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The realm of the Buyids

The Buyids , also Bujids ( Arabic بنو بويه, DMG Banū Būyah , also Banū Buwaih ; Persian آل بویه, DMG Āl-e Būyeh , also Āl-i Būyih ), were a significant Shiite dynasty of Dailamite descent in the Iranian highlands , Iraq and parts of Oman , which came from Dailam in the north of what is now Iran , existed from 930 to 1062 and from 945 ruled until 1055.

The dynasty descended from Abu Shuja Buyah (died 932), who began his rise as a military leader among the Samanids and Ziyarids . Of his three sons, the founders of the Buyid Empire, Imad ad-Daula Ali (932–949) initially held Isfahan and then conquered the southern Persian province of Fars , where he founded the Buyid line of Fars (and Chusistan ). Rukn ad-Daula Hasan (947-977) sat down while in jibal firm and founded a part rule, which after his death in the two lines of Hamadan / Isfahan and Rey fell apart. The third brother, Muizz ad-Daula Ahmad (936-967), first conquered Kirman and Chusistan before subjugating what is now Iraq. Taking Baghdad 945 he gained control of the Abbasids - Caliphate , which has since been completely disempowered politically. The caliph in Baghdad was now only the spiritual head of the Muslims. The Buyiden lines of Iraq and Kirmans descend from Ahmad.

The most important ruler of the Buyids was Adud ad-Daula Abu Shuja Fana Chusrau (949–983). He came from the line of Fars and was able to enforce his sovereignty over the other dynastic lines. As a result, the rule of the Buyids in Iraq and western Iran was not only united, but also expanded. The Ziyarid Empire in Tabaristan (on the Caspian Sea ) was temporarily occupied, parts of Oman were subjugated and the Hamdanids of Mosul were severely defeated in 979. The promotion of trade and agriculture also resulted in a strong economic upswing. In order to eliminate competition for the seaports of Basra and Siraf , the Suhar trade center in Oman was even destroyed by a Buyid fleet in 965 .

Since there was no strong head of the dynasty after Adud ad-Daula's death, power struggles ensued and the Buyids were split up again. This weakness was used by the Kakuyids and caused the Ghaznavids to advance to Djibal in 1029, whereby the Buyid line of Rey came to an end. The lines in Kirman and Iraq were overthrown by the Seljuks in 1048 and 1055, respectively , who now also took over the patronage of the caliphs in Baghdad. In 1062, Fadluya, the leader of the Shabankara Kurds , finally eliminated the last sidelines of the Buyids in Fars.

The importance of the Buyids lies primarily in the fact that they strongly promoted Persian culture during their rule and also favored the spread of Shiite Islam in Iran. By viewing themselves as descendants of ancient Iranian kings, the Buyids strengthened the Iranian element in Islam.

See also: List of Buyiden rulers

family tree

Imad ad-Daula Abu l-Hasan Ali
Rukn ad-Daula Abu l-Hasan Ali
Muizz ad-Daula Abu l-Husain Ahmad
Fachr ad-Daula Abu l-Hasan Ali
Adud ad-Daula Abu Shuja Fana Chusrau
Muayyid ad-Daula Abu Mansur Buya
Izz ad-Daula Bachtiyar
Shams ad-Daula Abu Tahir Fulan
Majd ad-Daula Abu Talib Rustam
Sharaf ad-Daula Abu l-Fawaris Schirzil
Marzuban Samsam ad-Daula
Baha ad-Daula Abu Nasr Firuz
Sama ad-Daula Abu l-Hasan Fulan
Qawam ad-Daula Abu l-Fawaris
Sultan al-Daula Abu Shuja
Muscharrif ad-Daula Abu Ali
Imad al-Din Abu Kalijar
Abu Tahir Jalal ad-Daula
Abu Mansur Fulad Sutun
al-Malik ar-Rahim Abu Nasr Chusrau Firuz


Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Wolfgang Felix, Wilferd Madelung: Deylamites . Pp. 342-347. Retrieved November 28, 2016. The most successful actors in the Deylamite expansion were the Buyids. The ancestor of the house, Abū Šojāʿ Būya, was a fisherman from Līāhej, the later region of Lāhījān.