Federal Government (Germany)
- BReg -
|founding||September 15, 1949|
|Headquarters||Berlin , Germany|
Olaf Scholz ( Federal Chancellor ),
Robert Habeck ( Vice Chancellor )
The Federal Government ( BReg ), also known as the Federal Cabinet , is a constitutional body of the Federal Republic of Germany and exercises executive power at the federal level . According to the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (GG), it consists of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Ministers .
The Federal Chancellor is elected by the German Bundestag on the proposal of the Federal President , appointed by the Federal President and sworn in by the President of the German Bundestag . The Federal Chancellor then proposes the Federal Ministers to the Federal President. These are also appointed by the Federal President and sworn in by the President of the Bundestag.
The seat of the constitutional body of the federal government is the federal capital Berlin ( (1) Berlin / Bonn Act ). The government has influence on the legislature because it can introduce bills to the German Bundestag and comment on bills from the Bundesrat .
In terms of constitutional law, the role of the federal government is regulated in Part VI in Basic Law (GG), which makes it one of the constitutional organs. Basic Law allows the Federal Government to introduce bills into the Bundestag. (2) of the Basic Law stipulates that the members of the Federal Government take the oath of office when taking office (according to Basic Law). Their working method is regulated in the rules of procedure of the federal government (GOBReg) and in the joint rules of procedure of the federal ministries (GGO) .the
The Federal Cabinet must, among other things, decide on every draft law and ordinance of the Federal Government, the appointment of senior civil servants and soldiers, as well as other matters "of particular political" or "significant financial importance", with the federal ministries involved in consultation taking place beforehand. Only disputed points are then debated in the federal cabinet itself. The Federal Cabinet has a quorum if more than half of its members are present and makes its decisions by majority vote, which are then represented externally as a single body ( collegial principle ). If the Federal Government decides on a question of financial importance against or without the vote of the Federal Minister of Finance, the Federal Minister of Finance can expressly object to the decision. The same applies if the Federal Minister of Justice or the Federal Minister of the Interior objects to a draft law or ordinance or a measure of the Federal Government because it is incompatible with applicable law.
The Federal Chancellor has the authority to issue guidelines within the Federal Government ( Chancellor principle ): He determines the basic principles of politics and is responsible for them. The federal ministers manage their respective areas of responsibility independently ( departmental principle ) within the framework of the Chancellor's guidelines (which are binding on them ), and they have to report to him regularly. The Federal Chancellor also determines the scope of their areas of responsibility. If two Federal Ministers disagree on one point, either the Federal Chancellor or the Federal Government decides. In everyday politics, however, the Federal Chancellor does not usually make official use of his authority to issue guidelines, but rather coordinates his policy with the Federal Ministers. Since these usually also consist of different parties ( coalition ), this is also politically necessary, as otherwise a "coalition break" threatens. Nowadays, most of the main features of government policy are laid down in a coalition agreement at the beginning of the legislative period and, if necessary, discussed in the coalition committee , whereby these are only informal agreements.
According to the Federal Ministerial Law , a resigned member of the federal government is entitled to a pension “if he has been a member of the federal government for at least four years; a time in the office of parliamentary state secretary with a member of the federal government is taken into account ”, as well as a“ previous membership in a state government which did not result in any entitlement to benefits under state law ”.
Official state secretaries and parliamentary state secretaries or state ministers as well as federal commissioners support the federal government in their tasks and can take part in cabinet meetings. The same applies to the head of the Federal President's Office , the head of the Press and Information Office of the Federal Government , the personal adviser to the Federal Chancellor and the secretary .
The Federal Cabinet usually meets every Wednesday at 9:30 a.m. in the Federal Chancellery . The official publication medium is the Joint Ministerial Gazette (GMBl). The Federal Chancellor, who delegates this to the head of the Federal Chancellery, is in charge of the federal government's administrative business.
On December 8, 2021, the federal cabinet decided on the order of government members; this results in the following order of the individual federal ministries:
Order of representation in the federal government
The order of representation at meetings of the Federal Government is regulated by Section 22 of the Federal Government's rules of procedure.
In the absence of the Federal Chancellor, the Deputy Federal Chancellor takes over the chairmanship of the Federal Government. If this is also prevented, the Federal Minister who has been a member of the Federal Government for the longest uninterrupted period takes over the chairmanship. If there are several federal ministers who have become federal ministers at the same time, the oldest in age takes the chair. These regulations do not apply if the Federal Chancellor determines a separate order. With the exception of Christian Lindner, who takes over the chairmanship in the absence of the Federal Chancellor and Vice Chancellor, no further special regulations are known at the moment.
This currently results in the following order of representation:
|No.||Name (party)||Beginning of the term of office||birth date||Ministry|
|Olaf Scholz (SPD)||
as a member of the Federal Government
March 14, 2018
as Federal Chancellor
December 8, 2021
|June 14, 1958||Chancellor|
|1||Robert Habeck (Alliance 90 / The Greens)||December 8, 2021||2nd September 1969||
Deputy of the Federal Chancellor ,
Economy and Climate Protection
|2||Christian Lindner (FDP)||December 8, 2021||7th January 1979||Finances|
|3||Svenja Schulze (SPD)||
As a member of the Federal Government
March 14, 2018
in the current department
December 8, 2021
|29th September 1968||economical co-operation and Development|
|4th||Hubertus Heil (SPD)||March 14, 2018||3rd November 1972||Work and social|
|5||Christine Lambrecht (SPD)||
As a member of the Federal Government
June 27, 2019
in the current department
December 8, 2021
|June 19, 1965||defense|
|6th||Karl Lauterbach (SPD)||December 8, 2021||February 21, 1963||Bless you|
|7th||Cem Özdemir (Alliance 90 / The Greens)||December 8, 2021||December 21, 1965||Food and Agriculture|
|8th||Steffi Lemke (Alliance 90 / The Greens)||December 8, 2021||19th January 1968||Environment, nature conservation, nuclear safety and consumer protection|
|9||Bettina Stark-Watzinger (FDP)||December 8, 2021||May 12, 1968||Education and Research|
|10||Volker Wissing (FDP)||December 8, 2021||April 22, 1970||Digital and traffic|
|11th||Nancy Faeser (SPD)||December 8, 2021||July 13, 1970||Inside and home|
|12th||Wolfgang Schmidt (SPD)||December 8, 2021||23rd September 1970||Special tasks|
|13th||Klara Geywitz (SPD)||December 8, 2021||February 18, 1976||Housing, urban development and construction|
|14th||Marco Buschmann (FDP)||December 8, 2021||August 1, 1977||Judiciary|
|15th||Annalena Baerbock (Alliance 90 / The Greens)||December 8, 2021||December 15, 1980||Foreign|
|16||Anne Spiegel (Alliance 90 / The Greens)||December 8, 2021||December 15, 1980||Family, seniors, women and youth|
Share of fully qualified lawyers
The preferred recruitment of persons with the qualification for judicial office (fully qualified lawyers ) in the career of the higher non-technical administrative service (so-called legal privilege ) can also be found in the federal government. The proportion of fully qualified lawyers was always at least 25 percent, with the exception of the period 1998 to 2002 ( Schröder I cabinet ).
Duration of government formation in Germany since 1980
On average, the Chancellor has been elected after 54 days since 1980.
This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days. If the swearing-in of the federal cabinet is not explicitly stated, it took place on the same day as the election of the chancellor; this has been the case in the 1998 elections.
Duration of government formation in Germany since 1949
On average, the Chancellor was elected after 43 days between 1949 and 1976. In the 1976 Bundestag elections , regardless of the duration of coalition negotiations, the constitution in the Basic Law governing the length of the electoral term that was valid up to this year meant that a government could only be formed more than two months after the election; since then, it has always been possible no later than 30 days after the election.
This timeline shows the length of time between the federal election and the swearing-in of the cabinet in days.
An open day has been held every summer by the federal government since 1999 . The Federal Chancellery, Federal Press Office and 14 ministries can be visited on this day. A look into the offices of speakers and ministers should give an impression of the everyday work of politicians.
Meseberg Castle has been the federal government's guest house since 2007 . Cabinet retreats traditionally take place here, and it often provides a framework for informal discussions. Before that, from 1990 the federally owned guest house on the Petersberg in Koenigswinter near Bonn was used to a similar extent by the constitutional organs of the Federal Republic of Germany, after the government move in 1999 to a reduced extent.
- Federal politics
- The representations of the Christian churches in the federal government: Evangelical office and Catholic office
- European coordination
- List of German government members since 1949
- List of the German federal governments
- Political system of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Imperial government
- Volker Busse , Hans Hofmann: Federal Chancellery and Federal Government. Tasks - organization - working method. Fifth, revised and updated edition. Müller, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8114-7734-6 .
- Heinz Hoffmann (editor): The Federal Ministries 1949–1999. Designations, official abbreviations, responsibilities, organizational structure, management personnel (= materials from the Federal Archives . Issue 8). Wirtschaftsverlag NW GmbH, Bremerhaven 2003, ISBN 3-86509-075-3 (including CD-ROM with the book content).
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- Media content (category)|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
- Website of the Federal Government of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Federal Government on YouTube
- Online version of the edition "The Cabinet Minutes of the Federal Government"
- Michael F. Feldkamp : List of names of the ministers and state secretaries of the various departments (12th to 18th legislative period) . In: Archive of the German Bundestag (ed.): Data handbook on the history of the German Bundestag . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017, ISBN 978-3-8329-6237-1 , 6.3 Federal Ministries - Ministers and State Secretaries ( bundestag.de [PDF] as of June 2, 2017).
- Abbreviations. (PDF; 49 kB) Abbreviations for the constitutional bodies, the highest federal authorities and the highest federal courts. In: bund.de. Federal Office of Administration (BVA), accessed on May 23, 2017 .
- List of federal ministers. In: Inland protocol of the federal government. Federal Ministry of the Interior and Home, accessed on December 9, 2021 .
- Peter Schindler: Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag: 1949 to 1999 . tape 1 . Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 1999, ISBN 3-7890-5928-5 , chapters 1st to 13th legislative period , p. 1154 ( bundestag.de ).
- Scientific Services of the German Bundestag (ed.): Michael F. Feldkamp : Data Handbook on the History of the German Bundestag 1990 to 2010 Baden-Baden 2011, ISBN 978-3-8329-6237-1 (online) chap. 6.9, p. 553 (12th to 17th legislative period).
- The guest house of the federal government. Retrieved January 13, 2021 .