Cricket (English [ ˈkɹɪkɪt ]; in Germany officially cricket , in the beginning also "Thorball") is a batball game with two teams . Everything revolves around the duel between the thrower ( bowler ) and the batsman ( batsman ) . The bowler tries to get the batsman to make a mistake so that he is eliminated, the batsman in turn tries to hit the ball away to score points ( runs ) . The bowler is assisted by the other field players who try to bring the ball back as quickly as possible.
An early form of cricket, played by shepherds and farmers, can be traced back to the 13th century. There is written evidence of a game called creag dating from 1300 in Kent and played by Prince Edward .
In 1598, a court case reported that a sport called Kreckett was practiced at a school in Guildford . This is also the first valid evidence of the word cricket in the English language , according to the Oxford English Dictionary .
During the 17th century, Creckett became increasingly popular, especially in south-east England. Towards the end of this century it became an organized sport (which is believed to have produced the first professionals in the field), as there is evidence that in 1697 a great cricket match with 11 players per team was held in Sussex .
Organization and further development
In the 18th century, essential parts of the game were developed and cricket became the national sport in England. Noble and wealthy merchants began to set up their own teams (select XIs) . Venues in London were already provided on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury in 1707 , until the legendary Lord's Cricket Ground was finally opened in 1787 . The Marylebone Cricket Club , founded in the same year , quickly became the top address in this sport and is still the guardian of the Laws of Cricket (cricket rules).
In the 19th century, the forearm throw that had been used until then was first replaced by the round throw (a throw at the level of the pelvis) and finally in 1864 by the upper arm throw , which is still a typical distinguishing feature of cricket . In 1877 the first test cricket match was held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between Australia and England. At the national level, cricket has been professionally operated in league operations since then.
Like croquet and pelota , cricket was also a sport at the Olympic Games in Paris in 1900 . The duration of the Olympic cricket match was only two days, the winner was Great Britain, which is still allowed to carry this title today.
Development into a global sport
While the international sport was mainly played in England, Australia and South Africa at the end of the 19th century, with the independence of the British colonies it also became relevant in the Caribbean and South Asia. At the end of the 1970s, the sport was modernized, which further established cricket in the media and commercially. Until then, games generally lasted several days, but shorter forms were established with one-day games and at the beginning of the 2000s with Twenty20 games. Since their introduction, there have also been world championships in these two forms ( Cricket World Cup , ICC T20 World Cup ), which have established themselves as today's core of the international game in addition to the traditional tours between teams.
There are eleven players from the field team and two players from the batting team on the oval playing field. In the middle of the playing field there is a strip ( pitch ) approx. 20 m long and 3 m wide, at the narrow ends of which there is a wooden construction, the so-called wicket . The goal of the field team is to use their bowler to destroy the opponent's wicket with the ball. To prevent this, a batsman from the batting team stands in front of each of the wickets and fends off the ball with a bat. The bowler runs from the opposite end of the pitch and throws ( bowls ) the ball in a predetermined throwing technique in the direction of the batsman. If the batsman misses the ball and the ball destroys the wicket, the batsman is eliminated, just as if he hits the ball and it is then caught directly from the air by a member of the field team. In this case, a new batsman for the batting team comes onto the field and takes his place. If the batsman succeeds in a hit, he runs to the other side of the pitch and swaps places with his partner. For every successful change of sides, the batting team receives one point ( run ). If the batsman succeeds in getting the ball to roll over the edge of the field, there are 4 runs. If he even succeeds in getting the ball off the field of play without touching the ground beforehand, there are 6 runs.
A game is divided into two or four game sections ( innings ), in which each team is alternately a batting or field team for an innings. The innings is again divided into subsections ( over ) of six regular throws by the bowler, in which the bowler always starts and bowls from one end of the pitch. When all the balls in the over have been thrown, another bowler follows from the other side of the pitch and completes his over from there. The innings ends when ten players are eliminated from the batting team or when a predetermined number of overs has been completed. The two teams then swap their duties and complete their innings as batting or field teams. After all innings have been completed, the team with the most runs wins.
The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) in London is recognized as the supreme authority of cricket rules , although international cricket is carried out under the leadership of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The MCC publishes the Laws of Cricket , which define the course of the game in 42 rules.
Players and officials
A cricket team consists of eleven players. The use of substitutes and runners for injured players is also possible to a very limited extent, but there are no tactical substitutions. During a game of cricket, the players take on different roles depending on the game situation.
- Each player on a batting team must appear once as a batsman and score runs for his team.
- When the other team is on the bat, the bowlers try to knock out the opposing batsmen. Bowlers tend to be specialized, and very good bowlers will be forgiven if they don't do particularly well as a batsman.
- The wicket keeper stands behind the batsman, the striker , and tries to catch the balls “thrown” by the bowler. Wicket keepers are usually highly specialized and each team has only one wicket keeper . He is also the only outfield player on the field who wears gloves.
- The players of the field team who have no special task try as fielder to get the ball struck by the batsman back into the center of the field as quickly as possible or even to catch it.
- According to the rules of cricket, there are two referees, but also more referees, called “ umpires ” for important games . It is considered unsportsmanlike to criticize a referee's decision or start discussions with him.
- The two scorers enter the runs achieved and other game data in the official game report ("scorecard").
Cricket is played on a large oval space, the outer boundary (boundary) is, for example, labeled by a rope. In the middle of the playing field is a specially groomed strip, 20.12 meters (22 yards) long and 3.05 meters (10 feet) wide - the so-called pitch . At the two ends of this pitch there are three stumps , on which two smaller cross sticks (bails) lie loosely . These two arrangements of bars are called wickets .
The cricket ball is traditionally dark red and has a core made of cork that is tightly wrapped with string. The cover consists of four pieces of leather that are connected by a slightly raised seam. The ball weighs 155.9–163 g (5½–5¾ ounces) and is 22.4–22.9 cm (8 13/16–9 inches; Ø≈7.2 cm) in circumference. The balls in the youth and women's area are a bit lighter and smaller.
The bowler's throwing technique is largely prescribed by the rules. As soon as it has reached shoulder height, the limb must no longer be extended, which in practice almost always means that the arm is and remains fully extended at this point. Otherwise the throw will be invalid, see No Ball . This technique is called bowling , so in cricket the terms throw and bowl are strictly differentiated.
Another specialty is the fact that the ball is bowled so that it hits the ground before the striker. The rules do not prescribe this, but they prohibit the ball from reaching the batsman volley above waist height. The term full toss is used for volley in cricket . Although the ball loses a lot of speed when it hits, it makes it difficult for the batsman to hit the ball. There are basically two techniques used to distinguish bowling by bowlers:
- In spin bowling , the ball is set in rotation and changes its trajectory after it hits the ground.
- In fast bowling , the ball is given a high speed in order to cause problems for the batsman. Highly specialized fast bowlers can accelerate the match ball to over 160 km / h.
The striker has two goals. For one thing, he is defending his wicket, i.e. i.e., it prevents it from being hit by the bowled ball. On the other hand, whenever possible, he will try to hit the ball away so that he has enough time to run over to the other wicket. His partner, the non-striker, who is at the other end of the pitch next to the wicket there so that the bowler of the field team has space to bowl, must then also run to the opposite end of the pitch. The decision of whether or not to run is left to the batsmen.
If one of the batsmen does not come behind the popping crease at the end of the pitch before the field team has thrown the ball onto the corresponding wicket and thereby destroyed it - d. This means that at least one of the small, transverse bails has fallen - this batsman is eliminated (see 1. under elimination of the batsman below). But if the batsmen succeed in changing sides, this is called a single and counts one point (run) . If there is enough time, the batsmen can run back and forth as often as they want and get a corresponding score. In practice, this change of place rarely happens more than three times. If the striker hits the ball high over the edge of the field, there are six runs. The referee then extends both arms upwards. If the ball hits the ground beforehand, there are only four runs. In this case, the referee makes a wave-like motion from side to side with one arm.
Elimination of the batsman (wickets)
The goal of the field team is to throw the opposing batsmen out of the game as quickly as possible. Each batsman plays until he is eliminated and is then replaced by the next batsman who has not had his turn in that innings (playthrough). As soon as ten of the eleven batsmen are eliminated (one speaks of all out), this innings is over. The right to strike changes or the game is over.
The departure of a batsman is also known as a wicket , regardless of whether the actual wicket was involved or not. Such a wicket can be done in a total of ten different ways. The most important are:
- If the field team hits the wicket with the ball while one of the batsmen is still on the move between the wickets (actually between the hitting lines) (run out) .
- When the bowler hits the wicket with his ball past the striker and at least one bail falls down (bowled) .
- When the striker hits the ball and a member of the field team catches the ball before the ball hits the ground for the first time ( caught ). If the wicket-keeper catches the ball, it is called caught behind , and if the bowler himself catches the ball it is called caught and bowled .
- If the ball misses the striker but is stopped by his body, but the referee deems the ball to have hit the wicket, it can be passed from the striker. Eliminations of this kind are referred to as leg before wicket or LBW for short and are often very controversial.
- If the striker steps in front of his striking line and the ball comes through to the wicket keeper behind him, and the wicket keeper then alone destroys the striker's wicket with the ball before it gets behind his line again and without the striker scoring a point (run ) has sought. This is called stumped .
If the bowler succeeds in a wicket with three successive throws, one speaks of a hat trick .
The so-called extras are distinguished from the regular runs. These are awarded in the event of rule violations or irregular strokes. There are five different types:
- A no ball is based on a rule violation by the field team, for example if the bowler crosses his throwing line while bowling.
- Wides are balls that are bowled so far past the batsman that he cannot make a normal stroke.
- If the batsman misses the ball and the wicket keeper does not stop it, it is called a bye .
- If the batsman only touches the ball with his body instead of the bat, this is called leg-bye .
- In the event of gross unsportsmanlike conduct, penalties will be awarded.
Both no balls and wides automatically count a point (run) for the batting team and the striker is immune to a number of types of elimination with such a ball. In both cases, the bowler must also repeat the ball. Penalties are given in blocks of five runs.
All of the above points are not credited to the batsman, but are noted in the respective category under Extras .
The result of a game of cricket is either a victory for one of the two teams ( win ), a draw ( tie ) or a draw ( draw ).
A team wins if they have scored more points than their opponent after they have completed their innings. A victory awarded by the referee because the opposing team refuses to play, a victory by surrendering the opponent or a victory by penalties is also possible .
The game will end in a tie when all innings have been completed and both teams have equal scores. This result is very rare.
In all other cases - that is, as a rule after a time lapse without completion of all innings - the game is counted as a draw.
Forms of competition
Cricket is generally divided into national and international cricket, in which three different styles of play dominate today. At the international level, the three forms are mostly completed in the form of tours between two teams and tournaments with several teams. At the national level there are leagues and tournaments in all three forms.
Test cricket and first-class cricket
A test or test cricket is a special form of an international cricket game that is traditionally considered the highest form of sport. With this type of game, the game is played on up to five days - in three two-hour game sections each day. Tests, in turn, are usually embedded in a series of two to six tests, so that the respective duels can drag on for several weeks. The authorization to carry out tests is limited to only a few, currently 12, national teams.
Tests are a special form of first-class cricket, which is mainly played on a national level. The games between professional teams mostly take place in a league and last three to four days. Here, too, two innings per team are played with the same schedule as in test cricket. Most famous is the English County Championship , which has been held since 1890.
One-Day International and List-A Cricket
Due to the needs of television in particular , a shorter and more dramatic format has been introduced since the 1960s, One-Day Cricket , and since the 1970s on an international level as One-Day Internationals . This new type of cricket enjoyed fast growing popularity, although it was initially largely rejected by traditionalists. In contrast to first-class cricket, an innings is not only completed when all batsmen are "out", but after a fixed number of overs , usually 50 overs. As soon as either of these two criteria is met, the innings is over. For this reason, this type of game is also often called limited-overs cricket . There are also other rule changes compared to first-class cricket.
As with test cricket , one-day internationals are usually held as part of a series (tour) (three to seven games) or even in the form of a three-nation tournament. Every four years, a world championship (Cricket World Cup or Women's Cricket World Cup for women) is held in one-day mode . A Champions Trophy is held in the four years between the World Cups .
The equivalent at national level or games by less established national teams is known as List A Cricket.
At the beginning of the 2000s, attempts were made to make the game more attractive for modern media. Twenty20 cricket established itself , in which the game sections are shortened to 20 overs each and a maximum playing time of 75 minutes per innings is set.
A world championship for men and women will also be held in this format ( ICC T20 World Cup ). The international cricket association ICC also hopes to participate in the Olympic Games again in the future with this format .
The Twenty20 format has established itself in particular as a form of play for national professional leagues, such as the Indian Premier League , in which international teams play a tournament within a short period of time, which is often followed by large numbers of spectators.
A cricketer needs a jersey, often a sweater and long trousers as well. The shoes are white and usually have a special profile, shoes for bowlers even have spikes. White clothing is mandatory for test matches; in one-day cricket is, at least in the pros, today almost always played in colorful kits, formerly often called "Pajama Cricket" ridiculed.
Each batsman has a bat and wears protective equipment. The most important piece of protective clothing are the pads that protect his legs from the ball that hits it with a very high force.
In addition, the batsman should wear a helmet and gloves, as well as a so-called box , a jockstrap to protect the so-called gentleman's region . Some players also wear protection for their arms or even a chest protector under their shirt.
In the field team, only the wicket keeper , who always stands behind the batsman and his wicket , wears special equipment. Like the batsman, he also has (mostly smaller) leg protection (wicket keeping pads) and he is the only player on the field team who is allowed to wear wicket keeping gloves .
The two referees usually wear a white or cream-colored shirt and jacket and black trousers.
So far, no national team from the German-speaking area has qualified for a world championship.
Cricket in Germany
In Germany, cricket is officially organized by the German Cricket Association. V. , which is organized through various regional associations. In terms of performance, Germany is currently in 42nd place on the world cricket rankings and is the largest national association in Europe outside of the British Isles.
The origin of cricket in Germany was in Berlin at the time. Since 1873 at the latest, men from England and the USA have played this sport there. In 1888 Germania 88 , later Viktoria 89 , Union 92 , Britannia 1892 and Helgoland began regular gaming operations. For many decades, Viktoria dominated the sport in 1889 and won numerous championships (21 times for men / the last time in 1959). Similar to the rules in football, Viktoria was allowed to wear four stars on her jersey for championships in 1889. The 1st German women's championship - played for the first time in 2006 - was won by the Viktoria women with a win against the Schwerin BBCCC e. V. won. After winning the championship, the team switched completely to another club ( Reinickendorfer Füchse ).
Match operations in Germany are organized in a multi-track Bundesliga and regional leagues below.
Cricket in Switzerland
Cricket is officially represented in Switzerland by Cricket Switzerland . The association, founded in 1980, currently has 20 associated member clubs and an association of referees. From 1985 to 2012 Cricket Switzerland was a member of the International Cricket Council as an affiliated member . However, due to the establishment of a competing association, this membership was suspended until the association is recognized as the official cricket umbrella association through membership of Swiss Olympic .
Cricket Switzerland organizes a 20-over championship each summer, which is played in an eastern and western group plus finals. There is also a Twenty20 tournament with the Mr Pickwick T20 Cricket Cup. International tournaments in Switzerland take place in February with the Cricket on Ice in St. Moritz and in summer with the “International Cricket Festival” in Zuoz .
Cricket in Austria
Englishmen who lived in Vienna founded the Vienna Cricket and Football Club as early as 1892 . Today cricket is represented in Austria by the Austrian Cricket Association (ÖCV-ACA) in the International Cricket Council, which was founded on September 4th 1981. An Open League and a Twenty20 league have been held in Austria since the early 1990s , in which a cricket club from Slovenia also takes part.
There are currently three cricket grounds in Austria that meet international standards. Home international matches of the Austrian national team usually take place in Seebarn near Vienna. In Vienna-Donaustadt , the center of young talent is located in the Austria Cricket Stadium with the Austrian Cricket Academy. The third cricket ground is in Carinthia near Velden am Wörthersee near Latschach an der Drau .
Cricket in society and the media
Cricket is a major sport in many of the Commonwealth of Nations. This is reflected in the media attention, but also in the political and cultural reflection. An example of this is cricket diplomacy , where the status of this sport in the states of India and Pakistan was used to achieve diplomatic progress. Today there are twelve associations that are recognized as full members of the International Cricket Council and in whose countries cricket receives a high level of attention, as it is the national teams of these associations that take part in the most important competitions in the sport and maintain professional leagues.
Social discussions about cricket flare up again and again when it comes to major events that have dominated (sports) reporting in numerous countries for a long time. These discussions often lead to changes in the game and its rules.
Bodyline Series (1932/1933)
The Ashes Tour 1932/33 in Australia between the hosts and England is referred to as the Bodyline Series . The English team's bowlers played specifically on the body of the Australian batsmen in order to break the dominance of Donald Bradman, who was outstanding at the time. The Australian side evaluated this strategy as a deliberate attempt to injure the Australian players and claimed unsportsmanlike conduct. Since the English side did not understand this and the media excitement was great, there was a brief diplomatic crisis between the two countries. The cricket rules were subsequently adapted so that this form of game is no longer possible.
Underarm incident (1981)
The most shameful moment in cricket history is the so-called underarm incident ("underarm" stands for a throw in which the hand is below the hip) in a one-day international between Australia and New Zealand on February 1, 1981 in Melbourne. The New Zealand batsmen were six points behind Australia on the last ball of the game and could have tied with a large boundary. To prevent this, the Australian bowler Trevor Chapell, on the instructions of his brother and captain Greg, rolled the ball on the ground to the New Zealand batsman, making it impossible for him to hit it high and high in the air.
Although this technique of bowling existed in the late 19th century, it was unusual for a long time at the time of the incident, even if it was not prohibited by the rules. This was seen by the media and fans as very unsporting behavior and a gross violation of "the spirit of the game". Australia was declared the winner of the game, which resulted in longstanding conflicts with the New Zealand cricket team.
Ball tampering (2001/02)
During the tour of India in South Africa 2001/02 the Indian player Sachin Tendulkar was accused of ball manipulation by umpire Mike Denness in the second test . This led to accusations of racism from the Indian media against the referee and ensured the immediate termination of the official tour to prevent Denness from being used in the final test. The consequence of this development was a reform and the professionalization of refereeing in international cricket. Tendulkar was ultimately acquitted.
Abandoned game (2006)
The first abandonment of an international cricket game in the long history of the sport caused hostility between Australia and Pakistan. The incident took place on August 20, 2006 in London in the match between England and Pakistan . After Australian referee Darrell Hair ruled that Pakistan had manipulated the ball, the Pakistani team refused to re-enter the field after a break. The game was then rated for England. There were then accusations of racism against the Australian from South Asia, while Hair was celebrated as a hero in Australia.
Assassination attempt on the Sri Lankan team (2009)
On March 3, 2009, the Sri Lankan cricket team was attacked in Pakistan . Armed men fired rocket launchers and machine guns at the crew's bus in Lahore - at least seven people died afterwards, including a. six players and a coach were injured. The scheduled international series was then canceled. Since then, the Pakistani team had played their home games in the United Arab Emirates. For the first time since 2009, a final of a national championship with international players was played again in Pakistan in 2017 with the Pakistan Super League 2016/17 .
Spot Fixing Scandal (2010)
On the third day of the fourth test of the Pakistani Tour in England in 2010 , press reports came out that Pakistani players were involved in betting fraud and throwing large amounts of money in predetermined overs no balls. When this was confirmed, the involved players Mohammad Asif , Mohammad Amir and Captain Salman Butt were sentenced to prison terms and banned for many years.
Ball tampering (2018)
During the third test of the Tour of Australia in South Africa 2018 , the Australian player Cameron Bancroft was convicted of ball manipulation with television cameras . When it came out that this manipulation had been discussed with the management team of his team and initiated by them, captains Steve Smith and David Warner had to resign, and coach Darren Lehmann resigned.
Anecdotal and cricket expressions
- Cricket is probably the only sport in which it official lunch and tea breaks ( lunch and tea there). The lunch break lasts 40 minutes and the tea break 20 minutes.
- If the score shows exactly 111 runs, one speaks of a 'Nelson', 222 - double Nelson , 333 - triple Nelson
- Tim Rice made a monument to his favorite sport in the musical cricket (with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber ).
- If a batsman drops out without being able to score a single point (run), one speaks of “out for a duck” , that is, he has caught a duck. Separating the batsman from the first ball, then one speaks of a Golden Duck ( "Golden Duck"). By a diamond duck , platinum duck or royal duck is when the batsman from the first ball of an innings out is. In the case of television broadcasts, a duck sometimes appears waddling across the screen and the zero in the statistics is replaced by a duck. The expression probably comes from the fact that the 0 that appears after the name of the player in question in the game report was called duck's egg because of the similarity in shape .
- If a bowler succeeds in preventing the opposing batsmen from making a run with a stroke during an overs (six balls), and if he has not caused a no ball or wide , he has performed a "maiden" (virgin). This is accordingly noted in its official statistics. Without the intention of a double entender it is then: “He bowled a maiden over.” An over in which a wicket falls and no run is otherwise scored is called a wicket maiden .
- One hundred or more runs by a batsman is called a Century (Century) or a ton (tonne). 50 to 99 are referred to as half-century.
- A hat trick is also possible in cricket , but only for bowlers. It is just as rarely achieved as in football. You have to throw three opposing batsmen out of the game with three consecutive balls.
- Test cricket is arguably the only sport in which television commentators occasionally talk for minutes on completely irrelevant topics during a live broadcast. The teams of commentators mostly come from the two countries of the competition participants and report for both countries at the same time (see Test Match Special ).
- A commentary by sports commentator Jonathan Agnew was voted Best Sports Commentary of All Time by BBC Radio 5 Live listeners . Batsman Ian Botham fell over the stumps in a test match and removed the bails, resulting in an automatic out . Agnew's comment on Liveradio: "He just didn't quite get his leg over". Getting one's leg over is a vulgar term for sex in England.
Cricket in literature
- The key scene in the crime novel Murder Must Advertise by Dorothy L. Sayers consists of a detailed description of a cricket game in which both the murderer and the undercover detective are recognized by their playing technique.
- In Douglas Adams ' novel Life, the Universe and Everything from the The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series, the meaning of the game for its followers is satirized by a galactic confrontation, which is characterized by typical features of cricket. One of the locations is the planet Krikkit.
- In the gambling in New York novel Netherland by Joseph O'Neill , the passion of the protagonist and his West-Indian friend for cricket is a key issue.
- In the crime novel Asche zu Asche (English. Playing for the ashes ) by Elizabeth George , the plot revolves around a cricketer who is murdered in a country house in Kent.
- CLR James ' best-known book , Beyond a boundary from 1963, is personal memories and commentary on a study of cricket.
- In the London-set novel Five Days, A Game by Jennie Walker , a televised cricket broadcast is the timeframe of the narrative.
- In his drama The Only True , Tom Stoppard or his main character Henry compares a play with a cricket bat: Just as the bat helps a ball to fly big with a small blow, the play does it with an idea of the author.
- In his autobiography "Ich und ich", Sir Peter Ustinov - who involuntarily had to play cricket when he was at school - describes the game as "a remnant of a battle long past, with a ball that was far too hard, invented by an officer with a perverse intellect after he was in a break in the fighting had observed some rascals throwing duds at each other ".
Cricket in the movie
- The successful Bollywood film Lagaan (2001) is about a cynical bet between the British colonial rulers and the inhabitants of an Indian village completely impoverished by lack of rain, who receive three years of lease and tax exemption (Hindi Lagaan ) if they win in the unknown game , in the event of their defeat they also have to pay three times the tax, d. i.e., face their ruin. The villagers get involved in the game. The course of the game, which takes up the last forty minutes of the three-and-a-half-hour film, is hard to beat in terms of drama and is a great advertisement for the sport, which is little known in large parts of the world.
- In episode 5 ( The Last Man ) of the third season of the crime series Father Brown , a game of cricket takes up a lot of space. The winner of the annual game between a village and a neighboring estate can use the cricket field for the next year - after the tenth win in a row, even forever. The captain and the best player die before the game. Therefore, even the wife of the local landowner has to act as batsman.
- The British crime comedy A Lady Disappears (1938) features two cricket fans, played by Basil Radford and Naunton Wayne , who are not dissuaded from their only interest, namely cricket.
- International Cricket Council (English)
- German Cricket Federation
- Austrian Cricket Association
- Swiss Cricket Association (English)
- Official Cricket Rules (English)
- Cricinfo - Comprehensive and up-to-date information page (English)
- Word list of the official German spelling from 2016
- Spelling Cricket
- ICC considering T20 for Olympics ( English ) The Hindu. January 15, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
- Martin Williamson: A brief history ... Bodyline ( English ) Cricinfo. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Underarm incident - New Zealand cricket ( English ) NZ History. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Martin Williamson: Underhand, underarm ( English ) Cricinfo. January 29, 2011. Accessed March 30, 2018.
- Peter Robinson: Tendulkar appears before match referee ( English ) Cricinfo. November 19, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Peter Robinson: South Africa and India to go ahead with unofficial Test without Denness ( English ) Cricinfo. November 22, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Subba Row joins umpiring reform team ( English ) BBC. March 26, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Tendulkar not guilty of ball-tampering, say ICC ( English ) Guardian. November 29, 2001. Retrieved July 30, 2017.
- As the chaos unfolded ( English ) Cricinfo. August 20, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- Andrew McGlashan: Test forfeited after ball tampering chaos ( English ) Cricinfo. August 20, 2006. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- Gunmen remain at large after Pakistan attack on Sri Lankan cricket team , The Guardian, UK
- Al-Qaeda leader behind Islamabad hotel bomb 'killed by US drone' , The Guardian, UK, March 26, 2017
- Clinical Zalmi beat Gladiators, lift PSL trophy , thenews.com.pk, March 5, 2017
- Richard Sydenham: Butt gets 2 years 6 months in jail, Asif gets 1 year, Amir six months ( English ) Cricinfo. November 3, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Umar Farooq: Amir, Asif, Butt free to play all cricket from September 2 ( English ) Cricinfo. August 19, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- Australian ball-tampering: Steve Smith and David Warner banned for 12 months ( English ) BBC. March 28, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- Andrew Culf: 'He just could not get his leg over' ( English ) Guardian. August 20, 2005. Retrieved March 30, 2018.
- Sir Peter Untinov , "Me and I", ECON, ISBN 3-430-19276-5