|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||to water|
|Height :||186 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||123.92 km 2|
|Residents:||77,129 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||622 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||35037, 35039, 35041, 35043|
|Primaries :||06421, 06420, 06424|
|License plate :||MR, BID|
|Community key :||06 5 34 014|
|City structure:||19 districts including the core city (again divided into 15 districts)|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Thomas Spies ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Marburg in the Marburg-Biedenkopf district|
Marburg is the district town of the central Hessian district of Marburg-Biedenkopf and lies on the Lahn . For the traditional delimitation of Marburg an der Drau , the city was officially Marburg an der Lahn or Marburg a. d. Lahn and then called Marburg (Lahn) until the end of 1976 .
Marburg is a university city and with 77,129 inhabitants the eighth largest city in Hesse . The urban area extends on both sides of the Lahn west into the Gladenbacher Bergland and east over the Lahnberge to the edge of the Amöneburg basin .
Marburg has had city rights since the 13th century . Today it fulfills the function of a regional center in the Gießen administrative district ( Central Hesse ). Than larger Mittelstadt Marburg as six other medium-sized cities in Hesse a special status compared to other county's municipalities . The city therefore takes on the tasks of the district , so that in many ways it resembles an independent city . With founded in 1527 Marburg has Philipps University , the oldest existing Protestant founded university in the world, which even today continues to shape by their buildings and student life the cityscape.
The city owes the name Marburg to the fact that the border ("mar [c]") between the territories of the Landgraves of Thuringia and the Archbishops of Mainz used to run here. The outstanding sights in Marburg are the Elisabeth Church , the Old University , the Landgrave's Castle and the old town below, which is called “Upper Town” in Marburg.
Marburg is located in central Hesse , roughly halfway between Frankfurt am Main and Kassel , around 77 kilometers as the crow flies from both cities. The neighboring university town of Giessen is around 27 kilometers south.
The landscape of Marburg lies in the Marburger Bergland , a south-western foothill of the Burgwald , which is broken through by the Lahn valley in a north-south direction. To the west it borders with the Elnhausen-Michelbacher Senke and the adjoining Damshausen peaks directly on parts of the Gladenbacher Bergland and thus on the Rhenish Slate Mountains , to the east the Amöneburg Basin joins, which also has a part in the city boundaries.
The highest mountain within the urban area belonging to Marburg is Störner west of the actual city, northwest of the small district Dilschhausen. The lowest point is in the south of the city on the Lahn ( ).the
The largest expansion of the main settlement area is about nine kilometers in north-south direction (north of Wehrdas to south of Cappels), in east-west direction a maximum of 4 (west of Marbach to east of Ortenberg) to 4.5 kilometers (west of the city forest to east of Richtsberg) , but mostly - adapted to the narrowness of the Lahn valley - significantly less. To the west of the Marburger Lahntalsenke , parts of the old town and other districts stretch up the Marburg ridge , to the east the Lahnberg mountains join, with the university clinic and various institutes located on the summit.
The historic old town is located west of today's city center, below the Landgrave Castle (Marburg Castle); The bridge suburb, the former tanners' village Weidenhausen on the other side of the Lahn, also has the character of an old town. Over the past two centuries, Marburg has expanded from the old town center down into the Lahn valley. To the south of the palace is the Art Nouveau district of Südviertel, to the west of which is Ockershausen, which was incorporated in 1931 . In the immediate east of the city center is the Ortenberg, which is separated from the city center by the railway line , in the extreme southeast of the old city boundary lies the high-rise housing estate Richtsberg, which was only built in the 1960s .
During the territorial reform in 1974, the large city districts of Marbach (north west), Wehrda (north) and Cappel (south) were incorporated into which the built-up urban area merges. Today, Marbach in particular, like Ockershausen, can be viewed as part of the core city, although the district is not administered as an inner city district for historical reasons. Neighboring communities of Marburg are clockwise, starting in the north, the following cities and communities: Lahntal , Cölbe , Kirchhain , Ebsdorfergrund , Weimar (Lahn) , Gladenbach and Dautphetal .
After the Lahn has absorbed the Wetschaft and Ohm rivers south of the Frankenberg Bay , it turns south and cuts through a mighty, flat-lying and predominantly forested layer of red sandstone, which was deposited in the Lower Triassic, near Marburg . The cityscape is therefore determined by the low-lying deposits of the Lahn in the Marburg Lahntalsenke and the heights of the Buntsandstein towering in the west and east.
The main rock of the Buntsandstein near Marburg is the 250-meter-thick Middle Buntsandstein . Its alternately fine to coarse, reddish quartz sands and sandstones underlie the wooded heights of the Lahn Mountains and the Marburg Ridge. In the western half of the Marburg Ridge, the Lower Buntsandstein predominates .
Not exposed on the surface in the western city area are the approximately 60 meters thick sedimentary rocks of the Zechstein , which underlie the red sandstone on the eastern edge of the Rhenish Slate Mountains. They were deposited on the eastern edge of the shallow Zechstein Sea and consist mainly of copper slate .
Faults play a major role in the geological structure of the Marburg area. From the Upper Jura and during the Tertiary, the Hessian Depression was broken up into a field of broken clods and rocks of different ages were brought to the same level. The rocks of the Lahnmulde, known only about five kilometers to the west in the slate mountains, and their neighboring geological structures were sunk by fracture tectonics and form the base of the Zechstein and Buntsandstein below Marburg a few hundred meters below the surface. They reappear on the surface of the earth in the northeast in the basement forest .
The volcanism of the Vogelsberg , which a few kilometers southeast of Marburg, covers the red sandstone and the layers of the Miocene overlying it with basaltic rocks, which were mined in the Miocene 7 to 20 million years ago, is related to the formation of broken clods .
The central part of the urban area is covered by silts, sands and gravels of the Marburg Lahntalsenke, which are only slightly consolidated. They were deposited by the Lahn, which cut a valley through the red sandstone and expanded significantly a few kilometers south of the city in the less resistant rocks of the Zechstein.
The city of Marburg is made up of the core city and 18 districts with their own local advisory board, which were independent until their incorporation in the 1970s. Ockershausen, which was incorporated in 1931, and Richtsberg, which was only opened up from 1963, also have their own local advisory board, both of which are very independent and are included in the listing below, which is roughly sorted by geographic location.
- The left column runs from north to south through the Elnhausen-Michelbacher depression , except for Dilschhausen ( Damshauser Kuppen ) .
- The half-left column also follows the depression, but extends east to the western slope of the Marburg Ridge .
- The middle crevice stretches from the eastern slope of the ridge to Marbach, east to the western bank of the Lahn ( Marburger Lahntalsenke ), in the case of Wehrda also to the eastern part of the valley.
- The half-right column only starts south (east) east of the Marburg city center and extends from the eastern Lahn valley to the western slope of the Lahnberge .
- The right column is on the eastern slope of the Lahnberge to the Amöneburg Basin .
The districts are distributed along the sketched lines as follows:
The older inner districts of the old town (excluding Ketzerbach, Zwischenhausen and Roten Graben), campus districts , Südviertel and Weidenhausen as well as the younger Waldtal district also have local advisory boards.
For statistical purposes, Marburg is also divided into 33 city districts: the 18 outer city districts and the core city, which is divided into 15 inner city districts (of which Ockershausen and Richtsberg each into two). The nominal core city has (as of December 31, 2016) 45,773 inhabitants, the inner city area, supplemented by Cappel, Wehrda and Marbach, 61,647, while the rural suburbs have 12,055 inhabitants.
In addition to the official structure, the city has 19 so-called district communities, which also act on a voluntary basis as home associations on the development of the districts. In addition to organizing events in a wide variety of areas, these associations take part in planning or contribute to urban development such as the construction of children's playgrounds or allotments with their own contributions. The district municipalities are called:
“The old city, which has always been famous for the last stay, death and burial of the holy Landgravine Elisabeth of Hesse, lies crooked, crooked and humped under an old castle, down the mountain.” That was the verdict of Marburg Professor Johann more than 200 years ago Heinrich Jung-Stilling on the city on the Lahn and at the same time praised that the city's surroundings were "beautiful and very pleasant".
Over the centuries almost unchanged in its essential components, the backdrop of the houses in the old town rises above the Lahn valley with the Marburg Castle as the city crown and the Elisabeth Church . This old town gives Marburg its characteristic appearance and is Marburg's tourist attraction.
Prehistory and early history
The first traces of settlement around Marburg are documented for the Würme Ice Age around 50,000 years ago. Scrapers and other tools were found both on the Lahn Mountains and in the area between the Neuhöfe and the Dammühle , which could indicate settlement during this period. There is also plenty of evidence for the Neolithic Age . During the transition of the population from hunters and gatherers to sedentary people who worked the soil, the natural conditions of the Amöneburg Basin with its fertile soils provided an attractive basis for this. Ceramic finds indicate settlement during this time. According to Demandt, cultures such as the Rössen culture or the Michelsberg culture collided here several times . Further cultural overlays can be traced on the basis of finds from the individual grave culture , cord ceramics and the bell beaker culture . The continued settlement of the Marburg area in the Bronze Age is evidenced , among other things, by numerous barrows from this period. Remains of a grave from the Younger Bronze Age can be seen in the New Botanical Garden . A crescent-shaped, reinforced structure on the nearby Schanzenkopf, the so-called Heimburg, can be attributed to the late Merovingian period and indicates a settlement around 700 AD.
City foundation and the Middle Ages
The first beginnings of the castle complex extend into the 9th / 10th. Century back. The first documentary mention of Marburg is for 1138/39; as a town in 1222. The residents probably moved to Marburg from the surrounding, now desolate, towns of Aldenzhausen, Lamersbach, Walpertshausen, Ibernhausen and Willmannsdorf. Due to the close proximity to the castle, Weidenhausen and Zahlbach became suburbs. Early on, a ring of castle mansions formed below the castle. Today Wolfsburg is enthroned on the site of the former Berlepschen Hof .
The city only gained great importance when Landgravine Elisabeth of Thuringia chose Marburg as the widow's residence in 1228. She had a hospital built in which she sacrificed herself in caring for the sick and infirm. Although Elisabeth died in 1231 at the age of 24, she is still considered the most important person who ever worked in Marburg. Many legends are told about them. She was canonized as early as 1235, and in the same year the Teutonic Order began to build the Elisabethkirche over her grave , the first purely Gothic church in Germany. Pilgrims from all over Europe came to the saint's grave and helped Marburg to flourish as a city. The pilgrims' cemetery was at the St. Michael's Chapel, called the little Michel .
Marburg as the cradle of Hesse
Between 1248 and 1604, Marburg was - with a few interruptions - the residence of the Landgraves of Hesse-Marburg . After the Landgraves of Thuringia died out in 1247, the Landgraviate should initially fall to the Wettins , but Sophie von Brabant , the daughter of Saint Elisabeth, had her son Heinrich proclaimed Landgrave in 1247 on Mader Heide near Fritzlar and in 1248 the citizens of Marburg her and Heinrich pay homage
In the following War of the Hessian-Thuringian Succession (1247–1264) Sophie fought for the independence of Hesse for Heinrich. He became the first ruler of the new Landgraviate of Hesse, raised to hereditary imperial prince status by King Adolf von Nassau in 1292 and the Landgraviate of Hesse was officially recognized under imperial law. The efforts to gain recognition were reflected in particular in the expansion of the city into a residence and fortress with the expansion of the city wall to include today's upper town. Around 1250 the suburb of Weidenhausen was given a stone bridge over the Lahn, which made it better connected to the city. Forty-eight years after construction work began on the Elisabeth Church, it was consecrated on May 1, 1283. The completion of the two towers meanwhile took another 50 years. Since the city continued to grow and the citizens of Marburg wanted a more representative building, they built the parish church of St. Mary as the third church after the castle church and the Elisabeth church to replace the Kilian's chapel. The Gothic choir was consecrated in 1297. There were also monasteries such as the Franciscan monastery at Barfüßertor and the Dominican monastery at Weidenhausen Bridge.
Loss of importance in favor of Kassel
When Heinrich I died in 1308, he divided the landgraviate into two parts, Upper Hesse and Lower Hesse . Lower Hesse with the Kassel residence and the cities of Homberg (Efze) , Melsungen and Rotenburg an der Fulda got his son Johann , Otto I got the area around Marburg, Gießen , Grünberg and Alsfeld with Upper Hesse . Since Johann died in 1311, Otto I reunited the two principal principalities and now resided alternately in Kassel and Marburg, so that Marburg lost its importance accordingly. In 1319, almost the entire city fell victim to a great fire. Otto I led a long feud against the Archbishop of Mainz, which his son Heinrich and his nephew Hermann II of Hesse continued and which ended in the Star Wars . Shortly after Otto I's death, under Heinrich II. In 1330 the hall of the Landgrave's Palace, whose prince's hall is considered the largest Gothic secular room in Germany, was built. As a result of the war armies moving through, the plague was brought into Marburg in 1348/49. At the end of the dispute with the Sterner-Ritterbund , under the leadership of Count von Ziegenhain, the latter attacked the town and castle unsuccessfully in 1373. After the death of Ludwig I , the son of Hermann II, the landgraviate was divided again between 1458 and 1500. Henry III. resided in Marburg from 1458 to 1483, Wilhelm III. 1483 to 1500. Since he died childless, the landgraviate was reunited under his cousin Wilhelm II .
Reformation, University and the Thirty Years War
Philipp I was born in Marburg in 1504 . Since his father, Landgrave Wilhelm II, died in 1509, he took over the reign at the age of 13. As a follower of Protestant doctrine, he became a champion of the Reformation in the German Empire. In 1527 the Landgrave founded the second Protestant university after Liegnitz (1526) , which has since been the most important economic factor for the city and has remained so to this day. The Philippinum grammar school and the Hessian Scholarship Institution , which is considered to be the oldest German student residence, also belonged to it.
In 1529, at the invitation of Philip the Magnanimous, the Marburg Religious Discussion took place at Marburg Castle in order to determine a common approach after the Worms Edict was confirmed again . This involved, among other things, the different views of Luther and Zwingli on the role of the Lord's Supper (see Lord's Supper dispute ).
After the death of Philip I on March 31, 1567, the Landgraviate of Hesse was divided among his four sons according to the ancient hereditary rules in the Hessian princely house : Wilhelm received the northern part now called Hessen-Kassel , Ludwig received Hesse-Marburg , Philipp Hesse-Rheinfels and Georg the southern part of the country, now called Hessen-Darmstadt. Since Philipp and Ludwig died childless in 1583 and 1604, these territories fell to the Kassel and Darmstadt lines. Marburg became part of the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel .
The four-part division of Hesse became a de facto division into two parts after 1604. The dispute over the succession of Hessen-Marburg and the denominational differences between the Lutheran Darmstadt and the Reformed Kassel line subsequently led to bitter opposition that lasted for decades.
Since the Thirty Years War
For decades, Darmstadt and Kassel fought against each other over the Marburg legacy, partly in the larger context of the Thirty Years War , in which Kassel fought with Sweden and Darmstadt on the side of the emperor. In 1623 the city and fortress of Marburg were temporarily taken by the troops of Tilly . Even the “main chord” of 1627, which awarded the Darmstadt legacy, could not end the dispute permanently. The Kassel Countess Amalie Elisabeth began the Hessian War in 1645 with the siege of Marburg , which she was able to end victoriously three years later. Upper Hesse was permanently divided, Marburg fell to Kassel, Gießen and the Hessian hinterland with Biedenkopf to Darmstadt. Marburg's importance then declined increasingly, it only played a role as an administrative seat and military base.
From 1807, the castle's fortifications were razed during the Napoleonic Wars . Marburg later becomes the capital of the Werra department as part of the Kingdom of Westphalia under Jérôme Bonaparte . The dissolution of the Teutonic Order in Marburg, which until then had an immense influence on the city, also took place at this time.
In 1850 the Kassel- Marburg railway line was opened and from 1852 it was extended to Frankfurt am Main ( Main-Weser Railway ). This gave Marburg a train station on the east bank of the Lahn , which greatly promoted urban development.
After the annexation of Kurhessen by Prussia in 1866, the university experienced a boom, which resulted in the city's rapid growth. Within a few decades the number of inhabitants tripled, the number of students increased tenfold. Quite a few Marburg citizens earned extra income by renting rooms to students. It was said: The people of Marburg live on a student under the roof and two goats in the cellar . The residents of the area mocked the citizens of Marburg.
With the annexation by Prussia, the city prospered. First parts of the city emerged outside the medieval city walls, but all of them to the right of the Lahn. After 1900 the until then exclusively agricultural areas on the left of the Lahn were also taken over. First allotment gardens were laid out there, followed by settlement buildings. I.a. the Marburger Spar- und Bauverein, founded in 1907, acquired land from the economist Hoffmann.
The connection to the other side of the Lahn was made by the Weidenhäuser Bridge built in the 13th century, the Elisabeth Bridge built in 1723 (later also called the Bahnhofsbrücke) and the Schützenpfuhl Bridge built in 1892 . In addition, four wooden bridges were built in Marburg between the stone bridges, which are three kilometers apart .
time of the nationalsocialism
In the course of a district reorganization, Marburg became a district in 1929 and at the same time enlarged to include the district of Ockershausen . In the Reichstag election in March 1933 , the NSDAP won 57.6% (Reich average 43.9%) in the new city district, the DNVP 11.1%, the SPD 13.5%, the center 5.8%, the KPD 4.8% and the DVP 3.6%. Immediately the National Socialists rigorously enforced the coordination of all clubs and associations in the city as well as the demonstrative book burning on the Kämpfrasen. Nevertheless, on June 17, 1934, Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen gave the last public speech at the university, known as the “ Marburg Speech ”, against the extensive claim to power of National Socialism. Two weeks later, the speechwriter Edgar Julius Jung and another political advisor and confidante of Papens, Herbert von Bose , were murdered in the course of the Röhmputsch .
On the night of November 9-10 , 1938 , the synagogue on Universitätsstrasse was burned down by members of the Marburg SA . That same night 31 Jews were arrested by the SA, mistreated and taken to the Buchenwald concentration camp . After months, 30 of them were released. In December 1941 and May and September 1942, the last 267 Jews from Marburg and the surrounding area were deported to concentration camps. The deportation of the Sinti and Roma from Marburg took place on March 23, 1943.
Marburg survived the Second World War with relatively little damage. Allied bombs destroyed around 4% of the city, including 281 apartments. The main railway station was deliberately attacked as an important railway junction and was badly damaged in a bombing raid on February 22, 1945, which is why there are relatively many houses from the post-war period in the station district. There are still numerous bomb craters on the Lahn Mountains. The chemical institute of the university, several clinic buildings, including the eye clinic and the surgical clinic, as well as the indoor riding arena on Ortenberg were destroyed. A few days earlier, US scouts had dropped leaflets with the following imprint: We want to protect Marburg and Bad Nauheim, we want to live with you later.
On March 28, 1945 around noon, the VII US Corps of the 3rd US Armored Division of the 1st US Army under Major General Maurice Rose reached Marburg. The city was surrendered without a fight by the acting mayor Walter Voss in denial of the order of the General Command in Kassel. The VII Corps had advanced from the Remagen / Rhine bridgehead over the Westerwald in the main thrust of today's B 255 , and had already reached the Dill on March 27th. Early in the morning on March 29, Maundy Thursday, the 3rd US Panzer Division, which had advanced to a line Dillenburg - Marburg the day before, swiveled on four separate routes, mostly on side roads, northwards in the direction of Paderborn, around the Ruhr basin (from the German Wehrmacht so called) to enclose quickly from the south. From Marburg, route four led north via Wetter, Frankenberg, Bad Wildungen and Fritzlar. The city was then occupied by Combat Command B of the 1st US Army.
In order to protect the remains of Paul von Hindenburg and his wife Gertrud as well as the Prussian kings Friedrich II ("the great") and Friedrich Wilhelm I ("soldier king ") from the advancing Red Army in January 1945 , the coffins were supposed to be used by the armed forces be stored in a Thuringian salt mine. The Americans, who conquered large parts of Thuringia, brought the famous dead to Marburg, where Hindenburg and his wife were finally buried in the north tower chapel of the Elisabethkirche . The coffin of Friedrich Wilhelm I is now in the Kaiser Friedrich Mausoleum in Potsdam; Friedrich II has been buried in a crypt at Sanssouci Palace since 1991 .
Development after the Second World War
As a result of the expulsions, Marburg had to accept a large number of refugees . Only since then has there been a large number of small and medium-sized industrial companies in the city. Due to the rapid population increase after the war and the resulting housing shortage, the Richtsberg development area for around 9,000 residents as well as the construction of the town hall, the large sports field and several schools were decided in 1963 at the municipal political level . In 1972, the redevelopment of the old town began with the formal definition of the first section. Since then, the historical structure of the old town has been carefully renovated. This is clearly visible in the cityscape through the still growing number of restored half-timbered buildings. In 1972 the 750th anniversary was celebrated and at the same time the Hessentag 1972 .
As part of the regional reform in Hesse , Marburg lost its district freedom on July 1, 1974. At the same time, the official name of the city of Marburg an der Lahn or Marburg ad Lahn was officially changed to Marburg (Lahn) . The city became the center of the new greater Marburg-Biedenkopf district and grew by more than fivefold in area through the incorporation of 13 surrounding communities, based on the population of the city by a third to 70,922. Since January 1st, 1977 the city is called Marburg . With the sale of a corner property on Biegenstrasse (where at the beginning of the 20th century the building contractor and speculator Weißkoopf had built tenement houses near the university clinic, where medical lecturers such as Ferdinand Sauerbruch moved in), the extensive redesign began in 1991 Marburg-Mitte area. These plans triggered heated discussions about the Biegeneck and the old slaughterhouse since the 1980s; this led to squatting and police operations.
With over 3900 employees and more than 21,000 students, the university is still the most important economic factor in the city. The associated university clinic , which has since been privatized and merged with its Giessen counterpart, employs over 4200 people in Marburg.
In 1982, a special rule introduced by the government coalition of CDU and SPD in 1982, which excluded the DKP from the opinion-forming process, caused a stir . After the so-called Marburg 15-vote quorum had caused protests and complaints, it was replaced a year later.
In 2009 the 6th International Congress for Psychotherapy and Pastoral Care took place in Marburg , which aroused public controversy and in the run-up to which the " Marburg Declaration " was issued.
Territorial history and administration
The following list gives an overview of the territories in which Marburg was located and the administrative units to which it was subordinate:
- before 1256: Court of the Landgraviate of Thuringia
- from 1256: Holy Roman Empire , Landgraviate of Hesse , Marburg Office
- from 1567: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate Hessen-Marburg , Marburg Office
- from 1605: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate Hessen-Darmstadt , Marburg Office
- from 1648: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate Hessen-Kassel , Marburg Office
- from 1803: Holy Roman Empire, Electorate of Hesse , Marburg Office
- from 1806: Electorate of Hesse, Marburg Office
- 1807–1813: Kingdom of Westphalia , department of Werra , district of Marburg , canton of Marburg
- from 1815: German Confederation , Electorate of Hesse, Marburg Office
- from 1821: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Province of Upper Hesse , District of Marburg (separation of justice ( district court Marburg ) and administration)
- from 1848: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Marburg district
- from 1851: German Confederation, Electorate of Hesse, Province of Upper Hesse, District of Marburg
- from 1866: North German Confederation , Kingdom of Prussia , Province of Hesse-Nassau , District of Kassel , District of Marburg
- from 1871: German Empire , Kingdom of Prussia, Province of Hessen-Nassau, District of Kassel, District of Marburg
- from 1918: German Empire, Free State of Prussia , Province of Hessen-Nassau, Administrative Region of Kassel, District of Marburg
- from 1929: German Empire, Free State of Prussia, Province of Hessen-Nassau, Administrative Region of Kassel, City of Marburg
- from 1944: German Empire, Free State of Prussia, Province of Kurhessen , District of Marburg
- from 1945: American zone of occupation , Greater Hesse , Kassel district, Marburg district
- from 1949: Federal Republic of Germany , State of Hesse , Kassel district, Marburg district
- from 1952: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, administrative district Kassel, district-free city of Marburg
- from 1974: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, Kassel district, Marburg-Biedenkopf district
- from 1981: Federal Republic of Germany, State of Hesse, Gießen district, Marburg-Biedenkopf district
Courts since 1821
With an edict of June 29, 1821, administration and justice were separated in Kurhessen. Now judicial offices were responsible for the first instance jurisdiction, the administration was taken over by the districts. The Marburg district was responsible for the administration and the Marburg district court was the court of first instance for Marburg. In 1850 the regional court was renamed the Marburg Justice Office. The Supreme Court was the Higher Appeal Court in Kassel . The newly created Marburg Higher Court for the province of Upper Hesse was subordinate . It was the second instance for the judicial offices.
After the annexation of Kurhessen by Prussia, the Marburg district court became the royal Prussian district court of Marburg in 1867 . In June 1867, a royal ordinance was issued that reorganized the court system in the areas that belonged to the former Electorate of Hesse. The previous judicial authorities were to be repealed and replaced by local courts in the first, district courts in the second and an appeal court in the third instance. In the course of this, on September 1, 1867, the previous judicial office was renamed the Marburg District Court. The courts of the higher authorities were the Marburg District Court and the Kassel Court of Appeal .
Even with the entry into force of the Courts Constitution Act of 1879, the district court remained under his name. In the Federal Republic of Germany, the superordinate instances are the Marburg Regional Court , the Frankfurt am Main Higher Regional Court and the Federal Court of Justice as the last instance.
Marburg was a garrison town for centuries . The history as a garrison goes back to the time the city was founded.
With the entry of the Prussian troops into Kurhessen in 1866, Marburg became the location of the 11th Prussian Jäger Battalion . In 1868 the old hunter barracks was built near the Kämpfrasen in the southern quarter. Further buildings followed in the years up to 1913, u. a. a drill house, the officers' mess and the district command.
After the First World War and as a result of the Treaty of Versailles , the Jäger battalion was replaced by a training battalion of the 15th Infantry Regiment of the Reichswehr . In the 1930s, new barracks were built, including the new Jägerkaserne on Kämpfrasen in 1937 and the Tannenberg barracks in the forest near Ockershausen in 1938.
The Bundeswehr took over these locations, with the 2nd Jäger Division stationed there from 1970 in the Jäger barracks. Telecommunications battalion 2, medical battalion 2 and a military police company were housed in the Tannenberg barracks. In the 1960s and 1970s, additional accommodations for the air defense were built there. The Roland air defense system was last stationed there, previously the Bofors L70 weapon system.
After reunification and the restructuring of the Bundeswehr, both barracks were abandoned by the Bundeswehr in the mid to late 1990s and converted into industrial areas by the urban development company. This ended the long tradition of the garrison town.
On January 1, 1931, the community of Ockershausen was incorporated into Marburg. With the regional reform in Hesse on July 1, 1974, the city of Marburg was merged with the districts of Marburg and Biedenkopf to form the new district of Marburg-Biedenkopf . At the same time, the communities of Bauerbach , Cappel , Cyriaxweimar , Dilschhausen , Elnhausen , Ginseldorf , Gisselberg , Haddamshausen , Hermershausen , Marbach , Schröck , Wehrda and Wehrshausen were incorporated into Marburg as districts .
Marburg only had a few thousand inhabitants in the Middle Ages and early modern times . The population grew only slowly and fell again and again due to the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. Numerous residents died when the plague broke out in 1348/49 and during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). Only with the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century did population growth accelerate. In 1800 only 6,000 people lived in the city, by 1905 there were already 20,000. As the population grew, so did the number of students. In 1866 only 264 people studied in Marburg, in 1907 it was 1,954 (including 28 female students for the first time), and in 1929 over 4,000 students were registered in the city.
By 1939 the population of Marburg rose to 28,000. Shortly after the Second World War , the influx of many refugees and expellees led to an increase in the population of 11,000 to 39,000 by the end of 1946. In 1964, Marburg had the highest housing deficit in the Federal Republic of Germany at 25.2 percent. Due to numerous incorporations, the city grew to 70,922 inhabitants on July 1, 1974. The number of students also continued to grow. In the winter semester 1945/46 2,543 people studied in Marburg, in the summer semester 1963 7,423; in the winter semester 2002/03 there were 18,540 (only half registered in Marburg with primary residence), in the winter semester 2010/11 already 21,833.
The closure of the two Bundeswehr locations at the beginning of the 1990s resulted in a "kink" in the population development. In the 2011 census, there was a discrepancy between the number of inhabitants and the previous update; on December 31, 2011 the official population of Marburg was 72,190 (compared to 81,147 from the update).
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1845 these are mostly estimates, then census results (1864–1939, 1946–1961, 1970 and 1987) or official updates from the State Statistical Office. From 1871, the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the place of the main residence”. Before 1871, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey procedures.
The religious importance of Marburg began in 1235 with the canonization of Elisabeth of Thuringia and the construction of the Elisabeth Church . After Rome and Santiago de Compostela , Marburg was one of the most important European pilgrimage sites at that time. It continued with the Reformation , which was supported and implemented by Philip the Magnanimous , and the associated construction of the world's first Protestant university . The university, in turn, created the wide religious spectrum that can be found in the city today.
In 721 Bonifatius built a small monastery and a new church below Amöneburg Castle, or he rededicated an Irish-Scottish predecessor church. Marburg did not have its own parish until 1227 when Marburg became a town. The local parish had previously been a branch of the mother church in Oberweimar . The German order took over after the death of St. Elizabeth whose Hospital and built in her honor, the Elizabeth Church. Spiritual life was dominated by Catholicism until the Reformation, which is evidenced by the presence of numerous orders such as the Brothers of Common Life ("Kugelherren"), the Augustinians or the Franciscans (barefooted). With the Reformation , Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous took over Protestant teaching and at the same time forbade Catholicism. It was not until 1788 that the Catholic teaching in Marburg was permitted again.
The Protestant parishes of Marburg belong to the parish of Marburg in the Marburg district within the Evangelical Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck . They have important church buildings in the city center, including the Elisabeth Church , the parish church of St. Mary and the University Church and also old village churches in the outskirts of the city.
The Roman Catholic parishes belong to the diocese of Fulda . With the territorial reform in 1974, the three Catholic villages Ginseldorf, Bauerbach and Schröck came from the former Mainz area to Marburg.
Free churches and evangelical communities have existed in Marburg since the 19th century.
The Evangelical Free Church Congregation was founded in 1840 and is one of the oldest German Baptist congregations . Its community center is the Uferkirche, consecrated in 1957. Since 1958 it has also had a student residence.
Of the so-called old confessional churches , only the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church is represented in Marburg . The Christ-Treff Marburg is an ecumenical community in which free-church as well as Protestant-regional church and Catholic leaders work. As a whole, it is part of the Evangelical Church and integrated into the EKD via the “TGG” (“Meeting of Spiritual Communities”) network.
Five evangelical communities work in Marburg. They belong under the umbrella of the Evangelical Gnadauer Gemeinschaftverband e. V. This is an umbrella organization of German community movements and works within the Protestant regional churches in Germany. There is also a group of German Jesus freaks , the Catholic Apostolic Congregation and the Brethren Congregation in Marburg .
Christian communities in Marburg
- Communities within the Protestant regional churches (Gnadauer Verband)
- Evangelical Community of Cappel
- Evangelical Community of Marburg-Ortenberg
- Evangelical Community Marburg-Süd
- Evangelical Community Wehrda Hebrongemeinde
- Evangelical City Mission Marburg (Chrischona parish)
- Association of Evangelical Free Churches VEF
- Evangelical Free Church Congregation, Baptists, Uferkirche
- Evangelical Methodist Church, UMC, Christ Church
- Anskar Church Marburg, Evangelical Free Congregation
- Free Evangelical Congregation, FeG
- Seventh-day Adventists, STA
- Christian community, light of hope, Russian-German community, in the BfP
- Ecumenical Communities
- Christ meeting
- Old denominational churches
- SELK, Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church, MR
- Catholic Church in Marburg-Kernstadt
- Catholic Church in Marburg districts
- Wehrda St. Martin (to St. Peter and Paul), Catholic
- Cappel St. Francis in conjunction with Our Lady, Catholic
- Bauerbach / Ginseldorf (Bauerbach parish office)
- Schröck / Moischt (Schröck parish)
- Bortshausen, Ronhausen (St. Franziskus Cappel)
- Gisselberg, Cyriaxweimar, Haddamshausen, Hermershausen, Wehrshausen, Elnhausen, Dagobertshausen, Michelbach (to St. Johannes Kugelkirche with branch church in Wenkbach)
- Evangelical Church in the City of Marburg (core city)
- Elisabeth Church, Protestant
- Evangelical Church on Richtsberg to MR
- Lukaskirche, Protestant
- Lutheran Parish Church of St. Mary
- St. Mark's Church, Protestant (Marbach)
- Matthäuskirche, Protestant, Ockershausen
- Pauluskirche, Protestant
- University church, Protestant
- Evangelical church in the Marburg districts
- Bauerbach / Ginseldorf (Bauerbach parish office)
- Moischt / Schröck (Wittelsberg parish office) *
- Bortshausen, Ronhausen (Cappel parish office)
- Gisselberg, Cyriaxweimar (Niederweimar parish office) *
- Hermershausen / Haddamshausen (Oberweimar parish office) *
- Wehrshausen (Elnhausen Parish Office)
- Elnhausen / Dagobertshausen (Elnhausen Parish Office)
- Dilschhausen, Dilschhausen (Weitershausen rectory) *
- Parish office outside of Marburg
Ecumenism in Marburg
The Working Group of Christian Churches in Marburg (ACK) is a federation of Christian churches and communities to promote ecumenical cooperation and the unity of Christians and the churches. Conversations, encounters and church services promote mutual understanding.
The Evangelical Alliance is a federation of Christians from different Christian churches, communities, Christian groups and works. The work of the Evangelical Alliance Marburg is carried out by a working group, which serves the exchange, the common prayer and the assumption of common responsibility. Evangelistic, pastoral and diaconal activities are planned and accompanied.
These two supraregional, ecumenical working groups bring people of different Christian backgrounds together for a common Whit Monday service, the Alliance prayer week at the beginning of the year; to worship for the unity of the church.
Central Christian Works based in Marburg
- Headquarters of the German Community Diakonieverband DGD . The German Diaconal Association (DGD), based in Marburg, is an association of diaconal-missionary institutions in the Evangelical Gnadauer Community Association with diaconal institutions in Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the USA and Brazil.
- The Marburg Mission is an evangelical mission organization based in Marburg with branches in Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, East Africa, Brazil, Spain and Russia.
- Headquarters of the student mission in Germany SMD. The SMD is a Germany-wide network of Christians in schools, universities and the academic world of work (founded in 1949 as a student mission in Germany eV).
- Compassion Germany is the German branch of Compassion International, one of the largest Christian children's aid organizations in the world.
Christian training centers
- Department of Protestant Theology at the Philipps University of Marburg
- Evangelical University of Tabor
- Catholic Theological Seminar
- Marburg Education and Study Center (MBS)
There was a Jewish community in Marburg for the first time in the Middle Ages. A large number of Jewish families lived in Judengasse in the first half of the 14th century. After expulsions in the 14th and 16th centuries, the community grew to over 500 members into the 20th century. Already at the beginning of National Socialism, many Jews moved away or emigrated. 77 Jews who remained in Marburg were deported to Riga or Theresienstadt and to extermination camps in the east and murdered in 1941/42. In the 1980s a new Jewish community was founded. On November 26, 2005, a new synagogue was inaugurated in Liebigstrasse. In 2006 there were about 350 people in the community. On November 28, 2010, the Jewish community inaugurated the first new Torah scroll since the Shoah .
At the place where the synagogue formerly stood, which was destroyed by the National Socialists , is now the "Garden of Remembrance". A copper model shows the appearance of the synagogue, a stone with an inscription explains the importance of this place.
According to official information, around 5000 Muslims live in Marburg. Marburg has had a mosque since 1986, the Omar-Ibn-Al-Khattab Mosque . It is supported by the association "Orientbrücke Marburg e. V. “This association belongs to the Islamic Community Germany e. V. (IGD) and like this is discussed in the Federal Constitutional Protection Report. The IGD was the original sponsor of the mosque. It is considered the German headquarters of the Muslim Brotherhood . This organization's connections extend to groups that are suspected of supporting Islamic terrorism. In 2002 the association "Islamic School" was founded, which was renamed "Orientbrücke". Since then, the Marburg mosque has been formally independent of the IGD. A Muslim cemetery is located in a section of the municipal cemetery in the Ockershausen district .
On June 21, 2013 the foundation stone was laid for an Islamic cultural center with a mosque in the “Bei St. Jost” district. In addition to the prayer room, there will be space in the building for a cafeteria, a delicatessen, a library and multifunctional rooms; everything should be accessible to the public. The construction costs of around 1.8 million euros are financed by donations.
There is also a community of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat on Uferstrasse and the Dar-Al-Salem Mosque on Friedrich-Ebert-Strasse. An arson attack was carried out on the latter on November 10, 2017.
With a Shambhala center, Marburg is also one of the larger European Buddhist centers. The community consists of around 50 to 120 practitioners. It is a member of the German Buddhist Union , is listed by Shambhala International and is a member of the European Buddhist Union through Shambhala Europe. There are also a number of other religious groups that came to Marburg not least through the university.
A Wicca coven is documented for 1995 . Marion Näser-Lather conducted topic-centered interviews with Wicca from the Marburg area in 2012.
The local elections on March 6, 2016 produced the following results, compared to previous local elections:
||Parties and constituencies||%
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||31.3||18th||37.3||22nd||33.0||20th|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||28.1||16||23.0||14th||32.0||19th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||15.1||9||22.6||13||17.6||10|
|Marburg left||Marburg left||13.8||8th||7.4||4th||8.8||5|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||4.5||3||2.5||2||4.9||3|
|MBL||Marburg Citizens List||1.7||1||2.5||2||3.2||2|
|BfM||Citizens for Marburg||4.4||3||2.2||1||-||-|
|PIRATES||Pirate Party Germany||1.1||1||1.9||1||-||-|
|APPD||Anarchist Pogo Party of Germany||-||-||0.5||0||0.6||0|
|ödp||Ecological Democratic Party||-||-||0.1||0||-||-|
|Voter turnout in%||45.8||50.7||43.9|
The meetings of the 59-member city council usually take place once a month. Since the local elections in 2016, an alliance of the SPD , CDU and Citizens for Marburg (BfM), which is called ZiMT (Cooperation in Marburg Issues), has had the majority and thus the sovereignty .
Mayor Thomas Spies , who was elected directly in June 2015 and has been in office since December 1, 2015, is a member of the SPD; his deputy, the building and regulatory affairs department, Mayor Wieland Stötzel, is provided by the CDU.
In the first round of the mayoral election in 2015, none of the candidates could achieve an absolute majority. Thomas Spies (SPD, 42.8%) received the most votes , followed by Dirk Bamberger (CDU, 35.2%). In the runoff election on June 28, with a turnout of 38.9%, Spies received 60% of the vote and was thus elected. The election became necessary after Egon Vaupel (SPD) announced his resignation from office on November 30, 2015.
coat of arms
The Marburg city coat of arms was designed by the Berlin heraldist Emil Doepler and introduced by resolution of the Marburg city council on March 25, 1895. It is based on the equestrian seal of the Thuringian Landgrave on a city document from the period between 1248 and 1257; the equestrian representation of the seal goes back to the time of Landgrave Ludwig IV († 1227). The coat of arms is thus an example of the common practice in the 19th century of replacing city coats of arms that are no longer known or perceived as insufficiently representative with motifs from seals. In today's municipal regulations , the use of the city and municipality coats of arms is often prescribed in the official seals.
Blazon according to Heinz Ritt : “In red with a silver hem on a silver horse, an armored knight with a silver, gold-decorated helmet and a blue tunic, in his right hand a red-rimmed lance with a gold tip a gold-fringed, three-lipped silver flag, inside in gold with a blue border blue gothic M, holding a shield on the left , inside in blue a soaring, gold-crowned lion, divided seven times by silver and red . "In older depictions the landgrave has a blue tunic and an entirely gold flag, in other depictions both are silver. The flag carried by the city is divided into blue, white and red.
Declaration of coat of arms: The knight in the coat of arms of the city of Marburg is the armored Hessian landgrave riding a white horse, his shield (Hessenschild) shows the Hesse lion . The coat of arms on the flag has been replaced by the traditional Marburg “M”, blue on gold, the actual city symbol (markings). The city flag is derived from this logo : the red of the background, the white of the horse and the blue of the shield create the city colors horizontally from top to bottom.
The city carries a longitudinally striped banner in the colors blue, white and red. It is shown in three variants.
There has been a twinning with the French city of Poitiers since 1961 . This partnership can be traced back to the relationship between the two resident universities. In 1969 the sisterhood took place with the Slovenian city of the same name Maribor (Marburg an der Drau), in 1971 with Sfax in Tunisia . In 1988 the sisterhood certificate was signed with the city of Eisenach in Thuringia , which at that time still belonged to the GDR . The people in charge wanted to set an example for international understanding and to overcome the division of Germany and to clarify the relations between the two cities through the work of St. Elisabeth. The town twinning with Northampton in England developed through the partnership between the two towns and the French city of Poitiers and led to a sibling in 1992. The last town twinning was concluded in 2005 with Sibiu / Hermannstadt in Romania , as there were already many contacts at university, school, church and cultural level. In 1980, the city was awarded the Council of Europe flag of honor in recognition of its commitment to the partnership .
In June 2008, the Marburg city parliament, with the votes of the SPD , Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and the Left, passed the so far unique and controversial Marburg solar statutes. According to this, with a few exceptions, all building owners in Marburg are to be obliged to install solar thermal systems for new buildings or major changes to roofs or heating systems . The regional president of Giessen repealed this decision on October 7, 2008. The city of Marburg has brought an action against this ruling at the Administrative Court of Gießen. In March 2010, the Ministry of Economic Affairs did not agree to a settlement negotiated between the city of Marburg and the regional council on the advice of the Gießen Administrative Court. In May 2010 the administrative court dismissed the lawsuit. The city of Marburg has not appealed against the judgment, but has drawn up a new version of the statutes. This submission passed the municipal authorities in the following September and was passed on October 29, 2010 by the city council.
Citizen information system
The city of Marburg operates a citizen information system, with the help of which citizens can find out about the political bodies. Here the next meetings are announced with their agenda, and information (name, party affiliation, function and contact) on the local politicians can be viewed.
|Debt level in € m||100.0||96.6||96.1||109.3||115.2||110.7||107.6||70.3||58.9||59.1||69.2||68.3||67.4||86.7||108.8|
Theater and cinema
The Hessian State Theater Marburg is the youngest of the six large Hessian theaters with five local venues and additional open-air performances. Every year since 1995 the "Hessian Children and Youth Theater Week" with a workshop program for school classes and teachers for performing games from the region has taken place here.
There are currently five independent theaters in Marburg, some of which receive municipal support. The GegenStand theater, founded in 1989 in the “Waggonhalle” cultural center , predominantly performs its own productions and focuses on a “variety of forms, content and methods”, including theater education. In 2003, the improvisational theater group Fast Forward Theater was founded as an offshoot ; The game is played in changing locations. The Marburger Theaterwerkstatt Theater besides the Tower (TNT) (until October 2018 german stage service ) in the former gasworks on Afföllerwiesen is an institution that was founded in 1983 and aims to be a place for “new artistic positions” and “social discourses”. The TNT offers artists a stage, promotes young theater players and develops its own performances. Studio Beisel opened in May 2018 at Ketzerbach-Straße 42. It is managed by Kajetan Skurski and Laurenz Raschke and sees itself as a diverse location for “spatial art and events”. There is a puppet theater in the Marburg district of Weidenhausen : the blue stage (founded in 2011). Hohnsteiner puppet figures, stick figures and marionettes are used as figures, with which the players mainly perform self-developed pieces for children.
The Schnaps & Poesie Theater , which was closed in 2009, was the smallest theater in Marburg. In changing, very small venues (each with approx. 20 seats), audio theater was offered in the form of scenic readings. From 2010 to 2013 there was the little comedy founded by the former head director of the Marburger Landestheater Peter Radestock , which turned to the upscale boulevard theater with its own productions. The Little Comedy closed in November 2013 . Furthermore, there are occasional performances by student theater groups and performances by the schools.
With around half a million admission tickets sold annually (with a catchment area of around 253,000 inhabitants in the district), the cinema plays an important role in leisure activities. In addition to 14 commercially operated cinemas at three locations - including seven in the Marburger Cineplex - the offer also includes the independent and non-commercial cinema in the trauma cultural center in the g-werk ( trauma cinema ). In summer, large screen screenings take place on the open-air stage in the castle park. Since 1994, the International Short Film Festival shows Open Eyes Film Festival , every year, recent productions in the public competition. Since 2006, the Marburg Children's and Youth Film Festival Final Cut has been held annually in the Cineplex in cooperation with the Department of Culture and Youth Promotion of the City of Marburg . The Marburg Camera Talks with the Marburg Camera Prize are an annual event for the specialist audience and film buffs.
The town hall in Biegenstrasse opposite the Audimax lecture hall building of the university has been completely renovated and expanded since June 11, 2013. When it reopened in 2016, the building was named Erwin-Piscator -Haus, named after the theater director (1893–1966) who grew up in Marburg. In addition to the KFZ cultural center and the Hessian State Theater, “Marburg Tourismus und Marketing GmbH” also moved into the Piscator House.
In addition to three private galleries that have existed for many years - Galerie Henke, Galerie Schmalfuß and LOG-Gallery - Marburg offers several accessible artist studios and many other exhibition venues and museums , five of which belong to the university.
Museum of Art and Cultural History
The Museum for Art and Cultural History Marburg has facilities at two locations. In addition to changing exhibitions, the collection at Biegenstrasse 11 shows works of expressive realism (e.g. by the Marburg artist Franz Frank ) and pointillism (especially by Paul Baum ), as well as art from the 17th to 20th centuries, contemporary art such as paintings by Bernard Schultze , Dieter Krieg and Harald Häuser , works by Carl Bantzer and Otto Ubbelohde and the Willingshausen School . A collection of casts of ancient statues can also be seen here. The building was opened in 1927 as a gift from the Marburg University Association for the 400th anniversary of the university and has been renovated since 2011, with the museum being redesigned (new tours, new entrance and service area).
A ceramic collection in the Landgrafenschloss shows Marburg earthenware and stoneware from Hesse and the Westerwald. In the Wilhelmsbau of the castle, the cultural history collections are housed on five floors. There are also changing special exhibitions.
The Marburg Ethnological Collection is located in the Institute of Ethnology of the University of Marburg at Kugelgasse 10. It permanently houses more than 5,000 objects and is made up of many different (private) sub-collections. The often used opportunity to actively organize exhibitions on ethnology and work directly on the objects is attractive for students . The exhibited objects cover a wide field, but the focus is clearly on (everyday) objects of indigenous groups in the Amazon region .
The Mineralogical Museum Marburg owns around 45,000 minerals, 50,000 rock samples, several thousand raw gemstone samples and 150 meteorites. The largest mineralogical collection in Hesse is considered by experts to be one of the most important in Germany. It was created as a teaching and research collection of the Institute for Mineralogy at the University of Marburg.
The theologian and religious philosopher Rudolf Otto founded the religious history collection , the Museum of Religion , in 1927 . After several moves, it is located in the “ New Chancellery ” at Landgraf-Philipp-Straße 4. Cult figures, pictures and icons, scrolls, ritual objects, house altars and various models and replicas are exhibited, sorted according to the topics of ancient America, ancient Egypt and religions Africa, religions of South and East Asia ( Hinduism , Buddhism , Daoism , Confucianism , Shintō and Tenrikyō ) and monotheistic religions ( Judaism , Christianity , Islam ). Here, too, special exhibitions on changing themes are offered. The Marburg Religious History Collection is one of the few museums that specialize exclusively in the representation of religion, along with facilities in Glasgow and Saint Petersburg. Visiting the collection is possible as part of pre-booked tours.
The Museum anatomicum is located in the attic of the Institute for Cytobiology . About 2000 specimens from the period from 1650 to 1920 are on display, including specimens from the field of systematic and topographical anatomy , embryology and deformity theory stored in formalin-filled glass containers . Another focus is a collection of bones and skeletons. It shows, for example, the skulls of those executed, preparations for skull and tooth development or the racial skull collection. Anatomical devices, surgical instruments and old microscopes are also on display. A well-known unique item is the “ Marburger Lenchen ”, the prepared corpse of a pregnant woman who drowned in the Lahn.
The new Marburg art gallery of the art association was opened in 2000 on the site of the former slaughterhouse at Gerhard-Jahn-Platz 5. On over 500 square meters, it offers changing exhibitions on contemporary art.
In the Bahnhofstrasse 7 building of Marburg University there is the permanent exhibition Blood is a very special juice on the first floor , which provides information about Emil von Behring , the first Nobel Prize winner in medicine . The exhibition is the second of twelve stations on the eight-kilometer-long Marburg Behring Route, which leads past the places where this important Marburger lived and worked.
In the 1st German Police Oldtimer Museum in Herrmannstraße 200 (on Kreisstraße 69) over 70 historical police vehicles can be viewed. With further exhibits such as technical material and photos related to the motorization of the German police, the museum represents the largest collection of police vehicles in Germany; its holdings are often used for historical film and television productions.
The Childhood Museum was opened in 1979 in the private sponsorship of Helge Ulrike and Charles Barry Hyams in the Hüterschen Villa at Barfüßertor. By the end of 2008 it had a glimpse into childhood over the past two centuries and had a collection of Jewish children's books. Toys from the years 1850 to 1950, a play zoo with 600 toy animals and miniature buildings, historical children's and school books, an insight into the “Marburg Puppet Clinic”, a historical classroom from before the First World War and other exhibits were also on display . In the medium term, the Childhood Museum is to find a new home together with the circus archive and an exhibition by the German Study Institute for the Blind in a new museum center on the wagon hall area on Ortenberg.
The New Literary Society Association organizes readings, an average of 30 a year, in a café in Marburg's old town . “Literatur um 11” has been taking place since 1974. The program ranges from literary chansons to historical lectures, from current fiction to poetry and philosophy of life .
Marburg is home to several archives of major national importance .
- The Hessian State Archives Marburg is responsible for the documents accumulating at the state authorities in the Kassel administrative district and parts of the Gießen administrative district.
- The Photo Archive Photo Marburg is the German documentation center for art history and has an image archive on European art and architecture with around 1.7 million original photographs.
- In the photo archive of older original documents are documents received that were written in Germany before 1250, stored and documented photographically.
Other important archives are:
- University archive of the Philipps University of Marburg
- Archive of the German Institute for the Blind and the International Documentation Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, houses documents, newspaper clippings and the like on the history of the international system for the blind and visually impaired as well as the German Institute for the Blind
- Herder Institute for Historical Research Central Europe , includes a research library, a newspaper archive, image archive, a collection of maps and a collection of documents (classic archival) with significant stocks for the history, culture and civilization of East Central Europe
- Archive of the Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies , houses a field name archive for the area of the former Prussian province of Hessen-Nassau
- Behring archive , houses materials and documents relating to Emil von Behring as well as the history of the Behring factories
- Corpus of the Minoan and Mycenaean seals , houses imprints and photos of Minoan and Mycenaean seals as well as publications about them
- German language atlas of the Research Institute for the German Language, contains handwritten and printed documents, maps, image and sound documents on the history of dialects and regional languages in Germany and their change over time. A dedicated new building for the language atlas and the associated research institute was built on the former brewery site and was completed in April 2016.
- German aristocratic archives , evidence and family tree of all German aristocratic families
- Research center for personal documents at the Philipps University of Marburg, an institution unique in Europe, identifies and catalogs funeral sermons that were printed between 1550 and 1750
- Georg Büchner Research Center (FGB), research and development of publications on the life, work and impact of Georg Büchner
- Manuscript and legacy archive of the university library , houses volumes with Marburg lecture transcripts, student registers, volumes with university statutes and regulations as well as more or less extensive legacies and partial legacies of Marburg professors such as B. Friedrich Carl von Savignys and Paul Natorps
- The Kant research archive of the Philipps University, houses original writings by the philosopher Immanuel Kant, is not accessible to museums
- Photo archive of older original documents , collects all documents kept in Germany that were written before 1250, and documents them photographically
- Religions in Germany - archive with documentation center, houses extensive holdings of so-called gray literature from religious communities in Germany and documents current religious history
- City archive, the central city office for all questions about the history of the city of Marburg, houses documents for the documentation of city life in Marburg since the Middle Ages
- Central archive of German folk talesin the Institute for European Ethnology / Cultural Studies at Philipps University , houses a large collection of legends and fairy tales
- Circus - variety - and artists archive, home programs, costumes, props and photos from the circus, and vaudeville Artisten- area
sport and freetime
From a sporting perspective, the women's basketball ladies of BC Marburg , who have been an integral part of the 1st women's basketball league since 1992 and became German champions and cup winners in 2003, as well as the footballers of the Marburg Mercenaries , founded in 1991 , are their figureheads Play games in the Georg-Gaßmann-Stadion with a capacity of 12,000 , won the European EFAF Cup in 2005 and became German runner-up in 2006. Another Marburg team in the 1st Bundesliga are the Marburg Saints, founded in 2004, the lacrosse club of VfL 1860 Marburg. The Skwosch-Fösche Marburg have been represented in the Squash Bundesliga since 2014 . The table tennis Bundesliga has also ceased to exist in Marburg in summer 2009 after TTV Gönnern , who played some of its home league games in Marburg, withdrew from the German elite class.
In football , VfB Marburg (after relegation from the Hessenliga ) and the district club FSV Schröck are represented in the association league . The SSG Blista Marburg , German champions in 2008, playing for the university town in the blind football Bundesliga .
The gym wheel department of TSV Marburg-Ockershausen is one of the most successful gym wheel teams in Germany with over a dozen national championship titles and nine world championships. With Laura Stullich , Victoria Hennighausen and Friederike Schindler , the club provided three world champions.
The Kurhessische Verein für Luftfahrt (KVfL) with the Marburg-Schönstadt airfield is one of the oldest aviation clubs in Germany. With around 300 members today and the four branches of model flight , powered flight , glider flight and ballooning , the association is also active nationwide. One of his most successful members in terms of sport is the two-time glider world champion Werner Meuser . In the immediate vicinity of the airport in Cölbe-Bernsdorf is the 18-hole golf course of the Upper Hessian Golf Club Marburg, built in 2003.
One of the oldest clubs that practice weight training in Germany is the Athleten Club 1888 Marburg sports association .
Even among the volunteer fire brigades , Marburg is always characterized by a district fire brigade (Marburg-Michelbach), which successfully represents Marburg in district, district and state decisions.
Three cultural centers provide a wide range of concerts in the fields of rock , pop , hip-hop , a cappella , tango , ska , punk , reggae and world music . Clubs like the Jazz Initiative Jazzinitiative MarburgJIM and the Folk Club Marburg complete the offer. In the field of classical music there is an active concert club, two young symphony orchestra , namely the Student Symphony Orchestra Marburg and the Young Marburg Philharmonic , and many choirs in the city area, including the Marburg Bach Choir , the Marburg concert choir and associated with the University of University Choir Marburg . There are always compilations with various Marburg bands. The best-known publications are the CDs Wildwechsel and the CD “MR-CD 06421”, each of which presents 20 bands from the Marburg music scene. The CD series "MR-CD 06421" appeared in several editions and was initiated by the Oberhessische Presse, the city magazine Express and the cultural manager George Lindt.
Discos and trendy restaurants
There are several discos in Marburg that have existed for decades. The older ones include the Till Dawn (formerly Kult ) in the south of the city, and the newer ones include the Club Nachtsalon . In addition to three commercial discos, there are numerous after-work parties as well as events in the orbit of student self-administration and university politics (student council parties , solidarity parties ). The KFZ and Café Trauma are popular and well attended among students . Many trendy bars and lounges have also established themselves throughout the city.
Every year at the end of February or beginning of March, the Ultra Sport Club Marburg hosts the Marburg Lahntallauf . The 10 km circuit of the route of this ultramarathon (further distances 10 km, half marathon, 30 km and marathon) leads along the Lahn and through the Cappeler Feld. The German 50 km road championships have already been integrated into this event several times .
In mid-March, the “Marburg Camera Prize” will be awarded in Marburg as part of the Marburg Camera Talks . In addition, the Hessisches Landestheater Marburg organizes a children's and youth theater week.
On the second weekend in April, the Marburg Spring takes place across the city. For this, the university town is decorated with spring flowers. Flower girls give away thousands of flowers to passers-by and there is a varied program on Sundays when shopping is open. The flea market and a bicycle exchange also take place in Weidenhausen on Sunday. In addition, various small artists are represented with music, comedy and acrobatics.
From the last weekend in April, the spring fair will take place on the exhibition grounds for nine days . On the evening of the last day of April, traditional May singing begins at midnight . The next day (May 1st) in the morning is marked by demonstrations and rallies by the trade unions , followed by a party in the afternoon.
The harbor festival takes place every year at the beginning of May .
On Corpus Christi day , the KFZ cultural center organizes the a cappella festival Night of Voices on the open-air stage in the castle park. In the first week of June, the Marburg Cultural Office organizes the Ramba Zamba children's festival .
From 1977 to 2006, as well as 2008 and 2009, the “Uni-Sommerfest” always took place on the last Friday in June on a cordoned-off inner city area in Biegenstrasse between the lecture hall building and the town hall with five stages. After there had been no “university summer festival” for a few years, summer festivals took place again in 2014 and 2015, albeit at the end of May and at the Landgrafenschloss.
In July the city festival 3 Tage Marburg (3TM) takes place regularly with six markets, ten stages with 60 rock and pop bands as well as 12 classical ensembles and soloists, free beer tapping, the dragon boat cup and a fireworks display on the Schlossberg. Also in July, always two weeks after 3TM, the international short film festival OpenEyes Filmfest begins .
In the months of July and August, the Marburg Summer Academy offers courses on art, theater and music. The KFZ association also organizes the Summer in the City street festival at the beginning of August , while the Waggonhalle cultural center organizes the Marburg Variety Summer between mid-August and mid-September . In September, the willow houses hold their traditional farm festival .
Autumn is ushered in every year on the second weekend in October with the Elisabethmarkt . It is the largest open-air event that takes place in the fall of Marburg's city center. In addition to a supporting program of the fair, Sunday is open for sales. At the same time, the Weidenhausen duck race will take place on Sunday .
The pre-Christmas season begins in Marburg on the Friday before the first Advent with Marburg b (u) y Night .
Marburg b (u) y Night is a city illumination project that has been taking place in Marburg since 2006 and attracts tens of thousands of viewers every year. On the last Friday in November, over 30 public buildings, squares, sights and objects are staged with light and video installations. Under the motto “Sparkling lights and shopping pleasure”, there will be a shopping Friday evening with numerous illuminated shops, restaurants, hotels as well as banks and private buildings.
In the evening of Marburg b (u) y Night , the Advent market at the town hall and the Christmas market around the Elisabeth Church also open . The official opening of both markets will take place on the following Saturday with the Christmas Oratorio in the Elisabeth Church and brass music by candlelight.
A special event at the beginning of a new year between 1998 and 2007 was the screening of the film Feuerzangenbowle from 1944 on the last Friday in January on a big screen on the Rathausplatz.
The MaNo Festival (“Marburg Northampton Poitiers Festival”) is organized by the Marburg Musicians Association every year at the beginning of March . For three days over 60 bands from Marburg and the twin cities of Northampton, Poitiers and Maribor play in 15 Marburg clubs and pubs.
Without seasonal reference
Due, among other things, to the humanities subject areas of the university such as German studies (“Newer German Literature and Media”), there are also many offers in the field of literature in Marburg. In addition to several literary associations with different focuses, the “Café Vetter” hosts events from the literature lecture series every Sunday at 11 am, a regular poetry slam takes place in the KFZ , and once a month there is also late-night reading in the jazz bar “Cavete” and “ Punk and Poetry ”in the upper town pub“ Schlucke ”.
The Marburg Literature Prize of the university town of Marburg and the Marburg-Biedenkopf district was awarded every two years between 1980 and 2005. In 2006, the district administrator of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district and the mayor of the city of Marburg decided to discontinue the award. Instead, the city of Marburg wants to promote children's and young people's literature more than before.
The Marburg Chemical Center, not a museum, but a kind of test laboratory was set up in 2005 for children and young people. The initiative came from the University of Marburg.
Sightseeing and tourism
Marburg and its surroundings offer numerous sights. Tourism is a not inconsiderable economic factor in the university town. The main attractions are the Elisabeth Church , the castle and the historic old town. For overnight stays, Marburg offers the campsite and a whole range of hotels and guesthouses in all price categories, the DJH Youth Hostel in Jahnstraße ( Weidenhausen ), which has offered 167 beds for many years and remains in the immediate vicinity of the Lahn and the university stadium, but in January 2020 has been closed. In 2009 the city had 562,653 overnight stays with 5974 beds. City tours (also on special topics such as fairy tales , romantic epochs etc.) as well as fairy tale tours in the area to the “scenes” of the Grimm fairy tales and the German Fairy Tale Route illustrated by the painter Otto Ubbelohde can be booked at the tourist information office. Every Saturday from April to October there are casemate tours through the castle's underground fortifications . The oldest sacred building in Marburg, the Romanesque Martinskirche , is located in the Michelbach district .
The Elisabethkirche, popularly known as the "E-Kirche", is the earliest purely Gothic church building on German soil and probably the most famous building in Marburg. It was built by the Teutonic Order , whose branch, the Deutschhaus , is located in the immediate vicinity of the Elisabeth Church. The Elisabethkirche was built by the Teutonic Order in honor of St. Elisabeth of Thuringia , whose tomb was in the church. Construction began in the year of her canonization (1235) and was completed in 1283. This made Marburg an important place of pilgrimage in the late Middle Ages .
The church is considered a masterpiece of early German Gothic . It is one of the first purely Gothic hall churches in the German cultural area. With the Liebfrauenkirche in Trier , it is the first purely Gothic church in the German-speaking area. She is considered a role model for Cologne Cathedral .
The Landgrave Castle rises to the west, visible from afar, above the city and the Lahn valley, which runs in a north-south direction. The Schlossberg has a height of Marburg Ridge - a red sandstone highland. Due to the relatively steep valley flanks, there was a very good fortification starting point for the construction of a medieval castle, which has undergone numerous structural changes in the subsequent period and up to the present day.and forms an extension of the
In addition to its historical significance as the first residence of the Landgraviate of Hesse, the castle is of great artistic and architectural historical interest. In addition to the components from the 11./12. Century especially the castle from the second half of the 13th century, which still determines the overall impression of the complex today. The palace chapel and the hall building with the great hall or prince's hall, which is one of the largest and highest quality secular Gothic halls in Central Europe, are outstanding achievements in European castle architecture.
Today, parts of the castle are used by the Marburg University Museum for Cultural History , which houses a large collection of exhibits on the history of the region since the Stone Age. Theater performances, concerts and other cultural events such as medieval markets etc. also take place here.
The open-air cinema on the open-air stage in the palace gardens , which takes place between May and September, is also popular .
Building of the spherical gentlemen
In the upper town between Barfüßerstrasse and Ritterstrasse there are two buildings on Kugelgasse, which were built in the 15th century on behalf of the order of "Brothers for Life Together". The so-called Kugelherren, so called because of their headgear, the Gugel , were based in Marburg from 1477. The building was made possible by a donation from a wealthy Marburg native, the patrician Heinrich Imhof.
The Kugelhaus is a late Gothic style monastery that was completed in 1491. Today the ethnological collection of the Institute for Comparative Cultural Research: Religious Studies and Ethnology is housed there. In 1527 the house, which also housed a Latin school , was transferred to the university after Landgrave Philipp dissolved the order and the school in which he himself was a pupil. The university wanted to give up the building in the course of 2011; it should be sold to the Kugelkirchen community, which wants to set up a community center in it.
The Kugelkirche , consecrated in 1485 by Johannes Bonemilch von Laasphe, is the second building of the order. It was built between 1478 and 1520. The church has pointed arch windows and a roof turret . The net vault is decorated with late Gothic tendril paintings. The organ, pulpit and high altar date from the 19th and 20th centuries.
Other inner-city structures
In the upper town of Marburg, a large number of half-timbered buildings around the historic town hall have been preserved through a long-term, planned restoration concept . The three-storey town hall itself was built between 1512 and 1513 under the direction of the Wetzlar stonemason Klaus (last name is unknown), but the interior was not completed until 1526. The remains of a medieval synagogue above the market square next to Markt 23 can be seen from outside under a glass cube. The former Kilian's Chapel (today Kilian) was built between 1180 and 1200 as a market chapel in Romanesque style. After the Reformation, the chapel was no longer used as such. The east tower, which no longer exists, was torn down from 1552 to 1554 and used to rebuild the collapsed Weidenhäuser Bridge . After the gable and vault had also been demolished, the Kilian received its present appearance as far as possible in 1580/81 with a half-timbered upper storey. The Grüner Mühle , first mentioned in a document in 1248, is a watermill formerly used as an oil mill on the weir below the Weidenhausen Bridge.
A Bismarck column has stood in the Hansenhaus district since 1904 . This 15 m high observation tower was built from red sandstone by students and citizens of Marburg according to the design by Wilhelm Kreis. Construction began in 1903, but changes to the construction made the tower only inaugurated on June 21, 1904.
Castle and parish church of St. Marien
View from Biegenstrasse (from the university's art building ) to the upper town
Due to its exposed location on the narrow course of the Lahn river and the comparatively steep slopes, in addition to many stairs and elevators, Marburg has a large number of bridges and overpasses in its urban area.
The "Michelchen", St. Michaels Chapel
Not far from the Elisabeth Church in the middle of a former court of the dead lies the small medieval St. Michael's Chapel, called "Michelchen". Brothers of the German House built it in 1268 in the Totenhof, where the pilgrims who came to the grave of St. Elisabeth and who died in Marburg and the benefactors who died in their hospital found their final resting place. The religious priests held services in it as in the Elizabeth Church. Several letters of indulgence issued to visit the chapel are known from the 13th century. During the Reformation, the little Michel became the property of the city. When necessary work and supervision were neglected, it fell into ruin. After 1583 renovation work was carried out on the roof structure, new doors and windows were installed, and a pulpit and gallery were built. The wall around the cemetery was also renewed. Today the Totenhof is no longer used. The remaining 50 tombstones all date from the 16th to 18th centuries. They give an overview of the change in artistic perception from the figure tombstones of the Renaissance to the inscription tombstone of the Baroque to the classical grave memorial. The last restoration work in “Michelchen” was completed in 2009. Today the Totenhof is a park and resting place in the northern part of Marburg.
"Lust for mirrors"
The name "Spiegelslust" goes back to Werner Freiherr von Spiegel zum Desenberg , who studied in Marburg in the 19th century and turned this place, which was previously called "Koehler's rest", into a destination for excursions. The place has been a popular excursion destination since the romantic era and is managed. First a pavilion was built there, and later an inn was built. This remained the property of the city until 1989, when it was bought by the city's tenant at the time and is still managed by him today.
"Spiegelslust" is 200 meters away from the Kaiser Wilhelm Tower (after Wilhelm I. ). The tower, also known as the Spiegelslustturm, is a lookout tower on the Lahn Mountains . In 1872 an association had collected money to finance the tower as a reminder of the founding of the German Empire and the Franco-German War (1870/71). On the night of March 12th and 13th, 1876, a storm brought the almost finished tower to collapse. 14 years later the 36 meter high structure was completed; the inauguration took place on September 2, 1890.
Old Botanical Garden
A few hundred meters south of the Elisabethkirche is the 3.6 hectare Old Botanical Garden of the University of Marburg on the Pilgrimstein . Founded in 1811, the uniqueness of this garden monument is based on the successful combination of a "science garden " with " English garden art ". It still shows important traces of its history today. This concerns both the history of garden art and the history of the natural sciences from the times of the "only" descriptive "natural historians" according to Carl von Linné , then the " plant geography " of Alexander von Humboldt to the time of Charles Darwin's or Ernst Haeckel's attempts at evolutionary explanations to Laboratory botany. With the construction of the new central university library on the strip adjacent to the Elisabethkirche and the relocation of numerous university institutes to the nearby old clinic buildings, the old botanical garden is to become the center of the humanities "Campus Firmanei".
The Marburg Botanical Garden is located on the Lahn Mountains . Towards the end of the 1960s, the natural science subjects of the Philipps University of Marburg were relocated there, as there was no space for large new buildings in the city center. In close proximity to the Botanical and Zoological Institute of the Department of Biology , a new botanical garden planned by the landscape architect Günther Grzimek was laid out and opened in 1977. With 20 hectares , it is one of the larger botanical gardens in Germany. In addition to a large collection of trees (arboretum), it has a systematic section, a section with medicinal and useful plants, the fern gorge, the spring forest, an alpine plantation and a heather garden. In show greenhouses with a floor area of 1700 m², numerous plants from the tropics and subtropics can be seen, including the giant water lily Victoria amazonica . The Botanical Garden has been fighting against underfunding for years and was threatened with closure several times. The orchid collection had to be closed for financial reasons, the same fate is to be feared for the rhododendron collection.
After the Landgrave's Castle was abandoned in the 17th century, the southern part of the castle area, which had previously probably been used as a military training area, became garden land. At the beginning of the 20th century, the city of Marburg began to transform the garden into a park. During the Second World War, however, this became kitchen gardens. Towards the end of the war the area was redesigned again and a rose garden was created. In 1981 the redevelopment of today's palace gardens began. The last major redesign took place in 2009/10. The facility is now a public recreation and amusement park on the south side of the Landgrafenschloss. In the rose garden that still exists today, around 7000 roses of 65 varieties can be found. Among other things, events such as the city festival 3-day Marburg take place here. In the middle of the palace park is an open-air stage that is used for various cultural events.
Nature and leisure
Marburg's core city area is bordered in the east by the wooded Lahn Mountains . The mountains in the west are built on and inhabited with the castle and the old town; behind it lie the city forest and the Wehrda forest. In the north and south, the plains in the Lahn valley are mainly used for agriculture. The Lahn flows through Marburg ; This is not navigable in the urban area. A branch of the Lahn runs through the city center, beginning at the Wehrdaer weir and rejoining the main course in the middle of the Uferstraße.
In the area of the southern quarter, the Lahn divides a second time and forms a small island here (Auf der Willow). In the urban area, the Lahnwiesen have been partially converted back into Lahn Auen through extensive renaturation measures in recent years . Numerous smaller streams flow into the Lahn; the best known are the Ketzerbach and the Gefällebach. A well-developed network via the Lahnberge be moved from hiking trails , the supra-local Lahn trail offers from Marburger back from panoramic views into the valleys. The north and south are in Lahn nearby lakes , the most open to the public for swimming.
The Marburg Planetary Path runs along the Lahn cycle path for a distance of six kilometers . It was opened in 1995 as the first planetary nature trail in the world, which also allows blind people access.
Specialties, culinary and others
- The herbal liqueur “Marburger Nachtwächter” has been produced since 1799 by a distillery located in the Marburg upper town. For some time now, the "night watchman" has been manufactured by a company in the neighboring town of Weimar .
- "Elisabethbräu", beer from a small private brewery
- "Elisabethkaffee" (Marburger Weltladen, fair trade)
- Ceramic cups with braille (pottery Schneider in the upper town)
Economy and Infrastructure
University of Marburg
The largest employer in the city is the Philipps University, which was founded in 1527 by Landgrave Philipp the Magnanimous as the first Protestant university. Due to the high proportion of students and employees based on the number of inhabitants (25,700 students, 4,530 employees without a clinic), the saying developed: "Other cities have a university - Marburg is one". This expresses how closely linked the history of the university and the city is. The university offers an above-average wide range of courses with many exceptional courses. The new university library was opened in 2018 .
New building of the University Library Marburg
In addition to the Philipps University, Marburg is home to the German Study Institute for the Blind , the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology and research departments of various pharmaceutical companies that emerged from the former Behring works. The city of Marburg is a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
The Marburg Archive School is a state training facility for archivists with the status of a technical college . The Technical University of Central Hesse cooperates widely with the Philipps University. Marburg is known to medical professionals for the university hospital , the Marburg virus , the union of employed doctors and especially the Marburg Federation .
In Marburg there are various schools of all kinds, including the Elisabeth School , the Martin Luther School and the Philippinum Grammar School, three pure grammar schools as well as the vocational grammar school branch at the commercial schools and the Adolf Reichwein School. There is also the integrated comprehensive school on Richtsberg, some elementary schools , secondary schools and secondary schools as well as vocational schools. The school at Schwanhof and the mosaic school Marburg are two special needs schools in the city of Marburg. With the Otto Ubbelohde School , Marburg has the only six-year primary school in Hesse. The Geschwister-Scholl-Schule Marburg is a "musical elementary school with preliminary class and childcare facilities".
The independent school landscape in Marburg is very pronounced. Apart from the college for the blind, there are seven such schools with a special educational profile that are not sponsored by the state or the city. In addition to special schools, there is also a free Waldorf school , a Montessori school , the six-year elementary school with kindergarten ( Freie Schule Marburg ) and the Steinmühle country school , a grammar school and boarding school.
In addition, one of the most important centers for historical East Central Europe research, the Herder Institute , is based in Marburg. Among the state authorities are the Hessian State Archives Marburg and the Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies .
The three largest employers in the city are the University of Marburg, the privatized and Rhoen-Klinikum associated University Hospital of Giessen and Marburg and partly to international companies CSL Behring , Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, GSK Vaccines and Novartis belonging Germany former Behringwerke (pharmaceutical and medical technology industry). This is followed in fourth place by the German Study Institute for the Blind (Blista).
Around 81.7 percent of Marburg's employees subject to compulsory insurance worked in the service sector in 1998, and 18.1 percent in manufacturing. The areas of health ( university clinics) and science (university, Blista) had the highest employment shares in Marburg . In total, over 10,000 people worked in these two branches of industry.
There are many companies based in Marburg that have great importance in their field of activity due to innovations and size in Germany and in some cases beyond: Ahrens Kaufhaus AG, CSL Behring GmbH, Deutsche Vermögensberatung AG, Eukerdruck GmbH & Co KG (subsidiary of CCL Label ), Fritz Herzog AG, GSK Vaccines, Hitzeroth Druck und Medien GmbH & Co KG , Inosoft AG, Sanitätshaus Kaphingst GmbH, Marburger Lederwaren Knetsch GmbH & Co KG, Monette Kabel- und Elektrowerk GmbH, Musik Meyer GmbH, Nano Repro AG, Novartis Deutschland GmbH, Pharmaserv , Sälzer GmbH, Seidel GmbH & Co KG, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Products GmbH, Sparkasse Marburg-Biedenkopf , Stadtwerke Marburg , Temmler Pharma GmbH & Co KG (today part of the Aenova Group ), Vila Vita Rosenpark Hotel.
In 1978 the Deutsche Bundespost relocated its mail dispatch center to Marburg. This is still used today by Deutsche Post AG.
The Marburg (Lahn) station is intercity stop on line 26 Stralsund – Hamburg – Hanover – Frankfurt – Karlsruhe (–Konstanz) and is connected to long-distance traffic on this line every two hours. In addition, the station can be reached with local trains via the Main-Weser-Bahn on the Kassel - Frankfurt am Main route. The branch lines of the Kurhessenbahn via Frankenberg to Korbach ( Burgwaldbahn ) and the Obere Lahntalbahn via Biedenkopf and Bad Laasphe to Erndtebrück begin in Marburg . With the Mittelhessen-Express , which is used between Treysa and Frankfurt, Marburg received a connection to the Rhine-Main area at a more frequent rate in 2007. The traffic systems, the reception building and the entire urban environment of the main station have been completely redesigned since 2010. In 2015 the completely redesigned Marburg train station was named “Train Station of the Year” by the Allianz pro Schiene transport association .
At the former southern station, the Marburg district railway to Ebsdorfergrund was connected to the rail network. After the shutdown and the dismantling of the tracks, the station became a simple Marburg Süd stop , which is served by the Mittelhessen Express , which runs on the Main-Weser Railway .
From 1903 to 1911, Marburg initially owned a horse-powered tram, and from 1911 an electric tram. This was replaced in 1951 by trolleybuses that ran until 1968.
Marburg can be reached by car via the federal highways 3 , 62 , 252 and 255 . Large parts of the urban area of the core city of Marburg have been an environmental zone since April 1, 2016 and only freely accessible for vehicles with a green sticker. The B 3 runs right through the urban area (city motorway B 3a), mostly parallel to the railway line. On the one hand, this reduces the volume of traffic in the city center, and on the other hand, the noise pollution is criticized by many residents.
The last missing expansion section between Niederweimar and Roth between the intersection with the B 62 near Cölbe and the Gießener Nordkreuz was put into operation on May 11, 2011. The route can now be used continuously with four lanes and serves as a connection to the Gießener Ring (A 485) and further into the Rhine-Main area. Work to close the gap began in spring 2007; the bridge structures for the underpass of the K 42 near Wolfshausen and the overpass of the B 255 at the Niederweimar gravel works were completed in 2008. The construction of the new Lahn bridge near Argenstein was completed in the spring of 2010.
The public transport in Marburg is of the public utilities operated with 19 city bus lines. During the day there is a dense cycle within the core city and the closer districts; some lines run into the evening and then only serve the core city with the inner city districts. In addition, there are collective call taxes in the form of vans and minibuses as well as a night bus line (N8Express) that serves the city center until 4 a.m. on weekends. At the beginning of the 20th century there was a tram , which was replaced by the Marburg trolleybus in 1951 , before this system was also shut down in 1968. Today diesel buses and since the beginning of 2005 also natural gas buses operate, including special, particularly small buses that can drive the narrow and steep streets in Oberstadt and on Ortenberg. Marburg and the district have been members of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV) since 1995 . With the timetable change in December 2006, the bus network was completely reorganized, referring to the introduction of three main lines that run from the main train station via the city center to the south train station every five minutes. The other city bus routes should be connected to the main axis and not run centrally through the city center. A considerable relief of the Marburg city center was expected through this project.
Marburg Castle Railway
On the initiative of a private operator, a privately financed tram was supposed to run to the castle since the beginning of July 2014 . Since the planned route turned out to be too steep to be approved at short notice, the railway did not start regular operation of three trips per day to the castle until the beginning of August 2014. The Marburg Castle Railway has been running from March to October, Wednesday to Sunday, since 2015.
Considerations of connecting the city's valleys with either the Schlossberg or the new university development area on the Lahnberge by a cable car date back to the 1960s. Since 2009 there has been a renewed discussion as to whether the city center can be connected to the Lahnberge site (clinic, university site and new botanical garden) by means of a cable car , thus improving local public transport. Mayor Franz Kahle ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) had spoken out in favor of examining such a connection. The cable car manufacturers Leitner AG and Doppelmayr / Garaventa presented the basic feasibility of a cable car connection at information events in Marburg in autumn 2010. Most recently, in the Marburg city parliament, the CDU and SPD had spoken out against further examination, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, FDP and parts of the left for a closer examination of a cable car. In June 2011, the city parliament decided on a traffic report on relations between the city center and Lahnberge, including the examination of a cable car.
In addition to Bad Schandau , Engen and Helgoland , Marburg is one of the German communities in which lifts are part of local public transport. Particularly noteworthy are the Oberstadt lift, which connects Rudolphsplatz with Reitgasse, the lifts of the Oberstadt multi-storey car park from the rear Pilgrimstein to Wettergasse and the lift on the Ortenbergsteg between the main train station and Ortenbergplatz.
The only regional daily newspaper today is the Oberhessische Presse with a circulation of over 30,000 copies. In addition, there was the Marburger Neue Zeitung until September 30, 2010 , a regional edition of the Lahn-Dill newspaper group with its own local editorial office in Marburg and a circulation of around 2,500 copies. The free Marburger Express is a city magazine with an event calendar and appears weekly in the Marbuch publishing house of the “Marbuch” for new residents. The publisher of the Oberhessische Presse publishes two free weekly newspapers on Wednesdays with Marburg and on Saturdays with Mein Saturday ( win until June 2011 - Die Wocheninfo ). The free weekly newspapers Mittelhessische Werbung-Zeitung on Wednesday, Marburger Friday newspaper and Sunday morning magazine come from Gießen publishers .
Solar construction obligation
The city of Marburg and its institutions and initiatives have already received many different prizes, awards and honorary degrees. Marburg was, among other things, the capital of fair trade or won the Hessian tourism award for the Grimm-Dich-path.
The most famous personality and patroness of the city is St. Elisabeth . The importance of the city is based on their canonization. Another important figure is Philipp von Hessen , who is responsible for founding the university. Since then, many great personalities have lived as lecturers at the university, such as Martin Heidegger , Denis Papin , Ferdinand Sauerbruch , Alfred Wegener , Erwin Piscator , in the long, rather small town, which at the beginning of the 20th century only had around 20,000 inhabitants and Wolfgang Abendroth , an even larger part than students. The Brothers Grimm , Friedrich Carl von Savigny , Gustav Heinemann , Otto Hahn and Ulrike Meinhof should be mentioned . There are also a number of personalities from current affairs who come from Marburg or who have worked in Marburg for a long time. These include, for example, Martin Schneider and Margot Käßmann .
- Christian Schönholz, Karl Braun (Ed.): Marburg. Forays into the recent city history. A reading book 1960–2010. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-89445-437-1 .
- Erhart Dettmering, Rudolf Grenz (ed.): Marburg history. Review of the city's history in individual contributions. Magistrat der Stadt Marburg, Marburg 1982, ISBN 3-9800490-0-0 .
- Anke Stößer: Marburg in the late Middle Ages. City and castle, capital and residence (= publications of the Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies. 41). Self-published by the Hessian State Office for Historical Regional Studies, Marburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-921254-80-6 .
- Marbuch. 7th edition. Marbuch, Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-9806487-1-0 (comprehensive, with city map).
- Nils Folckers, Ambros Waibel (Ed.): Marburganderlahnbuch. Verbrecher-Verlag, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-935843-33-X .
- Wilmfried Brand: Marburg hiking guide. 2nd Edition. Hitzeroth, Marburg 2005, ISBN 3-89616-195-4 .
- Hermann Bauer: Old Marburg Stories and Creations. Rathaus-Verlag, Marburg 1986, ISBN 3-923820-16-X .
- Walter Bernsdorff, Jutta Buchner-Fuhs, Gabriele Clement: Marburg in the post-war years. Rathaus-Verlag, Marburg 1998, ISBN 3-923820-65-8 .
- Carsten Beckmann: Marburg and the Marburger Land in the 1950s. Historical recordings. Wartberg, Gudensberg 2002, ISBN 3-8313-1033-5 .
- Erhart Dettmering: Small Marburg City History. Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2086-9 .
- IG Marburg (ed.): Marburg. Demolition and change. Urban planning in a medieval city. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-89445-393-0 .
- Working group of the Art History Institute of the Philipps University in cooperation with the urban planning department of the city of Marburg (ed.): The city of Marburg. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 1976-1981, OCLC 705310475 (2 volumes).
- Historic half-timbered building in Marburg. In: Yearbook for House Research. 32, 1981, pp. 305-320.
- Klaus Laaser (photographer): Marburg. Laaser, Marburg 2001, ISBN 3-9808062-0-0 .
- Angus Fowler, Dieter Woischke: Marburg 1849–1920. Laaser, Marburg 1989, ISBN 3-9800115-9-3 .
- Ellen Kemp, Katharina Krause, Ulrich Schütte (Eds.): Marburg. Architecture guide. Imhof, Petersberg 2002, ISBN 3-935590-67-9 .
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