Federal Government (Germany)
|founding||September 15, 1949|
|Headquarters||Berlin , Germany|
|Chair||Angela Merkel ( Federal Chancellor )|
The Federal Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (abbreviation BReg ), also known as the Federal Cabinet , is a constitutional body and exercises executive power at the federal level . In accordance with the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (GG), it consists of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Ministers . The government has an influence on the legislature due to the situation that the federal government can introduce bills to the German Bundestag and comment on bills by the Bundesrat and that members of the federal government can also be members of the Bundestag .
Under constitutional law, the role of the federal government is regulated in Part VI in Basic Law (GG), which makes it one of the constitutional organs. Basic Law allows the Federal Government to introduce bills into the Bundestag . (2) of the Basic Law stipulates that the members of the Federal Government take the oath of office when taking office (in accordance with Basic Law). Its working method is regulated in the rules of procedure of the federal government (GOBReg) and in the joint rules of procedure of the federal ministries (GGO) - they also stipulate that the federal government only has a quorum if more than half of its members have met.the
The Federal Chancellor, who delegates this to the head of the Federal Chancellery, heads the administrative business of the Federal Government .
Within the federal government, the Federal Chancellor has the authority to issue guidelines ( Chancellor principle ), which means that he determines the basic principles of politics and is responsible for them. The federal ministers manage their respective areas of responsibility independently within the framework of the guidelines of the chancellor ( departmental principle ). The Federal Chancellor determines the scope of their areas of responsibility. If two federal ministers disagree on one point, the federal government decides by majority vote ( collegial principle ).
According to the Federal Ministerial Law , a resigned member of the federal government is entitled to a pension “if he has been a member of the federal government for at least four years; a time in the office of parliamentary state secretary with a member of the federal government is taken into account ”, as well as a“ previous membership in a state government which did not result in any entitlement to benefits under state law ”.
Civil servants and parliamentary state secretaries as well as ministers of state are formally not members of the federal government, but support it in their tasks. The same applies to the federal commissioners .
Official order of the federal ministries
On March 14, 2018, the Federal Cabinet decided on the order of the Federal Ministers; this results in the following order of the individual ministries:
|1||Federal Ministry of Finance||BMF|
|2||Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs||BMI|
|3||Ministry of Foreign Affairs||AA|
|4th||Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy||BMWi|
|5||Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection||BMJV|
|6th||Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs||BMAS|
|7th||Federal ministry of defense||BMVg|
|8th||Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture||BMEL|
|9||Federal Ministry of Family Affairs||BMFSFJ|
|10||Federal Ministry of Health||BMG|
|11||Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure||BMVI|
|12||Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety||BMU|
|13||Federal Ministry of Education and Research||BMBF|
|14th||Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development||BMZ|
Order of representation in the federal government
Section 22 of the Federal Government's Rules of Procedure regulates the order of representation at meetings of the Federal Government.
In the absence of the Federal Chancellor, the Deputy Federal Chancellor takes over the chairmanship of the Federal Government. If this is also prevented, the Federal Minister who has been part of the Federal Government for the longest uninterrupted period takes over the chairmanship. If there are several federal ministers who have become federal ministers at the same time, the oldest in age takes the chair. These regulations do not apply if the Federal Chancellor determines a separate order. Nothing is known about this at the moment.
This currently results in the following order of representation:
|No.||Name (party)||Beginning of the term of office||Date of birth||Ministry|
|Angela Merkel (CDU)||November 22, 2005||17th July 1954||Chancellor|
|1||Olaf Scholz (SPD)||March 14, 2018||June 14, 1958||
Deputy Chancellor ,
|2||Peter Altmaier (CDU)||
As a member of the Federal Government
May 22, 2012
in the current department
March 14, 2018
|June 18, 1958||Economy and energy|
|3||Gerd Müller (CSU)||17th December 2013||August 25, 1955||economical co-operation and Development|
|4th||Heiko Maas (SPD)||
as a member of the Federal Government
December 17, 2013
in the current department
March 14, 2018
|September 19, 1966||Ministry of Foreign Affairs|
|5||Horst Seehofer (CSU)||March 14, 2018||4th July 1949||Inside, for construction and home|
|6th||Svenja Schulze (SPD)||March 14, 2018||29th September 1968||Environment, nature conservation and nuclear safety|
|7th||Anja Karliczek (CDU)||March 14, 2018||April 29, 1971||Education and Research|
|8th||Helge Braun (CDU)||March 14, 2018||October 18, 1972||Special tasks|
|9||Hubertus Heil (SPD)||March 14, 2018||3rd November 1972||Work and social|
|10||Julia Klöckner (CDU)||March 14, 2018||December 16, 1972||Food and Agriculture|
|11||Andreas Scheuer (CSU)||March 14, 2018||September 26, 1974||Transport and digital infrastructure|
|12||Franziska Giffey (SPD)||March 14, 2018||May 3, 1978||Family, seniors, women and youth|
|13||Jens Spahn (CDU)||March 14, 2018||May 16, 1980||health|
|14th||Christine Lambrecht (SPD)||June 27, 2019||June 19, 1965||Justice and consumer protection|
|15th||Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (CDU)||17th July 2019||August 9, 1962||defense|
Share of fully qualified lawyers
The preferred recruitment of people with the qualification for judicial office (fully qualified lawyers ) in the career of the higher non-technical administrative service (so-called legal privilege ) can also be found in the federal government. The proportion of fully qualified lawyers was always at least 25 percent, with the exception of the period 1998 to 2002 ( Schröder I cabinet ).
Duration of government formation in Germany since 1980
On average, the Chancellor has been elected after 54 days since 1980.
This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days. If the swearing-in of the federal cabinet is not explicitly stated, it took place on the same day as the election of the chancellor; this has been the case in the elections since 1998.
Duration of government formation in Germany since 1949
On average, the Chancellor was elected after 43 days between 1949 and 1976. In the 1976 Bundestag elections , regardless of the duration of coalition negotiations, the constitution in the Basic Law governing the length of the electoral period up to this year meant that a government could only be formed more than two months after the election, since then it has always been possible no later than 30 days after the election.
This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days.
An open day has been held every summer by the federal government since 1999 . The Federal Chancellery, Federal Press Office and 14 ministries can be visited on this day. A look into the offices of speakers and ministers should give an impression of the everyday work of politicians.
Meseberg Castle has been the federal government's guest house since 2007 . Cabinet retreats traditionally take place here, and it often provides the framework for informal discussions. Before that, from 1990 the federally owned guest house on the Petersberg in Koenigswinter near Bonn was used in a similar framework by the constitutional organs of the Federal Republic of Germany, after the government move in 1999 to a reduced extent.
- Federal politics
- The representations of the churches in the federal government: Evangelical office and Catholic office .
- European policy coordination
- List of German federal ministers
- List of the German federal governments
- Political system of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Imperial government
- Volker Busse, Hans Hofmann: Federal Chancellery and Federal Government. Tasks - organization - working method. Fifth, revised and updated edition. Müller, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8114-7734-6 .
- Heinz Hoffmann (editor): The Federal Ministries 1949–1999. Designations, official abbreviations, responsibilities, organizational structure, management personnel (= materials from the Federal Archives . Issue 8). Wirtschaftsverlag NW GmbH, Bremerhaven 2003, ISBN 3-86509-075-3 (including CD-ROM with the book content).
- Website of the German Federal Government
- Federal Government on YouTube
- Online version of the edition "The Cabinet Minutes of the Federal Government"
- Michael F. Feldkamp : List of names of the ministers and state secretaries of the various departments (12th to 18th legislative period) . In: Archive of the German Bundestag (ed.): Data handbook on the history of the German Bundestag . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017, ISBN 978-3-8329-6237-1 , 6.3 Federal Ministries - Ministers and State Secretaries ( bundestag.de [PDF] as of June 2, 2017).
- From May 22, 2012 to December 17, 2013 Altmaier was Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. From December 17, 2013 to March 14, 2018 he was Federal Minister for Special Tasks; During the period from October 24, 2017 to March 14, 2018, he also performed the duties of the Federal Minister of Finance.
- Maas was Federal Minister of Justice and Consumer Protection from December 17, 2013 to March 14, 2018.
- Abbreviations. (PDF; 49 kB) Abbreviations for the constitutional organs, the highest federal authorities and the highest federal courts. In: bund.de. Federal Office of Administration (BVA), accessed on May 23, 2017 .
- Federal Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs; Inland protocol of the Federal Government (Ed.): Rank and title. Official orders . Berlin May 3, 2018 ( protocol-inland.de [accessed January 18, 2019]).
- Peter Schindler: Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag: 1949 to 1999 . tape 1 . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1999, ISBN 3-7890-5928-5 , chapters 1st to 13th legislative period , p. 1154 ( bundestag.de ).
- Scientific Services of the German Bundestag (ed.): Michael F. Feldkamp : Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag 1990 to 2010 Baden-Baden 2011, ISBN 978-3-8329-6237-1 (online) Chap. 6.9, p. 553 (12th to 17th legislative period).