Middle Hessian dialects
Mittelhessisch ( Central Hesse ), called " Platt " by many speakers , is spoken in an area that covers most of the districts of Wetteraukreis , Hochtaunuskreis , Limburg-Weilburg , Lahn-Dill-Kreis , Gießen and Marburg-Biedenkopf as well as parts of the districts of Main -Kinzig-Kreis , Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis and Vogelsbergkreis . The Wittgensteiner Platt , which is spoken in southern North Rhine-Westphalia , has great similarities with the Central Hessian dialect. However, the dialect of most cities is closer to the city dialects of the Rhine-Main area than to the Middle Hessian. In the southern Central Hessian language area, the dialect is transformed and displaced by the urban dialects of the Rhine-Main area .
The media's portrayal of the criticism as "Fernsehhessisch" (also called "Äbbelwoihessisch") designated Neuhessisch , however, has little in common with the different Hessian dialects. Well-seen television entertainment programs such as “ Familie Hesselbach ” or “ Zum Blauen Bock ” contributed to the popularization of New Hesse, as did the broadcasts of the Mainz Carnival “ Mainz remains Mainz, how it sings and laughs ”. Due to the dominance of this economic area, the impression arose in the 1950s and 1960s that Frankfurt was simply Hessian.
The Central Hessian dialects in their respective localized sound forms and coinage (topolects) were spoken by the majority of the rural population until around 1970. The influence of modern mass media, today the language of the Internet, as well as the mobility that has developed since the late 1960s and the historical changes in living and working realities have resulted in dialects being spoken less and less because they have lost their current market value in terms of linguistic history to have.
The old forms of the Middle Hessian and Upper Hessian dialects are mostly spoken today only by members of the older, local generations or are retained in the tradition of local customs. In November 1984 a survey ("Hessischer Dialektzensus") by the "Arbeitsstelle Sprach in Hessen" at the University of Marburg showed the following picture: In the Central Hessian region, 62% of the 48- to 75-year-olds said that they had "one or more dialects speak ”, among the 31 to 47 year olds 65%, among the 16 to 30 year olds only 52%. Since Standard German has massively gained influence in all areas of life since the 1980s, the empirical findings of the dialect census must be viewed as outdated.
On the southern edge of the Central Hessian language area, for example in the southern Wetterau and in the central Hessian urban centers of Wetzlar, Gießen and Marburg, Friedberg and Bad Nauheim, these dialects have already disappeared or are in the process of disappearing. In their place, new forms of linguistic usage have emerged in urban areas, which are called "Neuhessisch" in modern dialectology and are close to the standard language , albeit in independent, historically interwoven sound forms.
Contrary to all prognoses, it is not possible to speak of an extinction of the Central Hessian dialects, but of a turn to regional forms of compensation in public life, to new dialectal forms of language with the phenomenon that the original dialect speakers move in two or three languages depending on the communication requirements the meaning of a code-switching are formed, albeit with the same tongue strokes ( bilingualism ).
It is also by no means true that the younger generation reject the dialect. Only dialects with small-scale validity are being given up in favor of newly emerging, more general forms of language with a greater communicative range ( regiolect ). They do without dialectal forms of which they know that they are not or hardly understood just a few kilometers away. That is u. a. also a consequence of increasing mobility through work and leisure.
Another language of Central Hesse is the almost extinct Manic language , which was used by so-called fringe groups in the Marburg (Richtsberg and Waldtal), Gießen (Gummiinsel, Eulenkopf and Margarethenhütte) and Wetzlar (Finsterloh) areas.
In the following, selected phonetic and phonological features are to be described, which are typical of the Central Hessian dialect in that they are common to most local dialects.
The sounds of the dialects cannot be explained as deviations from the standard language, but rather represent independent further developments of Middle High German dialects. Nevertheless, for the sake of clarity, standard German forms should be contrasted with dialect forms.
Particularly characteristic is that with the tongue bent back ( retroflex ) and with relatively evenly exhaled air, without friction or "explosion" ( approximant ), "rolled" / r / ( ɻ , voiced retroflexer approximant ), which is similar to the American / r / and not one of the three realizations ( r ʀ ʁ ) of the / r / in the standard German wording. In many dialects it remains clearly audible at the end of the word and before the consonant (e.g. in "water" or "place").
|vocal||standard German||Central Hesse|
|ai||two||zwie - zwaa - zwuh|
|b between vowels||above||owwe|
|t, d between vowels||Lining||Fourer|
|s to r||Sausage, savoy cabbage||Worscht / Woscht, Wersching|
Other distinguishing features of most of the Central Hessian dialects are e.g. B .:
- hd. "I have"> aich hu (n)
- hd. "I am"> aich be (n)
- hd. "Not"> nai or no
- hd. "Nothing"> naut
Another specialty is the three-gender use of the number word "two". It depends on the gender of the noun. "Zwie" stands for male , "zwu" for female and "zwä" for neuter . Examples:
- zwie Menner (men), zwu Fräe (women), zwä Kenn (children)
- zwie Honn (dogs), zwu Koih (cows), zwä Huinger (chickens)
- zwie Beme (trees), zwu Blemme (flowers), zwä Vajilcher (violets)
- two handkees (hand cheese), two tomade (tomatoes), two aijer (eggs)
Onomatopoeic differences between the three-sex sounds often exist from village to village. So it is said in the lower Vogelsberg:
- two men (men), two women (women), two chin (children)
- two Honde (dogs), two Koih (cows), two Hinkel (chickens)
- two Beem (trees), zwu Blumme (flowers), two Vajilche (violets)
- two handkees (hand cheese), two tomade (tomatoes), two aijer (eggs)
Text example from the Giessen area:
“So I know the following statement: Central Hesse has to be understood as an urban enclave - wäi z. B. Gäiße oawwer Wetzler - durchlechert eas, wäi en Schweizer Kees. Just stop with winger Lecher. When Central Hesse comes to such a strange hole, then he strangers. "
Wann's raant, gieh ma heem
When's nit raant, blaiwe ma häi
Raants nit un ma hu ke Lost, gieh ma aach heem
Raants, breache ma suwisu nit ze blaiwe
Gieh ma da heem un wesse nit, woas ma da make sense
Kinnte ma yo aach glaisch häiblaiwe
Feräasgesast es raant nit
Kurt W. Singer, Odermennig Group, from: "Gemorje Hinnerlaand" 1984.
Di Wearreraa, su schih gelähje,
Meat Kniss ean Wahld, meat Doahl ean Hih,
The Wearreraa meat all their Sähje,
Meat fruit and fruit, meat man and cattle -
Däi I läiw about all Moaße
Meat their Luoft ean meat their Wih;
You ate m'r su ohs heart oasis,
wäi uf d'r whole world nothing mih.
Blues from Friedberg - southern Central Hesse:
Ean Friddbersch, ean de Wearrera
you people, do eas was luus!
Thu plays e thick Dickworzfraa
Ean thick, thick Dickworzblues
De Laandroat, dear comes along
He freet - woas eas da luus?
Eh do, do e Dickworzfraa
Ean thick, thick Dickworzblues
Source: spontanifax in A major, Kurt W. Singer / Odermennig
Proverbs and sayings (examples):
- When it's porridge, hu dai d'n spoon fageaesse
- If you did, the worscht would be broken
- When the crib is empty, give it a go
- Whoever deserves the Howwer doesn't criticize him
- Whenever Schof blared, Schoads ean Muffel
- Heinrich Bastian: Everything for my Hesselaad - 150 poems in the dialect of the Marburg / Gießen area . Dr. W. Hizeroth-Verlag, Marburg 1988, ISBN 3-925944-43-5
- Heinrich J. Dingeldein : The Middle Hessian . In: Hessian . Writings of the Marburg University Library No. 46, Marburg 1989, ISBN 3-8185-0039-8
- Hans Friebertshäuser: The Hessian dialect book . CH Beck, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-406-32317-0 .
- Hans Friebertshäuser and Heinrich J. Dingeldein: Hessian dialect census. Statistical atlas on language usage. Manufactured with software systems from Harald Händler and Wolfgang Putschke. Tübingen 1989, ISBN 3-7720-1812-2
- Hans Friebertshäuser: Small Hessian Dictionary . CH Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-406-34192-6 .
- Hans Friebertshäuser: Country and City in Transition. Dialect and rural working world in the Marburg-Biedenkopf district . Sparkasse Marburg-Biedenkopf, Wenzel, Marburg 1991
- Christian Heger: W äller Platt. History, grammar and vocabulary of the Westerwald dialect . Husum Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft, Husum 2016, ISBN 978-3-89876-813-9
- Regina Klein: In the meantime - depth hermeneutic case studies on female positioning in the modernization process. Psychosozial-Verlag, Giessen 2003, ISBN 3-89806-194-9
- Ulrike Köppchen: Bembelsänger, Dippegucker, Ossenköppe - dialects in Hessen and regional identity . Broadcast manuscript, Hessischer Rundfunk, editing: Volker Bernius, Frankfurt 2004.
- Siegward Roth: Knotterbock - Grondlejendes zoum central Hessian character o himself. Wolfram Schleenbecker Verlag, Wettenberg around 2001, ISBN 3-9803797-1-X .
- Bernd Strauch: Dialect in Central Hesse. Upper Hessian pocket dictionary. Self-published, Giessen 2005, ISBN 3-935584-02-4
- Emil Winter: Central Hessian Dictionary . E. Winter, Heuchelheim 1985, ISBN 3-9801058-0-6
- Emil Winter: You Huläbber ... and another 699 names, derisors and names. D'm Owwerhess looked off the mouth . E. Winter, Heuchelheim 1986, ISBN 3-9801058-2-2
- Bernd Strauch: Supplemented and newly sorted dialect dictionary (including sound recordings)
- Dialects in Hessen (including language samples) . In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Middle Hessian text workshop
- Middle Hessian Dictionary: A – G | H-P | Q-Z
- "Pearls of the dialect" in Central Hesse . hr4
- Association for the Preservation of Central Hessian Dialect and Culture eV (VEMuK) --- http://www.vemuk.de/
- Andreas Stahl: audio samples and texts: http://www.abc-hero.de/mundart.html
- "... ois Platt ..." Words and sentences from the Hüttenberger Land by Joachim Pausch - http://jaypeeservices.homepage.t-online.de/19.htm
- Siegward Roth: The Knotterbock - Grondlejendes Zoum Central Hesse character o itself . Wolfram Schleenbecker Verlag, Wettenberg, ISBN 3-9803797-1-X
- Kurt Werner Singer: verbal orphan raabooche . Jonas Verlag, Marburg 1987 ISBN 3-922561-53-5
- Emerich Reeck (Ed.): My shinste greeting d'r Wearreraa! Poems by Peter Geibel. Verlag Hessische Volksbücher, Darmstadt 1951, for the book trade: Carl Bindernagel, Friedberg (Hessen)
- Hans Friebertshäuser: Country and City in Transition. Dialect and rural working world in the Marburg-Biedenkopf district. Sparkasse Marburg-Biedenkopf, Wenzel, Marburg, 1991