Jamaica Coalition

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The Jamaica coalition , black-yellow-green or black-green-yellow , sometimes also black traffic light or Schwampel or Jamaica traffic light for short , is the coalition of a Christian democratic or conservative party (with the identification color black) - especially in Germany . with a liberal (yellow) and a green party. There is no political or content-related relationship between the term and the Caribbean state of Jamaica .

History of the designation

The colors in the flag of Jamaica gave it its name.

Originally, in Germany, the regionally existing coalitions between the CDU , the FDP and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen were given the neutral designation "black-yellow-green". After the federal election in 2005 , the media referred to this coalition option more often as the “Jamaica coalition” - the term has been established in everyday language ever since. It refers to the colors of the flag of Jamaica and the German political parties that have so far been associated with these colors: black for CDU, yellow for FDP and green for Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen.

In a “Jamaica” constellation in Germany, the CDU is linked to the CSU at the federal level. Thus, a total of four parties are represented in such a coalition. Based on the existing term, the flag of Tanzania was formed with four colors as an alternative to the “ Tanzania Coalition”: Green triangle for Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen, blue triangle for CSU, black diagonal stripes for CDU, and its yellow border for FDP.

The term "black light" is the term traffic light coalition - derived, which, according to the - in short "light" Society for German Language in Wiesbaden after the local elections of March 1981 in Marburg showed up and since 1990 has been popularized by coalitions at the country level. The first known evidence for “Black traffic light” can be found after the Bremen state election of September 29, 1991 in the taz Bremen on October 2, the case word “Schwampel” on October 4 there.

The term “Jamaica Coalition” was invented in 1993/1994 by Hans-Bernd Schmitz, at the time editor-in-chief of the Dormagener advertising paper “Schaufenster”, and was first used publicly on September 6, 1994 in a column of this newspaper for a possible coalition in the city ​​council . The Dormagen local politician and then Vice-Mayor of Dormagen, Hans Wingerath, already used this term in the summer of 1994, before the Neuss-Grevenbroicher Zeitung published it beyond the borders of Dormagen.

The new name was initially largely unknown. It was later "discovered" anew; for example

  • On August 26, 2003, the HNA reported on an emerging “Jamaica Alliance” in the city council in Kassel ;
  • used Hajo Schumacher , editor of the magazine "ViSdP" , the term "Jamaica coalition" in the show on August 8, 2005 "plain text" on N24 ;
  • it was used by the political scientist Karl-Rudolf Korte in the “ ZDF morning magazine” on September 12, 2005;
  • Tom Levine spoke on September 15, 2005 in an analysis by the German Depeschendienst of a "Jamaica Connection".

The term “Jamaica Coalition” became well known on the evening of the 2005 federal election . In the elections, neither of the two opposing political camps - CDU / CSU and FDP versus SPD and Greens - achieved a majority in the Bundestag . For the first time since the federal election in 1949 , neither black and yellow , red and green nor red and yellow and also (until then only practiced at municipal level) black and green were able to win a majority of the seats. The main reason for this was the poor results of the popular parties , both of which received an almost stalemate of around 35% of the vote. In addition, the SPD refused to form a coalition with the fifth parliamentary group represented in the Bundestag, the Linkspartei.PDS . Some journalists then made suggestions for a black-yellow-green government.

Already at around 5:55 p.m. the term was used on ZDF by Focus editor-in-chief Helmut Markwort , at around 6 p.m. also in the first by WDR- editor-in-chief Jörg Schönenborn , who frequently used the term in the course of the evening when presenting the projections and so on contributed to its popularization. According to his own statement, Schönenborn came up with the name together with Richard Hilmer , the managing director of the opinion research institute Infratest dimap , on the Wednesday before the election with the help of a flag database.

The name results from the association of the colors of the parties involved in such a coalition and at the same time alludes to the exoticism that this constellation had in 2005 in view of the party political realities prevailing in Germany.

In Austria, after the legal drift of the once liberal FPÖ (Blue) under Jörg Haider and the unsuccessful split of the Liberal Forum  (LIF) in the 1990s, there was no longer a liberal party. The LIF, initially light blue, later chose yellow as the color based on the German color scheme. Since then, blue is no longer considered the color of liberalism. These forces were gradually distributed among the ÖVP (black), SPÖ (red) and Greens . The LIF finally merged with the NEOS (pink) in 2014. The Team Stronach chose in starting in 2012 also yellow for a value-conservative economic liberalism. Because the Greens are the long-established party, in Austria one speaks of black-green-yellow in that order.


Jamaica coalition at the federal level

Campact demonstration during the World Climate Conference in Bonn , which was held at the same time, calls for a Jamaica alliance to phase out coal (November 2017)

After the 2017 Bundestag election , the formation of a government was made more difficult by the large number of parties elected to the Bundestag and the considerable loss of votes by the large CDU / CSU and SPD parties. Since all parties rejected a merger with the Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) on the one hand, and Union and FDP coalitions with the Left Party on the other, numerically only two coalitions with an absolute parliamentary majority were possible: a grand coalition of CDU / CSU and SPD, and a Jamaica coalition . The first option was rejected by the SPD. The four-week explorations on the possible formation of a Jamaica coalition were broken off on November 19, 2017 after the FDP announced its withdrawal from the negotiations. The FDP party chairman Christian Lindner said that there was no trust between the parties during the negotiations. The main points of contention were climate and refugee policy. The CDU and CSU regretted this outcome, while Alliance 90 / The Greens sharply criticized the liberals' withdrawal. The then Green leader Cem Özdemir accused the FDP of lacking the will to agree. The deputy SPD chairman Ralf Stegner said on Twitter that this had not changed the situation for the SPD; one is still not available for government participation. The failure of the negotiations was mostly viewed critically by political observers in the media. Another impact was that "Jamaica-Aus" was selected as Word of the Year 2017 .

Jamaica coalition in the State Welfare Association of Hesse

In the association assembly of the State Welfare Association of Hesse (LWV), the "Hessian Social Parliament", the first state-wide cooperation between the CDU, the Greens and the FDP took place in 2005, which was also reflected in the occupation of the full-time department heads. Uwe Brückmann (CDU) was elected Country Director and Evi Schönhut-Keil (GREEN) was elected First Deputy . This alliance replaced a grand coalition of the SPD and CDU in the LWV that had actually existed since the LWV was formed in 1953. In the following legislative period, after the departure of the FDP, a black-green alliance was formed.

Jamaica coalition in Saarland: "Saarmaika" (2009–2012)

The first “Jamaica coalition” at state level was formed in 2009 after the state elections in Saarland . It was terminated on January 6, 2012 by Prime Minister Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer before the end of the legislative period.

It was closed after the state elections in Saarland in 2009. This coalition was unusual and sometimes surprising, as the top of the Greens decided against a coalition with the SPD and the Left (which was possible here). At a state party congress in October 2009, a surprising 78% of the delegates voted in favor of coalition negotiations with the CDU and FDP.

After the coalition negotiations, Peter Müller was re-elected as Prime Minister in November 2009 , and the ministers from the three parties were sworn in in the Müller III cabinet. Later, the professional activity of the Greens boss Hubert Ulrich for a company of the then FDP politician and entrepreneur Hartmut Ostermann and his high donations to the CDU, SPD, FDP and Greens were revealed , which continued until the coalition negotiations . However, the committee of inquiry convened by the opposition found no connection.

When translating the party programs into concrete policy, the three coalition partners essentially focused on their own strengths. While the Greens tried to raise their profile with the issue of the environment, the FDP and CDU oriented themselves more towards economic and social policy. At the instigation of the Greens, tuition fees were canceled in the Jamaica coalition and a strict non-smoker protection law was introduced. At the initiative of the FDP and the Greens, the hurdles for referendums were also lowered.

On January 6, 2012, the coalition under Kramp-Karrenbauer failed due to personnel quarrels and affairs of the FDP parliamentary group .

Schleswig-Holstein (since 2017)

After the state elections in 2017 , the CDU, FDP and the Greens agreed to form a Jamaica coalition and on June 28, 2017 elected Daniel Günther as Prime Minister (see Günther's cabinet ).

Jamaica coalitions at the local level

The CDU, FDP and the Greens are also forming a coalition at the local level. Such local Jamaica coalitions took place in Bad Dürkheim (1999) and Bad Kreuznach in Rhineland-Palatinate . At the district level, Germany's first Jamaica alliance (with the participation of a free voter community) was concluded in the Hessian district of Marburg-Biedenkopf in 2001, which lasted 10 years. In 2011 the FDP left this alliance, which now consists of the CDU, the Greens and Free Voters. In the council of the district Bad Kreuznach and in Lower Saxony Hann. Münden (with the participation of two free voter communities), in Cuxhaven Jamaica coalitions came about. In Frankfurt am Main , a coalition that had already been negotiated broke up in 2001 after less than a day. Since the local elections in Saarland in 2009, the CDU, FDP and Greens have formed a coalition in Sankt Ingbert . This alliance broke in 2011. From 2009 to 2014, the CDU and the Greens cooperated with the FDP in Blieskastel . The Saarpfalz district was also led by a black-yellow-green coalition. In Hesse , the CDU, FDP and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen have been ruling in a Jamaica coalition since the local elections in 2006, including in the state capital Wiesbaden and Gießen , in North Rhine-Westphalia since 2009 in Dormagen , Recklinghausen , Essen (with the participation of a free voter community), Leverkusen (with the participation of a free voter community), Bad Honnef , Herdecke and Netphen and since 2014 in Bonn . In Saarland, there have been coalitions of CDU, Greens and FDP in the Saarbrücken city ​​council and in the Saarbrücken districts of Dudweiler and Halberg since 2019 .


The Greens - The Green Alternative
NEOS - The New Austria logo.svg

In Austria, black-green-pink or turquoise-green-pink denotes a collaboration between the Austrian People's Party  (ÖVP), the Greens and NEOS (party color pink), which would correspond to the German constellation, it is known as the Dirndl coalition .


After the state elections in Salzburg in 2013 , the governing parties SPÖ and ÖVP were severely weakened, but the People's Party emerged as the party with the most votes. After the Greens had achieved a share of more than twenty percent of the vote with a plus of around twelve percentage points and had been described in the media as the winner of the election, ÖVP top candidate Wilfried Haslauer preferred to lead coalition negotiations with the Greens and the Stronach team. After initial resistance from the Greens, the talks began at the end of May 2013. A few weeks later, Austria's first black-green-yellow coalition was presented.

The Stronach team, which had since been disbanded, did not run for the 2018 state election. After the election, the ÖVP announced that it would hold coalition talks with the Greens and NEOS. This was then on June 13, 2018 as the Provincial Government Haslauer jun. II sworn. A coalition of the Greens, NEOS and ÖVP has since been known in Austria as the "Dirndl coalition".


In Belgium, based on the German party colors , a coalition of Liberals ( Mouvement Réformateur , Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democrats ), Christian Democrats ( Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams , Center Démocrate Humaniste ) and Greens ( Ecolo , Groen ) forms the Jamaica coalition ( Jamaica in the Netherlands) -coalitie , French Coalition jamaïcaine ), although according to Belgian color theory the Liberals are identified as blue and the Christian Democrats as orange.

Web links

Wiktionary: Jamaica Coalition  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Especially at the coalition negotiations in autumn 2017, the CSU appeared more independent towards the CDU.
  2. top left green triangle, bottom right blue triangle, black, yellow-edged diagonal stripe
  3. ^ Brigitte Alkins, Munich: The Tanzania coalition . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung, October 19, 2017.
  4. Klaus D. Schumilas: Alliance of CDU, FDP and Greens: When Dormagen invented 'Jamaica'. Retrieved September 25, 2017 .
  5. Parliament correspondence No. 896 , November 12, 2012, parlament.gv.at
  6. An overview of all the disputed points of the negotiations give for example: Imre Balzer, Sybille Klormann: Exploratory talks: The Jamaica Round is arguing about these topics . In: The time . November 16, 2017, ISSN  0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed November 20, 2017]).
  7. Jamaica failed: FDP breaks off explorations. tagesschau.de, November 20, 2017, accessed on November 20, 2017 .
  8. FOCUS Online: How should it become a coalition? It's horrific . In: FOCUS Online . ( focus.de [accessed November 20, 2017]).
  9. n-tv news television: Merkel is experiencing her “worst crisis” to date . In: n-tv.de . ( n-tv.de [accessed on November 20, 2017]).
  10. PR of the LWVHessen 2005 ( Memento from December 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  11. ^ Coalition agreement 2011-2016 CDU and GREEN in LWV Hessen
  12. PR of the LWV Hessen April 2012 ( Memento from December 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  13. CDU Saar: Declaration by Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer on the situation of the government coalition ( memento from January 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  14. a b "Jamaica" coalition in Saarland burst , Spiegel online, January 6, 2012
  15. ↑ However , this possibility was already discussed before the election, so Die Linke accepted a coalition decision by the Saarland Greens for the CDU. see. Copy of a poster of the left from the state election campaign
  16. Stuttgarter Zeitung: Jamaica-Filz an der Saar ( Memento of December 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), October 24, 2009
  17. https://www.jungewelt.de/artikel/134414.peter-m%C3%BCller-erneut-ministerpr%C3%A4sident.html
  18. Telepolis: Saar-Grünen boss Ulrich and his piquant connections to the shadow man of the Saar-FDP , October 28, 2009
  19. Stern: The Saarland Connection , October 24, 2009
  20. saarbruecker-zeitung.de ( Memento from September 13, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  21. Saarland: Big Spender Ostermann ( Memento from October 21, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Frankfurter Rundschau, March 23, 2010.
  22. Persilschein for Saar tax authorities in the Ostermann case ( Memento from September 11, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  23. Hamburger Abendblatt: Saar-Greens decide against Hartz IV reform , February 10, 2011
  24. taz: Jamaica without sunshine , August 30, 2010
  25. Die Zeit: Light Clouds Over Jamaica , February 16, 2010
  26. SR online: No mercy for smoking bars  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , March 28, 2011@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.sr-online.de  
  27. SR-online: Citizens should have their say  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , June 22, 2011@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.sr-online.de  
  28. ^ The Jamaica coalition in Schleswig-Holstein is available in the Süddeutsche Zeitung, June 13, 2017
  29. Coalition agreement 2001 between CDU, GRÜNE, FDP and Free Citizens in Marburg-Biedenkopf ( Memento from December 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  30. Pfälzischer Merkur: Jamaica goes into retreat - CDU, Greens and FDP dealt with the subject of the biosphere and renewable energies. November 18, 2009, accessed December 24, 2018 .
  31. http://www.hr-online.de/website/fernsehen/sendung/video_archiv5300.jsp?key=standard_document_37744286&jmpage=1&type=v&r=7&rubrik=5300&t=20090816&y=2009&jm=2&mediakey=fs/hessenschau/20090beitragica_whs_hs/hessenschau/20090beitragica_whs_hs
  32. Archived copy ( Memento from August 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
  33. Archived copy ( Memento from November 11, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  34. Archived copy ( Memento of November 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  35. http://www.derwesten.de/staedte/netphen/Jamaika-lene-Programm-vor-id3486754.html
  36. Sr.de: Jamaica in Saarbrücken. September 30, 2019, accessed October 12, 2018 .
  37. ^ Saarbrücker Zeitung: Jamaica coalitions in two Saarbücker district councils. Saarbrücken personnel carousel turns. June 26, 2019, accessed October 12, 2018 .
  38. The ORF declares the Dirndl coalition - Initiative Black Green Pink . In: Initiative Schwarz Grün Pink . October 12, 2017 ( schwarzgruenpink.at [accessed October 14, 2017]).
  39. karl.oberascher: Lunacek vs. Strolz: Last chance before the grand finale . ( kurier.at [accessed on October 14, 2017]).
  40. ^ ÖVP Salzburg negotiates with green and pink. Retrieved May 2, 2018 .
  41. CRISP: Jamaïcaine
  42. ^ De Tijd: De groene droom van een jamaicacoalitie
  43. Le Soir: Future coalition fédérale: de la Suédoise à la Jamaïcaine?