|Sultanate of Oman|
|State and form of government||Absolute Monarchy|
|Head of state , also head of government||Sultan Haitham ibn Tariq|
|population||5.0 million ( 119th ) (2019)|
|Population density||16 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 3.0% (estimate for 2019)|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.813 ( 60th ) (2019)|
|currency||Rial Omani (OMR)|
National anthem of Oman
|Time zone||UTC + 4|
|ISO 3166||OM , OMN, 512|
Oman ([ oˈmaːn ], in southern Germany, Austria and Switzerland masculine and with article (der Oman), officially Sultanate of Oman, Arabic سلطنة عمان, DMG salṭanat ʿumān ) is a state in Western Asia in the east of the Arabian Peninsula . The approximately five million inhabitants live mainly in cities. Almost half of the population are immigrants, mostly from India. The Omani are 95 percent Muslim, mostly Sunnis and Ibadis . The sultanate is an absolute monarchy and at the same time has a constitution. The ministers appointed by the Sultan and the two national parliaments only have an advisory role.
The country was ruled by the absolutist ruler Sultan Qaboos ibn Said from 1970 to January 2020 . Qabus ibn Said died on January 10, 2020. His successor was his cousin, the 65-year-old Minister of Culture, Haitham ibn Tariq .
Oman has been able to transform itself from a heavily backward into a moderately prosperous state in the last few decades. A UN report names Oman as the country that has improved its social and economic situation the most over the past 40 years.
In addition, Oman has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Oman and a short coastline on the Persian Gulf .
The national territory and the north of the territory of the United Arab Emirates belong to the Strait of Hormuz peninsula located Rus al-jibal at Cape Musandam , the area enclosed by the UAE exclave of Madha and the group of Kuria Muria Islands and the island of Masira ago the east coast of the country.
The coast is bounded by the Arabian Sea to the south and east and the Gulf of Oman to the northeast. The state borders in the interior of the country are not precisely defined. The country is a little smaller than Germany.
Al-Batina ("lower land"), the 250 km long narrow coastal strip on the Gulf of Oman between Muscat and Suhar , is a fertile, often irrigated alluvial plain , the groundwater of which is fed by the canyon-like wadis from the Oman Mountains, which are only occasionally water-bearing . On the other side of the 600 km long Hajar Mountains , which run parallel to the Gulf, the wadis end in the drainless salt pan Umm as-Samin . In this part of the Oman Mountains the highest point in the country is reached in the Jabal Shams (3,017 m). The mountains separate the coastal plain from the desert. The central, largest part of Oman is occupied by the Inner Desert (Jeddat al-Harasis). From the Az Zahirah plateau (500 m) the country slopes southwest to the edge of the Rub al-Chali desert , which Oman shares with Saudi Arabia and Yemen. It extends to the flat coast of the Arabian Sea and separates the southern province of Dhofar from the north of the country. In Dhofar the mountain range of the Karaberge rises along the coast .
Trade winds and the foothills of the Indian monsoons are decisive for the marginal tropical climate of Oman. In the interior it is very hot and dry, in the coastal plains in the north and in Dhofar it is hot and humid. Muscat has average temperatures of 22 ° C in January and 34.5 ° C in June. The Gharbi, a hot fall wind from the Oman Mountains, causes temperatures to become unbearable at times during the summer months. The high humidity (especially in summer) leads to fog formation and occasionally to drizzle. The annual rainfall is around 100 mm in the coastal regions and around 500 mm in the Oman Mountains.
The coastal region (Batina plain, al-Chasab , Muscat , Suhar , Sur) has a subtropical climate with warm winters and hot summers. The daytime temperatures in winter are around 22-25 ° C and rise to average daily values of 36-39 ° C in summer. In hotter periods, peaks of almost 47 ° C are possible. In the coastal plains, the temperature fluctuations between day and night are small, so in summer 30 ° C is also common at night. In the Muscat region in particular, the mornings are often the hottest of the day. It may well happen that the temperature is already 42 ° C at 8 a.m., but the thermometer keeps at 38 ° C from noon onwards. But this is not always the case. The humidity on the coasts is high all year round at 60–80%. Precipitation is very low at around 100 mm per year (around 10–20 days of precipitation); Rain usually falls like torrential torrents between December and March and can lead to flooding, as the dry, dusty, stony soil absorbs the water poorly and slowly. There is no rainfall in summer. The sea is suitable for swimming all year round: in winter it is around 24 ° C, in summer up to 31 ° C.
The Hajjar Mountains in the north-east of the country are the only mountains of note in Oman. The highest peaks reach just over 3,000 m. This area is characterized by cool winters and warm summers. In the coldest months of January and February, temperatures in the high mountains often fall below freezing point, especially at night, and it snows occasionally. Precipitation (autumn and winter) can reach several hundred millimeters. In summer the temperatures also rise in height, there is practically no more precipitation, daily values of over 30 ° C are also possible at higher altitudes. During the night the temperature drops rapidly.
Larger cities such as Bahla , Ibra and Nizwa are located on the southwestern edge of the Hajar Mountains and still in a comparatively moderate climate . In the interior of the country behind, up to the borders with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, the two deserts of Oman join: the Rub al-Chali (literally "empty quarter") and the Rimal Al Wahiba . There is a hot and dry desert climate with comparatively cool winters and extremely hot summers. In January, daytime temperatures reach 25 ° C and drop to 10 to 12 ° C at night. The rare rains usually come in the form of short, heavy showers in winter, but are unproductive in the long term. In summer it is very hot during the day with daily averages between 41 and 44 ° C and peak values of up to 52 ° C. Despite a considerable cooling, the values hardly fall below 25 ° C during the night. The humidity is low all year round and is often only 20% in summer.
The Dhofar region around Salala , Mirbat and Taqah in the southwest of the sultanate is the only part of the Arabian Peninsula that is directly influenced by the monsoon: it is warm and humid all year round, almost tropical. In winter it rarely rains and temperatures range between 20 ° C at night and around 27 ° C during the day. The humidity is in the middle 50 to 60% and the sea temperature is just under 25 ° C. With daily values of 31 to 33 ° C, early summer is actually the hot time of the year, and the nights are also very warm at just under 27 ° C. During this time the sea warms up to 29 ° C and the humidity rises. During one of the rare heat waves caused by winds from the central parts of the country, the maximum temperature of 47.2 ° C was measured in Salala. From around mid-June, the Southeast Asian monsoon ( Charif ) affects the climate. Its foothills accumulate on the coastal elevations of Dhofar and rain down. From July to September it rains up to 22 days per month, mostly as a fine drizzle, which is accompanied by wafts of mist and low-hanging clouds. This leads to cooling and the air temperature levels off at a constant 25 ° C. There are almost no temperature fluctuations between day and night, the sea temperature remains high and the humidity reaches values of 80 to 90%. Unique for the Arabian Peninsula, the landscape turns green after the onset of monsoon rains. Omanis from other parts of the country as well as tourists from other Gulf states visit the region at this time to experience the wealth of rain and lush greenery unknown to them.
Flora and fauna
In the Inner Desert, semi-deserts alternate with dry grasses, date palms and thorn bushes and full deserts without vegetation. The damp mountain slopes are covered by forests and bushes with acacias , sycamore figs and jasmine . In the Karaberg, dry shrubs predominate, including the frankincense tree , from which frankincense is extracted. A large part of this has come from Oman since ancient times. At altitudes over 1000 m you can find junipers , olive trees , naked fruit , cedars and euphorbias , at the latter one can occasionally find the parasite Hydnora abyssinica .
Among the wild animals there are still a few specimens of the Arabian leopard ( Panthera pardus nimr ). In 2013, the population in the mountains in southern Oman was estimated at 50 to 100 animals. The big cat suffers from attacks by shepherds defending their goats, cows and camels. Oman's dromedaries enjoy a special reputation as pets . There are around 85 species of native birds, plus migratory birds . In total, over 450 different species of birds have been sighted. There are sanctuaries in the country for the sea turtles that lay eggs on Oman's beaches . The Arabian oryx , which became extinct in the wild , was reintroduced to a protected area in the 1980s. The wildlife sanctuary of the Arabian oryx was recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site in 1994 . In 2007, the area was the first in the world to have its UNESCO patent revoked, as it had been reduced to a tenth by the government and thus no longer met the requirements.
Oman is one of the most sparsely populated countries on earth. Most of the inhabitants live in the north on the coastal regions, the region around the city of Salala in the south of the country forms another metropolitan area . The rest is largely uninhabited. In 2020 over 86% of the population lived in cities. 5% of the population still live as nomads . The population is growing very rapidly. It has roughly doubled within a decade. The influx of foreign workers, which has skyrocketed since 2010, contributed to the increasing population growth. In the meantime, 46% of the population or around 2.3 million people are migrants, of which around 1.3 million are Indians. In the northeast, many residents come from the former Omani colonies in East Africa (e.g. Zanzibar).
- Total population
- 1950: 550,000
- 1980: 1,060,000
- 2003: 2,340,000
- 2010: 2,695,000
- 2015: 4,180,000
- 2020: 4,975,000
According to the census, the number of inhabitants at the end of 2020 was 4.47 million, around half a million below the UN figure.
Over 30% of Omanis are younger than 15 years, the average life expectancy is 76 years. The fertility rate per woman is 2.8 children. Due to the low median age combined with high life expectancy, the country had one of the lowest death rates in the world.
Around 1970, Oman began to set up social institutions; today there are old-age and disability pensions, widow and orphan benefits. The health care system has been greatly expanded, and Omanis enjoy free medical care.
Life expectancy development in Oman
The literacy Oman was in 2020 97% of men and 92.7% of the female population, one of the highest rates in the Arab world. Thirty years ago, almost the entire population was illiterate. Although there is no general compulsory schooling, over 90% of the children go to school and school attendance is free. The only state university in the country, the Sultan Qaboos University , was founded in Muscat in 1986 . There are also four private universities . There are also six state and twelve private colleges , which are roughly comparable to German universities of applied sciences or vocational academies .
The official language is Arabic , Iranian ( Baluchi and Persian ) and Indo-Aryan ( Urdu ) languages are also spoken. Indian languages are becoming more and more common. The commercial language is English . Part of the population speaks a Swahili dialect as it is spoken in East Africa and Zanzibar .
Some New South Arabic languages are also spoken in the south and west of the country .
The state religion is Islam . According to an estimate from 2017, 85.9% of Oman's residents are Muslim, 6.5% Christian , 5.5% Hindu and 0.8% Buddhist . Among the Omani citizens, who make up less than 60 percent of the total population, 95% are Muslims (45% Ibadis , 45% Sunnis , 5% Shiites ) and 5% are members of other religions (Christians, Hindus, Buddhists).
The capital Muscat has 25,000 inhabitants, the narrower capital area has 370,000, the entire Muscat Capital Area has over one million inhabitants.
Today's Oman was already settled in the Stone Age. In pre-Islamic times, the province of Dhofar belonged to the kingdom of the Sabeans , which is known from the legend of the visit of the Queen of Sheba to King Solomon. Oman was around 3,000 BC. Known to the Sumerians in Mesopotamia (see Magan ).
Following the acquisition of Islam around 630 n. Chr. Oman was part of the Caliphate of the Umayyads and Abbasids . Especially in the hinterland the sect of the Ibadites expanded around 700 and founded an independent imamate in the interior of the country in the 9th century . Parts of the Omani population moved to East Africa, where they established the predominance of the Arabs in the western Indian Ocean. Meanwhile , the port city of Suhar rose to become the most important trading center in the Islamic world and maintained contacts as far as the Empire of China and East Africa . After the destruction of Suhar by the Buyids (965), the country was occupied several times by Persian conquerors before the Portuguese took control of Hormuz around 1500 .
In the fight against the invaders, Oman was unified under the Yaruba dynasty from the 17th century. After the Portuguese were expelled in the middle of the 17th century, Oman rose to become a sea power in the Indian Ocean and Muscat became an important trading center between Arabia and India. Around 1730 Saif ibn Sultan II conquered Zanzibar and large areas of the East African coast. The island was declared a residence in 1840 by Said ibn Sultan , also known as Sayyid Said (1806-1856). The Said dynasty was founded around 1750 and has ruled Oman to this day. In 1783 the now Pakistani city of Gwadar in Balochistan came under Omani rule; it remained so until it was sold to Pakistan in 1958.
From 1798 Great Britain gained influence in Oman: A treaty concluded between the Sultan of Muscat and the British East India Company strengthened the supremacy of the British in the Gulf region. Nevertheless, Oman experienced the height of its power in the first half of the 19th century. After the loss of Zanzibar in 1856, the country's economic decline began, which was exacerbated by the conservative policies of the sultans. Although formally always independent, Oman became de facto dependent on Great Britain at the end of the 19th century - partly through treaties of 1891. The British primacy ended gradually, in particular as a result of the withdrawal of British troops from the area "east of Suez " announced in 1968 .
The Ibadite imamate, proclaimed by mountain tribes in the interior of the country in 1913, was occupied by the sultan's troops in 1955, and the imam was expelled after an attempted uprising in 1957. Sultan Said ibn Taimur , who ruled from 1932 to 1970, left the country in its backwardness and isolation from foreign policy: slavery was maintained, high internal tariffs were imposed, the school system was limited to Koran schools . Only with the beginning of oil production and the accession of Qabus ibn Said , who had deposed his father in 1970, did the first reforms take place: abolition of slavery, lifting of exit and travel restrictions, improvement of the infrastructure, made possible by profits from oil production.
In 1965, socialist rebels, some of which were supported by South Yemen , rose up against the Ibadi government in Dhofar province . These clashes, which flared up again and again, were not settled until 1976. In the course of the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in 1990, the USA increased its military presence in this part of the Gulf region.
According to the constitution of 1996 ("Basic Law of the State"), Oman is an absolute monarchy (sultanate). The highest ruler of the country is the sultan , who combines the office of head of state and head of government . The ministers appointed by him only have advisory and administrative functions; there are currently 30 ministers.
The National Consultative Council is a bicameral assembly with a purely advisory function. The upper house , the State Assembly (Majlis ad-Dawla), consists of 41 members appointed by the Sultan. The lower house , the Consultative Assembly (Majlis asch-Shura), is elected by Omanis from the age of 21 for three years. The Sultan finally appoints 82 members of the assembly out of 164 elected candidates. In addition, the Sultan has the right to invalidate the election. Legislation takes place through decrees; political parties are banned.
Oman is divided into eight governments ( manatiq , Sg. Mintaqa divided), which in turn (in districts wilayat , Sg. Wilaya ) divide.
Since 1994 women have had the right to vote and stand for election, restricted to certain seats in the Consultative Assembly . Equal rights for women and men were enshrined in Article 17 of the 1996 Constitution. In 2003, general active and passive suffrage at the national level was granted in time for the 2003 elections, thus introducing women's suffrage . In October 2003, in the first general election, in which all Omanis over 21 were allowed to vote, two women were elected to parliament. Before that, there had been appointments by women after a limited election:
1. Consultative Assembly (Majlis asch-Shura): Two women, 1997. Both were appointed in 1997 after a restricted election: 50,000 Omanis, including women for the first time, elected a group of nominees for the Consultative Assembly. The Sultan appointed 82 delegates from the group of those elected. Both women were re-elected in the next election, which allowed an expanded electorate.
2nd State Assembly (Majlis ad-Dawla): Four women
No woman was elected in 2007, only one in 2012.
|Name of the index||Index value||Worldwide rank||Interpretation aid||year|
|Fragile States Index||48 of 120||134 of 178||Stability of the country: More stable
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
|Democracy index||3 of 10||136 of 167||Authoritarian regime
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
|Freedom in the World Index||23 of 100||-||Freedom status: unfree
0 = unfree / 100 = free
|Freedom of the press ranking||43.37 out of 100||133 of 180||Difficult situation for freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
|Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)||54 of 100||49 of 180||0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean||2020|
The commander in chief of the armed forces is the Sultan. There is no conscription in Oman . The Ministry of Defense and the General Staff have been based in Muaskar al-Murtafa'a, near Seeb Airport , since 1978 . The Omani armed forces have a total troop strength of around 43,000 and consist of the following three armed forces : the Royal Omani Army , the Royal Omani Air Force and the Royal Omani Navy . All units have, among other things, extensive Western equipment and weapons.
In 2017, Oman spent almost 12.1 percent of its economic output or 8.7 billion US dollars on its armed forces. Defense spending as a share of economic output is among the highest in the world.
After Sultan Qaboos came to power in 1970, Oman ended its policy of isolation and in 1971 became a member of the UN (since September 21, 1971) and the Arab League . In the following years diplomatic relations were established with other countries, for example diplomatic relations with Switzerland existed since 1973. Oman tries to maintain foreign policy neutrality in the conflicts in the Middle East, as its majority population is neither Shiite nor Sunni. The country tries to act as a mediator.
Oman has been a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council since it was founded in 1982 and works closely with its members in Bahrain , Kuwait , Qatar , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates . For the time being, Oman had to withdraw from the project to introduce a common currency because it would not have been able to meet the originally planned introduction date.
The focus of relations with countries outside the Arab world is on the economy. There are agreements with Germany on economic and industrial cooperation, investment promotion and air transport; but no bilateral cultural agreements. A double taxation agreement was signed in 2012 but has not yet come into force. There is an investment protection agreement with Switzerland; a double taxation agreement was signed on May 22, 2015 and entered into force on October 13, 2016.
Due to the need to train the young population, Oman is also interested in international exchange in the field of education. Although the German University of Technology in Oman is a private university associated with RWTH Aachen University, the scientific exchange or student exchange between Oman and Germany is not yet very advanced. A program has existed since 2008 that sends Omani government scholarship holders to study in Germany. The German-Omani Society was founded in 1992.
The Sultanate of Oman which are human rights after the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam subject to the laws of Sharia . The royal family, which is absolutely ruling, takes action against opposition voices and critics. According to Amnesty International's 2010 annual report, human rights are disregarded or violated in the Sultanate of Oman:
- Detention of non-violent political opponents
- Suppression of freedom of expression and religion
- Detention without charge or trial
- Application of the death penalty
According to the non-governmental organization Reporters Without Borders, the situation of press freedom is "difficult".
Oman has undergone an extensive restructuring from an agrarian-oriented economy to an export-oriented petroleum industry due to the production of crude oil that began in the late 1960s. GDP per capita in 2016, adjusted for purchasing power, was 46,689 US dollars per capita. In 2016 agriculture only had a share of 1.7% of GDP , while industry made up 45.4% and the service sector 52.9%. In the same year the GDP grew by 3.1%. Unemployment averaged 15% in 2004. In 2000, 6% of the population were employed in agriculture, 11% in industry and 82% in the service sector. In 2016, the share of military spending in GDP was 13.7%, that for education 5.0% and that for health 3.2%.
In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Oman ranks 62nd out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In 2017, the country was ranked 82nd out of 180 countries in the Index for Economic Freedom .
Omanization refers to the replacement of guest workers with Omani citizens in domestic jobs. Omanization aims to ensure that there is a job for every citizen and reduce the country's dependence on guest workers. The government identified top foreign managers who prefer to hire their compatriots as the main obstacle to further Omanization. Therefore, one of the goals of Omanization is to fill top management with Omanis.
Omanization began in 1988 with the establishment of quotas for the employment of Omanis. At least 72% of all civil servants should be Omani citizens. In the private sector, too, employment shares for Omani citizens have been legally stipulated for six selected sectors: transport, storage and telecommunications 60% (e.g. the taxi business in the capital is firmly in the hands of Omanis of Baloch descent ), banks, insurance companies and the real estate industry 45 %, Industry 35%, hotel and restaurant trade 30%, wholesaling and retailing 20% (since there are also many unattractive jobs such as replenishment work etc. in retail, this rule leads to attractive positions such as cashiers only from Omanis occupied) and freelance activities 15%.
The government's plans were successfully implemented and in 1990 the specified minimum number of Omanis in civil service was exceeded. In 1999 the proportion of citizens in the public service reached 86%. In 2008 almost exclusively Omanis (approx. 85.2% of all employees) worked in the civil service. Almost half of all jobs occupied by Omanis are still in the public sector (131,209 Omanis were employed in this sector in 2008), but the share of Omanis in the private sector is steadily increasing. In 2008, 147,194 Omanis worked in the private sector. This was the second year in a row with more Omani employees than in the public sector and more than twice as many as in 2002 (65,879). Despite this development, it can be assumed that positions for unskilled or semi-skilled workers will continue to be filled with guest workers, as Omanis rarely accept these positions. In 2008, 795,000 guest workers were employed in the private sector; the share of Omanis in this sector was 18.5%.
The unit of currency in Oman is the Omani Rial (usually abbreviated as R. O., internationally OMR) to 1,000 Baisas. It is tied to the US dollar , which banks buy and sell without commission. 1 rial equals 2.13 euros or 1 euro 0.47 OMR (May 24, 2021). Inflation is almost non-existent and the ten-year average from 1985 to 1995 saw a deflation of 0.2%. In 2003, inflation averaged −0.4%. You can pay anywhere in R.O., but rarely in US dollars or even euros. There are many banknotes that depict Sultan Qaboos, as even 100 baisas (around 23 euro cents) are issued in paper money.
About 5% of the state's area is currently used for agriculture. The main crops are dates , lemons , pomegranates , bananas, tomatoes, onions, garlic, mangoes, wheat, potatoes, coffee and tobacco . The Batina plain in the north of the country is considered to be the agricultural center of Oman. In the south, the area around Salala can be used for agriculture due to the higher rainfall. In the hinterland of the Jabal Achdar there are also fertile valleys in which date palms grow. Coffee is grown near Wadi Samail , which divides the Jabal Achdar into an eastern and western mountain range. The waters around Oman are very rich in fish. Swordfish and tuna are caught on a large scale in the north and east, and sharks in the south. Strict annual catch quotas are intended to protect the stocks. Most of the livestock is raised by Bedouins .
Natural resources, energy, industry
The most valuable raw material is oil, which has made the country rich. The oil sources are mainly in the deserts in the interior of Oman. The most important sources are Lachwar , Natih , Qarn Alam , Schama and Sadad , which extend from the foothills of the Jabal Achdar down into the Dhofar, with a focus on the center of Oman. In addition to oil, the country is also rich in natural gas. The Omani government has big plans for gas in the post-oil era.
During the phase of high oil prices since 2000, Oman invested a lot of money in the exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas, unlike most oil-producing countries. Therefore, contrary to original forecasts, Oman has been able to continue to expand its production in recent years. In February 2016, the production of crude oil and gas condensates was around 1 million barrels per day. The still largely untapped natural gas reserves are officially stated as several trillion cubic meters and barrels of natural gas or crude oil.
In addition to the rich oil and natural gas fields, mining is limited to the extraction of copper (especially in the far north) and a little chromite . In the east near al-Ashkara, not far from Sur, there are hard coal deposits that have not yet been developed. The energy supply is essentially based on petroleum; it has been expanded considerably since the early 1970s. The industrial sector shows a strong growth of small businesses (including handicrafts, food and building materials industries). A petroleum refinery, a gas liquefaction plant and a copper smelter were built under state control.
In the 1990s, Oman was still a country for adventurous individual travelers; in the meantime, state-sponsored tourism has developed that is aligning itself with international standards. Obviously, the successes of the United Arab Emirates served as a model here.
A special project was the "Al Madina A'Zarqa" (formerly "Blue City Oman") tourism center planned for 250,000 people with up to 20 hotels and its own hospital. It was to be built about 75 kilometers west of Muscat on an area of 34 square kilometers and about 16 kilometers along the coast to the as-Sawadi peninsula . The projected construction cost was between 15 and 20 billion US dollars. Construction started in 2007, the planned completion would have been 2020. In 2010 the project went into liquidation due to a lack of investment. In 2012, the concept was resumed by the Omani State Fund, but this also ended its work on the project shortly afterwards.
Since 1967 crude oil has been exported, which together with natural gas (since 1978) made up 81% of total exports in 2004. Other export goods are fish, metals and textiles. The destination country is the United Arab Emirates. Machines and vehicles, industrial goods and foodstuffs were imported, 32% from the United Arab Emirates. The trade balance has been positive since the start of oil exports .
The national debt was 13.1% of GDP in 2015, making it one of the lowest in the world. In the following years, this has grown strongly and amounted to 47.5% in 2018.
In 2006 the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was in the following areas:
There are around 60,000 kilometers of roads in Oman, now almost all places can be reached on asphalt roads, previously missing cross connections have been added in recent years, so that the asphalt roads now form a very well-developed network. Motorways (2000 kilometers) connect Muscat with Sib , Suhar and Fujairah , as well as with Nizwa in the middle of the country and Sur on the eastern north coast. Ibri with Buraimi and Salalah with Thumrayt . Even remote wadis are increasingly criss-crossed with well-developed roads, which is often criticized for ecological reasons. This restricts the possibilities of off-road tourism and expands classic bus tourism. Many Omanis use private cars, so the frequency of intercity buses between large towns is decreasing. Shared taxis run between smaller towns. Around 1,000 people die in around 8,000 traffic accidents each year (as of 2013). Many of the cars, especially in the cities, are new - undoubtedly a sign of the young prosperity. Japanese cars such as Toyota, Mitsubishi etc. are driven to a large extent. There are a noticeable number of jeeps on the roads that are status symbols. All private cars are provided with a "beeper" which is activated when the legal maximum speed of 120 km / h is exceeded. There are numerous speed cameras on the motorways at relatively short intervals . The signage is bilingual almost everywhere, Arabic and English. Dusty cars have been banned by law in Oman since 1973. If you don't wash your car regularly in the arid country, you risk a fine, and if you do it again, the car will be confiscated.
In mid-2014, the project company Oman Rail was founded, which was to create a 2,135-kilometer, standard-gauge , double-track, non-electrified railway network by 2019 . In May 2016, the Omani Ministry of Transport announced that the project had been put on hold. Oman is unable to finance this major project due to low government revenues, due to the oil price in the mid- 2010s .
Pipelines and ports
Oil and gas are transported via around 7,000 kilometers of pipelines . Mina al-Fahal near Muscat is the oil export port. Other important ports are Mina Sultan Qaboos in Matrah and Raysut near Salala , which is being expanded and is a free trade zone .
There are currently four international airports in Oman. In Sib , a city 25 kilometers west of the capital Muscat , is the Muscat International Airport , which was formerly called Seeb International Airport. The second largest airport is in the south of the country, in Salalah , the Salalah International Airport . Both airports have undergone massive expansion in recent years and are state-of-the-art. In addition, in the coastal town exists Zohar the Sohar Airport and in the free trade zone Duqm the Duqm airport . The regional airport of Chasab Airport is located in the capital of the Musandam region .
The low-cost airline SalamAir was founded in 2016. It serves destinations in the Middle East and India.
In 2019, 92 percent of Oman's residents used the internet .
The national holiday is November 18, on which Sultan Qaboos ibn Said celebrated his birthday. The celebrations usually extend over three days and end with a huge fireworks display.
Cricket is one of the most popular sports in Oman, largely thanks to immigrants from the cricket nations of South Asia. The Omani national cricket team qualified for the ICC World Twenty20 for the first time in 2016 after finishing the ICC World Twenty20 Qualifier in 2015 in sixth place. At the same time one received T20I status . On April 24, 2019, Oman was awarded ODI status for the first time after defeating hosts Namibia with four wickets during the ICC World Cricket League Division Two 2019 .
- Hans Krech : Armed Conflicts in the South of the Arabian Peninsula. The Dhofar War 1965–75 in the Sultanate of Oman and the Civil War in Yemen in 1994 . Publishing house Dr. Köster, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-89574-193-0 .
- Dagmar Boerner-Josten: It's hot in paradise. Letters from Oman (1982–1985). Travel memories . Books on Demand, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8334-8225-0 .
- National Survey Authority: Sultanate of Oman Map. 1: 1,300,000 . Muscat 2012.
- Oman 1: 850 000 . Reise Know-How Verlag Rump, Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 3-8317-7178-2 .
General travel guides
- Julietta Baums, Lorenz Töpperwien: Oman: On the way between Muscat and Salalah. 4th edition, Trescher, Berlin 2020
- Kirsten Baron: United Arab Emirates / Oman […]. 3. Edition. Ullstein, Frankfurt am Main / Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-550-06885-9 .
- Gerhard Heck, Manfred Wöbcke: Arabian Peninsula: Saudi Arabia, [etc.] (= travel correctly). 3. Edition. DuMont, Cologne 1999, ISBN 3-7701-3584-9 .
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