AA-8 "Aphid") each - infrared controlled for short distances
- Air-to-surface guided missile
- 4 × MBDA Brimstone
- Unguided air-to-surface missiles
- 4 × LAU-5003 rocket tube launch containers for 19 × unguided CRV7 air-to-surface missiles each ; Caliber 70 mm
- 4 × LAU51 rocket tube launch containers for 19 × unguided Forges de Zeebrugge air-to- surface rockets each ; Caliber 70 mm
- 4 × MATRA 155 rocket tube launch containers for 18 × unguided SNEB (TDA) air-to-surface rockets, caliber 68 mm
- Unguided bombs
- 5 × Hunting Engineering BL755 (264 kg anti-tank cluster bomb with 7 × 21 bomblets)
- 5 × Royal Ordnance MC / GP Mk.10 (1,000 lb / 454 kg free-fall bomb )
- 5 × Royal Ordnance MC / GP Mk.20 (540 lb / 245 kg free-fall bomb)
- 5 × Mark 82 LDGP (227 kg free fall bomb)
- 9 × Royal Ordnance 250 lb / 113 kg free fall bomb
- Guided bombs
- Additional container
- 1 × external ADEN 30 mm automatic cannon container (under the hull with 130 rounds of ammunition)
- 2 × wing lower tanks (additional tank for 592 liters of kerosene )
- 2 × wing lower tank (additional tank for 455 liters of kerosene)
- 2 × CBLS-200 practice bomb containers for four practice bombs
- Website of the Saudi Hawks
- HAL rolls out improved Hawk i trainer, Flightglobal, January 26, 2016
- Follow-on purchase to boost Saudi Hawk renewal, Flightglobal, February 19, 2016
- Saudi Arabia rolls-out first domestically built Hawk jet trainer, Janes, March 31, 2019
- Oman receives first Hawk jet trainers, Janes, July 31, 2017 ( Memento of the original from August 1, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Final Goshawk delivered. Combat Aircraft Monthly January 2010, p. 17.
- FliegerRevue June 2011, pp. 24–26, T-45 Goshawk - One million flight hours.
- Goshawks Celebrate One Million Flight Hours. In: AIR International October 2010 , p. 5.
- LEIGH GIANGRECO: US Navy temporarily grounds T-45 fleet. In: FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM. April 6, 2017, accessed April 6, 2017 .
- FLIGHT REVUE: Advanced Hawk presented | FLIGHT REVUE , accessed August 6, 2017
- Qatar signs for Hawk jet trainers, Janes, July 3, 2018