Federal Government (Germany)


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Federal Government
- BReg -
Federal eagle of the federal government
State level Federation
position Constitutional body
founding September 15, 1949
Headquarters BerlinBerlin Berlin , GermanyGermanyGermany 
Chair Angela Merkel ( Federal Chancellor )

Olaf Scholz ( Vice Chancellor and Federal Minister of Finance )

Website bundesregierung.de
Logo of the Federal Government of the Federal Republic of Germany

The Federal Government of the Federal Republic of Germany (abbreviation BReg ), also known as the Federal Cabinet , is a constitutional body and exercises executive power at the federal level . In accordance with Article 62 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (GG), it consists of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Ministers . The government has an influence on the legislature due to the situation that the federal government can introduce bills to the German Bundestag and comment on bills by the Bundesrat and that members of the federal government can also be members of the Bundestag .

Regulations

Under constitutional law, the role of the federal government is regulated in Part VI in Articles 62 to 69 of the Basic Law (GG), which makes it one of the constitutional organs. Article 76 of the Basic Law allows the Federal Government to introduce bills into the Bundestag . Article 64 (2) of the Basic Law stipulates that the members of the Federal Government take the oath of office when taking office (in accordance with Article 56 of the Basic Law). Its working method is regulated in the rules of procedure of the federal government (GOBReg) and in the joint rules of procedure of the federal ministries (GGO) - they also stipulate that the federal government only has a quorum if more than half of its members have met.

The Federal Chancellor, who delegates this to the head of the Federal Chancellery, heads the administrative business of the Federal Government .

Within the federal government, the Federal Chancellor has the authority to issue guidelines ( Chancellor principle ), which means that he determines the basic principles of politics and is responsible for them. The federal ministers manage their respective areas of responsibility independently within the framework of the guidelines of the chancellor ( departmental principle ). The Federal Chancellor determines the scope of their areas of responsibility. If two federal ministers disagree on one point, the federal government decides by majority vote ( collegial principle ).

According to the Federal Ministerial Law , a resigned member of the federal government is entitled to a pension “if he has been a member of the federal government for at least four years; a time in the office of parliamentary state secretary with a member of the federal government is taken into account ”, as well as a“ previous membership in a state government which did not result in any entitlement to benefits under state law ”.

Civil servants and parliamentary state secretaries as well as ministers of state are formally not members of the federal government, but support it in their tasks. The same applies to the federal commissioners .

The Federal Cabinet usually meets every Wednesday at 9:30 a.m. in the Federal Chancellery. The official publication medium is the Joint Ministerial Gazette (GMBl) .

composition

Members of the federal government in the German Bundestag in 2014
Composition of the Federal Government since March 14, 2018
Department / Office Seat Official Political party
Federal Chancellor (Germany) Chancellor Berlin Angela Merkel CDU
Federal Ministry of Finance Finance (BMF)

Deputy Chancellor

Berlin Olaf Scholz SPD
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Foreign Office (AA) Berlin Heiko Maas SPD
Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy Economy and Energy (BMWi) Berlin Peter Altmaier CDU
Federal Ministry of the Interior Interior, for construction and home (BMI) Berlin Horst Seehofer CSU
Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection Justice and Consumer Protection (BMJV) Berlin Christine Lambrecht SPD
Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs Labor and Social Affairs (BMAS) Berlin Hubertus Heil SPD
Federal Ministry of Family Affairs Family, Seniors, Women and Youth (BMFSFJ) Berlin Franziska Giffey SPD
Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure Transport and digital infrastructure (BMVI) Berlin Andreas Scheuer CSU
Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture Food and Agriculture (BMEL) Bonn Julia Kloeckner CDU
Federal ministry of defense Defense (BMVg) Bonn Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer CDU
Federal Ministry of Health (Germany) Health (BMG) Bonn Jens Spahn CDU
Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) Bonn Svenja Schulze SPD
Federal Ministry of Education and Research Education and Research (BMBF) Bonn Anja Karliczek CDU
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) Bonn Gerd Müller CSU
Federal Minister for Special Tasks Federal Minister for Special Tasks

Head of the Federal Chancellery

Berlin Helge Braun CDU

Official order of the federal ministries

On March 14, 2018, the Federal Cabinet decided on the order of the Federal Ministers; this results in the following order of the individual ministries:

No. Ministry abbreviation
1 Federal Ministry of Finance BMF
2 Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Home Affairs BMI
3 Ministry of Foreign Affairs AA
4th Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy BMWi
5 Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection BMJV
6th Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs BMAS
7th Federal ministry of defense BMVg
8th Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture BMEL
9 Federal Ministry of Family Affairs BMFSFJ
10 Federal Ministry of Health BMG
11 Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure BMVI
12 Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety BMU
13 Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF
14th Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development BMZ

Order of representation in the federal government

Section 22 of the Federal Government's Rules of Procedure regulates the order of representation at meetings of the Federal Government.

In the absence of the Federal Chancellor, the Deputy Federal Chancellor takes over the chairmanship of the Federal Government. If this is also prevented, the Federal Minister who has been part of the Federal Government for the longest uninterrupted period takes over the chairmanship. If there are several federal ministers who have become federal ministers at the same time, the oldest in age takes the chair. These regulations do not apply if the Federal Chancellor determines a separate order. Nothing is known about this at the moment.

This currently results in the following order of representation:

Order of representation in the federal government
No. Name (party) Beginning of the term of office Date of birth Ministry
Angela Merkel (CDU) November 22, 2005 17th July 1954 Chancellor
1 Olaf Scholz (SPD) March 14, 2018 June 14, 1958 Deputy Chancellor ,
Finance
2 Peter Altmaier (CDU) As a member of the Federal Government
May 22, 2012
in the current department
March 14, 2018
June 18, 1958 Economy and energy
3 Gerd Müller (CSU) 17th December 2013 August 25, 1955 economical co-operation and Development
4th Heiko Maas (SPD) as a member of the Federal Government
December 17, 2013
in the current department
March 14, 2018
September 19, 1966 Ministry of Foreign Affairs
5 Horst Seehofer (CSU) March 14, 2018 4th July 1949 Inside, for construction and home
6th Svenja Schulze (SPD) March 14, 2018 29th September 1968 Environment, nature conservation and nuclear safety
7th Anja Karliczek (CDU) March 14, 2018 April 29, 1971 Education and Research
8th Helge Braun (CDU) March 14, 2018 October 18, 1972 Special tasks
9 Hubertus Heil (SPD) March 14, 2018 3rd November 1972 Work and social
10 Julia Klöckner (CDU) March 14, 2018 December 16, 1972 Food and Agriculture
11 Andreas Scheuer (CSU) March 14, 2018 September 26, 1974 Transport and digital infrastructure
12 Franziska Giffey (SPD) March 14, 2018 May 3, 1978 Family, seniors, women and youth
13 Jens Spahn (CDU) March 14, 2018 May 16, 1980 health
14th Christine Lambrecht (SPD) June 27, 2019 June 19, 1965 Justice and consumer protection
15th Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer (CDU) 17th July 2019 August 9, 1962 defense

Share of fully qualified lawyers

The preferred recruitment of people with the qualification for judicial office (fully qualified lawyers ) in the career of the higher non-technical administrative service (so-called legal privilege ) can also be found in the federal government. The proportion of fully qualified lawyers was always at least 25 percent, with the exception of the period 1998 to 2002 ( Schröder I cabinet ).

Duration of government formation in Germany since 1980

On average, the Chancellor has been elected after 54 days since 1980.

This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days. If the swearing-in of the federal cabinet is not explicitly stated, it took place on the same day as the election of the chancellor; this has been the case in the elections since 1998.


Duration of government formation in Germany since 1949

On average, the Chancellor was elected after 43 days between 1949 and 1976. In the 1976 Bundestag elections , regardless of the duration of coalition negotiations, the constitution in the Basic Law governing the length of the electoral period up to this year meant that a government could only be formed more than two months after the election, since then it has always been possible no later than 30 days after the election.

This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days.


Open-door day

Aerial view of the government district , 2016

An open day has been held every summer by the federal government since 1999 . The Federal Chancellery, Federal Press Office and 14 ministries can be visited on this day. A look into the offices of speakers and ministers should give an impression of the everyday work of politicians.

Other facilities

Meseberg Castle has been the federal government's guest house since 2007 . Cabinet retreats traditionally take place here, and it often provides the framework for informal discussions. Before that, from 1990 the federally owned guest house on the Petersberg in Koenigswinter near Bonn was used in a similar framework by the constitutional organs of the Federal Republic of Germany, after the government move in 1999 to a reduced extent.

See also

literature

  • Volker Busse, Hans Hofmann: Federal Chancellery and Federal Government. Tasks - organization - working method. Fifth, revised and updated edition. Müller, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8114-7734-6 .
  • Heinz Hoffmann (editor): The Federal Ministries 1949–1999. Designations, official abbreviations, responsibilities, organizational structure, management personnel (=  materials from the Federal Archives . Issue 8). Wirtschaftsverlag NW GmbH, Bremerhaven 2003, ISBN 3-86509-075-3 (including CD-ROM with the book content).

Web links

Wiktionary: Bundesregierung  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Bundesregierung (Germany)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Remarks

  1. From May 22, 2012 to December 17, 2013 Altmaier was Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety. From December 17, 2013 to March 14, 2018 he was Federal Minister for Special Tasks; During the period from October 24, 2017 to March 14, 2018, he also performed the duties of the Federal Minister of Finance.
  2. Maas was Federal Minister of Justice and Consumer Protection from December 17, 2013 to March 14, 2018.

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ List of Abbreviations. (PDF; 49 kB) Abbreviations for the constitutional organs, the highest federal authorities and the highest federal courts. In: bund.de. Federal Office of Administration (BVA), accessed on May 23, 2017 .
  2. ^ Federal Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs; Inland protocol of the Federal Government (Ed.): Rank and title. Official orders . Berlin May 3, 2018 ( protocol-inland.de [accessed January 18, 2019]).
  3. Peter Schindler: Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag: 1949 to 1999 . tape 1 . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1999, ISBN 3-7890-5928-5 , chapters 1st to 13th legislative period , p. 1154 ( bundestag.de ).
  4. Scientific Services of the German Bundestag (ed.): Michael F. Feldkamp : Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag 1990 to 2010 Baden-Baden 2011, ISBN 978-3-8329-6237-1 (online) Chap. 6.9, p. 553 (12th to 17th legislative period).
  5. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/tag-der-offenen-tuer
  6. https://www.bundesregierung.de/breg-de/themen/meseberg/das-gaestehaus-der-bundesregierung-450176