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Ambiguity: Crimes committed by the police or the general public, Limburg station forecourt , December 2004

It speaks of an ambiguity or an ambiguity (from Latin ambo 'both'; ambiguus 'ambiguous', 'ambiguous', 'ambiguous'), more rarely also an amphibolia (from ancient Greek ἀμφιβολία 'doubt', 'ambiguity', 'double sense ') man, when a sign has multiple meanings . If there are only two meanings, one also speaks of ambiguity or ambiguity . The ambiguity also includes some innuendos , including frivolity or lewdness .

Ambiguity is a characteristic of signs, especially linguistic signs. It arises when a sign can be interpreted in different ways. A picture puzzle, for example, is ambiguous if it can be interpreted as at least two different images. Linguistic signs of different complexity can be ambiguous: part of a word (like the prefix in Shallow ), word, phrase, phrase, sentence, utterance.

Linguistic ambiguity

The ambiguity of linguistic signs can be a deficiency that needs to be avoided or corrected. This applies, for example, to legal texts, academic papers or the use of formal languages .

But it can also be a wanted effect and as such a style element . This applies, for example, to lyric texts, to satirical texts and to certain psychological interventions. Many jokes , puns and humorous expressions are based on ambiguous expressions, often with sexually suggestive connotations . The laugh arises when recognizing the ambiguity.

One of the most difficult problems with automatic natural language processing is resolving the ambiguity of linguistic characters upon interpretation. People can do this easily - just like the distinction between wanted and unwanted ambiguity. Language processing programs often fail because of this.

Intentionally ambiguous texts and utterances (poetry, jokes, psychotherapeutic interventions) often cannot be translated adequately if the words or sentence constructions are not ambiguous in the target language or have different secondary meanings than in the source language.

Ambiguity of Lexical Characters

Some of the ambiguities of lexical signs are based on polysemy : By differentiating the use of a linguistic expression, several meanings or readings emerge, e.g. B. Mold (horse or fungus). It is said that this expression is polysemous.

With the ambiguity of words, a polysemy is distinguished from a random ambiguity, the homonymy .

The syntax or semantics is required to resolve the lexical ambiguity. Some lexical ambiguities can only be resolved with the addition of pragmatics.

  • "In 1916 Maurice Ravel fell ill with dysentery." (Ambiguity of the lexical symbol dysentery )

Since dysentery describes both a disease and a river, the following possibilities are conceivable:

  1. Ravel suffered from a diarrheal disease called dysentery.
  2. Ravel fell ill with an unspecified ailment; this happened on the river Ruhr.

Here, however, the correct meaning will be clarified by the historical context, as Ravel was on the front in 1916 , which was far from the Ruhr. For this example, the lexical ambiguity Ruhr is resolved by means of pragmatics.

A common case of lexical ambiguity is process-result-ambiguity (also called act-object ambiguity ), in which a single noun can mean an action (as a noun actionis ) as well as the result of the action (as a noun acti ). So many words ending -ung . The word decision can mean, for example, [1] the process of making a decision or also [2] the result of making a decision, the decided. - Even where there is a separate word for one of the two meanings, this is used for the other : The word questioning often stands for question, goal setting often stands for goal.

“This madness of the German language, having so many terms that describe both the act and the result of the act, causes so much confusion on the one hand and generates speculative systems such as German idealism or profound reflections on the other of the late Wittgenstein `About certainty´."

- Norbert Meder

This subheading includes sentences with words that can have opposite meanings:

  • "Condition" ( presuppose or result in ),
  • "Basically" ( always or usually, so not always),
  • "Sanction" ( approve or punish , see also legal terminology # deviations from standard language ),
  • "Overlooked" ( having a complete view or not noticing ),
  • Shallow ” ( shallow place for seafarers , otherwise mostly great depth ).

Only in writing (not spoken) does this also apply to the following sentence:

  • "The car will drive around the obstacle."

Here is the opposite of the phonological ambiguity of the lexical sign circumnavigated , namely depending on the accent

  1. on the first syllable: The car does not evade and drives around the obstacle.
  2. on the second syllable: The car evades and drives around the obstacle.

Syntactic ambiguity of complex characters

Complex linguistic signs are syntactically ambiguous if more than one syntactic interpretation can be assigned to them. But the examples here before the first subsection should mostly become clear as soon as they are in a complete sentence.

The heading Ice Princess Enchanted allows the following interpretations:

  • a) the ice princess enchants other people, for example the audience;
  • b) it is the ice princess who was bewitched by another person. This ambiguity can not be resolved without further contextual information, which can be given in the following text, for example.

People can usually easily deduce from the meanings of the content which of the possibilities is meant (conclusion from the semantics to the syntax). Language processing programs often fail because of this task. For more complex sentences, the syntactic analysis often provides several hundred analyzes. Most of them are highly unlikely but are covered by the underlying grammar .

A syntactic ambiguity also results from the form " nominalization + reference + noun ".

  • Feeling the hand ... (the person's feeling for his hand or the feeling that the hand feels)
  • The smell of the dog ... (also The smell of the dog ... )
  • Celebrating the team ...
  • Driving the car ...

Alternatively, the construction "noun in the plural + verb in the infinitive" goes:

  • hunt wild animals (do hunters here hunt wild animals or do wild animals hunt their prey?)
  • Gluing posters (sticking poster stickers to poster pillars or sticking posters to the pillar using the power of poster stickers?)
  • Airplanes fly , ships sail , cars drive

Specifically German are compound nouns, the first sometimes being in the plural and the second being a nominalized verb. It remains unclear whether the verb is used actively or passively.

  • The pawn sacrifice (is the pawn sacrificed or does he make a sacrifice?)
  • The fall of the wall (is the wall falling or something or someone falling off the wall?)
  • The lintel (falls a window or something or someone falls out of a window?)
  • The leapfrog (does someone jump over the buck or does the buck itself jump?)

The same word in different parts of speech

  • "Alleys are not dangerous - lawns are dangerous" ( green space or fast driving ?)
  • Is that safe enough? ( Is the amount definitely enough? Or Is there no possibility of an accident? )
  • "But Honecker's lines [...] give an insight into the world of judgment in which the long first man in the GDR [...] had established himself." ("Long": adverb long or adjective physically large? )

The same word in different cases

  • "Mr Blatter let Mr Platini pay several million Swiss francs."
    (If the object "Mr Platini" is in the dative, he has received, if it is in the accusative, he has paid.)

The most common case is the ambiguous relation of the verb to subject and object: subject, predicate, object or object, predicate, subject? Who who?

  • "How many Germans can Swiss universities take?"
  • "Did you influence Hans-Dietrich Genscher and his role in German unification ?"
  • "In NATO, which after the fall of the Berlin Wall had not classified Russia as a threat for many years, Putin's approach was carefully analyzed." (Relative pronouns in the 1st or 4th case?)
  • The discoveries that the inventions bring about ...

Different summary makes different sense

The German language is not associative .

  • “The good man thinks of
    himself last.”
    (Schiller, Wilhelm Tell : only last of himself or even last [only] of himself ?)
  • “Debate on juvenile delinquency in the Bundestag. Hamburg's Justice Senator defends himself! "
    ( Juvenile delinquency in the Bundestag or debate in the Bundestag ?)
  • "[...] the new Minister of Science [...] has to force tough structural reforms from the 14 universities of Saxony, for which there should be no job cuts and planning security until 2025 if successful."
    (Planning security or none?)
  • Girls trafficking school ( girls trafficking ?)
  • Farmer's liver sausage ( farmer's liver ?)

Ambiguity through excessive brevity

  • “In the city center of his adopted home Troisdorf there is an original boat from which Rupert Neudeck rescued Vietnamese refugees from drowning in 1982.
    Refugees in 1982 or 1982 ?)
  • "Although he already failed because of one basic requirement, namely to submit the 6,000 declarations of support required for the candidacy - if he had been able to present them, his nomination would certainly have been rejected by the electoral authority on the basis of the 'Habsburg Laws' that have been in force since 1919."
    ( This should mean "but if he had been able to present it, then his nomination would be ...",
    but it is also possible: "but he would have been able to present her if his nomination [...] had been rejected".)
  • "Turkey [...] was attempted to be captured in the autumn: visa exemption, renewed momentum for the accession process and three billion euros against stricter border controls."
    (Billions to prevent strict controls or in return?)

Ambiguities due to the 1996 reform of German spelling

  • Many people are not afraid of being loved.
    (You can now leave out the clarifying comma before or after "not".)
  • They ordered us to kill. (Comma in front of or behind "us"?)

Semantic ambiguity of complex characters

Some complex signs can be assigned multiple meanings.

  • A miss is a woman who fortunately lacks a husband.
    ("Fortunately" is ambiguous: "fortunately" or "to be happy")
  • Passengers get annoyed excessively.
    ( about a new fee or more than is due ?)

The difference in meaning can correspond to the ambiguity of individual lexical signs:

  • Every man loves a woman.
  1. Every man loves at least one woman. (Common understanding of the above sentence by mathematicians)
  2. Every man loves exactly one woman. (Special case of the previous case)
  3. All men love the same woman. (Special case of the previous case)
  4. There is exactly one woman and all men love her. (Special case of the previous case)

Pictorial meaning alongside literal meaning

  • One surgeon to another: "I do very well with my patients."
    ( I am popular or I cut away a lot )
  • " UNHCR hangs Roma and Sinti"
    ( lets them down or hangs them up )
  • Anyone who crawls too deep into the bum of others shouldn't be surprised if they hang out on their necks.
    (Figurative meaning: those who serve are easily annoying.)
  • What is the difference between plasticine and coal? Coal is needed for the chimney to smoke, but modeling clay can be used.
    ( Dough and coal are colloquially for money , and the chimney smokes when you have what you need to live.)

and some proverbs:

  • "No fox steals close to his burrow."
    (No clever person steals near his apartment; those who cheat, do so elsewhere.)

Ambiguities due to the spelling reforms from July 1996

The opposite of phonetic ambiguity arises through newly approved, optional hyphenation (some of which were previously considered obsolete) : some sentences become ambiguous in writing and are only spoken - through stress - unambiguous. The possible meanings are no longer differentiated by the spelling. This may be slightly more convenient for the writer, but it makes reading more difficult. Whoever reads out must first deduce the meaning from the context and then determine the accentuation. “Someone has to struggle, the writer or the reader,” says Wolf Schneider . In practice, this difficulty is exacerbated by the fact that, after a look at the Duden , laypeople misunderstand the spelling as synonymous and equivalent, or even the separate spelling as the only valid one.

  • A handful pour tea leaves with boiling water.
    (Who would like to hold out their hand for this? - "A handful" as an approximate amount is emphasized on hand . "A handful" meaning hand with content has roughly the same tone on hand and full. )
  • He is a promising young politician.
    (In the past, one only wrote “very promising” for arousing hope , while “very promising” was only used for making many promises - since the “Reform of the Reform” it has been written together again with this meaning.)
  • “The financial situation of the long-term unemployed should be improved. [...] self occupied property should not be longer counted. "
    ( Used Same or Even ?)
  • “But no matter what we did. We always made it up. ”
    (Was the joke skillful? Probably also; what was meant was rather“ damage made good ”.)
  • He broke the radio.
    (Did he break it [damaged by fiddling, ad-hoc compound as needed] or got it in a defective state? )
  • Hello boss! - The so-called general left the room snorting.
    (If it is not a real general, or is he upset because he so , namely "Chefchen" called was?)
  • This should be known to everyone.
    (Is it "well known", that is, well known, or "probably known" to all?)
  • Pirates are rare here in this country.
    (In the state or on dry land?)

The reform has even retrospectively made perfect texts of extremely careful authors ambiguous:

  • “He [the essay] does not solve this [preliminary question] either; he is looking, as it were, [...] in order to learn to correct it [...]. "(not correct the meaning of the verb at that time )

Further ambiguities result from the abolition of previous spellings and the introduction of capitalization of some non-nouns:

  • Schiller's famous poem was officially changed to: "The gray cats camped out".
    (Schiller means the horrible [= horrible] cats, not the grayish [gray-colored] cats. The word with “eu” is officially banned, but is still used by the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, for example. It is considered a mistake in school dictates. )
  • In general we made progress, but we still have to work on the details.
    (Have we progressed in general [adverbial], or have we progressed with general ? The first variant is written in lower case, since it is not a substantiated adjective. Lower case is officially forbidden, but is used by the Swiss Orthographic Conference [SOK ] recommended.)
  • We have almost sorted the pile, but there is still food to be found.
    (Is the way [adverbial] something to find, or is in the remainder unreformed anything else? The first variant is written in lower case because it is not a nominalized adjective. The Sensitivity in adverbial usage is officially banned, but the SOK recommended.)
  • Shall I see him next?
    (Is he next in line of people to be looked at, or should I see him as “my neighbor” in the New Testament sense? Unreformed, this is easily distinguishable, since “next” is written in lower case as the order.)

Phonological ambiguity - and its opposite

Phonological ambiguity ( homophony ) is when words or word sequences sound the same orally pronounced. Examples:

  • Safety valve / safety heating valve
  • Fruit bar / fertile
  • In the jungle you can see wild crickets. / In the jungle you can see wild people grilling.
  • The caught flea. / The captured flea / The prisoner [named] Flo (short for Florian)

Phonological ambiguities do not only exist in standard language:

In each of the following examples, the ambiguity also depends on a different interpretation of the syntactic structure.

  • Better arm your arm than arm off. ( Arm on or arm on )
  • Have you ever seen DEAD FLIES? ( dead flies or dead flies )
  • Men stood on the slopes and PIS (S) TEN.

Conversely , some examples in this article are ambiguous only when written; whoever reads aloud has to choose a meaning. This can be due to different stress points, for example:

  • You should drive around the police officer and not drive around it.
  • He has dear comrades in Havana. / He enjoyed love in Havana.

Area ambiguity: ambiguous references

Area ambiguity (scope ambiguity) is used when one cannot infer from the linguistic context which area a word or phrase refers to.


  • You can drink water, you can also leave it.
    (You can water can or drink can stay.)
  • Old monk rule: When your eyes see a woman, knock her down.
    (The word “she” relates syntactically to the subject of the sentence, ie “the eyes”, but after the usual emphasis on “the woman”; then the sentence is an atypical hypallage . The syntactic ambiguity is only possible because the word "She" can semantically denote a feminine in the singular or plural.)
  • "China has the most people executed"
    ( most people in the country or more people than other governments have executed ?)
  • "France wonders whether Hollande could not have known anything about his budget minister's black money"
    (Was it impossible that he knew something, or was it possible that he knew nothing?)
  • Draw a picture of yourself, naked.
    (The draftsman should be naked when drawing or the draftsman should be drawn naked on the drawing.)
  • Consider yourself a child.
  • Peter drove his friend home drunk.
  • I hit the neighbour's son with the gun.

Orthographic ambiguity

The Halstenbeck street name “Im Höschen” (pantyhose) ( IPA : [ˈhœʃn̩]) can also be read as “Hös-chen” ( IPA : [ˈhøːsçən]).

Some letter sequences can be understood as different words. Without a spoken equivalent and without the context of a sentence, it is unclear what is meant:


  • Guardroom: the room of a guard or a tube in which wax is kept; using the long s - ſ - makes the word unique;
  • Yellow burn: yellow edge or burn of a gel;
  • Tone recognition: the identification of a toner or the recognition of tones;
  • Laughter: multiple puddles or a human utterance such as laughter ;
  • Printed matter: printed matter or certificate for a printer.
  • en masse: moderate or en masse, only in Switzerland; when using the Eszett - ß - the word becomes clear;
  • Served in moderation (only in Bavaria: moderately or in beer mugs?)

Such ambiguities are sometimes used for puzzles.

Pragmatic ambiguity

An utterance that is syntactically and semantically unambiguous can be assigned several meanings in one speech act. The utterance "This is cold here" can be combined with the following speech acts:

  • Observation: The speaker says something about the relative temperature at the location.
  • Request: The speaker wants a listener to close a window, turn on the heating, etc.
  • Complain about a situation that is perceived as negative but cannot be changed.

Ambiguities of this kind are in the speech act considered, especially in the four-page model by Friedemann Schulz von Thun , after which each statement has four aspects:

  • Factual side: statement about exact facts, free of evaluations;
  • Self-disclosure: statement about a subjective interpretation of the statement regarding the person making the statement;
  • Relationship side: statement regarding the conversation partner and the relationship to him;
  • Appeal: request.

The four sides based on the example above:

  • Factual side: the person making the statement perceives the temperature as cool.
  • Self-revelation: "I am sensitive."
  • Relationship side: "You don't even see that I'm freezing!"
  • Appeal: "Please turn the heating up a little."


Related topics are covered in the following articles:

Ambiguity through vagueness

Expressions can be quantitatively indefinite, say soon, a few. - While the polysemy is resolved when an utterance is interpreted by the addressee, this is not always the case with quantitative vagueness.

Some words are vague with a spectrum of similar meanings, such as “going out” in the phrase “I assume that ...”: Whoever chooses this leaves open whether he is afraid, asserts, thinks, has gained the impression, recommends, asks , expects or acts in anticipation, ascertains, deduces (concludes), anticipates, anticipates, acts as if, hopes, anticipates, estimates, relies on, implies, suspects, relies on, presupposes, is likely holds - or similar.

Pseudo-ambiguity: wrong intermediate sense

During the analysis of a sentence, several possibilities of interpretation open up, but these are reduced to one at the end of the sentence, see the wrong-way effect . Wolf Schneider speaks of a false in-between sense. Such dead ends lead listeners and readers astray and should be avoided unless they are part of a language game. (In English they are called garden path sentences. )

One meaning is intended, another is there

This section is an encore; the sentences are not ambiguous in the strict sense. Italics are intended to facilitate understanding.

  • "A member of parliament may only be held accountable or arrested for an act threatened with punishment, unless he is arrested during the commission of the act or in the course of the following day ."
    (Article 46 paragraph 2 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany : May not a member of parliament be arrested on the evening of the day ?)
  • Headline in 2012: “Nobody should die of malaria by 2015”; Beginning of the text: "Every minute in Africa a child dies of malaria."
    ( What is meant is: by 2015 it should be achieved that no one dies of malaria afterwards.)
    Likewise in March 2017: "By 2030, according to the goal of the Greens, no one should Cars with internal combustion engines are rolling off the assembly line. "
  • “Here you can let your dog run free. All other paths and areas may only be entered with dogs on a short leash . ”
    (Sign on the dog meadow in the Rheinaue Bonn for the Federal Horticultural Show 1979: Can you enter the Rheinaue without a dog?)
  • "He died of poisoned figs, which he particularly liked to eat."
    (A hypall situation : He liked to eat figs, of course none that were poisoned.)

Narrative (literary) ambiguity

In her dissertation, The Concept of Ambiguity, the Example of James (1977), Shlomith Rimmon defines ambiguity as the conjunction of exclusive disjunctions - to put it more simply: the juxtaposition of possibilities that exclude each other. She differentiates between verbal and narrative ambiguity. When a linguistic expression has different meanings that are mutually exclusive, it speaks of verbal ambiguity . The narrative ambiguity is at a higher level. The process of reading, Rimmon said, involves collecting data and building hypotheses . If more than one hypothesis emerges while reading and these are mutually exclusive, then it is a case of narrative ambiguity . In her analysis of narratives such as The Figure in the Carpet or The Turn of the Screw , Rimmon works out how James laid out the tracks for two equivalent, contradicting reading modes (is there the pattern in the carpet or the key in the work? Are there ghosts or does it not exist?).

A vivid analogy to literary ambiguity are picture puzzles like the Necker cube : pictures that contain more than one perspective , but which cannot be viewed simultaneously, but only alternately.

Ambiguity in the sense of a coexistence of antinomies is the core of Thomas Mann's conception of art. On October 13, 1953, he wrote in his diary: "Cheerful ambiguity basically my element." His cheerful irony tolerates conflict and reconciles the either / or to a both / and . This acceptance meant for him objectivity: "Irony is always irony on both sides" .

Ambiguity in social and psychological situations

Social situations can also be ambiguous or ambiguous (see conflict ). It is difficult to plan or implement behavior in such situations, as everyone involved can interpret the situation differently. However, one can learn to act as appropriately as possible in ambivalent situations (improvement of the ability to act ).

Conflict situations can be more or less complex; H. also: The level of difficulty can be different. How to act in ambiguous situations has to be learned. The ambiguity arises from incentives that have opposite (contradicting) effects. The individual is then often not in a position to interpret or evaluate incentives in such a way that a meaningful and beneficial action results for the individual. The immature or unprofessional way to act is to flee the situation, for example to run away from (or every) conflict. The competent course of action would therefore be to reflect on the conditions of the situation and to deal with the conflict.

In order to adequately resolve such situations, it must first have been perceived and assessed as precisely as possible (cognitive aspect). Those affected have to be able to endure such situations even if they claim to find a satisfactory solution (emotional or affective aspect). Escape behavior z. B. would not be an appropriate solution. Furthermore, one expects a certain level of competence in order to be able to cope with a situation (action aspect). Untrained participants tend to behave in ways that do not do justice to the situation.

People who have to deal with social situations professionally ( educator , teacher , counselor , trainer, etc.) can be recommended to develop appropriate skills ( training , further education ) that enable them to design social situations in such a way that they are all involved become successful. This usually means: designing social situations in order to set in motion or maintain socially relevant learning processes. The regulation of ambivalent group processes requires a competence that can be learned, e.g. B. is active in groups accordingly and reflectively.

Ambiguous formulations can help with certain psychological interventions . Here is an example of trance induction with two range ambiguities:

  • "... how soon will you fully realize that you are sitting comfortably here, hear the sound of my voice (,) and go into a deep trance, just as quickly as your subconscious wants." (Range ambiguities: What does "fully recognize ? "And what" just so fast ... "?)


  • Matthias Bauer, Joachim Knape, Peter Koch, Susanne Winkler: Dimensions of Ambiguity. In: LiLi Journal for Literary Studies and Linguistics of the University of Siegen No. 158, Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar (2010), pp. 7–75 (with detailed references), ISSN  0049-8653 .
  • Volker Harm: Introduction to Lexicology. WBG, Darmstadt 2015 (Introduction to German Studies), ISBN 978-3-534-26384-4 , pp. 46–64.
  • René Ziegler: Ambiguity and Ambivalence in Psychology. Understanding and usage of terms. In: LiLi, Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 158 (2010), pp. 125–171, ISSN  0049-8653 .

Web links

Commons : Ambiguity  - collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Ambiguity  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Ambiguity  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Learning to live with ambiguity, December 30, 2019
  2. Duden “Newsletter” from November 7, 2016
  3. Jonas Pfister: Tools of Philosophizing. Stuttgart, Reclam 2013 (Reclams Universal Library No. 19138), ISBN 978-3-15-019138-5 , p. 208.
  4. Norbert Meder: The philosophical concept of knowledge and its "processing" . In: Wille, Rudolf (Ed.): Conceptual knowledge processing: basic questions and tasks. BI-Wiss.-Verl .: Mannheim [u. a.], 1994, p. 27 (32)
  5. ^ Warning sign on country roads in the state of Brandenburg; there is “rasen” illegal with a lowercase  r so that the statement is clear.
  6. Ulrich Lüke, General-Anzeiger (Bonn), February 16, 2012, p. 4.
  7. Simplified here; not even the exchange of “Herr” and “Herr” clarifies the case; The original reads as follows: "Because Blatter Platini paid several million Swiss francs a few years ago, both have now been suspended." Source: Die Welt, according to a press review on Westdeutscher Rundfunk , WDR 5 on October 9, 2015 at 5:40 am.
  8. Top line in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ) of January 22, 2008, page 33
  9. Question according to Focus 51/2009 page 21 to Philipp Rösler , born 1973: Did he help determine world politics as early as 1989–1990?
  10. Nikolas Busse in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of March 28, 2015, p. 10.
  11. Subtitle in the FAZ from January 17, 2008, impaled by Professor Eugen N. Miller ( Memento of the original from June 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Ulyanovsk on the Volga, Russia. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  12. Stefan Locke in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of November 14, 2014, p. 1.
  13. General-Anzeiger (Bonn) , December 31, 2015, Review 2015, page 6, author's abbreviation “wok”.
  14. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, June 18, 2011, p. 6.
  15. Detlef Drewes in the General-Anzeiger (Bonn), December 31, 2015, review 2015 p. 7.
  16. Found in the Psychosocial Umschau
  17. ^ The daily newspaper (taz), headline on November 13, 1990.
  18. Quoted from Ursula Kals in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of October 23, 2004 p. 53.
  19. Found in the German language world
  20. General-Anzeiger (Bonn) of October 15, 2009 p. 1.
  21. ^ "The last boys of the Friedrich-Ebert-Schule", Berliner Morgenpost, March 5, 2016
  22. Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker : The unity of nature (Section I, 4; page 84). Munich 1971 (5th edition 1979): Carl Hanser Verlag, ISBN 3-446-11386-X .
  23. Headline in the General-Anzeiger (Bonn) on March 24, 2009.
  24. Michaela Wiegel in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of April 4, 2013, page 2, subtitle.
  25. ^ Wolf Schneider : German for professionals. Hamburg 1987 (3rd edition): Gruner + Jahr AG & Co., ISBN 3-442-11536-1 , p. 100.
  26. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, April 25, 2012, p. 7.
  27. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 11, 2017, page 22, author abbreviation "rike"
  28. ^ Poster with pictures of all popes with short biographies, German version (the Italian version is ok), around 1987, Verlag Memmo Caporilli, Rome, about Benedict XI. , died 1304
  29. Considerations of a non-political (1918), p. 592.