|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Cologne|
|Height :||60 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||141.06 km 2|
|Residents:||329,673 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||2337 inhabitants per km 2|
53225, 53227, 53229
|Area code :||0228|
|License plate :||BN|
|Community key :||05 3 14 000|
|LOCODE :||DE BON|
|City structure:||4 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Berliner Platz 2
|Lord Mayor :||Katja Dörner ( Greens )|
|Location of the federal city of Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia and in the administrative district of Cologne|
The federal city of Bonn (in the Latin of the humanists Bonna ) is an independent city in the administrative district of Cologne in the south of North Rhine-Westphalia and the second seat of the government of the Federal Republic of Germany . With 329,673 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019), Bonn is one of the twenty largest cities in Germany . Bonn belongs to the metropolitan regions of Rhineland and Rhine-Ruhr as well as to the Cologne / Bonn region . The city on both banks of the Rhine was the federal capital from 1949 to 1990 and until 1999Seat of government of the Federal Republic of Germany , afterwards it became Germany's second seat of government. The United Nations has had a seat in Bonn since 1951 .
Bonn can look back on more than 2000 years of history, which goes back to Germanic and Roman settlements, and is therefore one of the oldest cities in Germany . From 1597 to 1794 it was the capital and residence of the Electorate of Cologne . Ludwig van Beethoven was born here in 1770 . In the course of the 19th century, the University of Bonn, founded in 1818, developed into one of the most important German universities.
The Parliamentary Council met in Bonn in 1948/49 and worked out the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany , the first seat of which was in Bonn in 1949. As a result, the city experienced an extensive expansion and grew together with Bad Godesberg via the new parliament and government district . This resulted in the rebuilding of the city of Bonn through the merger of the cities of Bonn, Bad Godesberg, the city of Beuel on the right bank of the Rhine and the communities of the former district of Bonn on August 1, 1969.
After reunification in 1990, the Bundestag passed the Bonn / Berlin resolution in 1991 , as a result of which the parliamentary and government headquarters were relocated to the federal capital Berlin in 1999/2000 and numerous federal authorities to Bonn in return. Since then, the Federal President , the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Council have had a second official seat in the Federal City; in accordance with the Berlin / Bonn Act, six federal ministries have their first official seat, the other eight a second seat. With the suffix Federal City strengthens covenant to Bonn as a second seat of government.
As the seat of 20 United Nations (UN) organizations, Bonn has a high degree of international integration. In addition, the two DAX companies Deutsche Post and Deutsche Telekom are legally resident in Bonn.
In addition to church towers, the cityscape is increasingly characterized by several high-rise buildings , especially because of the headquarters of organizations and companies .
Topography and landscape areas
The city of Bonn is located in the southwest of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia at the transition from the Middle Rhine region to the Lower Rhine Bay , which is marked by the Godesberg Rhine valley funnel. It extends to 141.1 square kilometers on both sides of the Rhine. The districts on the left bank of the Rhine make up around three quarters of the total area.
To the south and west, the foothills of the surround Eifel with the Rhineland Nature Park belonging Kottenforst and Voreifel the city. North of Bonn, the Rhine Valley opens into the Cologne Bay, which is accompanied by the promontory from the Duisdorf district on the mountain side towards the Ville . The Sieg , which flows here, represents the natural border in the northeast, the Siebengebirge in the southeast, while in the east there are still some districts on the right bank of the Rhine in the Pleiser Hügelland . Beyond the Siebengebirge, the Westerwald extends southeast of Bonn, beyond the Siegniederung northeast the Bergisches Land .
Bonn has its geographical center on Bundeskanzlerplatz , which is located in the Gronau district. The geographical location of the square is . The center of Bonn , which is not oriented towards the Rhein, located at a height of to .
The largest extension of the urban area in north-south direction is 15 kilometers, in west-east direction 12.5 kilometers. The city limits are 61 kilometers long.
On the right bank of the Rhine is the Ennert , the northern foothills of the Siebengebirge, in the Bonn city area. The Paffelsberg belongs to it , which is considered to be the highest point in the city of Bonn. Further elevations in this ridge are the eponymous Ennert , Holtorfer Hardt and Röckesberg as well as Rabenlay and Kuckstein , each with distinctive steep slopes, with the Finkenberg in front to the west . On the left side of the river are the dominant elevations Venusberg ( ) and Kreuzberg( ), to the southwest the urban area rises to the Kottenforst up to . The lowest point on the ground is on the headland Kemper Werth at the mouth of the Sieg.
Ten cities and municipalities border the district of Bonn, all of which - with the exception of Remagen , which is in the Ahrweiler district in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate - belong to the Rhein-Sieg district in North Rhine-Westphalia :
Bad Honnef ,
Remagen ( RLP )
City structure and allocation
According to § 3 of the main statute, Bonn is divided into four city districts, which consist of a total of 51 districts . Each city district has its own district council with a district mayor. In addition, the city consists of 65 statistical districts , some of which are similar to the districts in name and size. In addition, Bonn is divided into nine districts by the municipal statistics office : Bonn center area , Bonn-Southwest , Bonn-Northwest , federal district , Godesberg center area , Godesberg outer ring ,Beuel center area , Beuel outer ring and Hardtberg .
In the area of the city of Bonn there are 21 districts within the boundaries of former communities.
|Borough||coat of arms||Population
(December 31, 2014)
|bad Godesberg||73.172||Alt-Godesberg , Friesdorf , Godesberg-Nord , Godesberg-Villenviertel , Heiderhof , Hochkreuz , Lannesdorf , Mehlem , Muffendorf , Pennenfeld , Plittersdorf , Rüngsdorf , Schweinheim|
|Bump||66,695||Beuel-Mitte , Beuel-Ost , Geislar , Hoholz , Holtorf , Holzlar , Küdinghoven , Limperich , Oberkassel , Pützchen / Bechlinghoven , Ramersdorf , Schwarzrheindorf / Vilich-Rheindorf , Vilich , Vilich-Müldorf|
|Bonn||149,733||Auerberg , Bonn-Castell (until 2003: Bonn-Nord), Bonn-Zentrum , Buschdorf , Dottendorf , Dransdorf , Endenich , Graurheindorf , Gronau , Ippendorf , Kessenich , Lessenich / Meßdorf , Nordstadt , Poppelsdorf , Röttgen , Südstadt , Tannenbusch , Ückesdorf , Venusberg , Weststadt|
|Hardtberg||33,360||Brüser Berg , Duisdorf , Hardthöhe , Lengsdorf|
Bonn belongs to the administrative district of Cologne . The district government with its seat in Cologne exercises the municipal supervision u. a. on the budget of the city of Bonn. The district government also oversees schools in Bonn.
Bonn is also a member of the Rhineland Regional Council (LVR), which is also based in Cologne. As part of the local self-government for Bonn a. a. Tasks in the field of social institutions, e.g. B. the sponsorship of specialist and especially psychiatric hospitals or special schools for disabled children, true. Furthermore, z. B. the tasks of the preservation of monuments for Bonn performed by the LVR.
Settlement geography and spatial planning
Bonn forms the southern edge of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region , which is understood as a polycentric conurbation in North Rhine-Westphalia and extends along the eponymous rivers Rhine and Ruhr . The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region covers an area of around 7,000 km² with more than ten million inhabitants, is one of the five largest metropolitan regions in Europe and is the most populous of the eleven metropolitan regions in Germany. It is also located in the middle of the central European economic area, the so-called blue banana . Parts of the cities of Sankt Augustin on the right bank of the Rhine are part of the Bonn agglomerationand Königswinter .
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Bonn
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
On a large scale, Bonn belongs to the Atlantic-maritime climate area, i. H. the climate is mild and generally warm and temperate. “Cfb” is the Köppen-Geiger classification .
This means low snow winters with an average of 56 days of frost (lowest temperature below 0 degrees Celsius) and only ten ice days (maximum daily temperature below 0 degrees) with an average January temperature of 2.0 degrees. The average temperature in July is 17.6 degrees Celsius, the average annual temperature 10.0 degrees. This makes Bonn one of the warmest regions in Germany. The flowering times start correspondingly early in spring.
Regarding precipitation, Bonn lies in the rain shadow of the low mountain range adjacent to the south . While the city has an average annual precipitation of only 742 millimeters, the annual precipitation in the Eifel is over 800 millimeters.
The constantly high relative humidity has a negative impact on people . With an average of 35 humid days, Bonn is well ahead of other German cities. In the vernacular it is referred to as “Bonn's stimulating climate”. Bonners know that this effect can be felt most strongly in the lowest part of the city, in a former arm of the Rhine, in the area around the main train station.
The inadequate air movement in the valley basin is responsible for the excessive humidity, as the fresh air, which mostly comes from the west, is slowed down by the northern foothills of the Eifel Mountains . The basin is a result of the topography: The Lower Middle Rhine Valley ends in Bonn, where it merges into the Cologne Bay. The low air movement in turn influences the inner-city warming, so that the temperatures within the urban area, for example in July, are on average 3 to 5 degrees Celsius higher than in the surrounding area.
In the winter months and when the snowmelts, the Rhine often overflows its banks. In the event of flooding, streets and houses in the districts of Mehlem (on the left bank of the Rhine) and Beuel (on the right bank of the Rhine) are particularly at risk.
The regional climate with its peculiarities, with little snow in winter and humid in summer, also ensures typical laconic Bonn sayings , such as the well-known: "Either it's raining or the barriers are down."
In 1989 Bonn celebrated its 2000th birthday. The city was reminiscent of the establishment of the first fortified Roman camp on the Rhine in 12 BC. After 38 BC. The Roman governor Agrippa had settled in the place Ubier . But people lived in the area of today's urban area much earlier. The 14,000-year-old double grave of Oberkassel as well as a ditch and wooden palisades, which were proven in the area of the Venusberg and from the time around 4080 BC, bear witness to this . Come from BC.
While the Roman presence in Bonna was still modest in the time before the birth of Christ , this was to change after the defeat of the Romans in the Varus Battle in 9 AD. In the following decades a legion was stationed here, which set up a camp in the northern area of today's Bonn. Around the camp and south of it along today's Adenauerallee, traders and craftsmen settled in a vicus .
With the end of the Roman Empire the decline of Bonn went hand in hand in late antiquity and in the early Middle Ages . During the Viking raids in the Rhineland , Bonn was sacked twice in 882 and the newly rebuilt city was attacked again by the Normans in 883, pillaged and plundered.
In Franconian times and finally in the 9th and 10th centuries, a spiritual center developed in the area of the Bonn Minster , the Villa Basilica , and a market settlement in the area of today's market. 1243 is considered to be the year when full city rights were granted.
The outcome of the Battle of Worringen in 1288 was of great importance for the further development of the city. The Cologne electors made Bonn - next to Brühl and Poppelsdorf - one of their residences and ultimately their residence . The magnificent palaces built by the electors in the 17th and 18th centuries gave the city its baroque splendor.
This era ended with the occupation by French troops on October 8, 1794. Almost two decades of occupation by Napoleon's troops followed . The occupation taxes on food, clothing and accommodation as well as the loss of the electoral state administration led to an impoverishment of the population and a decrease in the number of residents by around 20%. The French brought a civil code ( Code civil ) and local government municipal constitution to Bonn. Even under French occupation, medium-sized and larger industrial companies, especially those from the textile industry, settled here. The French also pursued consistent secularization: Properties of the ecclesiastical electoral state, especially the electoral buildings, came into state ownership. Areas on the right bank of the Rhine of today's Bonn in Vilich came into the possession of the Prince of Nassau-Usingen : Oberkassel belonged to the Duchy of Berg , a French satellite state. The Treaty of Lunéville of February 9, 1801 also made the Rhine the French eastern border near Bonn. Bonn became the seat of a sub-prefecture in the newly formed Rhine-Moselle department .
In the course of the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna , Bonn fell to Prussia in 1815 . The city was shaped over the next few decades by the university , which was founded by the Prussian government on October 18, 1818 . Founder and namesake was King Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia. At the end of the 18th century there was a university in Bonn that was closed with the French occupation in 1794. The Prussian re-establishment did not join the university from the electoral era, but was part of a founding program that included the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin and the Schlesische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Breslau . The addition Rheinischein the name of the Bonn University it was supposed to identify it as a sister of the Berlin and Breslau universities. In fact, it became the preferred place of study for the Hohenzollern princes for the next 100 years . It was also called the “Prinzenuniversität” because both the future Kaiser Wilhelm II and his four sons studied there. Before it was founded in Bonn, Cologne was the rival for a university. The decisive factor was probably that the “enlightened tradition” of Bonn seemed more suitable than “holy Cologne” for a university with equal denominations. But there were also purely practical reasons in favor of Bonn: with the old electoral palace and the Poppelsdorf palace, there were already suitable properties.
Professors, students, civil servants and officers came to Bonn from 1815. Including numerous Protestants from the Prussian provinces, which was a specialty in the “Catholic” Rhineland. The Prussians also made Bonn a garrison town. In the course of this, Bonn became popular as a retirement home for the military. After the founding of the empire in 1871, tourism also received an upswing in the course of the “ Rhine Romanticism ” of those years.
More than 1,000 Bonn residents, mostly citizens of the Jewish faith, were murdered during the Nazi era . About 8,000 people had to leave their hometown, were arrested or imprisoned in concentration camps . When the Second World War ended on March 9, 1945 with the invasion of Bonn by American troops, the degree of destruction of the buildings was 30 percent. Of these, 70 percent were slightly to severely damaged and 30 percent completely destroyed residential buildings. More than 4,000 Bonn residents had died in bomb attacks. On May 28, 1945 British troops took over the city as an occupying power .
After the Second World War, the city experienced rapid development and expansion, especially after the decision in favor of Bonn as the provisional seat of government of the new Federal Republic of Germany instead of Frankfurt am Main on November 29, 1949 (see question of the capital of the Federal Republic of Germany ) . - As a result of the law to implement the decision of the German Bundestag of 20 June 1991 to complete the unification of Germany (Berlin / Bonn Act) related emigration of Parliament, parts of the government, a large part of the diplomatic missions and many lobbyists and the Privatization of the Federal Post Officethe city underwent another change at the turn of the millennium. The remaining ministries, federal authorities involved , administrative centers of large German companies, international organizations and institutions of science and science administration are the bearers of this structural change, which has been rated as successful up to now and continues to this day.
The city of Bonn was enlarged several times by incorporations . Bonn had grown rapidly around 1900. As a result, on June 1, 1904, the towns of Poppelsdorf , Endenich , Kessenich and Dottendorf were incorporated, with which Bonn had grown structurally.
As a result of the regional reform of August 1, 1969, accompanying the municipal reorganization of the Bonn area ("Bonn Law") , the population of the city was roughly doubled and the Siegkreis and the Bonn district merged to form the Rhein-Sieg-Kreis . The once independent cities of Bad Godesberg and Beuel and the municipality of Duisdorf became separate city districts of Bonn.
The Beuel district on the right bank of the Rhine also received the villages of Holzlar , Hoholz and the Oberkassel district, which had previously belonged to the Siegkreis. Bonn itself was expanded to include Ippendorf , Röttgen , Ückesdorf , Lessenich / Meßdorf and Buschdorf of the former district of Bonn, Lengsdorf and Duisdorf together with some new building areas formed the Hardtberg district.
The city of Bad Godesberg had previously incorporated several places. Plittersdorf and Rüngsdorf had already joined Godesberg in 1899, and Friesdorf was added in 1904 , with Bad Godesberg in fact already merging with Bonn. In 1915 Bad Godesberg had grown out of the valley to the southwest, so that Muffendorf was incorporated. On July 1, 1935, Lannesdorf and Mehlem became districts of Bad Godesberg.
The population of the city of Bonn exceeded the 100,000 mark in 1934, transforming it from a medium-sized to a large city. The number of inhabitants doubled through incorporation until 1969. In the run-up to the government move, there was a slight population decline between 1992 and 1995, which was promptly compensated for.
Today Bonn is one of the major cities in Germany with a growing number of inhabitants - according to the population forecast of the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia , Bonn will have around 342,232 inhabitants in 2025. The successor prognosis for 2030 predicts a population of 351,801 for Bonn, making Bonn the seventh largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia. Since there is only a comparatively small amount of building space left in the urban area, it is not certain that such an increase in the number of inhabitants can actually be achieved, so that the surrounding communities would have to start growing.
On January 1, 2019, 330,244 residents were eligible residents of Bonn. The proportion of women on the reporting date was 51.7 percent, that of men was 48.3 percent. The average age was 41.9 years. The percentage of foreigners (registered residents without German citizenship ) was 16.9 percent (55,704 people) on January 1, 2019, while the share of the population with a migration background was 29.3 percent (96,919 people). The immigrants came from 177 countries. The largest groups of foreigners included people from Turkey (8,319 people or 8.6 percent), Syria (7,846 people or 8.1 percent), Poland (7,218 people or 7.4 percent) and Morocco (5,742 people or 8.1 percent) 5.9 percent) As of December 7, 2016, 3,017 asylum seekers and refugees from over 40 nations were living in Bonn; around a third of the refugees accommodated by the city come from Syria .
On December 31, 2019, 33.2 percent of Bonn's population claimed to be Catholic, 18.6 percent Protestant and 10.8 percent Islamic. 3.4 percent belong to another religious community and 33.9 percent do not belong to any religious community. A year earlier on December 31, 2018, 34.2 percent of the population (112,953 people) professed to be Roman Catholic and 19.0 percent (62,821 people) to the Protestant faith, 3.4 percent of the inhabitants (11,307 people) belonged to other denominations 32.8 percent (108,231 people) did not belong to any denomination. An estimated 35,000 Muslims lived in Bonn , which corresponds to almost 11 percent of the population.
The Bonn dialect is the Ripuarian Bönnsch , a Middle Franconian dialect, which differs from the closely related Kölsch in addition to some vocabulary through the more pronounced singsong, softness of consonants (in contrast to the very hard Aachen dialect, for example) and the more leisurely speaking speed. This is evidenced by the writer Ludwig Verbeek , who was born in Cologne and now lives in Bonn , who commented:
“Western singsong, but less noticeable than in Aachen. Vocabulary and intonation are related to Cologne, but less broad and hard. "
In contrast to the self-confident Cologne of the craftsmen, speaking dialect was frowned upon in “elegant” circles in the residential and university city of Bonn, so the Bönnsch is no longer as present in everyday life as the Kölsch in Cologne. The high proportion of newcomers (Imis) did the rest. Known for his treatment of the Bonn dialect is the cabaret artist Konrad Beikircher , who was not born in Bonn but in South Tyrol and has lived in Bonn since his studies.
The Rhenish sharpening is characteristic of Bönnsch, swallowing endings (example: Bonner = Bönne), transforming the g to j (examples: der liebe Gott = de liwe Jott or gut = joot), belittling with the ending - (s) chen (example: cuts = little cut or dog = dog or street sweeper = sweeper), as well as the transformation of ch or g to sch (examples: church = cherry or Siegburg = Sieschbursch (popularly 'the city with the three s') or technology = Teschnik). In addition, there are numerous local word creations that can pose problems for newcomers: a 'Käsebrötchen' is a 'Halwe Hahn', a 'barrel of beer' is called a 'Pittermannsche' or a 'Roggenbrötchen' becomes a 'Röggelsche'. 'Time' becomes 'Zigg', 'weiter' means 'wigger' in this country, 'tell' becomes 'verzelle' or 'pull and push' becomes 'trecke un deue'. A Karnelval participant is a 'jeck' and if someone behaves strangely or funny, then also as an attribute 'wat is der jeck (jeckisch)'. Tourists will stumble upon a “Himmel und Ärd” on the menu, a stir-fry of blood and liver sausage.
When a Bonn native is happy, he may say: "Nah, what is that beautiful!"
A peculiarity, preferably in the older population, is or was the use of words of French origin: the 'policeman' can also be a 'gendarme', the 'tunnel' becomes a 'tunnel' and the 'wallet' is still today ' Wallet '.
Persons connected with Bonn
On the wall of the Jewish cemetery in the north of Bonn there is a grave relief of the first person from Bonn known by name, a Roman legionnaire who came from Gaul in AD 35 . The inscription reads, translated from Latin: “To Publius Clodius, son of Publius, from the ancestral district of Voltinia (roughly today's Provence) , born in Alba (A. Helviorium, today Alba-la-Romaine ) , soldier of the 1st Legion , 48 years old, with 25 years of service [deceased]. He is buried here. "
The uncontested list of celebrities in Bonn is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven . Thousands of tourists from all over the world visit his birthplace in Bonngasse every year. Besides Beethoven, other musicians were born in Bonn or have found their home there. These include Andrea Lucchesi and Johanna Kinkel . The composer Robert Schumann spent the last years of his life in what was then a mental hospital (today Schumannhaus ) in what is now the Bonn district of Endenich and is buried in the old cemetery .
"Bonn is a beautiful town on the banks of the Rhine, one of the most beautiful, even the most beautiful of all, that I have seen so far [...]"
For more than 200 years, the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn has contributed to the fact that a large number of researchers, teachers and students have settled on the Rhine. These include Ernst Moritz Arndt , August Wilhelm Schlegel , Clemens-August von Droste zu Hülshoff , Carl Schurz , Heinrich Hertz and - more recently - the Nobel Prize winners Wolfgang Paul and Reinhard Selten . Joseph Ratzinger ( Pope Benedict XVI.) Was professor of fundamental theology in Bonn from 1959 to 1963 .
In addition to famous musicians and scientists, a number of political celebrities were born on the Rhine in the past few decades or became Bonners by choice. Heide Simonis was born in Bonn, and the people of choice include the long-standing Minister of Labor Norbert Blüm , the former Federal Minister of Finance Peer Steinbrück and the former Federal Minister of Economics and Labor, Wolfgang Clement .
Well-known media professionals who were born in Bonn include presenter Johannes B. Kerner , publicist Roger Willemsen , comedian Luke Mockridge , singer Natalie Horler , actress Silke Bodenbender , and actor Simon Böer .
See also: List of honorary citizens of Bonn
For years, the seat of the city administration was the town hall on the market, built in the 18th century , until it was relocated to the town hall in the northern part of the city in 1978 due to the incorporation in 1969 . The mayor of Bonn continues to have his official seat in the town hall on the market.
In the 12th century, Bonn's administration and jurisdiction were headed by the Vogt and the sovereign's twelve lay judges . Since 1331, two burger mastering , later a rat testified. In a document dated July 24, 1550, the twelfth was named for the first time , as "the twelve vann of the communities", who had a control function. They didn't just represent the guildsbut the whole community. The mayors were elected by the council, the council by the guilds and the twelfth by the municipalities. In the Salentine Treaty of 1569 it was decreed that the city should be administered by two bushel mayors and two council mayors, one of whom was the governing mayor. The council was enlarged to 15 lay judges. The composition and powers of the council changed several times later. During the time of the French occupation from 1794 the designation Maire was introduced for the mayor . After the French withdrew from the city, on February 25, 1814, the French name Maire was replaced by the title of Lord Mayor . Anton Maria Karl Count von Belderbuschhad held the office of mayor since 1804 and was the city's first mayor from 1814. In Prussian times after 1815, Bonn became the seat of a district . From 1815, the city was headed by a mayor, and there was also a council.
During the time of National Socialism , the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP . Some streets and squares were renamed according to the taste of the rulers: This is what today's Konrad-Adenauer-Platz was called Adolf-Hitler-Platz from 1934 to 1945. The Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler became an honorary citizen of the city in 1933 (revoked in 1945; confirmed in 1983).
After the Second World War , the military government of the British Zone of Occupation appointed a new Lord Mayor and in 1946 introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a town council elected by the citizens . He elected the honorary Lord Mayor as chairman and representative of the city and a full-time senior city director from among his numberas head of the city administration. In 1996, the dual leadership in the city administrations in North Rhine-Westphalia was given up. The mayor is now directly elected. As a full-time mayor, he is chairman of the council, head of the city administration and representative of the city. In his role as a representative, the Lord Mayor of Bonn is represented by four mayors. Bärbel Dieckmann won the first direct election in 1999 in the runoff election against the CDU candidate Helmut Stahl , and in 2004 she was confirmed in office in the first ballot. Dieckmann did not run again in the 2009 election . Her successor was Jürgen Nimptsch ( SPD), who prevailed against the CDU candidate Christian Dürig with 40.9 percent. The runoff election had previously been abolished by the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia. In September 2015 , Ashok-Alexander Sridharan (CDU) won the upcoming election, ahead of the opposing candidates Peter Ruhenstroth-Bauer (SPD) and Tom Schmidt (Greens). The previous incumbent Nimptsch did not stand for re-election. Sridharan was sworn in and put into office on October 21, 2015. At the same time as the local elections on September 13, 2020the mayor election took place in Bonn, in which none of the candidates achieved the required absolute majority. In the runoff election on September 27, 2020, incumbent Sridharan lost to the green challenger Katja Dörner .
The City Council of Bonn was elected by the citizens of Bonn with voting rights on September 13, 2020 as part of the municipal elections in North Rhine-Westphalia and has 66 members.
In the 2014–2020 electoral period, the CDU, the Greens and the FDP ( black-green-yellow ) formed a coalition . In the last council period from 2009 to 2014, the CDU and the Greens formed a black-green coalition .
Departments and offices of the city of Bonn
The city administration is divided into departments, to which the city offices are subordinate to:
- Mayor's Department
- Department I - General Administration and Order
- Department II - Finance, Law and Health
- Department III - Planning, Environment and Transport
- Department IV - Sport and Culture
- Department V - School, Social Affairs and Youth.
Departments I to V are headed by a city director - who is also the representative of the mayor - a city treasurer and three other councilors. They work full-time and are elected by the Bonn city council.
Four MPs represent the federal city of Bonn in the state parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia that was elected on May 14, 2017 . Directly elected members are Guido Déus in constituency 29 (Bonn I) and Christos Georg Katzidis (both CDU) in constituency 30 (Bonn II) . Joachim Stamp and Franziska Müller-Rech entered the state parliament through the FDP state list, and Stamp has also been Deputy Prime Minister and Family Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia since June 30, 2017 .
Bonn forms the Bundestag constituency of Bonn (96). In the 2017 federal election , Ulrich Kelber (SPD) was confirmed as a directly elected member for the fifth time in a row. However, Kelber resigned from the Bundestag on January 6, 2019, only to take up his new position as Federal Commissioner for Data Protection and Freedom of Information one day later . Katja Dörner (Greens) and Alexander Graf Lambsdorff (FDP) were elected to the German Bundestag via the respective state lists of their parties , Dörner resigned her mandate after the election as Mayor of Bonn in 2020.
The city of Bonn has an annual budget of 1.3 billion euros. On May 21, 2015, the city of Bonn announced the decision to adopt the 2015/2016 dual budget. On December 15, 2015, the city of Bonn announced the approval of the 2015/2016 double budget and the 2015–2024 budget security concept by the Cologne district government . The budget of the city of Bonn foresees income (receipts) in the amount of 1.15 billion euros and expenses (expenses) of 1.158 billion euros for 2015 . For 2016, revenues of 1.088 billion euros and expenses of 1.158 billion euros are planned. The budget shows a deficit of 42 million euros in 2015 and 70.5 million euros for 2016. For 2021, the budget balance will be aimed at.
On June 30, 2016, the city of Bonn announced that Bonn's total debt would rise to 2.141 billion euros by 2020 (per capita debt: 6,775 euros). The total debt of the city of Bonn amounted to 1.633 billion euros as of June 1, 2016, making Bonn one of the most heavily indebted cities in Germany. Thus, at the beginning of June 2016, every inhabitant was arithmetically in debt with 5172 euros.
On December 8, 2016, the City Council of Bonn adopted the 2017/2018 double budget (drawn up on June 7, 2016). The city council is still planning to balance the budget for 2021. New debts are planned for 2017 and 2018, respectively. For 2017, earnings (income) of around 1.172 billion euros and expenses (expenses) of around 1.269 billion euros are estimated in the earnings plan. In the earnings plan for 2018, around 1.244 billion euros are earmarked for income and around 1.289 billion euros for expenses.
The city of Bonn has a coat of arms, a flag and a logo.
|Blazon : "Divided by silver and red, above a continuous black bar cross, below a looking, striding golden lion."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms of the city of Bonn shows in the upper half the black Electoral Cologne cross on a silver background, which adorned all coats of arms of the former electorate and which emphasized the territorial rule of the Cologne elector.|
A medieval stone image of the heraldic animal was popularly called "Stone Wolf". The sculpture shows a lion striking a boar. The lion's head is no longer there, so it remains unclear whether, like the lion in today's coat of arms, it is looking at the viewer. The stone wolf served as a court symbol and was located on the south side of the Münsterplatz from the early Middle Ages until the end of the electoral era. Today there is a cast of the sculpture at the end of Vivatsgasse and in the vestibule of the Old Town Hall . The original can be viewed in the Bonn City Museum .
Relations of the City of Bonn
The city of Bonn has had a city friendship with Tel Aviv-Jaffa in Israel since 1983 and a city partnership with Potsdam since 1988 . Further district partnerships and city friendships, some of which arose before the regional reform in 1969, exist in the individual city districts:
- City district Bonn : Partnerships with Oxford in the United Kingdom since 1947 and with Budafok-Tétény (German Promontor ), the XXII. District of Budapest in Hungary since 1991, and a twinning with Opole in Poland since 1997 (contacts since 1954)
- District Bad Godesberg : twinned with Saint-Cloud in France since 1957, with Frascati in Italy since 1960, with Windsor and Maidenhead in the UK since 1960 and with Kortrijk in Belgium since 1964, and since 1969 a twinning with Yalova in Turkey
- Beuel district : partnership with Mirecourt in France since 1969
- Hardtberg district : partnership with Villemomble in France since 1967
In addition to city partnerships, Bonn maintains themed project partnerships . In addition to youth and cultural exchanges, there is also an exchange of experiences in the areas of ecology , urban development and disaster prevention. Project partnerships exist (as of 2014) with the cities of Bukhara in Uzbekistan , Cape Coast in Ghana , Chengdu in the People's Republic of China , La Paz in Bolivia , Minsk in Belarus and Ulaanbaatar in Mongolia .
On October 26, 1955, the then district of Bonn decided to take over the sponsorship of the former city of Stolp and the former district of Stolp . On July 1, 1956, the sponsorship began during the Stolper Bundestreffen in the Bad Godesberg town hall . After the reorganization of the Bonn area , the Bonn City Council decided on May 21, 1970 to continue it.
Furthermore, the city of Bonn is the eponymous godfather for the ICE-2 multiple unit number 208, a Boeing 747-430 with the registration D-ABVB of Lufthansa , a container ship and the naval emergency group supplier Bonn (A 1413) .
Bonn, the Rhein-Sieg district and the Rhineland-Palatinate district of Ahrweiler have been cooperating closely with one another, particularly since the Bonn / Berlin resolution of 1991, on a political level through the Bonn / Rhein-Sieg / Ahrweiler Regional Working Group on Development, Planning and Transport (: rak). The region with around one million inhabitants is often called “Bonn / Rhein-Sieg” or “Bonn / Rhein-Sieg / Ahrweiler”. The northern part of the Neuwied district is geographically part of the Bonn area, in particular the municipalities of Unkel , Linz am Rhein and Asbach. There are close economic ties within the region, which is why many associations that work together in Bonn and the surrounding areas have formed. The city has also been cooperating with the Cologne / Bonn region in the Cologne / Bonn e. V. In this intermunicipal association, the independent cities of Cologne, Bonn and Leverkusen have united with the five districts of Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, Rhein-Erft-Kreis , Rhein-Kreis Neuss , Oberbergischer Kreis and the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis in order to provide structural policy development of the Cologne / Bonn region to develop together. The district of Ahrweiler is a permanent guest on this body based on an old tradition of cooperation.
Architecture, culture and sights
The old town hall , built from 1737 in the Rococo style , is one of the city's landmarks on the market square . In the immediate vicinity of the town hall is the former main residence of the Cologne Electors , the Electoral Palace - today the main building of Bonn University.
Poppelsdorfer Allee , planted with chestnuts, connects the Electoral Palace with the Poppelsdorf Palace , which was built in the first half of the 18th century as a resort for the Electors. This axis is interrupted by the railway line with the main station , whose reception building, built in 1883/84, is now a listed building. Between the 1970s and 2019, the controversial Bonn Hole was located on the station forecourt , which has since been replaced by the “Urban Soul” project.
The Alte Zoll , a bastion of the former fortress ring , lies between the Electoral Palace and the Rhine . Its exposed location offers a picture-book-like view of the Rhine and the Siebengebirge right at the transition from the Middle Rhine to the Cologne Bay .
The Sterntor , which originally stood at the confluence of Sternstrasse with Friedensplatz, was dismantled around 1900 due to the construction of the tram through Sternstrasse and rebuilt in a heavily modified form, including a remnant of the city wall, at Bottlerplatz.
Above Bad Godesberg are the ruins of the Godesburg, which was probably originally built as a refuge by the Franks . The Godesberg town hall consists of six connected buildings, which were built by Elector Max Franz from 1790 to 1792 as lodging houses for spa guests. The former electoral chamber theater Haus an der Redoute , built between 1790 and 1830, is now a branch of the art museum.
Buildings in Federal Bonn
Due to the large number of historically significant buildings, Bonn's information stations were set up on the path of democracy for visitors . The Path of Democracy is a circular route that leads past several historical buildings in the former government district through what is now the federal district , in particular the district of Gronau . The path was opened on May 21, 2004 and is a project of the House of History of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal City of Bonn. The concept was developed under the direction of Dietmar Preißler , director of collections at the House of History Foundation.
The Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK) is on the path to democracy, the nucleus of democracy after 1945. It is not a federal property, but a natural history museum and a foundation under public law of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The museum building is located directly on the B9 on the outskirts of the Federal District , stands as a monument under monument protection and is a station of the historical round path towards democracy because on September 1, 1948 in the Great Hall of the Museum of the ceremony to mark the meeting of the Parliamentary Council was held.
A core structure of the old federal capital is the parliament building. The Bundeshaus was originally a pedagogical academy that was used by the Parliamentary Council from 1948 and later by the Bundestag and Bundesrat . At the end of the 1980s, the plenary hall was replaced by a new building. It has been used as a conference center since the parliamentary parade and has been called the World Conference Center Bonn (WCCB) since 2007 . Another part of the WCCB is the historic waterworks , whose pump house was used as the plenary hall of the Bundestag during the renovation of the Bundestag building from 1986 to 1992.
The office of the Federal President is the late Classicist Villa Hammerschmidt , built from 1861/1862 with a large landscaped garden. The Villa Hammerschmidt in Bonn has served as the official and residence of the Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany since 1950, as the first residence and residence after Schloss Bellevue since 1994.
The Federal Chancellery building in Bonn was the seat of the Federal Chancellery of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1976 to 1999 and has housed the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development since 2005. It is located in the Gronau district on Adenauerallee 139 (Bundesstraße 9) in the center of the federal district. The second seat of the Federal Chancellery has been the Palais Schaumburg, which belongs to the property, since 2001 . It was the first Federal Chancellery and served as the official headquarters from 1949 to 1976. The area of the former Federal Chancellery, which includes a few other buildings, is a listed building.
The former residential and reception building of the German Chancellor in Bonn is known as the Chancellor's Bungalow . It was used for this purpose from 1964 to 1999.
The former Post Office I (1954–1988), now a listed building, is architecturally attractive. It was built between 1953 and 1954. The building of the Federal Ministry for Post and Telecommunications (officially the Adenauerallee-Nord property; Adenauerallee 81-83) in Bonn was the seat of the Federal Ministry for Post and Telecommunications from 1954 to 1988 and the Federal Foreign Office from 1989 to 1999 . Since 2000 it has been the seat of the Federal Audit Office .
The former Post Office II (from 1988) is located on Robert-Schuman-Platz in the federal district . The building for what was then the Federal Ministry for Post and Telecommunications was built according to the plans of the architects Heinle, Wischer and Partner . Today it serves as the first office of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). This building is stylistically based on the shape of a post horn, which can be seen in aerial photographs. Under the building there is a now decommissioned nuclear bunker.
The head office of Deutsche Post is located in the Post Tower , the tallest office building in North Rhine-Westphalia. The building is in the immediate vicinity of the former high-rise building and landmark of the federal (capital) city, the Langen Eugen , which has been used by the United Nations since 2002 .
The Schürmann Building , today's headquarters of Deutsche Welle, is located between the two high-rise buildings . This building, originally planned as a parliamentary office , was badly damaged during the construction phase by the Rhine flood in 1993 . The A562 / B9 intersection is located on the border between the Bonn and Bad Godesberg districts and is flagged with the 191 flags of the UN states on special occasions.
Reception of the buildings
The buildings of the government district show enormous age differences and thus also the architectural styles. While the Villa Hammerschmidt, Palais Schaumburg or the Museum Koenig date from the 19th century, the Federal Palace from the early 20th century, only a few buildings were added in the young Federal Republic (construction stopped in 1955 by law), and many new buildings were added from the 1960s . Until the reunification in 1990, Federal Bonn experienced a certain building boom in the late phase in order to meet the tasks of federal administration and to "show face". It is probably one of the changing baths in history that, of all times, at the time of the strongest expansion of "Federal Bonn", reunification broke in through the seat of government and the old imperial capital Berlin announced its later claim as federal capital.
There have been and still are numerous comments on the architecture of the Bonn Republic, probably because it is an architecturally heterogeneous “patchwork quilt” that gave Federal Bonn the nickname “provisional”.
There was plenty of criticism from all sides: Peter M. Bodes judged: “There is probably no government in the whole world that has produced as much architectural chaos as the federal government in Bonn.” The architecture critic Ingeborg Flagge said that “with the Bonn state architecture, no state is allowed to make "is. And the journalist Johannes Gross commented: “In 40 years of growing prosperity, the Federal Republic of Germany has not erected a single building of architectural importance.” The architectural historian Wolfgang Pehnt but expressed something like understanding: Perhaps the long way to the federal capital is also a reflection of society, "contradicting its interests, sometimes faint-hearted, sometimes ready for big goals that cannot be realized again"
In a dissertation from 2015 (book title: "Buildings of the Federal 1949–1989"), Elisabeth Plessen dealt with the architecture of the seat of government and documented 154 realized and 14 planned federal buildings. Despite the negative image, she dared to analyze that the seat of government in Bonn was an expression of the “stages in a society's identity formation through architecture”.
Revitalization of old industrial areas
In 2003, the first construction work for the urban development project Bonner Bogen began on the site of the former Oberkassel cement factory . By the end of 2009, under the direction of the Bonn architect Karl-Heinz Schommer, residential and office buildings, event rooms and the Hotel Kameha Grand Bonn were built there . Listed buildings of the old factory have been preserved and have been extensively renovated, including the director's villa, the administration building and the water tower.
The Auermühle in Graurheindorf is an unused old industrial plant .
The three tallest structures in the city are the widely visible radio mast of the West German Broadcasting Corporation Cologne (WDR) on the Venusberg ( ), the Post Tower ( ) and the former Langer Eugen ( ). The central tower of the Bonn Minster lies with in seventh place of the tallest buildings.
The urban area is home to a large number of churches and places of worship. Below is a selection:
Bonn Minster , Collegiate Church (Bonn) , Castle Church , Namen-Jesu-Kirche (Bonn) , St. Remigius (Bonn) , St. Cäcilia (Oberkassel) , Helenenkapelle (Bonn) , Kreuzkirche (Bonn) , St. Maria and Clemens (Schwarzrheindorf ) , St. Marien (Bonn) , St. Peter (Vilich) , St. Petri in Ketten (Lengsdorf) , Rüngsdorfer church tower , Marienkapelle (Rüngsdorf) , St. Laurentius (Lessenich) , Michaelskapelle (Bad Godesberg) , Elisabeth Church ( Bonn-Südstadt), Trinitatiskirche (Endenich), St. Servatius (Friesdorf), St. Evergislus (Plittersdorf) , St. Severin (Mehlem), Kreuzbergkirche (Endenich) , Synagogue Bonn , Agia Trias Cathedral (Greek Orthodox), Al-Muhajirin Mosque ( Tannenbusch), Al-Muhsinin-Mosque (Beuel), Al-Ansar-Mosque (Bad Godesberg).
Bonn has a number of historically significant church buildings. A landmark of the city is the Bonn Minster , built in the 11th century . It is the largest of all the churches in the city and has a cloister. One of the oldest church buildings in Bonn is the Romanesque double church of St. Maria and Clemens in Schwarzrheindorf . As a special feature, it has a two-story nave.
The collegiate church , a Roman Catholic parish church that bears the name of St. Johann Baptist and Petrus and was built from 1879 to 1886, is located on Stiftsplatz on Kölnstrasse in the Bonn-Zentrum district and shapes Bonn's cityscape. The parish church is the oldest parish in Bonn.
The basin in which Beethoven was baptized is located in the Remigius Church in the Brüdergasse, the former "Brethren Church". Above Poppelsdorf , on the site of a pre-Christian cult site and a Christian pilgrimage site, Christoph Wamser built the Kreuzbergkirche in 1627/28 . Archbishop and Elector Clemens August had the church expanded in the middle of the 18th century by Balthasar Neumann by adding the Holy Stairs .
The Kreuzkirche was founded in 1871 as the main Protestant church in the city and is now one of the largest Protestant churches in the Rhineland.
The Bonn synagogue in the Bonn district of Gronau was built between 1958 and 1959. It is located on Tempelstrasse (house numbers 2-4) on the northern edge of the federal quarter, immediately south of the Foreign Office. It is the only synagogue in the city of Bonn and is a listed building. Until the November pogrom of November 10, 1938, there were synagogues in Bonn-Stadt, Beuel, Bad Godesberg, Mehlem and Poppelsdorf.
The Old Catholic Church of St. Cyprian , consecrated again in 1957, is located in Adenauerallee. The cathedral church of the Bonn bishopric of the Old Catholic Church in Germany is the Namen-Jesu-Kirche in Bonn, which was handed over to the Old Catholic Church after a renovation on June 2, 2012 for further use. The Namen-Jesu-Kirche in Bonngasse was built in the Jesuit Gothic style as a post-Gothic church between 1686 and 1717 and is owned by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia.
There are 40 municipal cemeteries with a total area of around 120 hectares in Bonn's urban area. Other cemeteries are maintained by parishes as parish cemeteries.
The city's best-known cemetery is the Alte Friedhof, located on the border with Nordstadt : Numerous prominent graves as well as graves and monuments by important sculptors make the Alte Friedhof in Bonn one of the most famous cemeteries in Germany. There is, for example, the grave of Beethoven's mother and the memorial to Robert and Clara Schumann . In the 19th century, which was George's Chapel on the cemetery translocated . It belonged to the buildings of the Kommende Ramersdorf since the 13th century . There are also a large number of architecturally interesting tombs and celebrity graves at the Poppelsdorf cemetery and theCastle cemetery in Bad Godesberg.
Muslims are buried in the north cemetery today. There is also a Chinese grave field there. In the summer of 2018, it was decided to create another grave field for Yazidis . Numerous graves of Sinti and Roma - some of them very large and lavishly designed - are located in the municipal cemetery on Platanenweg in Beuel.
The Jewish cemetery in Bonn-Castell is used as a burial place by Jews. The Jewish community operates a grave field at the Kottenforst cemetery. Remnants of Jewish cemeteries that were closed or abandoned by the National Socialists can also be found in the city. These include the Jewish cemetery in Schwarzrheindorf , the Jewish cemetery on Augustusring, which was the largest in the city during the days of the Electorate of Cologne, the Jewish cemetery on Hainstrasse in Endenich and the Jewish cemetery on Godesberg , which is part of the castle cemetery .
Nature and parks
For the Federal Horticultural Show in 1979, the Rhine meadows and agricultural areas south of the then parliamentary and government district were redesigned into a 160-hectare landscape park, the Rheinaue . For the Federal Garden Show 1979, areas on the right bank of the Rhine from Beuel-Süd to the Südbrücke were included. Today the park areas serve as a recreational area and are used for major events such as open-air concerts, festivals and flea markets.
The historical parks include the Hofgarten with Hofgartenwiese, adjoining the main university building to the south, including the parks up to the Old Customs on the Rhine to the east and west, the park axis to the Poppelsdorf Palace with the Botanical Garden. The small Ernst Moritz Arndt Garden is also one of the city's popular parks.
On both sides of the Rhine, in Bonn and Beuel, promenades extend from north to south with green areas that allow a view of the city, the Rhine and the Siebengebirge.
There are also some smaller parks in the city, the largest of which is the spa park in Bad Godesberg. It was originally laid out for the spa business and is home to some rare plant species. For Bonn-Oberkassel, the privately owned Arboretum Park Härle is worth mentioning.
The Rheinaue, the Härle Arboretum, the Old Cemetery and the Botanical Gardens of the University of Bonn were included as particularly exemplary in the Route of Garden Art between the Rhine and the Maas .
The largest open space within Bonn is the Meßdorfer Feld between Endsich, Dransdorf, Lessenich and Duisdorf. As an open space in the direction of the wind, it is important for the climate of Bonn's inner city and is the only agricultural area in the city area.
Other recreation areas are
- the Kottenforst to the west and south of Bonn , the 40 square kilometer eastern part of the Rhineland Nature Park , which extends with some foothills into the Bonn city area, including:
- the Venusberg and the Waldau and
- the surrounding valleys Melbtal and Katzenlochbachtal (nature reserve)
- the Rhine foreland north and south of Beuel
- and the south-east location of Bonn, also in a natural park combined Siebengebirge with its northern reaches.
A natural specialty in the city is the Tannenbusch dune , which is an 11,000 year old inland dune . It was created by violent winds that blew the sand of the Rhine at this point at the end of the last Ice Age. The dune was declared a nature reserve at the end of the 1980s.
In both nature parks , extensive hiking trails with attractive views of the city invite you to go hiking. The Rheinsteig long-distance hiking trail begins in Bonn and continues through the Siebengebirge.
In the north of the Beuel district on the right bank of the Rhine , Bonn borders the confluence of the Sieg into the Rhine and the surrounding Siegaue nature reserve , which is one of the last remaining somewhat natural mouths of the Rhine to enjoy protection status under the Fauna-Flora-Habitat Directive . Alluvial forests and oxbow lakes can be found here without any particular agricultural use, on the other hand with a high diversity of flora and fauna.
There are a total of 47 brooks in Bonn, most of which flow into the Rhine.
Art, museums, exhibitions and memorials
Museums and exhibitions
Bonn has a large number of important museums. The Art and Exhibition Hall of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundeskunsthalle) (built from 1986 to 1992 by Viennese architect Gustav Peichl ) and the House of the History of the Federal Republic of Germany have been among the ten most visited museums in Germany since they opened. More than 500,000 visitors come every year, and the Bundeskunsthalle even clearly exceeds this number for individual temporary exhibitions. Both museums were established in the early 1990s together with the Bonn City Art Museum and together with the Bonn branch of the, which opened in 1995 and has focused on German research and technology since 1945German Museum in the Science Center, the ifa gallery and the traditional Museum Koenig the Museum Mile .
Even the federal political Bonn include the 1964 resulting Kanzlerbungalow of Sep Ruf , between the Villa Hammerschmidt and Palais Schaumburg not far from the House of History, is available to the public in guides after extensive renovation since in 2009. In the city center, several museums have also joined forces to form the CityMuseen network: The Bonn City Museum (opened in 1998) at Franziskanerstraße 9, the Memorial for Resistance and Persecution, which is also located there, the Egyptian Museum opposite, the Academic Art Museum, the Beethoven House and the Rheinische State Museum.
Museums have been set up in houses where famous people were born, lived and died. This applies to the Beethoven-Haus , the August-Macke-Haus , the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Haus , which as part of the StadtMuseum Bonn offers not only an Arndt memorial room but also special exhibitions and events on cultural and historical topics of the 19th century, and the Schumannhaus in Endenich, where the music library of the city library has been housed for decades. In the floor of Bonngasse , in which the Beethoven House is located, the portraits of personalities have been embedded since 2005, whose lives are closely connected to the city. The Beethoven House is a world document heritagepart of the autograph of the Symphony No. 9, D minor, op. 125 by Ludwig van Beethoven.
The university has numerous museums and collections. The most famous are the Egyptian Museum , a collection with around 3000 original objects, the Academic Art Museum , which houses the archaeological collection of the university, and the Arithmeum , an extensive collection of calculating machines. The botanical garden belongs to the university. Here, among other things, you can marvel at the largest flower in the world, the titan arum, whose bloom was entered in the Guinness Book of Records in 2003 as the largest flower in the world. It blooms regularly, every year since 2008. Also worth mentioning is the Goldfuß Museum, a collection ofFossils , the Mineralogical Museum, a collection of precious stones and meteorites , and finally the Horst-Stoeckel Museum, which presents the history of anesthesiology from the discovery of ether anesthesia in 1846 to the present day.
The women's museum, founded in 1981, is now almost 40 years old . It was the first institution worldwide with the same name or with a comparable objective. Today the Women's Museum can look back on over 400 exhibitions and with its extensive accompanying programs has become an internationally recognized institution.
The Rheinisches Landesmuseum , which was completely rebuilt between 1995 and 2003, shows significant archaeological monuments to the cultural history of the Rhineland and has a less important collection of contemporary art from the region.
On the initiative of and under the direction of the Bertolt Brecht Comprehensive School, with the help of the German Aerospace Center and other sponsors, the Bonn planetary nature trail on a scale of 1: 1 billion was opened along the Rhine in September 2002 . The sun (1.40 meters in diameter) is the starting point of the 5946 meter long nature trail and is located below the waterworks. Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are located at relatively short distances between 50 and 100 meters. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune follow at distances between 700 meters and 1.5 kilometers. Pluto closes the path at the northern end of Bonn harbor in Graurheindorf. The name, a true-to-scale hemisphere, the symbol, the diameter and all information are stored in Braille on information boards at each planet location.
The memorial for the Bonn victims of National Socialism is located at Franziskanerstraße 9 - An der Synagoge e. V. The informative permanent exhibition was fundamentally revised and supplemented in 2005. It documents the persecution, suffering and murder of the Bonn victims of National Socialism. The memorial includes a reference library , a media library with interviews with contemporary witnesses and an extensive archive.
Art in public space
There is an abundance of works of art by contemporary German and international artists throughout the city. These include Victor Vasarely with his Juridicum facade design, Henry Moore with Large Two Forms in front of the former Federal Chancellery, now the Federal Ministry of Development, and Eduardo Chillida with De Musica IV in front of the cathedral. The clouds cup of Hans Arp was erected in 1961 in front of the university library. Because the building had been renovated over several years, Arp's work was not on view between 2004 and May 2009.
This high number of art objects was favored by the construction activities of the public sector in connection with the expansion of Bonn to the seat of government. Works that were created as art in architecture as well as sculptures in front of public institutions such as the university and museums and, last but not least, donations from private patrons, make it possible for a visitor to walk through the city through the history of the visual arts of the last 50 can undertake up to 60 years.
In honor of Ludwig van Beethoven, there is a Beethoven monument on Münsterplatz .
Theater, music, film
The Beethoven Orchester Bonn regularly organizes concerts in the Beethoven Hall and is used in the opera. It was founded in 1897 as the Koblenz Philharmonic Orchestra and taken over by the City of Bonn as the Bonn City Orchestra in 1907 .
In addition to the Bonn municipal theater with the Bonn Opera and the drama operated in the Godesberger Schauspielhaus (formerly Kammerspiele ), there are various smaller private theaters in Bonn. These include the downtown Contra-Kreis-Theater , the Euro Theater Central , the Junge Theater Bonn in Beuel , the Theater DIE RABEN , the Kleine Theater Bad Godesberg , the Theater Die Pathologie in der Südstadt, the Bonn University Shakespeare Company as well as Malentes Theater Palast since September 2018 on Godesberger Allee.
Cabaret and cabaret are performed in the Haus der Springmaus , in the Pantheon Theater (since 2016 in the Halle Beuel ), in the Endeicher Harmonie and in the theater in the ballroom . The art of puppet theater is cultivated by the Piccolo puppet shows in various venues in Bonn . A lively poetry slam scene has been established in Bonn for several years : the Bonn War of the Roses has been taking place every month since 2001, and Bonn has had a second slam since 2009 with Sex, Drugs & Poetry .
From 1997 to 2011, summer concerts with German and international artists took place on the Museum Square at the Bundeskunsthalle as open-air concerts under a tent roof. The successor location has been the Kunst! Rasen in Gronau on the edge of the Rheinaue since 2012 . Smaller appearances take place in the Bad Godesberger Klangstation and the Endeicher Harmonie. With the open-air event Rheinkultur , the city's cultural offerings had one of the most important festivals in Germany until 2011, at which practically all modern styles were represented.
The traditional cinema Metropol on the market square was closed in March 2006 after the building changed hands at the end of 2005. After a heated discussion about the demolition, conversion or continued use of the listed venue, the building is now used as a bookshop. The Stern Lichtspiele , also located on the market, are operated by Cinestar . The Woki has been located in the Universum-Lichtspiele building built in 1956 on Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz since 1998 . The multiplex cinema Kinopolis is located in the center of Bad Godesberg . There are three art house cinemas in Bonn : the listed Rex Lichtspieltheater opened in 1952 in Endenich , the Neue Filmbühne built in Beuel in 1933 and the Bonn cinema library located in the Bonn Bread Factory .
The Beethovenfest is an almost four-week music festival that takes place every autumn with over 50 concerts in Bonn and the surrounding area. In 2005 the Beethoven Competition was held for the first time , a competition for young pianists from all over the world.
Restored silent films are shown in the university's arcade courtyard every summer during the International Silent Film Festival.
Between 2005 and 2013, the water organ event Klangwelle Bonn took place on Münsterplatz every autumn . Since then, the event has been taking place under the name Klangwelle in the Rhineland-Palatinate city of Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler .
The large Rheinaue flea market takes place in the Rheinaue every third Saturday of the month from March to October . Annual events in the Rheinaue are the large fireworks Rhine in Flames on the first weekend in May, the beer exchange on the last weekend in July and the international meeting festival in autumn. The open-air music festival Rheinkultur , established in 1983 , has not taken place since 2012. From 2015 to 2018 the Rheinaue was the venue for the Rockaue Open Air . The Panama Open Air festival has been held there once a year since 2015 .
The largest annual fair in Bonn, Pützchens Markt , takes place on the second weekend in September in Beuel-Pützchen on a festival meadow in the east of the city. Its origins go back to 1367. With around 1.2 to 1.4 million visitors, Pützchen's market is one of the largest annual fairs in the Rhineland. The folk festival is referred to as the “5-day market with the highest turnover in Germany”.
The AnimagiC , one of the largest German-speaking anime conventions (event for Manga and Anime fans), was held annually in the Beethovenhalle until 2016. When the renovation work began there, the convention moved to Mannheim . AiKon has only been a major manga convention in Bonn since 2019 . The venue is the BaseCamp Bonn . The annual Holi Colors Festival Bonn has been held there since 2014 . Other regular events such as the FeenCon take place in Bad Godesberg .
The cherry blossom in Bonn's old town attracts tourists from all over the world in April and May. Whereas in the past it was mainly Asian tourists from whose homeland the trees come, as the popularity of the trees grows, visitors from other countries also come.
From the penultimate weekend in November (pausing on Dead Sunday) to December 23, a Christmas market takes place in the city center . It stretches from Münsterplatz via Vivatsgasse, Mülheimer Platz, Bottlerplatz to Friedensplatz.
From 1970 to 2011, an international and diverse cultural program took place in Bonn, spread over several summer weekends, under the name of Bonn Summer . A good opportunity for musicians, artists and the independent cultural scene to go public. In 2011, 690 Bonn residents voted against the culture edition (approx. 300,000 euros annually) and 629 in favor of it. For 2020, the city council decided in 2019 to revive the popular festival at the time and combine it with the city garden concerts.
Bonn is one of the Rhenish carnival strongholds, although it is always somewhat overshadowed by the larger Cologne carnival .
In the Beuel town hall, the washer princess takes over the reign on Weiberfastnacht . The Old Town Hall in Bonn has been besieged and conquered on Carnival Sunday by Bonn city soldiers in historical uniforms in French style since the beginning of the 20th century. The largest carnival session is the alternative carnival session Pink Punk Pantheon with over 10,000 visitors every year.
Locals define the carnival time between November 11th at 11:11 am and Ash Wednesday as the “fifth season of the year”.
The best-known sports club in Bonn is the basketball club Telekom Baskets Bonn , whose first men's team has been playing successfully in the basketball league for years and has played home games in the 6,000-seat Telekom Dome in the Duisdorf district since 2008 .
Bonn is the largest German city from which a club has never played in the Bundesliga . The best-known football club in Bonn is the Bonner SC , which plays its games in the Sportpark Nord and currently plays in the Regionalliga West . Due to bankruptcy, the first men's soccer team of the Bonner SC took part in the 2010/11 season only with the 2nd team (district league B), with the youth soccer teams and the table tennis department. After surviving insolvency proceedings (dismantling of 8 million euros in legacy) and building a new team, the first soccer team of the Bonner SC started again in the national league in the 2011/2012 season.
Other sports clubs are the 1st Badminton Club Beuel (German badminton champion 1981, 1982 and 2005), the former women's basketball Bundesliga team BG Rentrop Bonn (today BG Bonn 92 ), the baseball Bundesliga team Bonn Capitals (German baseball champion Bundesliga 2018 , German runner-up in 1999 and multiple German champions in the youth classes), the Bonn tennis and hockey club (regional hockey division, tennis upper division), the hockey and tennis club Schwarz-Weiß Bonn, the American Football Bonn Gamecocks association (second Bundesliga) and Bonn's largest sports club, the Swimming and Sportfreunde Bonn 1905(SSF Bonn), multiple German volleyball champion and cup winner as well as home club of the 2008 Olympic champion in the modern pentathlon, Lena Schöneborn. The first women's team of the triathlon department of SSF Bonn is represented in the first Bundesliga .
The best handball clubs in Bonn are the HSG Geislar Oberkassel and TSV Bonn rrh., Which play in the Mittelrhein Association League and the North Rhine Regional Handball League respectively. The German Fencing Association has its headquarters near the Sportpark Nord with an attached boarding school for the young elite, some of which are part of the Olympic Fencing Club in Bonn. Fencing stars like Peter Joppich and Benjamin Kleibrink train here. The Turn- und Kraftsportverein 1906 e.V. has been located in Bonn for more than 100 years. V. Duisdorf. The 1st wrestling team of TKSV Duisdorf is wrestling in the first division in the second year. The largest dance sport club is the TSC Blau-Gold Rondo in the Beuel district, which regularly organizes the traditional Golden Vine tournament in spring .
The direct proximity of the Rhine is evident in several rowing clubs and four rowing working groups (AG) of the Bonn schools, which are organized in the AG-Bonn school rowing clubs (AGBS). With the Eurega , Bonn has a rowing regatta that is known far beyond Bonn's borders and is organized annually on the first weekend in May by the Bonn rowing club.
Bonn has eight swimming pools: two indoor swimming pools, five outdoor pools and a combined indoor / outdoor pool with an attached climbing forest as follows:
- Swimming pools: Beueler Bütt Beuel and Frankenbad Nordstadt
- Indoor / outdoor pool: Hardtbergbad Hardtberg
- Outdoor pool with air dome: Friesdorf swimming pool
- Outdoor swimming pools: Ennertbad Pützchen , Melbbad Poppelsdorf, Panoramabad Rüngsdorf and Römerbad Castell .
In addition, the swimmers of the SSF were given a swimming training center in the Sportpark Nord with a 50-meter sports pool and a teaching pool. First swimming strokes for small children and adults are just as much a part of the city's range of courses as style courses in crawl technique or aqua fitness lessons.
Sports fields, gymnasiums and sports halls
Over 100 municipal gymnasiums and sports halls are spread across the city . 81 of them are single gyms, nine large gyms, nine triple halls and one quadruple hall. There are also 24 gymnastics rooms and 46 outdoor sports fields , including 13 grass fields . There are 25 privately run sports and gymnasiums outside the city's disposal.
The annual sporting events include the German Open in synchronized swimming in March, the Bonn Marathon in April, the Bonn Triathlon in June, a station in the beach volleyball championships in Germany in August, and the men's floret world cup tournament "Lion of Bonn".
Gastronomy and night life
Bonn has repeatedly been referred to as a “federal city with no nightlife to speak of”. This designation is misleading in that the city is gastronomically developed and has a number of excellent restaurants. It was therefore selected in 2005 by Gault Millau as “Germany's gourmet capital”. With Rainer-Maria Halbedels Halbedel’s Gasthaus in Bad Godesberg, the city has a star restaurant . The restaurants Yunico (in the Kameha Grand Hotel), EQUU (in Gronau ) and Kaspars (in Castell ) have also been awarded a star.
In typical inns, the Rhenish cuisine is offered as a regional cuisine in Germany, often under the label “ home-style cuisine ”. These include classics such as u. a. Rhenish sauerbraten (Soorbrode), roll roast , Flönz , Rhenish-style mussels , Himmel un Ääd and Rievkoche ( potato pancakes ).
The “student” pubs, bars and discos are distributed decentrally in Bonn and are mainly to be found in the northern part of the city , known as the “old town” , in the southern part of the city and in Poppelsdorf . Experienced night owls switch from these locations to the restaurants around the Bonn market in the early hours of the morning, which open their doors to the market people at an early hour.
Associations and Associations
Masonic lodges have existed in Bonn since 1775 . Local celebrities such as Karl Otto Freiherr von Gymnich , Anton von Belderbusch or Nikolaus Simrock belonged to them . The Bonn lodges were forcibly dissolved twice, from 1814 to 1840 by the Prussian district director and Freemason opponent Rehfues and from 1935 to 1945 by the NSDAP. The Beethoven Lodge for Eternal Harmony is one of the few German lodges that opposed the forced dissolution and continued to work secretly in a private house. There are currently six Masonic lodges in Bonn from the various regular grand lodges. There is also a lodge for women and men called Light and Truth under the Grand Orient de Luxembourg .
Corporations and Associations
There are also numerous student associations in Bonn (beating, non-beating or facultative beating corporations) with their own houses and different ideological orientations.
Cologne / Bonn Airport, named after Konrad Adenauer , is located around 15 kilometers northeast of the city and is connected to Bonn via the A 59 , an express bus line and the railway line on the right bank of the Rhine . Another connection to air traffic exists through the Bonn-Hangelar airfield , which is located in Sankt Augustin directly on the border with the Beuel district. The airfield is mainly used by business travelers and sport pilots. A non-civil airfield exists at the headquarters of the Federal Ministry of Defense with the Bonn-Hardthöhe heliport, which is no longer used regularly. The Belgian airline Sabena operated a civil heliport on Römerstrasse from 1953 to 1961 with scheduled flights via Cologne to Brussels .
Rail and bus transport
Main hubs of rail transport
The Bonn Central Station is long-distance maintenance of Deutsche Bahn on the left Rhine distance Cologne -Bonn- Koblenz , the Siegburg / Bonn station on the ICE line Cologne-Rhine / Main is the center of Bonn with the light rail line to reach 66 in 20 to 30 minutes. In the event of a disturbance-related diversion via the right-hand Rhine stretch , a stop will be made in Bonn-Beuel . As a local transport route, the Voreifelbahn branches off from the left Rhine route to Euskirchen in Bonn . There are a total of 13 level crossings on Bonn's railway lines available.
There are nine train stations and stops in the city of Bonn . There are six hourly line connections to the surrounding cities in local rail passenger transport , which are mutually condensed to a 20 to 30-minute cycle. The Voreifelbahn runs every 15 to 30 minutes on weekdays, and every 30 to 60 minutes in the evenings and on Sundays.
Rail freight transport
Bonn is almost cut off from local rail freight traffic, but transit rail freight traffic through the Bonn city area takes place to a considerable extent on the left and right of the Rhine. Formerly there were over ten freight yards or port stations in Bonn city area, operated by three different railways (DB, KBE (Cologne-Bonn Railway) and the "old" RSE (a narrow-gauge railway, also known as the Bröltalbahn)called)) and also numerous sidings from Bonn companies. All that remains is the freight yard in Bonn-Beuel, which has been handling regular and extensive freight handling again for several years and is the last interface between rail and road in the whole of Bonn and the surrounding area. Ready-to-use sidings for industry no longer exist in Bonn; a vintage car spare parts wholesaler alone still has direct access to the rail network via a track at the Bonn-Beuel freight station and is regularly supplied with containers by rail.
Expansion of rail traffic
An extensive expansion of the rail network in Bonn and the region is planned for the next few years and decades. This includes the construction of the S-Bahn line 13, which previously connected Cologne and Troisdorf to Cologne / Bonn Airport via the airport loop opened in 2004 . With the extension through Bonn on the right bank of the Rhine to Oberkasselshe should take over this function for Bonn. In the meantime, regional train 27 connects Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Oberkassel with the Cologne / Bonn airport (every 60 minutes). The S13 is to run every 20 minutes and would go hand in hand with the construction of two new S-Bahn stations. The estimated costs of the 14-kilometer project have risen from initially 225 to 434 million euros, so the extension of the S13 to Oberkassel is not without controversy. After the DB repeatedly corrected the planned completion date backwards, no binding completion date has been given by DB since 2011. Preparatory work began in September 2014 in the Vilich-Müldorf districtwhich include the laying of a farm road instead of the planned new track. A financing and implementation contract for the S13 was signed in December 2014, and construction is now scheduled to start in early 2017. The main point of criticism of the extension of the S13 is, besides the immense costs, the fact that the Bonn center with the main train station and the federal district cannot be reached with the S13.
A direct connection from the airport via the south bridge to Bonn city center and the main train station has been examined in various versions by experts and assessed with very poor benefit-cost ratios. Furthermore, the south bridge cannot support today's S-Bahn wagons statically. Such a connection must therefore be viewed as unrealistic. A direct connection to the airport via the Kennedy Bridge would be technically possible after the completion of the renovation of the Kennedy Bridge (2011) with a two-system car (Karlsruhe model), but this is rejected by the Bonn council majority (status: 2013) and is therefore not an expert opinion on one Benefit-cost ratios have been examined.
From 2013 to 2014 the Voreifelbahn was expanded to consist of two tracks, connected with the construction of two new stops in Bonn's urban area ( Bonn-Endenich Nord and Bonn Helmholtzstraße ). In addition to better development through the construction of the new stations, the aim is to achieve a more frequent route on the heavily demanded line. As a result of its increasingly inner-city development function after the completion of the expansion, the Voreifelbahn will operate between Euskirchen and Bonn as the S23 from the timetable change in December 2014, which will give Bonn a connection to the Cologne S-Bahn network for the first time . Since March 2016, the Bonn UN Campus stop has been built on the left stretch of the Rhine at theMuseum mile in the federal district to better develop this focus of work. This was put into operation on November 1, 2017.
In the long term, it is planned to set up a S-Bahn on the left bank of the Rhine between Cologne and Bonn after the construction of the Cologne S-Bahn Westring, which will partially replace the Rhein-Wupper-Bahn (RB 48) between Cologne and Bonn-Mehlem as S 17 . A feasibility study commissioned by Nahverkehr Rheinland suggests that the Left Rhine route in the Bonn section between Bonn-Bad Godesberg and Bonn-Mehlem should be expanded to four tracks and the other sections to three tracks in order to be able to implement a 20-minute cycle. The VoreifelbahnAfter electrification, S23 is to be tied through to Bonn-Mehlem and compressed to a 10-minute cycle during rush hour. At the same time it is planned to significantly expand the noise protection and to modernize the technical equipment of the route. In addition, as part of the 250 million euro project, all level crossings in the Bonn city area are to be replaced or removed by overpasses, underpasses or abandonments. This eliminates the currently very long barrier closing times of up to 20 minutes in some cases and optimizes the flow of traffic over the long term.
Local road transport
In terms of local road transport , Bonn now has a light rail / tram network with around six lines (depending on the counting method). In the 1950s, the Bonn tram network shrank significantly due to numerous closures. The main line between Bonn and Bad Godesberg has mainly replaced the tram line on Kaiserstraße and the B 9 since the spring of 1975; it runs every 10 minutes during the day, the evening cycle times were greatly reduced in 2002. In addition to inner-city connections, the Bonn Stadtbahn serves Siegburg , Sankt Augustin , Königswinter and Bad Honnefwith line 66. Two lines run on the railway lines of the former Cologne-Bonn Railways to Cologne via Brühl , Hürth , Bornheim and Wesseling every 20 minutes.
Bonn also has a very dense city bus network with 48 lines (6 of which are shared lines 537, 541, 550, 551, 640 and SB55), which are mostly served every 20 minutes. In some cases, the bundling of lines results in cycle times of five minutes; at peak times and in school traffic, the bus network is supported by "supplementary lines" marked with an E. The late traffic was thinned out considerably in 2002 by a resolution of the council majority. As part of the new bus network, late-night traffic was strengthened again at the end of 2008 until night traffic began. There is also a night bus networkwith ten lines that connect to each other every hour. The night bus network is partly funded by sponsorship, i. H. each sponsor line bears the name of a sponsor, the bus (during the day in normal regular service) bears appropriate advertising. From 1951 to 1971, the Bonn trolleybus also ran in the city, replacing part of the tram network and in turn being replaced by bus lines.
Transport Association (VRS)
Bonn belongs to the tariff area of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Sieg (VRS).
Since the city area is cut by the Rhine, the three Rhine bridges on the A 562 (south bridge, Konrad Adenauer bridge ), A 565 (north bridge, Friedrich Ebert bridge ) and B 56 ( Kennedy bridge ) as well as the Rhine ferries Mehlem – Königswinter , Bad Godesberg– Niederdollendorf and Graurheindorf – Mondorf are of particular importance for inner-city traffic. The same applies to the railway underpasses and the Viktoriabrücke , which connect the north and south of the urban area on the left bank of the Rhine.
184,582 motor vehicles are registered in Bonn, including 156,398 passenger cars.
The city of Bonn's cycle path network was greatly expanded between 1994 and 1999. However, some cycle paths have now been dismantled and partially replaced by cycle lanes or protective lanes . Bonn is a member of the working group for pedestrian and bicycle-friendly cities, communities and districts in North Rhine-Westphalia and has the goal of becoming the bicycle capital in the future (based on the bicycle capital in Munich ). Among other things, a city-wide network of bicycle roads has been designed for this purpose.
Waterways and ports
In the north, in the Graurheindorf district , is the inland port of the city of Bonn ( Port of Bonn ). Before that he was at the old customslocated near the Kennedy Bridge. When this space was no longer sufficient for the handling capacities, it was relocated to a location that was still free of settlement at that time in the 1920s. It was intended to create a larger industrial settlement and a harbor basin. Neither was implemented. Until 1974 the port was connected to the KBE rail network via a branch line of the Rheinuferbahn branching off in Buschdorf. The port of Bonn is now completely enclosed by the Graurheindorf district on the land side. Today, containers for overseas transport are mainly handled at this river port. The annual throughput for all goods is around 0.5 million t.
The convergence of several major traffic arteries means that, according to a study by the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics in 2011, Bonn is the loudest city in North Rhine-Westphalia and the fourth loudest in Germany.
The Bonner Stadtwerke supply except for the districts Holzlar , Hoholz and Ungarten the city with water from the Wahnbachtalsperre . The gas network has been owned by the municipal utilities for a number of years, and since 2011 the electricity network has been fully municipal again, the city council has not extended the RWE concession for the Beuel and Bad Godesberg districts .
After Bonn became the seat of government, the power supply network was converted into a ring and mesh network . The established structures of these networks ensure greater reliability than comparable ones in other cities.
There are four sewage treatment plants in the city of Bonn , of which the Salierweg sewage treatment plant in the Graurheindorf district is the largest. Extensive investments have been made in wastewater disposal over the past 15 years. All wastewater treatment plants were modernized and expanded for over 200 million euros.
From mid-1991, the time of the Bonn / Berlin resolution of the Bundestag, to mid-2002, the number of employees in the city of Bonn rose by almost 11,400 people, or 8.5 percent to 145,558. For 2003, the city reports an increase of 3118 jobs to 149,016. As in the neighboring Rhein-Sieg district , job losses caused by relocation could be compensated and new jobs created.
In 2013, the city of Bonn named a purchasing power index of 109.6 percent (national average: 100 percent). Thus, the residents of Bonn together had a general purchasing power of 7.3 billion euros or 22,746 euros per inhabitant. The above-average purchasing power index is due to a high level of employment, a high proportion of highly qualified employees and high-income jobs. The neighboring Rhein-Sieg district had a marginally lower purchasing power of 21,367 euros per inhabitant.
In 2016, Bonn achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 22.824 billion within the city limits, making it 12th in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 71,222 per capita (North Rhine-Westphalia: € 37,416, Germany € 38,180) and thus well above the regional and national average. Around 243,200 people were employed in the city in 2016. The unemployment rate in December 2018 was 6.1% and thus below the average for North Rhine-Westphalia of 6.4%.
In most city placements for future development, Bonn and the region occupy places at least in the upper third. That the region is a prospering business location is shown by the fact that the population development has been positive for years.
The positive development was made possible, among other things, by the federal government's compensation payments to the region, which total around 1.4 billion euros. In particular, science projects and construction measures were funded. In addition, numerous federal authorities moved to Bonn, and many international institutions and non-governmental organizations settled in the federal city , including twelve of the United Nations. The concentration of Deutsche Post and Deutsche Telekom in Bonn also contributed to this.
The services (excluding public administration ) achieved an increase of 27.1 percent, i.e. around 22,400 employees, from June 1991 to June 2002. With 105,171 employees and a share of 72.3 percent of all employees, this area has its dominant position in Bonn expanded. In contrast, the public administration lost almost a third of its employees during this period.
Economic research institutes assume that the number of jobs in Bonn will continue to rise over the next few years. In the Future Atlas 2016, the city of Bonn was ranked 37th out of 402 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the places with "very high future prospects". In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 28th out of 401.
The tourism in Bonn was influenced mainly by political tourism during the time when the seat of government. This branch of the economy has had high growth rates since the 1990s, above all the number of overnight stays has increased by 40 percent since 1993 and the number of visitors has increased by 58 percent. One of the decisive factors for the growth is that tourism and the businesses operating there have adapted to the new circumstances - especially the government move. The success of Bonn's tourism today is largely due to the scenic location on the Rhine and the Siebengebirge, due to the increase in the number of passengers at the airport and the congressesjustified. Of the 1.16 million overnight stays in hotels in 2005, over a quarter of 300,000 were attended by congress visitors.
The number of day tourists is significantly higher at nine million. A total of 176 million euros are spent annually by tourists in Bonn. In Bonn and the Rhein-Sieg district, 10,475 people are employed in tourism - with an upward trend.
Bonn has had one of the lowest unemployment rates in North Rhine-Westphalia for years, in October 2010 it was 6.9 percent. A large proportion of those employed in Bonn come as commuters from the surrounding area, mainly from the Rhein-Sieg district , the Euskirchen district and the Rhineland-Palatinate district of Ahrweiler , as well as from the Rhein-Erft district and Cologne. 80,000 people go to work in Bonn every day, while 30,000 people from Bonn work outside the city limits. This means that Bonn has the third highest surplus of commuters in North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and the state capital Düsseldorf .
The region's labor market is shaped, among other things, by the numerous federal ministries and authorities associated with several federal associations and organizations - the federal government is the largest employer in the region - as well as the heavyweights Deutsche Post AG , Deutsche Telekom and Postbank with their subsidiaries. In addition to the jobs in the federal city and UN city functions with international organizations, there are comparatively many in Bonn in the field of information and communication technology and science with several research institutions.
Structural change in retail
As in numerous other cities in Germany, there was a structural change in stationary retail from the 1990s. Numerous former owner-managed, long-established retail stores disappeared and gave way to branches of retail chains. Some specialty stores with highly specialized ranges also disappeared. Last but not least, the increasing Internet trade led to this development.
Well-known Bonn companies
The major companies in Bonn can be divided into two groups. On the one hand, several privatized state-owned companies have their headquarters in Bonn. The best-known example is Deutsche Telekom AG (with its former subsidiaries T-Mobile and T-Home, merged into Telekom Deutschland GmbH since 2010 ), and Deutsche Post with its logistics subsidiary DHL and the Postbank (since 2010 majority-owned by Deutsche Bank ). In addition, has Tank & Rast based in Bonn.
On the other hand, there are some traditional, nationally known private companies in Bonn such as the luxury food producers, Verpoorten and Kessko, the Klais organ manufacture and the Bonn flag factory .
Other companies of supraregional importance are Weck Glaswerke (production site), Fairtrade , Eaton Industries (formerly Klöckner & Moeller), IVG Immobilien AG, Kautex Textron , SolarWorld , Vapiano and the SER Group.
Radio and television
By far the largest media company in Bonn is Deutsche Welle . It is headquartered in the Schürmann building , where it produces radio programs that are broadcast around the world, as well as an online offering in currently (April 2012) 30 languages. In addition, the television station Phoenix has its headquarters in the federal city, in the former capital city studio of ZDF .
The WDR maintains a federal studio and a regional office in Bonn. On February 1, 2007, local reporting in Bonn / Rhein-Sieg started with its own local time from Bonn .
In Bonn, the local radio station Radio Bonn / Rhein-Sieg broadcasts a supporting program from Radio NRW and the university radio BonnFM as a cooperation project between the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn and the Hochschule Bonn-Rhein-Sieg .
By far the largest daily newspaper in Bonn is the General-Anzeiger . He belongs to the Rheinische Post media group . The reader can also find local reporting in the Bonner Rundschau , in the Rhein-Sieg-Anzeiger and in the tabloid Express . These three newspapers all belong to the Cologne media group Gruppe M. DuMont Schauberg . In 2004, the Federal Cartel Office banned the media group, on the Bonner General-Anzeigerto acquire a share of the stock. In the opinion of the antitrust authorities, the deal would have strengthened the dominant position in the reader and advertising markets. On July 6, 2005, the Düsseldorf Higher Regional Court lifted the Federal Cartel Office's veto so that DuMont was able to acquire 18 percent of the shares. In return, Neusser GmbH, the publisher of the General-Anzeiger, acquired shares of 9.02 percent in the DuMont Group as part of a cross-shareholding . This participation has since been dissolved again. The General-Anzeiger has been part of the Rheinische Post Mediengruppe since June 1, 2018 .
A strong position in the field of printed matter have the publishing group Rentrop (among others, the publisher of the German economy ) and the Stollfuß publishing in the areas of tax, business and law. Both are among the 100 largest German publishers. With the publication of specialist musical literature, sheet music and textbooks on musical instruments, Voggenreiter Verlag is one of the best-known companies in this field.
The city magazines Schnüss ( Rhenish for “Schnauze”) and Szene Köln-Bonn appear monthly in Bonn . The supraregional weekly newspaper Rheinischer Merkur also came from Bonn and was converted into a supplement to the weekly newspaper Die Zeit in 2010 on the initiative of the German Bishops' Conference .
The news and communication portal rheinraum-online.de has existed since October 1, 2006 . According to its own self-image, it is aimed at citizens “who no longer want to be satisfied with reporting from the existing Bonn media landscape” . The Bonner daily newspapers, WDR and Radio Bonn / Rhein-Sieg produce online offers with local news. Online offers that publish information about events and concerts in Bonn and in the Rhein-Sieg district are campus-web.de and bonndirekt.com .
The Federal Press Conference has its only branch in the tulip field . A branch of the German Press Agency (DPA) is located here. In addition, a number of news agencies work in the UN city in the vicinity of the international organizations located here, such as the Catholic News Agency (KNA).
Radio coverage is provided, among other things, via the transmitter masts on the Venusberg and the Great Mount of Olives . About the station Bonn-Venusberg on the Venusberg , the region Bonn is connected to the digital terrestrial television since 2004 DVB-T network which replaced the analog broadcasting.
UN and federal city
UN city (location of UN authorities)
Bonn has been calling itself "the UN city on the Rhine" since 1996. Around 1,000 employees now work here for 19 organizations, offices and programs of the United Nations. Bonn is also the seat of the UN Climate Change Secretariat ( UNFCCC ). Most organizations are united by their commitment to the sustainable development of the earth. At first they were mainly based in the Bad Godesberg house Carstanjen , which in the long term offered too little space for the growing secretariats. That is why the federal government decided in 2003 to leave the " Langen Eugen " and the Bundeshaus as a former parliament building to the United Nations for permanent use and to provide a UN campus thereto build. The campus has the status of an extra-territorial area . Since the official opening of the UN campus in July 2006 - except for one - all other (18) organizations have moved into the "Langen Eugen". In October 2013, the Climate Secretariat was able to move into the converted south wing of the Bundestag building - the old parliament building. The youngest UN organization in Bonn is the Knowledge Center for Sustainable Development of the Advanced Training Academy of the United Nations System (UNSSC), inaugurated on March 3, 2016 .
The establishment of the United Nations led to an increase in the number of international institutions and non-governmental organizations operating in Bonn, of which around 170 have now settled in Bonn. These include the German Development Service (DED), the German Development Institute (DIE) and the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ), important development aid institutes which, in the performance of their tasks, are carried out by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development ( BMZ) with its headquarters in Bonn.
Around 150 non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are established as interest groups at the UN location in Bonn .
Federal city (location of federal authorities)
Since the relocation of the seat of government to Berlin, regulated by the Berlin / Bonn Act of April 26, 1994, six federal ministries have continued to have their first official seat in Bonn. Because the Federal Republic of Germany was constituted here in 1949 , the city became the seat of parliament and government for several decades (thus provisionally exercising the function of a federal capital until 1990 ) and Bonn was the administrative center, i.e. H. Should remain the center of the federal ministerial administration, from now on the city bears the nationwide unique title federal city. In addition, no more people may be employed in the Berlin ministries than in the Bonn ministries, in which around 10,000 people work. The move of 22 federal authorities from Berlin and the Rhine-Main area to the federal city was also regulated by the law . In addition, the federal government established the settlement of Deutsche Telekom , Deutsche Post and Postbank by law.
The following six federal ministries have their first official seat in Bonn: the Federal Ministry of Defense (BMVg); the Federal Ministries for Food and Agriculture (BMEL); for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ); for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB); for health (BMG) and for education and research (BMBF). The eight federal ministries with their first official seat in Berlin have a second seat in Bonn.
Many other federal authorities such as the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), the Federal Agency for Technical Relief (THW), the Federal Cartel Office (BKartA), the Federal Audit Office (BRH), the Federal Network Agency (BNetzA), the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE) , the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), the Federal Office for Information Security (BSI) and the Federal Railway Authority (EBA) are also located in Bonn.
During the times of the federal capital, numerous buildings for federal affairs and important institutions, such as the German Bundestag and the offices of the Federal Chancellor and Federal President and, last but not least, some embassies were located in the Rheinaue area in the south of the city, between Bonn and Bad Godesberg. In the vernacular, therefore, the Bonn people spoke of Bonn when they meant the city and of Federal Bonn when it came to federal properties. This spatial demarcation was difficult because numerous ministries and offices were spread across the whole city due to lack of space.
Science, education and research
The Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn was founded as an academy in 1777 and closed in 1798. It was re-established in 1818 and has been one of the largest universities in Germany ever since. Together with its university clinic , it is one of the largest employers in Bonn. In May 2019 over 38,000 students were enrolled and in terms of the number of students it is 13th (out of 426) among German universities .
The former observatory of the university now houses the Institute for Communication Sciences and the Volkssternwarte Bonn .
The Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences was founded in 1995. Although it has Bonn in its name, there is no study location within the city. The university is based in Sankt Augustin , with other locations in Rheinbach and Hennef (Sieg) .
The Max Planck Institutes for Mathematics , Radio Astronomy and Research on Collective Goods are also located in Bonn . Since 2012, the city of Bonn has been a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society. Furthermore, Bonn has been the administrative headquarters of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) since 2009 .
The caesar research center was founded in 1998 as a compensation measure for the move to Berlin . The German Development Institute , which was founded in Berlin in 1964 , moved to Bonn in 2000. An institute of the United Nations University (UNU) - the Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS) - is located on the UN campus . The distance university in Hagen , the DIPLOMA - FH Nordhessen and the FOM University of Economics & Management have branches in Bonn.
Until 2004, Bonn housed the Bonn University of Applied Sciences for Public Libraries . This technical college was founded in 1921 by the Borromeo Association and in 1947 was officially recognized by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It has had its last known name since 1982. In 2004, however, the college was dissolved.
The library for Huguenot history was founded in 2008.
The advanced training academy of the Ministry of the Interior of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia is a state-wide advanced training center for employees of the municipalities and the state administration. It is based in Herne . The independent educational institution of the financial administration of North Rhine-Westphalia is located in Bad Godesberg. It bears the name Fortbildungsakademie der Finanzverwaltung NRW (FortAFin) . After the relocation of FortAFin on October 1, 2018, a branch of the Wuppertal State Finance School will be created at the previous location in Bonn-Bad Godesberg.
The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the German Research Foundation (DFG), the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation , the Study Foundation of the German People , the Cusanuswerk , the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the Working Group of Independent Cultural Institutes (AsKI) have their offices in Bonn.
Furthermore, in the political field, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Secretariat of the Conference of Ministers of Education (KMK), the University Rectors' Conference ( HRK), the Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB), the Federal-State Commission for Educational Planning and Research Funding (BLK ), the German Institute for Adult Education (DIE) and the Federal Agency for Civic Education (bpb) are based in Bonn.
The Bonn fire brigade consists of the professional fire brigade founded in 1941, the volunteer fire brigade founded in 1863 and the youth fire brigade, each composed of different units with different guards.
The more than 15 hospitals are spread all over the city. The most important company is the University Hospital Bonn , which operates over 30 clinics in 12 departments. Almost all of them are housed on the Venusberg ; there are three other locations in the rest of the city. Another major clinic is the LVR Clinic Bonn (until 2009 Rheinische Kliniken Bonn , until 1997 Rheinische Landesklinik Bonn ) of the Rhineland Regional Council in Bonn-Castell . Another community hospital has existed since 2013 with the GFO Kliniken Bonn .
Bonn is the seat of the Bonn Regional Court , to which six local courts are subordinate, including the Bonn Local Court . In addition, there is a labor court and the Bonn public prosecutor's office in the city . The Federal Central Register located in Bonn was merged with the branch office of the Federal Ministry of Justice on January 1, 2007 in the newly formed Federal Office of Justice , based in Bonn. Among other things, the Federal Law Gazette is published there. In accordance with the Berlin / Bonn Act, the Federal Ministry of Justice will continue to have a branch office with around 30 employees in Bonn.
Labor market authorities
Bonn is also the location of the central foreign and specialist placement (ZAV) of the Federal Employment Agency (BA). The headquarters of the ZAV with its 18 locations nationwide is located in the Duisdorf district .
- Monika Hörig, Michael Sondermann: Bonn. The splendor on the Rhine. 2nd Edition. Verlag Beleke, 2004, ISBN 3-922785-83-2 .
- Beatrice Treydel, Christian Mack: Faces of Bonn: 100 reasons to love Bonn. Edition Lempertz, 2015, ISBN 978-3-945152-16-4 .
- Josef Niesen : Historical Bonn. A photographic tour with images from two centuries. Bonn BuchVerlag, Bonn 2017, ISBN 978-3-9818821-0-0 .
Historical and political non-fiction books
- Bonn - years of new beginnings. Memories of the time after the war. General-Anzeiger, Bonn 1986.
- Sebastian Bruns, Nina Hürter (ed.): Sustainably into the 21st century. 15 years of the UN City of Bonn. 15 Years UN City of Bonn. 1st edition. Bouvier-Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-416-03347-3 .
- Bonner Heimat- und Geschichtsverein (Ed.): The oldest history of the city of Bonn from the year 1656. Text edition - translation and commentary. Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-922832-49-2 . (Edition of the Historia universalis de Ubiorum ara seu Bonna by Adolph Sigismund Burman; transcribed, translated and commented by Manfred Peter Koch)
- Beate Czapla, Marc Laureys and Karl August Neuhausen (eds.): Bonna solum felix. Bonn in the Latin literature of the modern age. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-7927-1881-2 .
- Manfred van Rey : Bonn city history - in brief. From prehistory to the present. Bouvier, Bonn 2006, ISBN 3-416-03073-7 .
- Andreas Salz: Bonn-Berlin. The debate about the seat of parliament and government in the German Bundestag and the consequences . Monsenstein and Vannerdat , Münster 2006, ISBN 3-86582-342-4 .
- Detlef Bluhm , Rainer Nitsche (ed.): Bonn. Much bigger than I thought. Letters, travel pictures, diary notes, anecdotes from famous personalities from two centuries. Transit Buchverlag, 1998, ISBN 3-88747-135-0 .
- Stephan Eisel : Konrad Adenauer as a member of the Bundestag in Bonn. In: Stephan Eisel, Johannes Laitenberger (Hrsg.): For Bonn, for Germany, for Europe - Festschrift 50 years Bonn CDU. Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-416-02570-9 .
- Dorothea F. Voigtländer (Ed.): My Bonn. Recollections of contemporary witnesses from Bonn and the surrounding area 1914–1998. Zeitgut Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-86614-131-9 .
- Winand Kerkhoff: Rediscover Bonn - People / Culture / History. Edition Lempertz, Königswinter, 2006, ISBN 3-933070-57-0 .
- Rudolf Zewell: Small Bonn City History. Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2053-1 .
- JPNM Vogel: Chorographia Bonnensis or a brief description of everything from the beginning… (1766–1773). ed. by Norbert Flörken, BonnBuchVerlag, Bonn 2020, ISBN 978-3-948568-04-7 .
Architecture, art and culture
- Benedikt Wintgens: Greenhouse Bonn. The political cultural history of a novel. Düsseldorf 2019, ISBN 978-3-7700-5347-6 .
- Elisabeth Plessen: Federal Buildings 1949–1989: Between architectural criticism and contemporary perception. 1st edition. DOM publishers, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-86922-518-0 .
- Margot Wetzstein (ed.): Beethoven family in the electoral Bonn. Carus, 2006, ISBN 3-88188-098-4 .
- Hans Weingartz : Sculpture in Bonn - works of art in public space - 1950 to today. Lempertz, Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-939908-19-7 .
- Andreas Denk , Ingeborg flag : Architectural guide Bonn . Raimer, Berlin 1997, ISBN 3-496-01150-5 .
- Dittmar Dahlmann , Norbert Schloßmacher , Joachim Scholtyseck (eds.): Bonn in motion. A sports story. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0265-7 .
- Josef Niesen : Bonn monuments and their builders , Edition Lempertz, Königswinter 2013, ISBN 978-3-943883-52-7 .
- Gabriele Zabel-Zottmann: Sculptures and objects in the public space of the federal capital Bonn - installed from 1970 to 1991 . With consideration of a selection of previously and subsequently set up works. Part 2: Catalog. Bonn 2012, DNB 1029692912 ( online [PDF; accessed on July 30, 2015]).
- Hans-Dieter Weber: Bonn Lexicon. 1st edition. Bouvier Verlag / General-Anzeiger, 2008, ISBN 978-3-416-03200-1 .
- Josef Niesen : Bonn Personal Lexicon. 3rd, improved and enlarged edition. Bouvier, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-416-03352-7 .
- Ansgar Sebastian Klein (arr.): Bonn street names. Origin and meaning. Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-922832-48-5 .
- Horst-Pierre Bothien, Harald Ott: Bonn in de Täsch: The personal city guide. Klartext-Verlagsgesellschaft, 2008, ISBN 978-3-89861-938-7 .
- Matthias Hannemann, Dietmar Preißler: Bonn - Places of Democracy. The historical travel guide. Published by the House of History Foundation of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Federal Agency for Civic Education. Chr. Links Verlag, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-86153-519-5 . (2nd revised and supplemented edition 2014 ibid., ISBN 978-3-86153-780-9 )
- Eckard Heck: 111 places in Bonn that you have to see. 2nd Edition. Emons Verlag GmbH, 2014, ISBN 978-3-95451-212-6 .
- Klaus Polak, Nadine Martin: Bonn, CityGuide. 3. Edition. Reise Know-How Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-8317-2259-4 .
Further content in the
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- Website of the Federal City of Bonn
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- By air taxi to Belgium , Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger , October 10, 2010.
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