Limburg on the Lahn
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||to water|
|Height :||116 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||45.15 km 2|
|Residents:||35,514 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||787 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||06431, 06433|
|License plate :||LM, WEL|
|Community key :||06 5 33 009|
|LOCODE :||DE LML|
|City structure:||8 districts|
City administration address :
65549 Limburg a. d. Lahn
|Mayor :||Marius Hahn ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Limburg an der Lahn in the Limburg-Weilburg district|
According to Hessian state planning, the city of Limburg fulfills the function of a medium-sized center with an upper-central sub-function and, together with the neighboring Rhineland-Palatinate city of Diez, forms a cross-border dual center with around 45,000 inhabitants. Due to its location, Limburg has a central function for the sparsely populated western part of Hesse as well as for parts of the Westerwaldkreis and the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The city is known nationwide mainly for the diocese of the same name with its cathedral church, the late Romanesque cathedral St. Georg , and the Limburg Süd train station on the high-speed route Cologne-Rhine / Main .
The city is relatively centrally located in a basin within the Rhenish Slate Mountains , which is surrounded by the low mountain range of the Taunus and Westerwald and is called the Limburg Basin . Thanks to its fertile soil and its favorable climate, the Limburg Basin forms one of the most productive agricultural landscapes in Hesse and, as a crossing over the Lahn, has been of great geographical importance for transport since the Middle Ages. Within the basin, the otherwise narrow Untertal of the Lahn has some clear widening, so that the mean altitude of Limburg is only 117 meters.
A section of the Staffel district is located as an exclave west of the city area. The Hessian municipality of Elz and the Rhineland-Palatinate municipality of Gückingen lie between the exclave and the main boundary of Limburg .
The settlement area of the city of Limburg extends beyond the city limits. The city of Diez in neighboring Rhineland-Palatinate is seamlessly connected to Limburg.
Surrounding cities and municipalities are the municipality of Elz and the city of Hadamar in the north, the municipality of Beselich in the northeast, the city of Runkel in the east, the municipalities of Villmar and Brechen in the southeast, the municipality of Hünstelden in the south (all in the Limburg-Weilburg district ), the The municipality of Holzheim in the southwest and the town of Diez and the municipalities of Aull and Gückingen in the west (all in the Rhein-Lahn district in Rhineland-Palatinate).
Limburg is located in the weather region of Central Hesse and thus in a moderate climate zone in the middle latitudes. Different small climatic conditions result from the valley courses and different terrain heights. On the hills to the south and north of the Lahn valley, it rains exactly the average value at 800 millimeters.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Limburg a. d. Lahn
Source: Climate data Limburg a. d. Lahn
In addition to the core city, the city consists of the seven formerly independent municipalities that were incorporated in the course of the Hessian regional reform . On October 1, 1971, the Dietkirchen community was incorporated. On December 31, 1971, Ahlbach and Lindenholzhausen were added. Eschhofen, Linter, Offheim and Staffel followed on July 1, 1974 by state law. At the same time the official name was changed to "Limburg (Lahn)". The districts (according to HGO : local districts ) by population:
In the address, for example, locals and companies often mention Blumenrod as another district, but this is only a settlement area in the south of the core city. The name of the settlement area that was created in 1967 and today's landmark is the domain of Blumenrod , a former farm estate that was renovated and rebuilt by the Free Evangelical Community of Limburg ( see also: Burgstall Blumenrod ). The same applies to the bridge suburb on the other side of the Lahn town center, which was mentioned under the name Keuch in 1564 and which burned down almost completely in 1795 after the French troops marched in. The newest settlement area has been the ICE city of Limburg since 2002 .
Further subdivisions of the core city into settlement areas are the Frankfurter Vorstadt , the Diezer Vorstadt and the Nordstadt with its own community center. The inner and old town of Limburg are also part of the demarcated settlement areas within the core city, but have only an informal character in the urban structure.
The origin of the name Limburg is not fully understood. It probably goes back to a castle founded there in Merovingian times. In the year 910 the place was mentioned for the first time under the name Lintpurc. Two of the most common theses are:
- The name was chosen because of its proximity to the Linterer Bach, which has now dried up ( Linda is the Gallic word for water), which flowed into the Lahn at the cathedral rock.
- Rather unlikely, but very popular is the connection with a dragon saga (see Lindwurm ) and the connection with the monastery of St. George , the "dragon slayer" founded in Limburg , as the monastery was only mentioned after the castle was built and together with the first written mention Limburg was born.
Early and early times
In 2012, archaeological excavations uncovered significant traces of what is now the area of the newly built Lahntal motorway bridge. On the one hand, a hamlet-like settlement from the Neolithic Age was discovered . The found fragments of pots date from around 5000 BC. BC and are thus the oldest traces of settlement in the Limburg area that have been discovered to date. On the other hand, two Roman military camps from the time of Emperor Augustus were uncovered on an area totaling 14 hectares , which were not expected at this point due to the great distance to the Limes . Comparable traces remained partly undiscovered during excavations in 1935 for the construction of the Reichsautobahn and were destroyed (see Limburg Roman Camp ).
Earlier finds on the Limburg Domberg suggest that it was built around 500 BC. A Celtic settlement carried. Its center was on today's cathedral square.
Around 760, the first Merovingian fortifications were built on what would later become Toompea. It was probably built to monitor a ford on the Lahn. At this point in time, this transition was likely to have primarily taken up traffic on the Hohen Strasse between the areas around Mainz and Frankfurt in the south and the iron processing area near Siegen, which ran from Limburg over the Lange Meil . Crossings in the direction of the Rhine were probably further west in Diez and Staffel at this time. A settlement was built under the protection of the castle, from which the town later developed.
10th to 13th centuries
The name "Limburg" appears for the first time in a document in 910 and does not describe a settlement, but a topographical feature, namely a mountain (mons) known as "Lintpurc": Ludwig the child left a farm in Oberbruch with accessories to the count Konrad Kurzbold and land for cultivation. With this property, Konrad was able to equip the canonical monastery of St. Georg, which he founded in his castle on the limestone rock above the Lahn and, according to the document, is still to be built (there are no remains of this castle today). The certificate issued about it is now in the main state archive in Wiesbaden . The construction of the collegiate church, today's Limburg Cathedral, probably began shortly after the certificate was issued. With the foundation of the monastery, the place quickly gained in importance and benefited from the brisk transfer of goods on the Höhenstraße ( Via Publica ). With the monastery and the bailiwick rights that remained in the family, the Konradines had created a considerable power base in Limburg.
In 940, at the request of Kurzbold and Bishop Diethard von Hildesheim , the monastery received another donation mentioned in a document, this time from King Otto I. The latter gave him the property previously owned by the nobleman Eberhard from Niederzeuzheim in order to increase the maintenance of the clergy. The certificate was issued in Quedlinburg . Shortly afterwards Otto I. took the Limburg Abbey and its possessions under his protection. As a result, anyone who dared to attack the pen had to fear royal reprisals. He also decreed that after Kurzbold's death, the Limburg monastery could never be given as a fief or transferred. These and similar legal acts led to the fact that the monastery, and with it Limburg, was probably no longer legally and politically part of the Niederlahngau as early as the 10th, but no later than the beginning of the 12th century .
In the second half of the 10th century, the Konradines lost the dignity of counts in Niederlahngau to the Diez family , which had probably only recently come to the region, but remained in Limburg as bailiffs. The Diez expanded their new seat immediately next door to become a center of power. In the 11th century, Emperor Konrad II transferred the “Hof zu Kamp” (today Kamp-Bornhofen ) to the St. Georg monastery in addition to vineyards . By the beginning of the 12th century at the latest, the Georgsstift possessed a district that extended far beyond the city , in which its bailiffs were responsible for enforcing the law and thus exercising power. Limburg thus became the center of territorial rule .
In the 11th century, the city expanded from the monastery and castle district of around 1.8 hectares to the west, down the castle hill, and in the early 12th century it was enclosed with a city wall. This ran roughly along the southern edge of what would later become the Erbacher Hof , on the eastern side of what would later become Rosengasse, south of today's Böhmergasse and east of today's Kolpinggasse back up to the castle. The city wall enclosed around 11 hectares, including the castle district.
In 1160, a wooden bridge was built as part of the trunk road from Cologne to Frankfurt am Main over the Lahn, and customs had to be paid for crossing it from 1227 at the latest until the First World War. In the entire history of the city it was one of the most important sources of income for the city. The priest Gottfried von Beselich has been handed down as the builder . At the end of the 12th century the first buildings of today's Limburg Castle were erected. Probably in 1219 the Burg- and Stiftsvogtei and with it the rule over the city Limburg and the surrounding area passed to the lords of Ysenburg . This was preceded by a rather complex and today no longer clearly comprehensible process, which ranged from the Conradins to the houses of Gleiberg-Luxemburg , Peilstein and Leiningen to the Isenburgern. The Isenburg family received a third of the fief from the Reich, the Archdiocese of Mainz and the Landgraviate of Hesse. In the decades that followed, the new masters tried to restrict the rights of Limburg citizens and thus strengthen their exercise of power in the city. Against this, resistance arose among the citizens of the settlement, which had meanwhile become large and economically important and recognized as a city. The local branch of the Ysenburgs, which resided at the castle from 1258 to 1406 at the latest, subsequently became known as the Limburg House . Imagina von Isenburg-Limburg , the wife of the German King Adolf von Nassau, came from this line .
A coinage in Limburg is guaranteed for 1180. In 1214 the town received city rights from King Friedrich II of the Staufer . The city belonged to the Frankfurt city rights family. In the event of disputes between the city lord and the citizenry or in the event of a disagreement between the city jury, the Oberhof Frankfurt was called upon as an arbitration body. A contract between the city and the lords of the Isenburg castle dates back to 1279. In it, the gentlemen were forbidden to rule on the free townspeople, but this was expressly confirmed for the towns of Elz, Brechen and Werschau belonging to the monastery. They were also expressly granted the right to defend and fortify the city.
The Franciscan Order was established in Limburg as early as 1232 and from 1252 had its own wooden church on the Limburg Roßmarkt, which was consecrated to St. Lawrence and replaced by today's town church at the beginning of the 14th century . The St. George Cathedral , built on the site of the old collegiate church , the start of construction of which can no longer be precisely dated, was consecrated in 1235.
Beguines can be found in Limburg from 1246 onwards. They were probably mostly women from the citizenry. At the invitation of Gerlach I († 1298), the Wilhelmitenkloster Limburg was initially founded on the Lahninsel.
On May 14, 1289, a devastating city fire destroyed large parts of Limburg's inner city, but they were immediately rebuilt. One of the built houses is the Römer 2-4-6 , today probably the oldest free-standing building in Limburg.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, the city grew by two suburbs. One was located, probably in connection with the settlement of the Franciscans, in the area of today's Roßmarkt, south of the castle and housed mainly simple craftsmen, probably also because of the damp and thus unfavorable building site. At this church, the Laurentius-Kirchhof, the largest civil cemetery in the city, developed in the following centuries. The other suburb extended further west in an arch in front of the city wall from the east of today's Kornmarkt over Plötze and cul-de-sac to Löhrgasse.
14th and 15th centuries
For the first time a scholaster is recorded at the Georgsstift for 1304 . A later source locates the house of the collegiate school between today's cathedral and the Michael's chapel. A smaller Latin school is said to have been housed in it next to the collegiate school. A girls 'school did not exist on the nuns' wall before 1484.
In 1317 the Wilhelmitenkloster was relocated to the suburbs at Diezer Tor due to the constant risk of flooding. Furthermore, the Premonstratensian monastery Arnstein and the Cistercian monastery Eberbach ( Erbacher Hof ) maintained representative town courts . By 1341 at the latest, the Beguines had their own house, and they were mentioned for the last time in 1417. The two suburbs on Rossmarkt and southwest of Burgberg were included in the fortification when the second wall was built in 1225–1230 (today Grabenstrasse). By the middle of the 14th century, three more suburbs had formed: on the right of the Lahn the bridge suburb, which is still called today, the Frankfurt suburb on Hammertor and a settlement roughly in the area of today's Neumarkt. Shortly before 1450, this and other areas in front of the wall were enclosed by a moat with brick gates and towers. This wall stretched far in front of the actual city wall and ran roughly along the current road of the Schiede. Compared to the merchant elite, the residents of the suburbs were not given a say in urban affairs and were initially not allowed to send representatives to the city council, but had to bear the main financial burden of the community. It was not until 1458 that they were allowed to send two representatives to the council. At that time, the castle hill was built on with the courtyards of noble families in addition to the actual castle and the monastery, including the ancillary buildings belonging to it.
In 1315 and 1346 the stone bridge over the Lahn was built , presumably in two sections . The bridge suburb, originally called Neustadt, emerged at the latest with the construction of the stone Lahn Bridge. The first major construction project was the old hospital with the hospital church (before 1310). The Cistercian monastery Marienstatt had to buy four existing houses from 1340 to furnish its city courtyard. Before 1359, the bridge suburb was protected by a wall with a moat. With the Keucher Gate , the Dietkircher Gate and the Hanen Gate, it had three gates. A similar system, the Schiedegraben , was built in 1343/44 to protect the suburbs on the left bank of the Lahn.
In 1336, Emperor Ludwig IV the Bavarian confirmed to the Lords of Limburg that they owned chamber servitude over the city Jews. Just a year later, the Jews were expelled from the city. Only in 1341 were they allowed to resettle in the city again on royal orders. The settlement met with resistance from the population and was short-lived. As early as 1349 there were pogroms again and the Jews were expelled from the city. In the course of this expulsion, the mikveh and the Jewish festival house near the Eberbacher Hof were moved in and sold to the monastery. In the second half of the 14th century, Jews settled in the city again, but these were now limited to the ghetto on Kornmarkt. The first synagogue mentioned and a new mikveh were also built here.
In 1344 half of the city was pledged to Kurtrier . This process documents the gradual decline of the House of Limburg. At this time, this was also due to the Limburg citizenship. The renewed city fire in 1342 (which was not as extensive as the first) and the plague (1349, 1356 and 1365), but above all the rise of the territorial princes, also weakened the noble house. In this context, the city became increasingly embroiled in local feuds. In 1359 she participated in the conquest of Villmar by Kurtrier, and in 1360 in the destruction of Gretenstein Castle . In October 1372 a Limburg army destroyed Ellar , which had only received city rights two years earlier. The reason given was the stay of the robbers Crae and Busse in the city. At the endeavors of the Counts von Katzenelnbogen, the city of Limburg was sentenced by the Supreme Court to pay compensation of 2000 marks. However, since Limburg was only subject to the jurisdiction of the city of Frankfurt, this judgment was never enforced. In 1380 the Lords of Staffel attacked Limburg, and 20 houses in the bridge suburb are burned down by the Staffel. Probably shortly after 1399 the town hall was built on the fish market (today called the "historic town hall").
With the death of John II in 1406, the last male representative of the House of Limburg died. The Archbishop of Trier managed to take over the entire rule after half of the city and castle had already been pledged to him and in 1380 the imperial feudal rule over the city had passed to them. In 1420 it passed entirely to the Electorate of Trier.
After Kurtrier pledged half of Limburg to the knight Frank von Cronberg , who was unpopular with the citizens of Limburg as a co-ruler, unrest broke out. Cronberg then ceded the pledge to Landgrave Ludwig I of Hesse in 1435 . After further division of the property, from 1482 onwards it was only divided between the Landgraviate of Hesse and Kurtrier.
In the Middle Ages, wool weaving and cloth trading were the dominant industries in Limburg. In addition, viticulture appears to have been unusually intense for the region within the small town limits. However, a decline in the industry is recorded for 1600. During the Thirty Years' War, viticulture in the urban area seems to have been completely extinct.
16th to 19th century
In 1525, in the context of the German Peasants' War , there were also unrest among the Limburg population. After the Trier elector had demanded that the citizens expel a Lutheran preacher from the city, a committee of citizens who were not able to advise them presented the council with a 30-point list of demands on May 24th. It was primarily about financial co-determination and equal treatment in tax, trade and construction issues with the merchants. In the following days these demands were reduced to 16 points in negotiations between the committee and the council, which were then probably negotiated with the elector. On August 5, however, Archbishop Richard decreed that the council should revoke all concessions to the citizens. In addition, a meeting ban was issued and the citizens who were not able to advise should no longer be allowed to send their two representatives to the council.
The Reformation led to conflicts in the city. However, due to its affiliation with Kurtrier , the city remained Catholic . However, the city's monasteries were hit. The Wilhelmitenkloster was dissolved after the death of the last prior in 1568 and the Franciscan monastery was closed between 1577 and 1582.
During the Thirty Years' War Limburg was plundered and besieged by soldiers passing through in 1631 and 1635. Due to its convenient location, the city was part of the marching routes, which is why the soldiers preferred to billet with the population. Limburg was also not spared from the First Coalition War in the following century. During their retreat in 1796, the French forces tried to prevent the Austrian forces from crossing the Lahn during the so-called Battle of Limburg . They burned down parts of the city in a firefight.
In the 1760s there was a fundamental reform of the school system. The numerous angular schools were closed and, in addition to the two schools that had existed since the Middle Ages, the collegiate school for boys and the nuns' school for girls, two further schools were set up, both of which were financed from the city's hospital fund. This is how the hospital school for boys and the maiden school for girls in the hospital building were created. At the end of the 18th century, the two girls' schools were amalgamated, and the abbey school, which had already been decimated by the dissolution of the abbey in 1817, was added to the hospital school. The Latin school moved into the so-called “Aula” on Rossmarkt and later became an elementary school. In 1872 a new building for the girls' school was completed in Hospitalstrasse. At a later date, another elementary school was set up not far from the hospital school in Werner-Senger-Straße. Physical education took place in a hall on Rossmarkt in the 19th century.
In 1806 Limburg fell to the newly founded Duchy of Nassau , with which the 900-year-old monastery also became extinct and the collegiate church became a parish church. The Franciscan monastery ended in 1813. In 1818 the city wall was pulled down. In 1827, at the urging of Duke Wilhelm von Nassau , the city was elevated to the status of a Catholic bishopric , which gave the parish church the rank of cathedral. In 1830 the city wall was broken through at Kornmarkt and later completely dismantled. The freedom movement of 1848 meant that the Limburg Catholics made a pilgrimage to the pilgrimage chapel Maria Hilf Beselich for many decades and impressively proclaimed their faith there. From 1862 Limburg was the junction of important railway lines before the Duchy and thus Limburg fell to Prussia in 1866 as a result of the German War . From 1886 Limburg was designated the district town of the new Limburg district and the seat of the royal district administrator.
The city's voluntary fire brigade was founded on February 6, 1867 and selected the soap manufacturer Joseph Müller to be its commander. On June 2, 1873, the Limburg fire brigade was the organizer of the first association meeting of the fire brigade association for the Wiesbaden administrative region after its establishment.
The Pallottines first came to Germany in 1892 and settled in Limburg. The Pallottine Sisters followed in 1895. Because the Walderdorffer Hof became too small, the religious community acquired a site in 1896 on which they first built their mission house and in 1926/1927 the Marienkirche .
In 1900 the city administration moved into the new town hall in Werner-Senger-Straße.
20th century until today
Limburg was never a garrison town in the strict sense, but was the location of several military supply and administrative facilities. In 1889 a district command of the German Army was transferred from Weilburg to Limburg and remained there until 1918. Due to strong winds, on April 24, 1910, the airship LZ 5 had to make an emergency landing on the return flight from a parade in Bad Homburg, in honor of Kaiser Wilhelm II. , At Hofgut Blumenrod . The next morning it tore itself loose and flew unmanned towards Weilburg, where it crashed against a mountain. Derived from this event, the "Zeppelinstraße", which runs through the district of Blumenrod, which was created in 1967, from east to west, was given its name.
In 1904 the Werner Senger School was expanded considerably. In 1908 the primary school building on Rossmarkt was abandoned, the primary school there was relocated to the extension of the old grammar school under the name “Wilhelmitenschule” and in 1909 the first Limburg auxiliary school class was added. Half of the Werner Senger School building was destroyed in a bomb attack in early 1944.
After the First World War , Limburg was not occupied during the occupation of the Rhineland from 1919 to 1923. Because it was the next unoccupied city of the Weimar Republic , it became the “capital” and court seat of the Free State of Bottleneck .
Before city councilors and Limburg mayor Krüsmann bowed to the SA troops and resigned in 1933 , a year earlier Adolf Hitler gave a speech on Neumarkt - later Adolf-Hitler-Platz - as part of his “Germany flight”. In 1938 a military district command was established in the city, and shortly before the end of the war, the 13th SS railway construction brigade was relocated to Limburg in order to maintain "station operations".
Between 1941 and 1944, at the instigation of the Gestapo Frankfurt / Main, which from 1944 had a branch in the Erbacher Hof , twelve Limburg Pallottines were taken into protective custody in order to be able to appropriate the Pallottine property. They were first brought to Frankfurt and from there to the Dachau concentration camp , where two of them died. The final expulsion of the Pallottines from Limburg was prevented by the fact that the Limburg city pastor Heinrich Fendel, with the help of the cathedral chapter, church council and the Pallottines, established a parish vicarie in 1943 with St. Mary's Church as the center. Although the denomination was forced to leave the mission house and church a year later, it returned immediately after the end of World War II and has remained on its property to this day.
During the Second World War, Limburg was a target of air raids a total of eleven times, primarily because of the railway. The heaviest attack took place in the morning hours of March 25, 1945, with a total of 40 fatalities. The following day, the first American troops entered the city.
In 1966, the Bundeswehr's “Central Depot Group”, later Supply Command 850, moved from Mainz to Limburg. It served the material supply, especially the III. Corps , and was housed in the former Scheid factory. The supply command managed several depots with more than 3000 employees. In 1976, an equipment depot was moved from Lindenholzhausen to the headquarters of the supply command in Limburg. In 1994 the Limburg Bundeswehr branch was closed.
In the 1960s, several residential and commercial areas were designated, which allowed the core city to grow mainly to the north, northeast and south. The building boundaries remained largely unchanged to the east and west. In September 1988, the Limburg Voluntary Fire Brigade organized the 13th Hessian Fire Brigade Day with the participation of more than 10,000 firefighters.
In 2010 Limburg celebrated the 1100th anniversary of its first mention. To mark the occasion, a special postage stamp was issued at the beginning of January 2010 , the motif of which is a painting by George Clarkson Stanfield from 1862, showing the Old Lahn Bridge with the outer bridge tower and the cathedral from the northwest. The original is in the Rheinisches Landesmuseum Bonn .
Historical forms of names
In documents that have been preserved, Limburg was mentioned under the following place names (the year it was mentioned in brackets):
- Lintburk (910) (Struck, sources on the history of the monasteries 1, No. 1)
- Limburg (1062) (Struck, sources on the history of the monasteries 1, no.7)
- Limburc (1122) (Struck, sources on the history of the monasteries 1)
- Limpurg (1616) (copper engraved map of Nassau)
Territorial history and administration
The following list gives an overview of the territories in which Limburg an der Lahn was located and the administrative units to which it was subordinate:
- 910: Lahngau
- before 1803: Holy Roman Empire , Electorate Trier , Lower Archbishopric, Limburg Office
- from 1803: Holy Roman Empire, Principality of Nassau-Weilburg (through Reichsdeputationshauptschluss ), Limburg Office
- from 1806: Duchy of Nassau , Limburg Office
- from 1816: German Confederation , Duchy of Nassau, Limburg Office
- from 1849: German Confederation, Duchy of Nassau, Limburg District Office
- from 1854: German Confederation, Duchy of Nassau, Limburg Office
- from 1867: North German Confederation , Kingdom of Prussia , Province of Hessen-Nassau , Administrative Region of Wiesbaden , Unterlahnkreis
- from 1871: German Empire , Kingdom of Prussia, Province of Hessen-Nassau, administrative district of Wiesbaden, Unterlahnkreis
- from 1886: German Empire , Kingdom of Prussia, Province of Hesse-Nassau, District of Wiesbaden, District of Limburg
- from 1918: German Empire, Free State of Prussia , Province of Hesse-Nassau, District of Wiesbaden, District of Limburg
- from 1944: German Empire, Free State of Prussia, Nassau Province , Limburg District
- from 1945: American zone of occupation , Greater Hesse , Wiesbaden district, Limburg district
- from 1949: Federal Republic of Germany , State of Hesse , Wiesbaden district, Limburg district
- from 1968: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, administrative district Darmstadt , district Limburg
- from 1974: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, administrative district Darmstadt, district Limburg-Weilburg
- from 1981: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, Gießen district, Limburg-Weilburg district
Limburg was already a small town at the beginning of the 19th century . According to today's definition, the threshold was only exceeded with the incorporation, which caused the population to skyrocket. With the exception of the time of National Socialism and the end of the 1960s, it reached its highest level in 2005 after a steady increase with 33,977 inhabitants. Between 2005 and 2010 the population decreased slightly. This trend ended again in 2011 with an increase to 33,619 inhabitants in 2012.
Due to the demographic development, forecasts by the State Statistical Office in Hesse assume an increase in the population well above the 34,000 mark in the medium term. In particular, people over the age of 60 will move from the rural surroundings to the city.
The proportion of foreigners was 15.2 percent on December 31, 2015 (5,205 people).
The city is the seat of the Limburg diocese, which was founded in 1827. It still includes the area of the then Duchy of Nassau , the Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg and the city of Frankfurt am Main.
The two Protestant parishes of Limburg belong to the Runkel deanery in the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau . The congregation in Limburg was formed in the early 19th century and was a branch congregation of the Protestant church in Staffel . In 1831 the Duke of Nassau gave her the chapel in Erbach, which was inaugurated in December by Pastor Georg Ninck. Due to the steady growth of the Limburg community, a larger church was needed. This was consecrated on May 29, 1866 and is still near the Limburg regional train station today. It was not until 1879 that Limburg received the status of an independent Protestant community.
From 1973 to 1975 the church was rebuilt. Two false ceilings were drawn in to subdivide. The top third remained the church. In the middle third, the rooms of a neighboring parish hall were furnished. Today there is a youth leisure center on the ground floor.
The first Jews came to Limburg from France around 1190. A Jewish community is documented in 1278. In that year the bondage of the emperor changed to the master of Limburg Castle. The Jewish quarter was located between the Kornmarkt and today's Bischofsplatz and between Fleischgasse and today's Kolpingstrasse. It was partially separated from the rest of the city by a wall. A synagogue has been documented there since the first half of the 14th century. A dance house, a school and a bathhouse (remains in the basement of House Plötze 3 can still be seen) were also available. In the early 14th century, almost all Jews were expelled from the city in the wake of the Frankfurt "Jewish battles". The community initially recovered. When Limburg became an Electorate of Trier in 1420, the expulsion of the Jews began there, as in the entire archbishopric. Around 1450 the Jewish community was again wiped out. Occasionally Jews lived in Limburg in the following centuries, but a larger community no longer seems to have formed. A cellar at the fish market was used as a synagogue until the 18th century. When Ambrosio Spinola occupied Nassau territories around 1620, six more Jewish families fled to Limburg, but they were driven out again by the citizens by 1629.
Only after the Thirty Years War did a permanent Jewish community re-establish itself in Limburg. In 1725 a special order for Jews was issued. Six Jewish families are vouched for in 1754. In 1852 60 individuals of Jewish faith were registered, in 1910 there were 281. Some of the Jewish residents of Limburg in the 18th century must have been very wealthy, as two of them were the city's best taxpayers. A Jewish cemetery was created in the part of the city now known as "Schlenkert" and was used until 1820. Then the still existing cemetery on Schafsberg was established. The responsible rabbinate was in Diez. In 1868 the Jewish community bought the former chapel of the Eberbach monastery from the Protestant community and converted it into a synagogue. In 1903 the new synagogue in neo-Romanesque style on the Schiede was completed. The house of worship offered 201 men and 104 women and had a neighboring mikveh .
In 1932 there were 296 Jews in Limburg. With the onset of persecution in the Third Reich , their number quickly fell. In 1937 there were 154 Jewish residents, after the pogrom night of 1938 , in which the synagogue was destroyed, there were still 86. A bronze model that was erected in 2015 opposite the regional court commemorates the former synagogue. At the end of September 1939, eight older Jewish residents were still living in Limburg. Evidence has been given of emigration for around 80 Jewish Limburgers. Nothing is known about the fate of the rest. Most of them were believed to have been murdered. In 1945 only three Jewish Limburgers returned to their hometown. The poet and local historian Leo Sternberg , who converted to Catholicism in 1933 and is the most famous member of the city's Jewish community, died in exile in Yugoslavia in 1937.
Since 1998 there has been a Jewish community again in Limburg, which in 2009 had a membership of 200. The community consists entirely of Russian immigrants. In February 2009 the new synagogue in the Brückenvorstadt was inaugurated.
As in many other cities, so-called stumbling blocks were installed in Limburg from 2013 to spontaneously commemorate the Jewish victims of the National Socialists.
The Bait-ul-Ahad mosque of the Ahmadiyya-Muslim-Jamaat community was opened in May 2012 opposite the Limburg police station. A somewhat smaller mosque, the Fatih Mosque ("Conqueror Mosque") of the Islamic Community Millî Görüş (IGMG), named after Mehmed II , the conqueror of Christian Constantinople , is located on Eisenbahnstrasse and was founded in 1990. The Bilal-i Habesi mosque of the DITIB community has existed since 1980 and was set up as a temporary measure in a former sawmill until the foundation stone was laid in 2008. The new building in Blumenröder Strasse was opened on October 2, 2010 and is today the largest mosque in Limburg an der Lahn with a minaret about 18 meters high.
The local elections on March 6, 2016 produced the following results, compared to previous local elections:
||Parties and constituencies||%
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||42.8||19th||42.2||19th||52.6||23||49.6||22nd|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||33.0||15th||27.5||13||24.5||11||28.3||13|
|Green||Alliance 90 / The Greens||9.2||4th||15.5||7th||9.0||4th||6.2||3|
|FWG||Free voter community Limburg||-||-||5.2||2||5.9||3||10.7||5|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||10.2||5||4.7||2||4.3||2||1.5||1|
|BZL||Citizens' Association Future Limburg||-||-||4.1||2||3.7||2||3.7||1|
Marius Hahn (SPD) has been the city's mayor since December 2, 2015 . He succeeded Martin Richard (CDU), who was mayor from December 2, 1997 to December 1, 2015. In the mayoral election on June 14, 2015, Hahn, who was nominated by a voter initiative, prevailed against First City Councilor Michael Stanke (CDU) with 53.2 percent of the valid votes. The turnout was 41.6 percent.
List of mayors since 1833
- Marius Hahn (SPD), since December 2, 2015
- Martin Richard (CDU), December 2, 1997 to December 1, 2015
- Peter Arnold (SPD), December 2, 1991 to December 1, 1997
- Wolfgang Rüdiger (SPD), December 2, 1985 to December 1, 1991
- Josef Kohlmaier (independent, from 1973: CDU), April 1, 1965 to November 30, 1985
- Franz-Josef Ebbert (CDU), July 1, 1960 to December 31, 1964
- Joseph Schneider (CDU), March 27, 1945 to June 30, 1960
- Willi Hollenders (NSDAP), November 29, 1933 to March 26, 1945
- Friedrich Eichhorn (NSDAP), April 5, 1933 to November 29, 1933 (acting)
- Karl Kloke, July 27, 1923 to October 31, 1924 (provisional)
- Marcus Krüsmann , September 18, 1919 to April 5, 1933 (factual) / formally by October 20, 1933
- Philipp Haerten , August 4, 1907 to August 3, 1919
- Joseph Kauter, January 1, 1901 to June 29, 1907
- Andreas Schlitt, April 1, 1878 to December 31, 1900
- Joseph Menges, August 1, 1877 to December 8, 1877
- Christian Hartstein, 1833–1876
- Anton Busch
coat of arms
As early as 1200, the city had a seal, the image of which is no longer known today because it has not been preserved. A second, preserved seal with an image similar to today's coat of arms is documented for the year 1243. The coat of arms has been official since 1908.
|Blazon : “In blue, a silver castle with three tin towers; the central tower is covered with a blue shield, inside a double row of red and silver shingles, accompanied by seven horizontal shingles at the top and six at the bottom. "|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The coat of arms shows the wall ring of a castle with two outer towers and a central gate tower, on which the coat of arms of the Lords of Isenburg-Limburg is attached below the defense platform .|
- Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon , France - since 1967
- Oudenburg , Belgium - since 1972
- Lichfield , United Kingdom - since 1992
With the closing of the partnership between Limburg and Lichfield, a ring partnership was also concluded with Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, the twentieth anniversary of which was celebrated in Limburg in 2012. As a sign of solidarity with its twin cities, the city officially unveiled the coats of arms of the four twin cities paved in natural stone on Europaplatz that same year.
In 1956 the sponsorship for the expelled Sudeten Germans from the city of Mährisch Neustadt in the Sternberg district was taken over. In 1961 the city sponsored a submarine tender for the German Navy. Although the ship was named Lahn , it bore the coat of arms of the city of Limburg. ICE multiple units also bear the name Limburg an der Lahn .
Economy and Infrastructure
According to the IHK, Limburg is one of the urban centers of the Rhine-Main area and has had fluctuating commercial investments for many years. The retail sector is continuously well represented, which is a. in an above-average turnover, measured by the number of inhabitants. However, there is no dominant branch in Limburg, since in addition to branches of a few corporations, mostly medium-sized companies from a wide variety of branches are located. This is also characterized by the commercial areas that were designated in the 1960s and 1970s on the landmarks of individual districts. Today there are commercial settlements in almost all directions of the city.
As decision criteria for choosing the location Limburg, companies have always mentioned a. the central location and good transport links. Since the connection to the high-speed line Cologne – Rhine / Main of the Deutsche Bahn, Limburg has become increasingly interesting as a conference location for companies that are located near the metropolises of Cologne and Frankfurt am Main due to the faster accessibility . The strengthening of the service sector, in which over 18,000 people now work, was helped.
Despite a slight decrease in the number of working-age residents, the number of employees in Limburg increased significantly by 8.5 percent between 2000 and 2010, compared to the 0.5 percent increase in Hesse. This is linked to newly created jobs and a surplus of commuters . In 2012 the number of inbound commuters who were subject to social security contributions was 16,063 and the number of outbound commuters was 6401. The number of employees subject to social security contributions in the same year was 20,471. This means that 44 percent of the jobs in the Limburg-Weilburg district are in the city of Limburg.
Limburg is a traditional transport hub. There was a wooden Lahn bridge as early as 1248, which was replaced by a stone bridge ( Alte Lahnbrücke ) after the floods in 1306 . Other road bridges are the Lahntalbrücke Limburg (2016) on the A 3, the Lahnbrücke near Staffel and the Neue Lahnbrücke from 1968. On the Neue Lahnbrücke, the federal highways cross the Lahn before they pass under the station forecourt and the Eisenbahnstraße in the city center in the Schiedetunnel . The Via Publica already crossed the navigable Lahn here in the Middle Ages . Today the city crosses the A 3 and the B 8 , which largely follow the course of the Via Publica. The B 49 connects Limburg to the west with Koblenz and to the east with Wetzlar and Gießen. The section between the district border and Wetzlar is currently being expanded to four lanes. The section to Obertiefenbach is also known as the Long Meil . The B 54 connects Limburg to the north with Siegen on the one hand and leads south via Diez to Wiesbaden on the other. Wiesbaden can also be reached via the B 417 (Hühnerstraße) . A southern bypass of the B54 is planned, but not without controversy.
For years, Limburg has been one of Hesse's cities with the highest levels of air pollution. The HLNUG's 2014 annual report confirms that the city has the worst annual mean value for nitrogen dioxide measured in a city comparison. This fact is mainly attributed to the heavy through traffic on the federal highways, which is why the city has decided to take measures to fulfill an air pollution control plan of the Hessian Ministry of the Environment. An environmental zone has existed in Limburg since January 31, 2018 , which essentially includes the core city.
The city bus routes started operating at the end of 1959. Until the refurbishment of the Schiedetunnel in 2008 and the associated redesign of the station forecourt of the regional train station and the change in traffic management, the central bus station north (ZOB Nord) in Graupfortstrasse was the linchpin of the city lines. With the construction of the nearby central bus station West (ZOB West), it has lost its importance for today's six city lines, four of which run on weekdays, one on Saturdays and one on Sundays and public holidays. All city bus lines start and end at ZOB West on the station forecourt. At the transition from Holzheimer Strasse to Eisenbahnstrasse, there is the central bus station south (ZOB Süd), which is connected to the station forecourt by a pedestrian underpass. This bus station connects the Limburg Süd train station or the city center with the ICE city via shuttle buses and a collective call taxi. The only district outside the core city with a direct connection to the city lines is Offheim .
Since the end of May 2015, the public transport offer has been supplemented by collective call taxis , which run on three lines and thus in all parts of the city. In particular, the demand during the evening and night, when there are no city buses, should be covered by this offer.
In addition, five taxi companies cover passenger transport in the field of private transport, which are divided into a total of 18 taxi licenses issued by the City of Limburg (as of February 2014). The central taxi stand is on the forecourt of the regional train station.
With the construction of the Lahn Valley Railway in 1862, Limburg was connected to the railway network. The Limburg (Lahn) regional train station developed into a central transport hub. Other railway lines are the Unterwesterwaldbahn to Siershahn via Montabaur, the Westerwald-Sieg-Bahn to Kreuztal via Westerburg , Hachenburg , Altenkirchen , Au (Sieg) and Siegen and the Main-Lahn-Bahn to Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof . At Niedernhausen station on the Main-Lahn-Bahn, you can change to the Ländchesbahn to Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof , and there are also continuous train connections from Limburg to Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof.
With the construction of the high-speed line Cologne – Rhine / Main , the city received a long-distance train station called Limburg Süd , where only ICE trains stop. The high-speed route crosses the Lahn with the Lahntalbrücke and "disappears" north of the river in the Limburg tunnel . There are direct connections to Frankfurt am Main, Mainz , Wiesbaden, Nuremberg and Munich as well as Cologne , Dortmund and Brussels-South .
Long-distance bus transport
Limburg has been connected to the national long-distance bus network via the long-distance bus providers Flixbus and Onebus.de since May 14, 2015 . There are connections from the stop at Limburg Süd train station to Aachen, Bonn, Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt Airport, Heidelberg, Heilbronn, Cologne, Cologne / Bonn Airport, Stuttgart Airport and Tübingen.
Inland Shipping and Airports
The Lahn is a federal waterway between Lahnstein and Gießen and falls under the jurisdiction of the Koblenz Waterways and Shipping Office , whose Diez branch operates and maintains the Limburg lock. Since the expansion of the Lahn Valley Railway from Koblenz Hbf to Wetzlar, however, its importance as a waterway has declined. The waterway is mainly used for tourism by smaller motor boats as well as canoes and rowing boats and the passenger ship Wappen von Limburg .
The closest commercial airport is Frankfurt am Main Airport, 63 kilometers away on the A 3. The ICE journey from Limburg Süd long-distance train station to Frankfurt Airport (long-distance train station) is 18 to 22 minutes, depending on the connection. The Cologne / Bonn airport can be reached and 110 kilometers from the ICE in 35 to 46 minutes.
Cycle and cycle paths
The Hessian long- distance cycle route R7 runs from its starting point in the Staffel district, past Limburg Cathedral and continues via the Dietkirchen district to Runkel. As far as Dietkirchen, it is identical to the Lahntalradweg and the Hessian long- distance cycle path R8 , which branches off at the bicycle and pedestrian bridge and continues through the districts of Eschhofen and Lindenholzhausen. There are cycle paths in the city center, but they do not form a continuous network. In places they are connected to each other by protective strips , which were increasingly installed in the inner city area due to the limited space available.
The Blechwarenfabrik Limburg was founded as Josef Heppel Blech-Emballagen-Fabrik as early as 1872 and is still based at the location today, and its company name expresses its long association with the region.
The history of the former Buderus plant stretches back to 1900 , after being sold twice in 2009 as Buderus Kanalguss GmbH by the MeierGuss Group. Since January 1, 2012, the company has been operating as MeierGuss Limburg GmbH . In terms of area, it is one of the largest companies based in Limburg. The listed water tower of the plant, which was built in 1928, is visible from afar. The Buderus brand name was emblazoned on the tower until the beginning of 2014, but was then replaced by the MeierGuss logo.
The Limburg glassworks is one of Limburg's traditional companies . The state of Hesse has held shares in the company since it was founded in 1947.
The city of Limburg owes the fountain next to the town hall, one of its landmarks, to the company Tetra Pak Produktions GmbH & Co. KG. The fountain, often referred to as the "dandelion" by locals, was financed by the company in 1975.
In 1975, Mundipharma GmbH, whose company site is now a listed building, relocated its headquarters from Frankfurt am Main to Limburg. Today's Harmonic Drive SE also moved its headquarters from the city of Langen (Hesse) to Limburg in 1988.
Under the name Soda-Club GmbH , the group of companies, which has since been renamed SodaStream , set up its only German location in Limburg to date.
In 2003, Vectus Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH, based in Limburg, was founded to operate the Westerwald-Taunus railway network . It was a subsidiary of the Hessische Landesbahn and the Westerwaldbahn GmbH and operated the regional railway lines of the Lahntalbahn between Limburg and Koblenz, the Unterwesterwaldbahn, the Oberwesterwaldbahn and the Ländchesbahn between Limburg and Wiesbaden Hbf from the schedule change in 2004 to the schedule change in 2014. Today these lines are operated by the DB Regio and the Hessische Landesbahn operated.
Financial institutions based in Limburg are the Kreissparkasse Limburg , which has been offering its EC card with an image of the Limburg Cathedral since 2010, and the Volksbank Rhein-Lahn-Limburg . On the occasion of its 125th anniversary in 1985, it donated a memorial, which was erected on Europaplatz next to its main office in memory of Werner Senger and his legacy. The monument is now restored in the Serenadenhof.
The Nassauische Neue Presse , a head page of the Frankfurter Neue Presse , is published in Limburg with a circulation of almost 25,000 copies. The local editorial office is located in downtown Limburg.
With the Lahn-Post, the publishing house for advertising papers GmbH , an advertising paper has been appearing in Limburg for over 40 years . Until the insolvency of MedienErleben-Verlag GmbH in early 2013, medienerleben.de - Die Zeitung appeared briefly once a week . From 2016, a new advertising paper appeared with the Limburger Zeitung , which included news from the Limburg region. The publication was discontinued on May 31, 2017 for financial reasons.
The Hessischer Rundfunk appoints a regional correspondent in Limburg.
There are eleven hotels in Limburg, including three 3-star and two 4-star hotels, as well as two guest houses (as of January 2014).
The number of tourists in Limburg has been increasing continuously for years, as has the number of overnight stays. According to a survey by the State Statistical Office, the number of guests arriving in the accommodation establishments increased by 7.1 percent in 2011 compared to the previous year. Individual months achieved double-digit growth rates in the main season and were thus above the national average of 4.1 percent. The number of overnight stays in Limburg rose by 10.4 percent compared to the previous year (3.1 percent national average). The increase in business tourism has played a large part in this. The majority of visitors, over 70 percent, come from Germany.
There has been a campsite on the right bank of the Lahn since 1965. Limburg has been the mooring point for the Limburg Wappen passenger ship since 1981 . The current ship was put into service in 1987 and has been operating under a new operator since 2012. The youth hostel on the eastern edge of the city was inaugurated in 1964. Previously, this was in the city center.
Justice and Police
Limburg is the seat of the Limburg District Court and the Limburg Regional Court , one of nine regional courts in Hesse. Immediately next to the regional court are the Limburg public prosecutor's office and the Limburg penal institution , which only houses male prisoners.
With around 150 resident lawyers (as of 2013), Limburg is a regionally important judicial location. Until December 31, 2011, the city was the seat of the Limburg Labor Court ; since then the Wiesbaden labor court has been responsible.
The Police Headquarters West Hesse is represented in Limburg with the Limburg-Weilburg Police Department and a regional criminal investigation department . Subordinate police stations are located in Limburg, Weilburg and Bad Camberg.
In addition to the Limburg-Weilburg district administration , the Limburg-Wetzlar Employment Agency and the Limburg-Weilburg tax office are based in Limburg. The TÜV Hessen is represented with a customer center in Limburg.
Opposite the ICE train station is one of seven Hessian offices for land management (AfB), whose area of responsibility extends over most of the southwest of Hesse with its Hofheim branch and the contact points Bad Homburg , Eltville , Frankfurt, Wiesbaden, Usingen and Bad Schwalbach .
In addition to primary schools, Limburg has three secondary and secondary schools as well as five secondary schools . a. Offer the general higher education entrance qualification (Abitur) as a qualification . The current structure of the Hauptschule and Realschulen is largely based on a resolution of the city council from 1966, which divided the core city into three school districts for the Südstadt (Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe-Schule), the Weststadt (Theodor-Heuss-Schule) and the Old and the bridge suburb (Leo Sternberg School) divided.
The Marienschule has existed since 1895 , a private grammar school run by the Sankt Hildegard School Society. The sole shareholder is the Diocese of Limburg . The school was originally founded as an all-girls high school, but since 2011 both girls and boys have been taught monoeducationally at the school . In addition to general vocational training for socio-educational and social care professions is also offered there. In 2003 the Marienschule was recognized by the Minister of Education as the most successful school in the state mathematics competition for grade 8 from 1999 to 2003.
The Tilemannschule , which has been housed in a new building on the Schafsberg since the 1960s, is a grammar school with a focus on language, sport and music. It has been named after the Limburg town clerk Tilemann Elhen von Wolfhagen since the 1950s . Like the Marienschule, it has existed since the end of the 19th century.
The only secondary school outside the city center is the school at Eschilishov , which still had a main school branch up to the 2012/2013 school year. It was founded in 1908. In 1999, the primary school branch began promoting the gifted.
The Peter-Paul-Cahensly-Schule , named after the Limburg businessman and honorary citizen, is a vocational high school and technical school with a focus on business and construction technology. It was founded in 1910 as the first commercial training school in Limburg and in 1966 moved into the former high school building at the foot of the Schafsberg. The PPC school is now located in the south of Limburg, on Zeppelinstrasse. In 2004, the Hessian Ministry of Culture awarded it the seal of approval for schools that promote particularly gifted students.
The Astrid Lindgren School trains students with mental and physical disabilities, the Albert Schweitzer School trains students with learning problems and social and emotional developmental disorders. Both schools are based on the special school, which initially had a few classes attached to the Wilhelmitenschule and in 1964 took over its previous school building completely.
The Johann-Wolfgang-von-Goethe-Schule has had this name since 1967. It emerged from the former “Volksschule III” and the municipal secondary school on Hospitalstrasse. The old building of the Goetheschule was completed in 1954 for the primary school alone. In 1965 an extension was started. In September 1967, the secondary school students moved into the new building.
The Friedrich-Dessauer-Schule has been a vocational school with various technical subjects since 1960 . At this school, which has been independent since 2012, the general technical college entrance qualification can be acquired, also in the business and business informatics school types. As part of a cooperation with the Peter-Paul-Cahensly-Schule, the Friedrich-Dessauer-Schule makes its specialist rooms and training workshops available for their high school focus on construction technology.
The Theodor-Heuss-Schule is elementary and middle school and goes back to the former Wilhelmitenschule. In 1966 it was given its current name and its school building on Schafsberg .
In 1967 the Lahntalschule Limburg (today: Leo-Sternberg-Schule ) was founded as a central school for the old and bridge suburbs and the then still independent community of Dietkirchen. It is elementary, secondary and secondary school.
The Adolf Reichwein School was founded in 1966 as a district vocational school and was named a year later. After constant expansion, it now includes, in addition to technical schools for business and social affairs, for example, technical colleges for agriculture, health and social services and a vocational high school with a focus on nutrition, health and education. The Adolf Reichwein School has received several awards for its Internet presence.
Since the 2016/2017 winter semester, StudiumPlus has been operating a branch in Limburg, based in Wetzlar , an institution of the Mittelhessen University of Applied Sciences . Dual courses of study in business administration, architecture, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and technical informatics are offered.
- Cathedral library
- Diocesan Library
The St. Vincenz Hospital , located above the city on the Schafsberg , is a specialist hospital with 16 specialist departments and over 500 beds. It goes back to a hospital on the banks of the Lahn that was created in 1850 by a foundation and operated by the Vincentians . From 1950 onwards, the hospital with around 100 beds at that time gradually moved into a building on the Schafsberg, which was initially intended to serve as a youth home and was then expanded to become a hospital. In 1958 the building was completely demolished, the new hospital was put into operation in 1959 and most of the other buildings were erected by 1972. In 2013, over 20,000 patients were treated in the clinic for the first time and almost 1,000 children were born. The St. Vincenz Hospital is also an academic teaching hospital of the Justus Liebig University in Giessen in which projects such as B. the therapy concept "Joint Care" in orthopedics, which is unique in Germany besides Berlin.
The non-profit hospital company St. Vincenz is the largest employer in the region with around 1100 employees. With the logistics and service center, the most modern central pharmacy was put into operation in the ICE area of Hesse in 2013 , from which 24 surrounding clinics are supplied with medicines.
The district association Limburg e. V. of the German Red Cross (DRK) is divided into the local associations Bad Camberg, Elz, Frickhofen, Hünstelden, Limburg and Niederbruch. In 2012, a traffic roundabout on Limburger Kapellenstrasse was dedicated to the DRK.
The Limburg hospital also took over the hospital in Diez .
With the youth leisure center Limburg (JFS), the Protestant church offers a supervised meeting point for young people. With table football, an internet café and numerous events, the facility is not only ecclesiastical.
The Limburg Mothers' Center on Hospitalstrasse is a family meeting place for people with or without children. The association is supported by the City of Limburg and the State of Hesse and offers, among other things, a parenting service that arranges childcare, a wide range of courses for children and adults, a mini-kindergarten and a café.
The city of Limburg takes part in the Notinsel project , in which suitable businesses undertake to offer children a refuge and help in emergency situations.
- Voluntary fire brigade Limburg an der Lahn, founded in 1867 (since July 11, 1972 with youth fire brigade )
- Ahlbach volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1908 (since October 6, 1976 with youth fire brigade and since April 2, 2011 with children's fire brigade )
- Dietkirchen Volunteer Fire Brigade, founded in 1934 (since May 14, 1974 with youth fire brigade)
- Eschhofen volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1901 (with youth fire brigade since October 13, 1975)
- Lindenholzhausen volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1933 (with youth fire brigade since April 14, 1975)
- Linter volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1935 (since November 18, 1970 with youth fire brigade and since May 7, 2011 with children's fire brigade)
- Offheim volunteer fire brigade, founded in 1898 (with youth fire brigade since June 21, 1974)
- Voluntary fire brigade Staffel, founded in 1880 (since January 1, 1980 with youth fire brigade)
- Technical Relief Organization (THW), Limburg branch
Culture and sights
The Limburg town hall, named after the former mayor and honorary citizen of Limburg an der Lahn, Josef Kohlmaier, since 1996, is used for shows, conferences, congresses and similar events. With the entire region between Westerwald and Taunus, it has a catchment area of almost 300,000 people. There is no similarly frequented multi-purpose hall in the entire area. It has over 150,000 visitors annually.
The “Thing” cabaret, founded more than 25 years ago, moved after some time from its initial domicile in the Staffel district to the Josef-Kohlmaier-Halle , where its stage is now in the club rooms. The stage is carried by an independent association. The program includes chanson, cabaret, literature and jazz as well as folk, rock and performances by songwriters. One focus is on promoting young artists. Two or three events are offered per month.
The commitment of "Thing" was recognized on December 6, 2003 by the award of the "Kulturpreis Mittelhessen".
With the Limburger Domsingknaben , Limburg has had a boys' choir since 1967, which is sponsored by the Diocese of Limburg. The male vocal ensemble Camerata Musica Limburg was founded in 1999 by former singers of this choir . The members of this ensemble are continuing the successful tradition of the men's chamber choirs in Limburg.
An event location with the status of a cultural monument, especially for open-air concerts in the summer months, has been Villa Scheid since 2012 . With a park-like property, this venue is completely privately owned. In addition to concerts, the program includes a. also cabaret, an English garden festival and art exhibitions.
One of the oldest Limburg sports clubs with supra-regional importance is the Limburg Club for Water Sports 1895/1907 e. V. (LCW). The year 1895 in his name indicates the founding date of the Limburg Rowing Club (LRV), from which today's club emerged. Today it is a training base for the German Rowing Association ( DRV ).
The Limburger Hockey Club (LHC) was founded in 1923 by members of VfR 07 Limburg and has been represented in the two national leagues with interruptions . Today it is a hockey center and Olympic base. The club has won German championship titles several times - in the youth field to this day at regular intervals - and has produced a number of national players and coaches.
One of the greatest achievements in the club history of VfR 19 Limburg was the promotion of the basketball department to the 2nd Bundesliga in the 1997/1998 season, which was followed by relegation in the following season. The first men's soccer team played from 1994 to 1997 in the then fourth-class Oberliga Hessen . In the current 2019/20 season , the TuS Dietkirchen from Dietkirchen is represented in the Hessen League for the first time.
Chess has been organized in Limburg since the 1930s. The Lahn Limburg chess club was founded on November 17th, 1930 and has been able to celebrate promotion to the top division of Hesse (Oberliga Hessen or later Hessenliga) several times in its long history. The last time they played was in the 2005/2006 season in Hesse's top division. In the 1980s, the Königsflügel Lindenholzhausen chess club was able to establish another chess club in Limburg.
The ice rink in the neighboring town of Diez in Rhineland-Palatinate is the training center of the ice hockey club with the nickname Rookie Rockets of the EGDL (Ice Sports Community Diez-Limburg). The club, which plays successfully in the Regionalliga West, was founded in 2004 and is therefore one of the younger ones in Limburg. Predecessor clubs in the 1980s and 1990s were the ice hockey club Diez-Limburg (ECDL) and Limburger EG , which participated in the 1st ice hockey league, the second highest German division at the time , in the 1997/1998 season .
The city center has an outdoor pool, which opened in 1961 and is now called the Parkbad with a 50-meter competition pool on the right bank of the Lahn. The former municipal indoor pool in the Offheim district is one of the few swimming pools in Germany that is run independently by a non-profit association. In addition, the city of Limburg, together with the city of Diez, the district of Limburg-Weilburg and the Rhein-Lahn district, runs the Oranienbad in Diez . Another former municipal indoor swimming pool in the Linter district was closed on December 31, 2003 and converted into a bowling alley.
The Limburg dialect, which can be made out under different expressions of the “Platt” that is prevalent in the “Nassauer Land” , is one of the Central Hessian dialects . In its pure form, it is generally only spoken by the older generation who grew up in Limburg or the nearest surrounding communities.
Individual syllables have undergone minor changes over the years, sometimes towards Standard German , which is why it is sometimes difficult to distinguish the ancient Limburg dialect from regionally different ones. However, even among the younger residents of Limburg, in whose parental home the spoken dialect was influenced by High German, a typical accentuation of the spoken language can predominantly be determined by certain sounds. For the interested listener, a precise determination of the Limburg origin of the counterpart is therefore entirely possible.
The trend towards speaking with dialect is declining in the Limburg region as in many others. a. is due to population migration and the influence of modern media. For this reason, dialect-related events are very popular as an attempt to preserve the regional dialect for future generations.
A traditional Limburg dish is the Limburger Säcker . This is a mustard-seasoned and breaded chop, filled with sauerkraut, jerky meat and pickles, as well as fried potatoes or bread. The name of this dish goes back to the inhabitants of Limburg's old town, who in the Middle Ages reloaded the carts that were passing too wide with sacks at Haus Kleine Rütsche 4 , the narrowest part of the old trade route from Cologne to Frankfurt.
For the first time from a Limburger restaurateur during the tenure of Bishop Franz Kamphaus were created Limburger bishop dumplings . These are potato dumplings filled with blood and liver sausage, served with sauerkraut and bacon sauce. The traditional dish became known nationwide through the increased promotion of several restaurants in 2013, when the developments in the costs of the Diocesan Center St. Nikolaus under Kamphaus' successor Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst became known and the number of tourists skyrocketed.
The “Whiskey Fair” is an event that recurs annually in the spring and is of national importance.
On the last weekend in June, the Limburg Old Town Festival attracts thousands of visitors to the city. Also in summer, winemakers present their products at the Rheingau Wine Days in the city center.
Since 2007, the city of Limburg has been organizing the summer night run every two years with the support of local clubs and companies . In this city run with usually over 1000 participants, various disciplines are offered for individual runners, families and companies.
With the Summer Games , a city festival has been established since 2005, which is held annually in the third week of August. With the support of numerous companies and associations, it developed into a large city festival in the region with now over 50,000 visitors per year. On the first Sunday in September 2010, the 40th anniversary of the Limburg flea market, the largest city flea market in Hesse, was celebrated beyond the region.
Every year, the Limburg Oktoberfest , one of the largest folk festivals in Central Hesse, takes place over several days and has been increasingly based on the Munich original since 2011 . The Christmas market opens from November 27th to December 30th.
There are four museums in Limburg. These are:
- Art collections of the city of Limburg, which offer changing art exhibitions
- Diocesan museum with cathedral treasure, the Limburg Staurothek and Mariengarten
- Marine Museum Limburg
- Mission Museum of the Pallottines
Due to the Second World War, only a few cities like Limburg have the entire ensemble of medieval buildings preserved almost intact. That is why the formerly walled city center between St. George's Cathedral, Grabenstrasse and the 600-year-old Lahnbrücke is now a listed building as a whole between the old town and the Frankfurt suburb .
Sacred buildings (selection)
- Limburg Cathedral (Domplatz 2), formerly the collegiate and parish church of St. George and Nikolaus , since 1827 the cathedral and parish church of the Diocese of Limburg ; built around 1190–1235, in addition to its urban design effect, it is particularly significant due to one of the best-preserved interior versions of the 13th century in Germany
- Catholic town church and episcopal ordinariate (Bischofsplatz 2–4 / Roßmarkt 4–6), formerly the Franciscan church of St. Sebastian with an attached monastery ; significant remains of equipment and a. Renaissance and Baroque epitaphs and organ prospectus from 1686
- former St. Anna hospital church with attached hospital (Hospitalstrasse 2), formerly Wilhelmitenkloster Limburg ; built 14./15. Century, restoration and baroque after damage in the Thirty Years War in the 17th and 18th. Century, valuable equipment remains, including u. a. Stained glass from the third quarter of the 14th century, organ front from 1749 and pulpit from 1753
- Evangelical Lutheran St. John's Chapel (In der Erbach 2–3); built 1322–1324 as part of the former local courtyard of the Eberbach monastery ; 1867–1903 used as a synagogue.
- Protestant church and community center (Bahnhofstrasse 1), built in 1864–1866 as a successor to the Wiesbaden market church , damaged in 1944, rebuilt and partitioned in 1973–1975.
- Pallottine Monastery Church and Parish Church of St. Marien (Frankfurter Straße 56), built in 1926/27 according to plans by the architect Jan Hubert Pinand under the influence of Dominikus Böhm , a nationally important Expressionist church building with rarely fully preserved furnishings
- Catholic parish church St. Hildegard (Parkstrasse); built 1965–1967 according to plans by the architect Walter Neuhäusser , a typical representative of the late phase of the international style with a “flying roof”, which also houses the Crossover youth church .
Public buildings (selection)
- Limburg Castle (built by Gerlach von Ysenburg at the beginning of the 13th century)
- "Huttig" (remains of the tower of the city wall, the course of which is marked by Grabenstrasse)
- Alte Lahnbrücke (from 1315, Lahn crossing of the Via Publica )
- New Town Hall (1898/99)
- Old Limburg high school at Freiherr-vom-Stein-Platz 1
Profane buildings (selection)
In the old town there are numerous half-timbered houses, built between the 13th and 19th centuries. Since the renovation of the old town began in 1972, these have been carefully restored. A special feature are the medieval hall houses, which have a large hall on the ground floor. The most famous houses in Limburg include:
- Haus Kleine Rütsche 4 (the narrowest part of the historic trade route between Frankfurt and Cologne, the width of which is marked on the Heumarkt in Cologne)
- House of Seven Vices (Brückengasse 9, built in 1567. Half-timbered house with carvings depicting the seven main vices of Christianity)
- Werner-Senger-Haus (oldest house in Limburg's old town from the 13th century)
- Houses at the fish market. The name of the square was still Fismart (= thread, wool market) in the Limburg dialect in the 13th century and was the trading center of Limburg wool weavers. Later, first mentioned in a document in 1317, it was used to sell fish.
- Römer 2-4-6 (half-timbered house of the 13th century)
- To the golden deer (built around 1500, former inn)
- Burgmannenhaus (built around 1544, today Diocesan Museum)
- Walderdorffer Hof (former noble court of the Counts of Walderdorff )
- Villa Scheid (listed, upper-class residential building)
Half-timbered houses on Bischofsplatz
The central German memorial dedicated to the soldiers who died in the battle of Stalingrad and who subsequently died in captivity is located in Limburg's main cemetery . It was designed by a former Stalingrad fighter and built in 1964.
sons and daughters of the town
- Werner Senger (? - after 1369) businessman, lay judge and benefactor of the Limburg hospital.
- Anton Busch (1763–1836), aldermen, councilor, town councilor and mayor
- Hubert Hilf (1820–1909), entrepreneur and politician, member of the Reichstag
- Alois Anton Führer (1853–1930), Sanskritist and clergyman
- Anton Führer (1854–1929), teacher, headmaster, historian, honorary citizen of the city of Rheine
- Leo Sternberg (1876–1937), writer
- Wilhelm Weirauch (1876–1945), lawyer and general director of the Reichsbahn
- Otfried Eberz (1878–1958), philosopher
- Josef Eberz (1880–1942), painter and graphic artist
- Willy Hof (1880–1956), industrialist and transport planner
- Friedrich Laibach (1885–1967), botanist
- Gregor Rosenbauer (1890–1966), German architect
- Heinz Wolf (1908–1984), district administrator, honorary citizen 1975–2013. On June 24, 2013, the Limburg city council decided, due to the now well-known depth of Wolf's involvement in the Nazi regime , to revoke its decision to grant honorary citizenship from 1975.
- Hermann Kugelstadt (1912–2001), director
- Gerhard Müller (1912–1997), President of the Federal Labor Court
- Kurt Kauter (1913–2002), writer
- Siegfried Schmitt (1915–1988), track and field athlete
- Egon Eichhorn (1924–2002), veterinarian, local historian
- Alois Schardt (1926–1998), journalist, program director at ZDF
- Werner Wenz (1926–2019), surgeon
- Senta Seip (* 1934), politician (Greens), former member of the Hessian state parliament
- Klaus Kleiter (* 1944), German national hockey coach
- Ulrich Middelmann (1945–2013), Deputy Chairman of the Executive Board of ThyssenKrupp AG
- Franz Häuser (* 1945), lawyer, professor, 2003-10 rector of the University of Leipzig
- Dieter Thomas (1947–2016), cabaret artist and co-founder of the Frankfurt Front Theater
- Theo Geisel (* 1948), theoretical physicist and university professor
- Hans-Jürgen Irmer (* 1952), politician (CDU) and member of the Hessian state parliament
- Mathias Bröckers (* 1954), journalist and author
- Alexander Kirchner (* 1956), trade unionist, on the supervisory board of Deutsche Bahn
- Christoph Prégardien (* 1956), singer
- Christoph Ullrich (* 1960), District President of the Gießen District
- Bernd Fuhr (* 1960), former soccer goalkeeper
- Ute Schneider (* 1960), book scholar and university lecturer
- Christof Müller (* 1961), fundamental theologian
- Olaf Zimmermann (* 1961), publicist and art dealer, managing director of the German Cultural Council
- Anke Olschewski (* 1962), table tennis player
- Frank Puchtler (* 1962), politician (SPD), district administrator of the Rhein-Lahn district
- Mechthild Bach (* 1963/70), singer
- Manfred Königstein (* 1963), economist and university professor
- Heinz Voggenreiter (* 1963), aerospace engineer and university lecturer
- Germar Rudolf (* 1964), convicted Holocaust denier
- Veronika Winter (* 1965), soprano
- Stefan Saliger (* 1967), hockey player and Olympic champion
- Stephan Hartmann (* 1968), science philosopher and university lecturer
- Jörg Koch (* 1968), historian and local researcher
- Karsten Dahlem (* 1975), actor, director and screenwriter
- Tamara Bach (* 1976), writer
- Julia Kleiter (* 1980), soprano
- Moritz Hilf (1819–1894), builder of the Lahntalbahn , honorary citizen since 1862
- Andreas Schlitt (1833–1903), mayor, honorary citizen since 1901
- Peter Paul Cahensly (1838–1923), politician and social reformer, honorary citizen since 1913
- Joseph Heppel (1849–1936), founder of Blechwarenfabrik Limburg , alderman and benefactor, honorary citizen since 1919
- Heinrich Fendel (1878–1965), city pastor, honorary citizen since 1951
- Friedrich Hammerschlag (1888–1972), entrepreneur and local politician, honorary citizen since 1968
- Georg Brötz (1889–1959), teacher, honorary citizen of the then still independent municipality of Eschhofen since 1954
- Joseph Schneider (1890–1974), mayor, honorary citizen since 1960
- Clemens Bruckner (1893–1976), pastor, honorary citizen of the then still independent community of Lindenholzhausen since 1970
- Anna Ohl (1893–1987), founder, honorary citizen since 1986
- Wilhelm Breithecker (1897–1982), pastor and persecuted by the Nazi regime, honorary citizen of the then still independent community of Dietkirchen since 1970
- Wilhelm Kempf (1906–1982), bishop, honorary citizen since 1974
- Josef Kohlmaier (1921–1995), bailiff, politician, mayor from 1965 to 1985, honorary citizen since 1985
- Franz Kamphaus (* 1932), bishop, honorary citizen since 2007
- Tilemann Elhen von Wolfhagen (around 1347 – after 1402), German humanist
- Georg Hilpisch (1846–1928), cathedral capitular, vicar general, church historian and editor
- Marcus Krüsmann (1879–1964), Mayor of Limburg from 1919 until the National Socialists came to power
- Gerda Weiler (1921–1994), psychologist and pedagogue, worked as a teacher in Limburg from 1948 to 1951 under the name Gerda Arndt
- Hildegard Schirmacher (1924–2015; until 1997 Ernst Schirmacher), architect and urban planner
- Walter Neuhäusser (* 1926), architect
- Ernst Eichinger (1929–2015), German artist, died in Limburg, his last adopted home
- Robert Rosenthal (* 1933), psychologist, professor at the University of California, spent the first years of his life in Limburg, fled with his parents from the Nazis, namesake of the Rosenthal effect .
- Frederik Hetmann (1934–2006), writer
- Katharina Saalfrank (* 1971), qualified pedagogue and music therapist, grew up in Limburg for the first seven years of her life.
- Egon Eichhorn: On the topography of the medieval highways and country roads to and in the Limburg Basin. In: Nassau Annals. Vol. 76, 1965, pp. 63-152.
- Johann-Georg Fuchs: Limburg old town buildings. Citizens and incidents. 2nd Edition. Limburg 2006.
- Johann-Georg Fuchs: Limburg patriciate 1500–1800. Collection of material on the history of advisable families in Limburg an der Lahn. Limburg 1993.
- Randolf Fügen: Highlights in Central Hesse. Wartenberg Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2003, ISBN 3-8313-1044-0 .
- Willi Görich: On the development of the castle and city of Limburg ad Lahn. In: Nassau Annals. Vol. 76, 1965, pp. 202-215.
- Robert Laut: The rule of Limburg and its transition from the Conradines to the houses of Gleiberg-Luxemburg, Peilstein, Leiningen to Isenburg . in: Nassauische Annalen , 65th Volume, 1954. pp. 81-85.
- Magistrate of the district town Limburg a. d. Lahn. (Ed.): Limburg in the flow of time. Highlights from 1100 years of city history. (Contributions to the history of the district town of Limburg a. D. Lahn 1). Limburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-936162-08-0 .
- Magistrate of the district town Limburg a. d. Lahn. (Ed.): Limburg in the flow of time. (Contributions to the history of the district town of Limburg a. D. Lahn, 2). Lectures on city history. Limburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-936162-10-3 .
- Heinz Maibach: Limburg on the Lahn in old views. Seventh edition. Zaltbommel / Netherlands 1993; NA: Sutton, Erfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-733-4 .
- Heinz Maibach: Documents on the Limburg town and district history 1870-1945. Limburg 1992, ISBN 3-9802789-2-1 .
- Bettina Marten: Limburg an der Lahn: Cathedral and city guides . Petersberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-86568-605-3 .
- Ernst Schirmacher: Limburg on the Lahn. Origin and development of the medieval city. (Historical Commission publications for Nassau XVI). Wiesbaden 1963.
- Eugen Stille: Limburg an der Lahn and its history. Limburg printing house, self-published by E. Stille, Limburg / Kassel 1971.
- Wolf-Heino Struck : On the constitution of the city of Limburg an der Lahn in the Middle Ages. In: Nassau Annals. Vol. 99, 1988, pp. 1-13.
- Harald Wagner: Discover Limburg! A city guide for tourists and locals. Limburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-031762-0 .
- Christoph Waldecker : Limburg in historical views . Sutton, Erfurt 2010, ISBN 978-3-86680-733-4 . (Archive images)
- Christoph Waldecker: Limburg on the Lahn. (Great art travel guide 251). 2nd, expanded edition. Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7954-2559-3 .
- Christoph Waldecker: Time leaps in Limburg . Sutton, Erfurt 2014, ISBN 978-3-95400-471-3 .
- Christoph Waldecker: Limburg ad Lahn through the ages. WIKOMMedia, Olching 2017, ISBN 978-3-9819340-0-7 .
- Ursula Braasch-Schwersmann, Holger Th. Gräf, Ulrich Ritzerfeld (arrangement): Hessischer Städteatlas, Delivery I, 6: Limburg an der Lahn. Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies, Marburg 2005.
- CD Vogel (Ed.): The Limburger Chronik - with an introduction and explanatory notes , Marburg 1828, 142 pages ( e-copy ).
- Margot Benary-Isbert: In my grandfather's house. 4th edition. Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-7820-0284-9 (first edition as: Under the sickle moon. The year of changes . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1965 ).
- Horst Bracht: The Swedish grimace. Historical Lympurg novel . Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-7973-1229-7 .
- Horst Bracht: Deadline. Historical Limburg thriller . Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-942921-81-7 .
- Horst Bracht: The monastery brewer. Limburg crime thriller . Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2014, ISBN 978-3-95542-080-2 .
- Literature on Limburg an der Lahn in the Hessian Bibliography
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- Internet presence of the city of Limburg an der Lahn
- Website of the Limburg old town district
- Limburg an der Lahn, district of Limburg-Weilburg. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Archives of the Limburg Abbey, Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden. In: Archive Information System Hessen (Arcinsys Hessen).
- Hessian State Statistical Office: Population status on December 31, 2019 (districts and urban districts as well as municipalities, population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Development Plan Hesse (PDF; 8.1 MB) on landesplanung-hessen.de, accessed on January 31, 2014.
- Rolf Goeckel: Limburg - the shopping magnet. (No longer available online.) In: Frankfurter Neue Presse . November 19, 2010, archived from the original on December 10, 2017 ; accessed December 10, 2017 .
- Weather regions of Germany on wetterdirekt.com, accessed on January 31, 2014.
- Climate data from the German Weather Service on sonnenlaender.de, accessed on January 31, 2014.
- Law on the reorganization of the Limburg district and the Oberlahn district. (GVBl. II 330-25) of March 12, 1974 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 1974 No. 5 , p. 101 , § 5 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 809 kB ]).
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 369 and 370 .
- Economicthe city of Limburg (as of December 31, 2014). Limburg ad Lahn, accessed December 2018 .
- Budget- budget year 2013. (PDF) Limburg ad Lahn, accessed in December 2018 .
- Digitization of the image in the photo archive of older original documents of the Philipps University of Marburg
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- New driving service on nnp.de, accessed on May 28, 2015
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