from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
State of Hesse
State coat of arms of Hesse
Country flag
Berlin Bremen Bremen Hamburg Niedersachsen Bayern Saarland Schleswig-Holstein Brandenburg Sachsen Thüringen Sachsen-Anhalt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Baden-Württemberg Hessen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Schweiz Bodensee Österreich Luxemburg Frankreich Belgien Tschechien Polen Niederlande Dänemark Bornholm (zu Dänemark) Stettiner Haff Helgoland (zu Schleswig Holstein) Nordsee Ostseemap
About this picture
State coat of arms of Hesse
State coat of arms
State anthem : Hessen song
Basic data
Language : German
State capital : Wiesbaden
Form of government : parliamentary republic , partially sovereign member state of a federal state
Area : 21,114.94 km²
Foundation : September 19, 1945
ISO 3166-2 : DE-HE
Website: www.hessen.de
Population : 6,288,080 (December 31, 2019)
Population density : 298 inhabitants per km²
Unemployment rate : 5.9% (July 2020)
GDP (nominal): EUR 292.016 billion  ( 5th ) (2018)
Debt : EUR 39.140 billion (September 30, 2018)
Head of Government : Prime Minister
Volker Bouffier ( CDU )
President of the State Parliament : State Parliament President
Boris Rhein ( CDU )
Ruling parties: CDU and Greens
Allocation of seats in the 20th state parliament :
Distribution of seats in the state parliament : Out of 137 seats:
  • CDU 40
  • Green 29
  • SPD 29
  • AfD 19
  • FDP 11
  • Left 9
  • Last choice: October 28, 2018
    Next choice : probably in October 2023
    Votes in the Federal Council : 5
    Kassel Landkreis Kassel Werra-Meißner-Kreis Schwalm-Eder-Kreis Landkreis Waldeck-Frankenberg Landkreis Hersfeld-Rotenburg Landkreis Fulda Vogelsbergkreis Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Lahn-Dill-Kreis Landkreis Limburg-Weilburg Landkreis Gießen Main-Kinzig-Kreis Wetteraukreis Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Hochtaunuskreis Wiesbaden Main-Taunus-Kreis Kreis Groß-Gerau Frankfurt am Main Offenbach am Main Landkreis Offenbach Darmstadt Landkreis Darmstadt-Dieburg Kreis Bergstraße Kreis Bergstraße Odenwaldkreis Baden-Württemberg Rheinland-Pfalz Bayern Nordrhein-Westfalen Niedersachsen ThüringenHesse, administrative divisions - de - colored.svg
    About this picture
    Administrative structure of Hesse:
    3 administrative districts , 5 independent cities , 21 rural districts , 423 municipalities

    Hessen (  [ ˈhɛsn̩ ] , abbreviation HE ) is a parliamentary republic and a partially sovereign member state ( Land ) of the Federal Republic of Germany . With its southern part of the country, the administrative district of Darmstadt (South Hesse), it is one of the most densely populated and economically strongest regions in Germany. The state capital is Wiesbaden , the most populous city is Frankfurt am Main . Please click to listen!Play

    Today's state of Hesse was founded on September 19, 1945 under the name Greater Hesse and was the first state in the Federal Republic of Germany that still exists today to receive a new democratic constitution. Its immediate predecessor states were the People's State of Hesse and the Prussian provinces of Kurhessen and Nassau , which the Free State of Prussia had created on April 1, 1944 by dividing the Province of Hesse-Nassau .


    Physical map of Hessen

    Hessen has an area of ​​21,114.94 square kilometers. As of December 31, 2014, the land use of this total floor area is divided into the following types of use :

    The geographical center of Hessen is located after evaluation of around 35,000 measuring points along the Hessian border in Flensungen , in the municipality of mosquito in Vogelsbergkreis . From January 1, 2007 to June 30, 2013, the geographic center of the European Union was in the Barbarossastadt Gelnhausen , district of Meerholz, in the Main-Kinzig district .

    Neighboring countries

    Hessen stretches from the approximate center of Germany south to southwest and borders with a total border length of 1410 km on the states of North Rhine-Westphalia (border length: 269.3 km), Lower Saxony (167.0 km), Thuringia (269.6 km) , Bavaria (261.9 km), Baden-Württemberg (176.5 km) and Rhineland-Palatinate (266.3 km).

    Natural structure

    Bottenhorn plateaus (up to 609  m above sea level )
    View of the Taunus

    Hessen is characterized by low mountain ranges up to 950  m high. In contrast, the basin landscapes are often at heights below 200  m above sea level. NN , the river valleys are partly below the 100 meter mark.

    The north of Hesse belongs to the so-called German low mountain range . These include, on the one hand, the main natural unit groups of the Rhenish Slate Mountains Süderbergland , Taunus , Westerwald , Gießen-Koblenzer Lahntal and Middle Rhine region , on the other hand in the Hessian Bruchschollentafelland West and East Hessian mountainous region and the Lower Saxony mountainous region in the north and the Thuringian basin in the east.

    The south and south-east of Hesse belongs to the south-west German layer level country with the main unit group Hessian-Franconian mountainous country , the south-west to the Upper Rhine lowlands .

    Hessen is one of the most densely forested countries in Germany, as the forests here cover around 42 percent of the area.

    Low mountain ranges and mountains

    Hessen's landscape consists of numerous low mountain ranges , sorted according to their highest (Hessian) mountains these are: Rhön , Taunus , Rothaargebirge , Vogelsberg , Hoher Meißner , Kellerwald , Westerwald , Söhre , Kaufunger Wald , Knüllgebirge , Habichtswald , Gladenbacher Bergland , Odenwald , Stölzinger Gebirge , Spessart , Schlierbachswald , Seulingswald , Richelsdorfer Gebirge and Reinhardswald .

    The highest point in the country is on the Wasserkuppe ( 950.2  m above sea  level ) in the Rhön in the Fulda district (for the Hessian low mountain ranges and other mountains: List of Mountains in Hesse ).

    Basins and valleys

    In the southwest of Hesse, in the Upper Rhine lowlands , which also includes the Rhine-Main conurbation and the Wetterau , is the largest basin landscape in terms of area. It is part of the Mediterranean Mjösen zone and within that to North (east) s by the Giessen pool , the Amöneburg Basin and to the north of Kassel reaching West Hesse Depression extended.

    Apart from this, the Limburg Basin on the western border with Rhineland-Palatinate between Taunus and Westerwald forms a larger intramontaneous subsidence area within the Rhenish Slate Mountains . In contrast, the Wetschaft depression extends the eastern border of the Rhenish Slate Mountains north of Wetterau and the Giessen Basin.

    The mostly tectonically created basins are mostly not basins in the geomorphological sense, but in part extensive lowlands through which rivers flow. There are often loess blankets here , which, together with the favorable climate, form the basis for high-yield agriculture.

    The lowest point in Hesse is near Lorch am Rhein ( 81  m above sea level ) in the Rheingau-Taunus district .

    Rhine with the island of Mariannenaue near Erbach (Rheingau) , to the left of it the Große Gieß with the border to Rhineland-Palatinate



    River landscape in the Rheingau (Höllenberg)

    The north and east of Hesse belong to the catchment area of the Weser , which crosses the country in the far north. Its source rivers Fulda and Werra flow 215 km and 95 km in length through Hesse. In contrast, the rest of the country is drained towards the Rhine, which forms the border with Rhineland-Palatinate in the southwest over a length of 107 km. Its most important tributaries for Hesse are Main and Lahn, but the Neckar also flows a short distance through the extreme south of Hesse.

    All rivers flowing through Hessen with a total length of over 100 km or a stretch of flow in Hessen of over 50 km are listed below. The Hessian and the entire length are given.

    Dill (Fluss) Ohm (Fluss) Haune Wetter (Fluss) Nidder Kinzig (Main) Nidda (Fluss) Schwalm (Eder) Diemel Eder Fulda (Fluss) Lahn Werra Neckar Weser Main Rhein
    Edersee 2007


    At the end of August 2019, the Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection announced a renaturation program for 100 streams.


    There are no larger natural lakes in Hessen. Four of the largest reservoirs in the state are located in the Waldeck-Frankenberg district in northwestern Hesse: the Edersee, by far the largest lake in Hesse, as well as Affolderner See , Diemelsee and Twistesee . Other important reservoirs are the Kinzig reservoir in the East Hessian Main-Kinzig district and the Aartalsee in the municipality of Bischoffen in the West Hessian Lahn-Dill district .

    The largest quarry ponds in Hesse include the Borkener See in the Schwalm-Eder district , the Werratalsee in the Werra-Meißner district and the Langener Waldsee in the Offenbach district as the largest lake in southern Hesse.

    Nature and protected areas

    In the various natural areas of Hesse , 763 nature reserves with a total size of more than 36,000 hectares have been designated. This corresponds to about 1.7% of the country's area. In addition, 125 landscape protection areas have been established.

    As part of the European Natura 2000 program, 583 FFH areas and 60 EU bird sanctuaries were placed under protection. There are 31 natural forest reserves in Hesse with a total reserve area of ​​1228 ha. Numerous individual trees, rock formations or smaller areas are protected as natural monuments.

    Hesse's only national park is the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park . Part of it has been part of the UNESCO World Natural Heritage " Old Beech Forests and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe " since 2011 . The Messel Pit, a world-class fossil deposit, has been a World Heritage Site since 1995.


    In today's state of Hesse, the former territories of the Hessian principalities are the Landgraviate of Hesse (later Hesse-Kassel , Hesse-Darmstadt , Hesse-Rotenburg and Hesse-Homburg , among others ), the County of Erbach , the Principality of Solms and large parts of the Duchy of Nassau , the county Hanau , the county of Isenburg , the principality of Waldeck , the principalities of Mainz and Fulda , as well as the free imperial cities of Frankfurt am Main , Friedberg , Gelnhausen and Wetzlar, respectively the former territories of the successor states.

    By proclamation of the American Military Government of 19 September 1945 the foundations for the modern state of Hesse were created, they united the Prussian provinces Kurhessen and Nassau and the People's State of Hesse to the country Greater Hesse excluding the areas in the west, the part of the French occupation zone became were. These were, on the one hand, the Nassau districts of Sankt Goarshausen, Unterlahn, Oberwesterwald, Unterwesterwald and, on the other hand, Rheinhessen , the left-bank province of the former People's State of Hesse, whereby the districts of the cities of Mainz and Worms on the right of the Rhine in the American occupation zone remained in the occupation zone and therefore today (still) belong to Hessen. The French-occupied areas became part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate in 1946 as the administrative districts of Montabaur and Rheinhessen. The former exclave of Wimpfen became part of the newly founded state of Württemberg-Baden against the majority resistance of the population and Hesse . With the adoption of the constitution of the state of Hesse in a referendum on December 1, 1946, the previously formed "State of Greater Hesse" became the "State of Hesse".

    Origin of name

    In general opinion, the name Hessen is the modified form of the tribal name of the Germanic Chatti , whose settlement focus was in what is now northern and central Hesse.


    Population development

    year Residents
    Percentage of foreigners
    1946 3,973,600
    1950 4,323,800 00.7
    1960 4,729,000 01.4
    1970 5,382,000 05.6
    1980 5,601,031 08.9
    1990 5,763,310 10.6
    2000 6,068,129 11.9
    2011 5,971,816 11.4
    2015 6,176,172 14.3

    Demographic development

    The Rhine-Main metropolitan region and the FrankfurtRheinMain regional association

    Most of the Hessian population lives in the southern part of the country, in the Rhine-Main area . Further urban centers are in Central Hesse Gießen , Marburg and Wetzlar , in North Hesse Kassel and in East Hesse Fulda . For the population development see population forecast Hessen .

    The 2011 Bertelsmann Stiftung's Guide to Commune Guide comes up with the following population forecast.

    2011 forecast
    date Residents
    December 31, 2009 6.056.210
    December 31, 2015 6,034,580
    December 31, 2020 5,998,640
    December 31, 2025 5,945,680
    December 31, 2030 5,871,570

    Gainful employment

    In Hesse, the following were employed in the economic sectors "Agriculture, forestry, fishing (Land)", "Manufacturing (Prod)" and "Services (service)" (in thousands):

    year total country Prod service
    1955 2.012 468 (= 23.3%) 0.790 (= 39.2%) 0.754 (= 37.5%)
    1965 2,376 233 (= 09.8%) 1,188 (= 50.0%) 0.955 (= 40.2%)
    1975 2,329 115 (= 05.0%) 1,063 (= 45.6%) 1,151 (= 49.4%)
    1984 2,448 083 (= 03.4%) 0.948 (= 38.7%) 1,416 (= 57.8%)
    1995 2,867 058 (= 02.0%) 0.885 (= 30.9%) 1,924 (= 67.1%)
    2004 2,994 047 (= 01.6%) 0.716 (= 23.9%) 2,231 (= 74.5%)
    2017 2,524 09 (= 00.4%) 0.614 (= 24.3%) 1,900 (= 75.3%)


    Due to its central location, the area of ​​today's Hesse has always been characterized by immigration . Friedrichsdorf, Bad Karlshafen, Walldorf and Neu-Isenburg were founded by religious refugees such as Huguenots and Waldensians . Other places like Trutzhain were founded by expellees after the Second World War . The largest group that settled in Hesse were expelled German Bohemians and German Moravians , who collectively are often referred to as Sudeten Germans . In the 1960s, so-called guest workers from Italy, Spain, Yugoslavia and Turkey came to Hesse, later repatriates and ethnic repatriates from Romania, Poland and the former Soviet Union. The centers of immigration today are major cities in the Rhine-Main area such as Frankfurt or Offenbach.

    At the end of December 2013, 810,639 foreigners were living in Hesse, which corresponds to a share of 13.4 percent of the total Hessian population. The proportion of the population with a migration background is 25.5%, which means that Hesse has the second highest proportion of migrants among the German territorial states after Baden-Württemberg .

    A large number of Hessian cities have a high proportion of foreigners (registered residents without German citizenship ). The cities of Offenbach am Main (31.5%), Kelsterbach (31.0), Raunheim (28.0), Dietzenbach (27.4), Frankfurt am Main (26, 8), Rüsselsheim am Main (23.1 %) , Hanau (21.2 %) and Neu-Isenburg (20.9%). All the cities mentioned are located in the Frankfurt metropolitan area , the agglomeration around the core city of Frankfurt.

    Religions and worldviews

    The Fulda Cathedral : Bishopric with the grave of Boniface

    33.4 percent of the population belong to the Protestant regional churches of Hesse and Nassau , Kurhessen-Waldeck and the Rhineland . 22.3 percent are of Roman Catholic faith, they belong to the (arch) dioceses of Fulda , Limburg , Mainz and Paderborn . 44.4 percent of the Hessian population belong to another or no religious community, some people without denominations are organized in the Humanist Association of Hesse .

    A representative study commissioned by the Hessian Ministry for Social Affairs and Integration came to the result in 2016 that 63 percent of the Hessian population describe themselves as Christians , three percent as Muslims and one percent as followers of another religious community. According to the study, 32 percent state that they are non-denominational . According to a projection by the Federal Ministry of the Interior from 2009, over ten percent of all Muslims in Germany live in Hesse.


    The average life expectancy in the period 2015/17 was 79.0 years for men and 83.4 years for women. The men are ranked 3rd among the German federal states, while women rank 4th. Regionally, the Hochtaunuskreis (expectation of the total population: 82.76 years), the Main-Taunus-Kreis (82.40) and the Offenbach district (82.19) had the highest, as well as Limburg-Weilburg (80.22) , the Schwalm-Eder district (80.04) and the Werra-Meißner district (79.75) have the lowest life expectancy.

    In 2017 there were 159 hospitals in Hessen with 36,432 beds. Des Land had 12,756 full-time doctors, 535 affiliated doctors and a further 66,426 employees in hospitals.


    Hessian constitution

    The Hessian constitution of December 1, 1946 is the oldest constitution of a German country still in force today. The constitution is divided into two main parts. The first 63 of the 161 constitutional articles deal with fundamental rights. The state structure is regulated in the second main part. The state bodies that are called to exercise state authority are described here, along with their tasks, rights and duties (see section “State structure” below). In the constitution, Hesse is committed to peace, freedom, international understanding and the German republic (which will be created when the constitution comes into force). The war is outlawed. A right of resistance to anti-constitutional laws and actions is enshrined in the constitution.

    Until 2018 there was still the option of the death penalty in the Hessian constitution, but this was broken by federal law and therefore could not be applied in Hesse. This option was canceled by referendum at the same time as the state elections in Hesse in 2018 .

    In Hesse, unlike in eleven other federal states, there is currently no law on free access to public administration information ( Freedom of Information Act ). There is also no timetable for Parliament to do so.

    The first constitutionally elected Prime Minister was Christian Stock . With the promulgation of the Basic Law on May 23, 1949, Hesse became a Land of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Government system


    According to its constitution, Hesse is a member of the German republic, which expresses the right to membership in a new German state (at the time the constitution was passed). The form of government is a democratic and parliamentary republic .

    Legislature - Landtag

    Hessian State Parliament in Wiesbaden City Palace (2012)

    The legislative power - the legislature  - is exercised by the Landtag , unless it is intended for the people by referendum. The state parliament consists of the representatives elected by the people. All eligible voters who have reached the age of 18 have the passive right to vote. All parties with more than five percent of the vote are represented in the state parliament. The legislative period has been five years since 2003; before that it was four years.

    Executive - state government

    The Hessian State Chancellery in Wiesbaden, seat of the state government

    The executive power - the executive branch  - is the Hessian state government and the state administration subordinate to it. The state government is composed of the prime minister and the ministers . The Prime Minister determines the guidelines for government policy and is responsible to the State Parliament for this. Within these guidelines, each minister manages the branch of business entrusted to him independently and under his own responsibility to the state parliament. The Prime Minister represents the State of Hesse externally. The state parliament elects the prime minister with more than half the legal number of its members in a secret ballot without debate . The Prime Minister then appoints the ministers. A special feature is that members of aristocratic houses / families who ruled in Germany or another country until 1918 or who rule in another country cannot become members of the state government.

    Judiciary - regional courts

    The judiciary - the judiciary  - is exercised by the state court and the other courts of the country . The State Court of Justice consists of eleven members, namely five judges and six members elected by the state parliament according to the principles of proportional representation, who are not allowed to belong to the state parliament. The State Court of Justice decides on the constitutionality of the law, the violation of fundamental rights, when the result of a referendum is challenged, on constitutional disputes and in the cases provided for in the constitution and the law. In Hesse there is also the special feature that there is an institution of a state attorney who can, on his own initiative, arrange for the constitutionality of a law to be checked by the state court.

    State politics

    Allocation of seats in the Landtag constituted in 2014

    From 1945 to 1987 the SPD provided the Hessian Prime Minister. The country was therefore often referred to as the red Hessen . Until 1970 the SPD was also the strongest party. From this time onwards the CDU succeeded for the first time in becoming the strongest party; until 1982, however, the government was formed by a coalition of the SPD and FDP . After the Greens , which at that time still saw themselves as a fundamental opposition, entered the Hessian state parliament for the first time as a result of the state elections in Hesse in 1982 , there was no majority capable of governing. This state of affairs did not end until the end of 1985, when the first national red-green state government came into being. At the beginning of 1987 this broke up again. The CDU and FDP emerged as the winners of the subsequent early elections. Since then, there has been a narrow majority in every election in the country, often with only one seat. From 1991 to 1999, the SPD and the Greens ruled again before a coalition of CDU and FDP under Roland Koch came about in 1999 . In 2003, the CDU received an absolute majority in parliament for the first time in Hesse (56 seats).

    Volker Bouffier ( Prime Minister of Hesse since 2010 ) when he was re-elected in 2014

    In the state elections on January 27, 2008 , the CDU was unable to defend its majority. The first entry of the party Die Linke , even if it only barely overcame the five percent hurdle with 5.1% of the vote , meant that none of the government coalitions (CDU / FDP or SPD / Greens) that the parties had sought in advance Majority found. In the following weeks, all attempts by the parties elected to the state parliament to put together a majority capable of governing, which would require either two large parties (CDU and SPD) or one large and two smaller parties (FDP, Greens or Left), failed. In its constituent session on April 5, 2008, the new state parliament did not elect a prime minister, which, according to Article 113 of the Hessian constitution , meant that the previous CDU government under Roland Koch remained in office until further notice. At the beginning of November, another attempt by the SPD's top candidate Andrea Ypsilanti to achieve a majority with the help of the Greens and the left failed due to a lack of support in their own parliamentary group. As a result, all parliamentary groups voted for the dissolution of the state parliament, thereby enabling new elections on January 18, 2009 . This brought a clear majority for the CDU and FDP, so that Roland Koch was re-elected Prime Minister of a CDU and FDP government on February 5, 2009. Volker Bouffier has been Prime Minister since August 31, 2010 . In the state elections in Hesse in 2013 , however, the Union and FDP were unable to maintain their majority - neither did the SPD and the Greens succeed in gaining a majority without the left. The Union held talks with both the SPD and the Greens. Finally, under Bouffier, there was the first coalition between the Union and the Greens in a flat country.

    Financial position

    The state of Hesse was the first German state to draw up a state balance sheet. In contrast to state balance sheets, which are based on data from the national accounts , the state balance sheet of Hesse was drawn up on the basis of the rules of the Commercial Code . In other words, an inventory of assets and liabilities and their valuation were carried out. The opening balance sheet was drawn up on January 1st, 2009, the annual financial statements are drawn up on December 31st each year. The last available annual financial statements are for the year 2011. The opening balance sheet and the annual financial statements were checked and certified by the auditing company PricewaterhouseCoopers .

    Financial situation of the state of Hesse
    Fiscal year Assets (excluding negative
    equity, in EUR million)
    (EUR million)
    Negative equity
    (EUR million)
    Share of negative equity
    (as a percentage of total assets)
    January 1, 2009 30,623 088.502 057,879 65.40
    December 31, 2009 35,500 100,400 064,900 64.64
    December 31, 2010 36,186 102,939 066,753 64.85
    December 31, 2011 37,511 108.131 070,620 65.31
    December 31, 2012 36,791 118.045 081,254 68.83
    December 31 2013 36.210 123,556 087,346 70.69
    December 31, 2014 39,117 129,336 090.219 69.76
    December 31, 2015 39,850 144,441 104,591 72.41

    The difference between assets and liabilities results in equity, which in Hesse's case is negative. That means that the country is over-indebted . The debt ratio remained more or less constant in the years 2009 to 2011, but has deteriorated since 2012.

    Since Hesse, along with Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg, is one of the few net contributors to the state financial equalization system due to its financial strength , it can be assumed that the financial situation of most German states is rather worse. However, a comparison with the city-states is difficult because the state balance sheets of large states do not contain the assets of the municipalities. According to the forecast in the 2011 annual report, negative equity will grow to around EUR 90 billion by 2020 and then decrease to EUR 85 billion between 2021 and 2025. The 2013 annual report states more cautiously: “The state government is [...] assuming the prospect of the possibility of reducing the deficit that is not covered by equity. An annual deficit of approx. 3.1 billion euros is expected for 2014. "

    In addition to the balance sheets, the state of Hesse also prepares cameralistic annual financial statements. The budget year is the calendar year. These follow the requirements of the Budget Principles Act . This makes them comparable with the qualifications of other federal states. However, they do not provide an overview of the financial situation. For the financial year 2013, the state government has accounted for the state's income and expenditure as well as the product budget with the budget account.

    European politics

    The State of Hesse represents its interests in the European Union through participation in various organs and committees, Hessian MPs are represented in the European Parliament . In addition, the State of Hesse maintains a permanent representation in Brussels , Hesse also sends members to the Committee of the Regions or takes part through the regional MEPs in Brussels. In November 2010, the state government also adopted its European strategy entitled "Seizing Hesse's Opportunities in Europe".

    Hessian European policy is coordinated by the Hessian Ministry of Justice, Integration and Europe . In Brussels , the Hessian state government maintains a representation headed by Friedrich von Heusinger. In the Hessian state parliament , the European Committee is responsible for cross-sectional European policy issues, currently chaired by Aloys Lenz (CDU). A special agreement was made in 2011 on informing the state parliament about matters relating to the European Union.

    National emblem

    The national emblems of the state of Hesse include the state coat of arms, the state flag, the state service flag, the state seal, the official shield of the state authorities and the red and white state cockade .

    The name of the country is written out in capital letters , and the Avenir font is used , as is the case in all official publications .

    State coat of arms

    Coat of arms of the state of Hesse
    Blazon : “The coat of arms of the state shows in the blue shield a rising lion with gold claws, divided nine times in silver and red. On the shield rests a thread of golden foliage with fruits formed by blue pearls. "
    Justification of the coat of arms: The state coat of arms with the red and white lion on a blue background with a golden crown is a design by the artist Gerhard Matzat, who was born in East Prussia in 1921 and which he designed in 1949 for the newly formed state of Hesse.

    Heraldic sign

    Since the coat of arms can only be used by the Hessian authorities due to its sovereign function, the state published the " Hessenzeichen " in 1981 , which can be used freely. In doing so, Hessen complied with the request of private individuals, associations and companies to express their ties to their country with a symbol. It consists of the slightly modified and stylized heraldic figure of the lion and can be used either in black or in the national colors of white or red.

    Heraldic figure

    Hessen lion or colorful lion is the name for the heraldic figure in the coat of arms of Hesse. This name refers to the heraldic animal with white and red stripes with a knocked out tongue in red. It is a lion divided nine times by silver and red .

    The lion was originally used by the Ludowingers , who were also landgraves in Thuringia. It is still used in Hessen's coat of arms today. The oldest coat of arms is the coat of arms of Landgrave Konrad of Thuringia († 1240), Regent of Hesse (until 1234) and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order (from 1239), on his tomb in the Landgrave Choir of the Elisabeth Church in Marburg .

    At the time of the Grand Duchy he was a crowned, gold-armored lion, divided nine times by silver and red, with a double tail in a blue shield and wielding a sword with his right paw. He can be found in many coats of arms in the country and embodies belonging to them. Either he is fully represented or he is growing (half lion, only upper body).

    Country flag

    Hesse wave flags in front of the Hessian State Chancellery in Wiesbaden.

    “The national flag consists of an upper red and a lower white horizontal stripe; the height of the flag is related to its length as 3: 5. The national flag is also the trade flag. The state service flag is the state flag that shows the state coat of arms in the middle. "

    The red and white coloring of the national flag is taken from the heraldic animal; The state service flag may only be used by Hessian agencies, such as the ministries.

    State seal

    The state seal shows the heraldic figure, the lion. The large state seal is an embossed seal and shows the coat of arms of the country without inscription, surrounded by a thread of foliage. The small state seal shows the country's coat of arms with a legend indicating the place carrying the seal. It is used as an embossing seal, seal mark or color stamp (made of metal or rubber). The small state seal should have a diameter of three and a half centimeters.

    The small country Siegel lead the state administration, the heads of state schools and universities, ordered by the state government, individuals authorized to operate an official seal Notaries ( Notaries ) and the registry offices .

    The competent supreme state authority can, with the consent of the Minister of the Interior, permit corporations, institutions and foundations under public law that are subject to the supervision of the state government to use the state's coat of arms in their seals if they perform sovereign tasks of importance to the state. The coat of arms figure is attached in the lower semicircle of the seal, the designation of the seal-leading position in the upper semicircle of the seal.

    Official sign

    The official shield of the state authorities is a white rectangle on which the state coat of arms is located. Under the coat of arms, the name of the authority is attached in black letters without specifying the location. The official sign marks the entrance of a state authority.


    The official hymn of the state of Hessen is the Hessenlied . The Hessen song was written during the time of the German Empire . The melody was composed by the Kassel music teacher Albrecht Brede (1834–1920), who came from Besse , and the accompanying text was written by the poet Carl Preser (1828–1910).


    The state of Hessen maintains the following partnerships:

    Partnerships of the State of Hesse
    Blason de l'Aquitaine et de la Guyenne, svg Aquitaine FranceFrance France November 1, 1995
    Bursa Turkey Provinces locator.jpg Bursa TurkeyTurkey Turkey October 21, 2010
    Regione-Emilia-Romagna-Stemma.svg Emilia-Romagna ItalyItaly Italy July 29, 1992
    Coat of arms of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Yaroslavl RussiaRussia Russia October 16, 1991
    POL województwo wielkopolskie COA.svg Greater Poland Voivodeship PolandPoland Poland December 7, 2000
    Seal of Wisconsin.svg Wisconsin United StatesUnited States United States 20th September 1976

    Foreign missions

    The State of Hesse maintains foreign missions in the form of permanent representations (Brussels / European Union) and representative offices for economic issues (United States, People's Republic of China, Hungary, Cuba, Russia, Poland and Iran).

    Administrative division

    Administrative districts

    When it was founded, Hesse was administratively divided into three administrative districts: Darmstadt , Kassel and Wiesbaden . In 1968 the Wiesbaden administrative region was dissolved and merged with the Darmstadt administrative region. In an effort to be closer to the citizens, the Gießen administrative district was re-established in 1981 , so that today there are again three administrative districts. These are divided into five independent cities and 21 rural districts with 423 municipalities belonging to the district.


    Kassel Landkreis Kassel Werra-Meißner-Kreis Schwalm-Eder-Kreis Landkreis Waldeck-Frankenberg Landkreis Hersfeld-Rotenburg Landkreis Fulda Vogelsbergkreis Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf Lahn-Dill-Kreis Landkreis Limburg-Weilburg Landkreis Gießen Main-Kinzig-Kreis Wetteraukreis Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis Hochtaunuskreis Wiesbaden Main-Taunus-Kreis Kreis Groß-Gerau Frankfurt am Main Offenbach am Main Landkreis Offenbach Darmstadt Landkreis Darmstadt-Dieburg Kreis Bergstraße Kreis Bergstraße Odenwaldkreis Baden-Württemberg Rheinland-Pfalz Bayern Nordrhein-Westfalen Niedersachsen Thüringen
    Counties and independent cities in Hesse

    The following administrative districts exist in Hesse (classified in the respective administrative districts):

    Districts in the state of Hesse
    district Residents County seat
    Darmstadt administrative district (South Hesse)
    Bergstrasse district 270,340 Heppenheim (Bergstrasse)
    Darmstadt-Dieburg district 297,844 Darmstadt
    Groß-Gerau district 275,726 Gross-Gerau
    Hochtaunuskreis 236.914 Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
    Main-Kinzig district 420,552 Gelnhausen (since July 1, 2005), previously Hanau
    Main-Taunus-Kreis 238,558 Hofheim am Taunus
    Odenwaldkreis 096,703 Erbach (Odenwald)
    Offenbach district 355.813 Dietzenbach (since June 21, 2002), previously Offenbach am Main
    Rheingau-Taunus district 187.160 Bad Schwalbach
    Wetteraukreis 308,339 Friedberg (Hesse)
    Administrative region of Giessen (Central Hesse)
    District of Giessen 270,688 to water
    Lahn-Dill district 253,319 Wetzlar
    Limburg-Weilburg district 171,912 Limburg on the Lahn
    Marburg-Biedenkopf district 247.084 Marburg
    Vogelsbergkreis 105,643 Lauterbach (Hesse)
    Kassel administrative district (North Hesse)
    District of Fulda 223.145 Fulda
    District of Hersfeld-Rotenburg 120,719 Bad Hersfeld
    District of Kassel 236.764 kassel
    Schwalm-Eder district 179,673 Homberg (Efze)
    Waldeck-Frankenberg district 156.406 Korbach
    Werra-Meißner district 100,629 Eschwege

    One district cities

    View from the Dom Tower to the old town of Frankfurt am Main with the skyline in the background
    State capital Wiesbaden
    View of Kassel
    View over Darmstadt
    Offenbach am Main from above

    In Hesse there are five independent cities, which are exactly the five major cities of the state. The city of Kassel is in the administrative district of the same name, all others are in the Darmstadt administrative district. The cities of Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, however, are directly subject to municipal supervision by the Hessian Ministry of the Interior and for Sport .

    It is the cities:

    Special status cities

    With the territorial reforms of 1974 and 1977, four cities lost their district freedom. Together with the remaining three cities with more than 50,000 but less than 100,000 inhabitants, they were given a special status that still enabled them to continue to independently take on some of the tasks otherwise taken on by the districts (such as school administration).

    The seven special status cities are:

    cities and communes

    With Frankfurt am Main one of the most important German cities located in Hessen. The city has more than 750,000 inhabitants and over 2.3 million people live in the metropolitan area . Over half of the Hessian population lives in the entire Rhine-Main conurbation , and most of the other large cities are also located here: Wiesbaden (278,000 inhabitants), Darmstadt (159,000), Offenbach am Main (129,000), Hanau (96,000), Rüsselsheim am Main (65,000) and Bad Homburg vor der Höhe (54,000).

    The largest city in the rest of the country is Kassel , the historic capital of North Hesse , with around 202,000 inhabitants, today the third largest city in the country. Gießen (89,000 inhabitants), Marburg (77,000) and Wetzlar (53,000) are in Central Hesse , Fulda (69,000) in East Hesse .

    Eleven other cities with more than 30,000 inhabitants ( Rodgau , Oberursel (Taunus) , Dreieich , Maintal , Hofheim am Taunus , Neu-Isenburg , Langen (Hesse) , Bad Nauheim , Dietzenbach , Mörfelden-Walldorf and Bad Vilbel ) are in the Frankfurt area . There are three other cities of this size ( Bensheim , Viernheim and Lampertheim ) on the Bergstrasse in southern Hesse . Despite the small population of around 35,000, Limburg an der Lahn has a central function for the sparsely populated west of the country as well as for the nearby places in the Westerwaldkreis and in the Rhein-Lahn-Kreis of Rhineland-Palatinate .

    Most populous cities

    city district Residents
    Dec. 31, 2002
    December 31, 2012
    new calculation
    basis based on the 2011 census
    2002–2012 in%
    December 31 2013 Change in
    2013 in%
    Frankfurt am Main circular 643.726 687.775 +6.84 701.350 +1.97
    Wiesbaden circular 271,553 272,636 +0.40 273,871 +0.45
    kassel circular 194.146 192.874 −0.66 194.087 +0.63
    Darmstadt circular 138,959 147.925 +6.45 149,743 +1.23
    Offenbach am Main circular 119.233 116,945 −1.92 119.203 +1.93
    Hanau Main-Kinzig district 089.185 088,834 −0.39 089.907 +1.21
    to water to water 073,580 076,680 +4.21 077,733 +1.37
    Marburg Marburg-Biedenkopf 078,138 072,433 −7.30 073.125 +0.96
    Fulda Fulda 063.149 064,779 +2.58 065,036 +0.40
    Rüsselsheim am Main Gross-Gerau 059,677 060.229 +0.92 060,929 +1.16
    Bad Homburg vor der Höhe Hochtaunuskreis 052,513 052,108 −0.77 052,379 +0.52
    Wetzlar Lahn-Dill district 052,723 051,063 −3.15 051,135 +0.14
    Oberursel (Taunus) Hochtaunuskreis 042,531 044,500 +4.63 044,779 +0.63
    Rodgau Offenbach 043,379 042,895 −1.16 043,115 +0.51
    Dreieich Offenbach 040,422 039,760 −1.64 039,868 +0.27
    Bensheim Mountain road 038,976 039,395 +1.08 039,368 −0.07
    Hofheim am Taunus Main-Taunus-Kreis 037,924 038,383 +1.21 038,556 +0.45
    Main valley Main-Kinzig district 038,443 036,254 −5.69 036,846 +1.63
    Langen (Hesse) Offenbach 035,497 035,644 +0.41 035,845 +0.56
    Neu-Isenburg Offenbach 035,628 035,428 −0.56 035,698 +0.76
    Limburg on the Lahn Limburg-Weilburg 033,635 033,619 −0.05 033,843 +0.67
    Viernheim Mountain road 032,622 032,851 +0.70 033,120 +0.82
    Moerfelden-Walldorf Gross-Gerau 033,197 032,822 −1.13 032,988 +0.51
    Dietzenbach Offenbach 033,187 032,477 −2.14 032,750 +0.84
    Bad Vilbel Wetteraukreis 030,290 031,649 +4.49 032,020 +1.17
    Lampertheim Mountain road 032,053 031,358 −2.17 031,491 +0.42
    Bad Nauheim Wetteraukreis 030,411 030,668 +0.85 030,879 +0.69

    A list of all cities and municipalities in the state can be found in the list of cities and municipalities in Hesse . All hamlets, settlements, districts and districts that are not or no longer independent are listed in the list of districts in Hesse .


    Below is a selection of regions in Hessen:




    The Hessian dialects belong to the Rhine-Franconian , i.e. Central German dialect groups . The dialects of the different parts of the country, which are connected via the dialect continuum , show strong individual differences.

    North Hessian is spoken in the Kassel region. To the north and west of it, including parts of Waldeck , runs the border with Westphalian , which already belongs to the Low German-speaking area. The Central Hessian dialects are traditionally spoken north of the Wiesbaden - Aschaffenburg line and extend to the borders of the Siegerland , z. B. in the hinterland of Platt and Wittgensteiner Platt . In the west of the Limburg Basin and the Westerwald, the Moselle-Franconian- speaking area extends into Hesse , especially in the former Kurtrierischen places . East Hessian is the dialect in the region around Fulda as well as in the Hessian Rhön ( Rhöner Platt ). At the state borders with Thuringia, in the Werra region and in parts of the Rhön on the border with Bavaria, Thuringian and East Franconian dialects are also spoken, as a sprinkling of Eichsfeld and Henneberg or Grabfeld . The traditional Frankfurt dialect already belongs to the group of South Hessian dialects , which are also spoken in the Darmstadt area and in the Bavarian Lower Main .

    In the metropolitan areas, however, dialects are rarely heard because of the high rate of immigration. Standard German predominates or modern urban equivalents emerge, such as the Neuhessische Regiolekt in the Rhine-Main area . It is also referred to as "RMV-Hessian" because it roughly covers the area of ​​the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund , or as " TV Hessian" and also mockingly as "Abbelwoihessian" because many productions of the Hessian broadcast contributed to its expansion. Because of its dissemination in popular culture, for example by artists such as Badesalz and Bodo Bach , the New Hessian Regiolekt is often considered Hessian today , although it does not do justice to the variety of dialects spoken in Hesse . All traditional Hessian dialects show clear differences to the New Hessian dialect and are under great pressure today.


    In general, potatoes are usually served as a side dish in Hessen. The following specialties are known nationwide:


    With the Wiesbaden Museum , the Hessen Kassel Museum Landscape and the Hessian State Museum Darmstadt , the State of Hesse operates three universal museums that are jointly subordinate to the Hessian Ministry of Science and Art . The collections are structured similarly, but usually complement each other. For example, Eugen Bracht 's work “ Shores of Oblivion ” is exhibited in Darmstadt and “Hannibal's Grave” in Kassel, both works are the main works of the artist. The “ Block Beuys ” is located in Darmstadt , but there are also extensive holdings of Joseph Beuys in Kassel and Wiesbaden .

    public holidays

    Economy and Infrastructure


    Mining has been practiced in Hessen for centuries . In the 21st century, 283 companies are still under the supervision of the Hessian mining authorities.

    power supply

    From 1923 to 1991 the large Main-Weser power station was operated with lignite . It had an output of 356 MW.

    The Biblis nuclear power plant was built in the early 1970s and, with a planned gross electrical output of 5215 MW, was one of the largest of its kind in Germany. Of the four reactors, only two with a total of 2525 MW actually went into operation. The reactors that went into operation in 1974/1975 were shut down on May 30, 2011 as part of the nuclear moratorium .

    There are also several thermal power stations, including the Staudinger power station in Großkrotzenburg and the West thermal power station in Frankfurt am Main . The Waldeck pumped storage power plant is used to store electricity .

    The development of renewable energies began as early as 1990 with the first Vogelsberg wind energy park . By mid-2016, 918 wind turbines with a total output of 1,477 MW had been installed.


    Skyline in Frankfurt am Main from the Deutschherrnbrücke

    The Rhine-Main area has the largest industrial density in Germany after the Ruhr area . The chemical and pharmaceutical industries with the Höchst Industrial Park , Merck KGaA , Heraeus , SGL Carbon and Evonik are of particular economic importance . The Rhine-Main area is also a center of the IT and telecommunications industry.

    In mechanical engineering and vehicle construction, Opel in Rüsselsheim am Main should be mentioned, along with automotive suppliers such as Continental . Numerous foreign automobile groups have set up their German or European headquarters here.

    The financial center Frankfurt am Main is an important international financial center. First of all , think of the European Central Bank and the Deutsche Bundesbank . In Frankfurt, the headquarters of the four largest banks have German Bank , DZ Bank , the development bank KfW and Commerzbank their seat, as well as numerous smaller banks, public and cooperative credit institutions and more than 150 foreign offices banks. Frankfurt is also the most important German stock exchange with the Frankfurt Stock Exchange . Insurance companies have settled here with a focus on Wiesbaden . The city's largest private employer is R + V Versicherung with around 3900 employees . In addition, there are insurers such as DBV-Winterthur , SV SparkassenVersicherung and the Delta-Lloyd Group. The leather industry in Offenbach is also worth mentioning . The Frankfurt airport is a particularly important business location. The airport operator, Fraport AG , should be mentioned here, but also Deutsche Lufthansa , for which Frankfurt is the home port of their air fleet.

    Outside of this region, for example, companies with an international reputation are located in Central Hesse in Wetzlar . There, with Leitz , Leica , Minox , Hensoldt ( Zeiss ), the center of the optical, electrotechnical and precision engineering industry in Germany as well as the Buderus company is located. The Fulda tire works , the Volkswagen works in Kassel in Baunatal and the locomotive construction in Kassel at Bombardier Transportation are also of greater importance. Also in Northern Hesse is the Original Parts Center of Volkswagen AG, Europe's largest spare parts warehouse, which is networked by Volkswagen Genuine Parts Logistics , as well as a major manufacturer of heating technology products, Viessmann Werke .

    In August 2008, Hessen had 199,573 unemployed. The unemployment rate is thus 6.4% (August 2007: 7.6%). The Hochtaunuskreis has the lowest rate at 3.8%, while the independent city of Kassel has the highest rate nationwide at 12.1%.

    In terms of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, Hesse is one of the wealthiest territorial states in Germany, it is on par with Bavaria in 3rd and 4th place of the federal states after Hamburg and Bremen . In comparison with the GDP of the European Union, expressed in purchasing power standards, Hessen achieved an index value of 145 in 2014 ( EU-28 : 100; Germany: 126). In 2014, Hesse had a GDP per capita of 41,400 euros, the purchasing power per inhabitant was 39,700 euros (PPS per inhabitant). Among all German districts, the Hochtaunus district was in second place in 2016 with EUR 31,238 per inhabitant and the Main-Taunus district in fourth place with EUR 30,530 per inhabitant. Among the ten most affluent urban districts in Germany in 2016 are Frankfurt am Main in third place with an index value of 115.4 and Wiesbaden in sixth place with an index value of 112.1 (national average = 100). In 2019, the GDP per employed person was 83,320 euros, which is 9.7 percent above the national average and the highest value of the German territorial states.

    Since December 1, 2006, the opening times of shops in Hessen have been liberalized. Only Sundays and public holidays remain under protection, with four exceptions per year that can be determined by the municipalities. On the exceptional days, which can only be open for sale in connection with a market, the shops may open for up to six hours.

    In 2012, the economic output in the state of Hesse, measured against the gross domestic product, was around 230 billion euros. About a third of the Hessian area is used for agriculture. One of the German nuclear power plants with two separate blocks is located in Biblis . According to the government's plans, 100 percent of energy consumption should be covered entirely by renewable energies by 2050.

    Development of the unemployment rate
    year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
    Unemployment rate in% 7.3 6.6 7.0 7.9 8.2 9.7 9.2 7.5 6.5 6.8 6.4 5.9 5.7 5.8 5.7 5.5 5.3 5.0 4.6
    Most important locations of employment subject to social insurance
    workplace social insurance
    June 30, 2012
    June 30, 2007 in%
    Commuter balance
    June 30, 2012
    Job density 1
    Frankfurt am Main 508.321 0+7.44 +260.681 1120
    Wiesbaden 123.165 0+2.12 0+26,655 0721
    kassel 102.194 +10.11 0+39.719 0829
    Darmstadt 091.210 0+6.92 0+39.859 0962
    Fulda 045.211 0+4.74 0+23,426 1116
    to water 044,264 0+3.53 0+21,174 0842
    Offenbach am Main 043,819 0−1.73 00+3,002 0603
    Hanau 043,629 0+2.75 0+13,104 0795
    Marburg 039,171 0+8.01 0+16,778 0776
    Rüsselsheim am Main 032,556 0+1.99 0+11,342 0898
    1Jobs subject to social security contributions per 1000 inhabitants between the ages of 18 and 64; Figures as of May 9, 2011 according to the 2011 census.

    Largest employer in Hessen

    After the state of Hesse with around 150,000 employees, the following companies are the largest employers in Hesse:

    Largest employer in the state of Hesse
    Companies Employees 2012
    01. Deutsche Lufthansa AG 37,400
    02. Rewe Group 29,000
    03. Deutsche Bahn AG 25,100
    04th Fraport AG 20,700
    05. Deutsche Post Group 18,000
    06th Commerzbank AG 16,000
    07th Deutsche Telekom AG 14,500
    07th Continental AG 14,500
    07th Volkswagen AG 14,500
    10. Adam Opel AG 12,800

    armed forces

    The Bundeswehr is mainly located in the north of the country. In the Burgwald barracks in Frankenberg (Eder) , the organization for the area's cyber and information space belonging Signal Corps electronic warfare stationed. Stadtallendorf with the Herrenwald barracks and the Hessen barracks is the seat of the Rapid Forces division . The Fritzlar Army Airfield is the location of the 36th Combat Helicopter Regiment belonging to the Rapid Forces Division . At the Knüll barracks in Schwarzenborn there is a military training area and the location of the Jäger Battalion 1 . In other cities such as Frankfurt am Main - Hausen , in Pfungstadt and in the state capital Wiesbaden there are smaller Bundeswehr locations with more administrative offices. The Army Music Corps Kassel is located in Kassel . Despite its historical name, it does not belong to the army, but to the military music center of the Bundeswehr of the armed forces base .

    See also the list of Bundeswehr locations in Hesse


    Due to its central location, Hessen is an important transit country for German and European long-distance traffic. Frankfurt am Main has an outstanding position as a hub for road, rail and air traffic.


    The longest motorway tunnel in Hesse: The  Neuhof tunnel  under construction (June 2010)

    The internationally important motorways A3 , A5 and A7 run through Hessen . The Frankfurter Kreuz (junction of motorways 3 and 5) is considered to be the motorway junction with the highest volume of traffic in Europe, while the A 5 around Frankfurt with up to four lanes in each direction is one of the busiest roads in Germany. Other important motorways leading through Hesse are the A 4 (eastern part), the A 44 , the A 45 , the A 66 and the A 67 . There are also a number of other smaller motorways and important federal highways, some of which are developed in a manner similar to motorways . Due to the population density and topography, the Rhine-Main area is much better developed than the rural areas of Hesse.

    The currently longest motorway tunnel in Hesse is the East Hessian Neuhof Tunnel , which will be replaced by the Hirschhagen Tunnel in 2019 . The Kinzig valley bridge is the longest motorway bridge in Hesse.


    Central station in Frankfurt : hub of German train traffic

    Many important railway lines run through Hessen, including the high-speed lines Cologne – Frankfurt and Hanover – Würzburg . In addition to further north-south connections, the important east-west connections from Wiesbaden / Mainz via Frankfurt and Hanau to Fulda or Aschaffenburg and from Fulda or Kassel via Bebra to Eisenach and Erfurt also cross Hesse. Together with regional traffic, this leads to a route utilization on many routes that does not allow any significant increase. The Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof is the most important hub in the German train.

    The region around Frankfurt has an S-Bahn network with the Rhein-Main S-Bahn, which is supplemented by numerous regional connections. In the rest of the country, the rail network is far less dense, but apart from a few smaller closures, it is stable. In northern Hesse, the railway network has been linked to the tram in Kassel by the RegioTram since 2007 . In doing so, old disused routes are reactivated.

    The RegioTram is part of the North Hessian Transport Association . In contrast, all of Central and Southern Hesse, with the exception of the Bergstrasse district, belong to the catchment area of ​​the Rhein-Main transport association .

    The railway lines in north-west Hesse ( Uplandbahn , Ederseebahn , Warburg – Sarnau , Obere Lahntalbahn , Obere Edertalbahn and Volkmarsen – Vellmar-Obervellmar railway ) were taken over by the DB subsidiary Kurhessenbahn in 2002. Since then the tracks, platforms and level crossings have been renewed. As a result, the number of passengers rose and the impending closure of the Burgwaldbahn and the Wabern – Bad Wildungen section of the Ederseebahn could be averted. The Untere Edertalbahn between Frankenberg and Korbach, on which passenger traffic was discontinued in 1987, was reactivated and has been on schedule again since September 2015.


    As the economic center of Hesse, the Rhine-Main area is connected to the European waterway network through the Main and the Rhine , which represent the state border for a longer section . Furthermore, Hesse, with its southernmost tip at Hirschhorn and Neckarsteinach, has a share of the Neckar and in the far north to Bad Karlshafen on the Oberweser . In addition, individual sections of the Lahn , Werra and Fulda are navigable. From a macroeconomic point of view, only Rhine and Main shipping are of importance for Hessen , with the Kostheim Main Lock being the lock with the highest volume of traffic in Europe.

    Map of the airports and landing fields in Hessen


    The Frankfurt Airport is by far the most important airport in Germany and one of the ten largest in the world. Not far southeast of Frankfurt Airport is the Frankfurt-Egelsbach airfield, which is frequented mainly by smaller planes . In addition, the headquarters of DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung is located in Langen, also in the Rhine-Main area . In Northern Hesse which opened in April 2013 is regional airport Kassel-Calden (since 2015 self-description Kassel Airport ), of a previously operated airfield replaced. There are also a number of sports airfields. Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, which is mainly used by low-cost airlines , is located about 100 km from Frankfurt in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate .

    Bicycle traffic

    Hessen has a network of cycle paths . The nine long-distance cycle paths (R1 – R9) as well as the Lahntal cycle path , the Weser cycle path and the Werra valley cycle path are of national importance . There are also a number of regional routes which, like the long-distance cycle paths, are particularly important for cycle tourism , e.g. the Vogelsberger Südbahnradweg or the volcano cycle path .


    The Hessian State Authority for Private Broadcasting and New Media is responsible for licensing private radio and television stations .

    Daily newspapers

    Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Frankfurter Rundschau, two of the most important daily newspapers in Germany, appear in Frankfurt . Together with the Frankfurter Neue Presse and the regional edition of Bild , these also dominate the regional newspaper market in the Rhine-Main region. Market leader in the North Hessian newspaper market is in Kassel appearing Hessian / Niedersächsische Allgemeine . There are also some regional daily newspapers from publishing groups (e.g. Wiesbadener Kurier , Darmstädter Echo ), which are either market leaders in their respective areas of publication or at least have significant market shares (according to IVW).

    TV channel

    This article or section consists mainly of lists, which should be replaced by running text . Please help Wikipedia improve this. More about is here to find
    Pure listing without context. History and meaning are missing.

    State broadcaster
    Nationwide private broadcasters
    Regional channels
    Regional windows

    Radio station

    This article or section consists mainly of lists, which should be replaced by running text . Please help Wikipedia improve this. More about is here to find
    Pure listing without context. History and meaning are missing.

    State broadcaster
    Military transmitter
    Private commercial broadcasting
    Private non-commercial local radio stations

    News agencies

    Science, teaching and research

    This article or section consists mainly of lists, which should be replaced by running text . Please help Wikipedia improve this. More about is here to find
    Pure listing without context. History and meaning are missing.

    A directory of the universities located in Hesse can be found under Universities in Hesse . Below is a selection:

    Public Universities

    Public universities of the State of Hesse


    Research institutes



    The best-known and most important sports club is Eintracht Frankfurt , which is primarily known for its football department . There are winter sports opportunities in the Rhön and in the northeastern part of the Rothaargebirge . The Mühlenkopfschanze in Willingen , North Hesse, is the largest large hill in the world in operation . The Lahn and Edersee are well known as water sports centers for canoeists . After the Second World War, sports such as basketball and American football came to Hesse with the United States Army , especially to Central Hesse .

    American football

    American football is very common in the Rhine-Main area. With the disbanded team of the Frankfurt Galaxy , which played in the NFL Europe , the record winner with four titles (1995, 1999, 2003, 2006) of the World Bowl was based in Hesse.

    Today five Hessian teams play in the GFL : the Marburg Mercenaries and the Frankfurt Universe in the first division and the Wiesbaden Phantoms , Darmstadt Diamonds and the Gießen Golden Dragons in the second division .


    The Skyliners Frankfurt and the Gießen 46ers play in the men's basketball league . For women, BC Marburg , German champions from 2003, is represented in the first division . Wetzlar is the stronghold of wheelchair basketball with the Bundesliga team RSV Lahn-Dill . The club based there is already, among other things, twelve-time German champions, twelve-times cup winners (including nine double champions and trophies), six-time Champions League winners, 2010 world cup winners and 2006 vice world cup winners as well as WBC European Cup winners (Willi-Brinkmann-Cup ) 2002. In 2009 the women of the Rhein-Main Baskets , based in Hofheim and Langen, were promoted to the 1st basketball league.

    ice Hockey

    The Frankfurt Lions and the Kassel Huskies played in the German Ice Hockey League until the 2009/10 season . Since the 2013/14 season, the Rote Teufel Bad Nauheim have been playing in the DEL2 , the second highest division in German ice hockey. The Kassel Huskies and the Löwen Frankfurt have also been active there since the 2014/15 season.


    In the 2019/20 season, Eintracht Frankfurt will play in the Bundesliga , SV Darmstadt 98 and SV Wehen Wiesbaden in the 2nd Bundesliga . FSV Frankfurt , Kickers Offenbach , TSV Steinbach Haiger , and FC Gießen play in the fourth-class regional league .

    With seven German championships, nine cup wins and four international titles, the 1st Women's Football Club in Frankfurt is one of the most successful clubs in German women's football and plays in the Bundesliga . The women's team of FSV Frankfurt, which was dissolved in 2006, has three championship titles and five cup wins. The second team of FFC Frankfurt plays in the 2nd Bundesliga South . In addition to FSV Hessen Wetzlar (formerly Eintracht Wetzlar), the women of TSV Jahn Calden and TSG Neu-Isenburg play in the Regionalliga Süd .


    Handball game HSG Wetzlar against the Rhein-Neckar Löwen

    The HSG Wetzlar and MT Melsungen play in the handball league . Former long-time handball Bundesliga players were SG Wallau / Massenheim (1984/85, 1987-2005), TV Hüttenberg (1972–1985, 2011/12, 2017/18) and SG Dietzenbach (1971–1974, 1975–1978, 1979-1983).

    There was also the TV Lützellinden , which dissolved in 2006, a women's handball club that has been successful throughout the national league since the late 1980s. From 2014 to 2017, HSG Bad Wildungen was the only Hessian representative in the women's Bundesliga . As champions of the 2016/17 season, the HSG Bensheim / Auerbach followed them into the upper house.


    The most successful hockey team in Hessen is the RK from Rüsselsheim . To date, its hockey department can book 51 German championships in hockey (field and hall), countless the runner-up championships, southern German championships and Hesse championships. European Cups in hockey have been shown in the price showcase of the RRK boathouse 18 times. Today the RRK plays with the first women in indoor hockey in the 1st Bundesliga and in field hockey in the 2nd Bundesliga. The first men play field hockey in the regional league and indoor hockey in the 2nd Bundesliga.
    Other well-known clubs are: SC Frankfurt 1880 , whose first men play in the men's 2nd field hockey league in 2017/18 and in the men's indoor hockey league. The women play in the 2nd Regionalliga Süd. Also the SC SAFO Frankfurt , the 1st Hanauer THC and the Limburger HC .

    Inline hockey

    The history of Hessian inline hockey began in Hanau in 1994/1995 . To this day, the sport is more popular than in any other federal state, the Hessian Oberliga and the Regionalliga are considered to be the strongest in Germany.


    Hesse is represented in motorcycle track racing by the MSC Diedenbergen speedway races in Hofheim-Diedenbergen im Taunus and the international grass track races in Melsungen, Bad Hersfeld and Heringen. Ice speedway at World Cup level has already been held in the Frankfurt ice stadium.

    Equestrian sport

    Show jumper at the International Whitsun tournament Wiesbaden 2013

    The Wiesbaden Riding and Driving Club organizes the international Whitsun tournament every year in the Biebrich Castle Park . The traditional Frankfurt racecourse of the Frankfurt Racing Club is to give way to the DFB Academy .

    Table tennis

    The TTC Rhön-Sprudel Fulda-Maberzell plays in the men's Bundesliga . The two-time Champions League winner TTV Gönnern played in the Bundesliga from 1996 to 2009, but then withdrew his team due to financial problems and ceded the license to TG Hanau , which were active in the Bundesliga from 2009 to 2012 before they too renounced a start in the Bundesliga due to financial problems. The women of TSV Langstadt 1909 play in the women's first division.

    Timo Boll , who belongs to the top of the world, is a native of Hesse from Erbach (Odenwald) , as is double world champion Jörg Roßkopf from Dieburg .


    The largest triathlon club in Germany is the triathlon department of Eintracht Frankfurt e. V. with over 1000 members.

    do gymnastics

    There are a total of six cities in Hesse where performance centers for Olympic sports are operated. The locations are in Dillenburg (trampoline gymnastics), Kassel (LZ North Hesse), Limburg, Heusenstamm and Wiesbaden. Another performance center for artistic gymnastics (women and men) is in Wetzlar. Fabian Hambüchen also comes from there . In addition to the high-performance centers, there are other support points that promote competitive sports.

    The state performance center is located in the top sport association center of the German Gymnastics Federation in Frankfurt am Main. At this location, the Hessian Gymnastics Association guarantees and realizes professional sports support. In addition to professional training, school support and the option of connecting to a boarding school are guaranteed. In addition to the state performance center, there is also the federal base for male apparatus gymnastics, female apparatus gymnastics and trampoline gymnastics in Frankfurt am Main.


    The women's team of 1. VC Wiesbaden plays in the 1. Bundesliga . The men's team of TG Rüsselsheim plays under the name United Volleys Frankfurt in the 1st Bundesliga .

    Water polo

    With VfB Friedberg , SC Wasserfreunde Fulda , SGW Frankfurt / Offenbach and WV Darmstadt 70 , four clubs are represented in the second-highest German league.


    The non-naturally occurring chemical element with atomic number 108 has been called Hassium since 1997 , which is derived from the Latin name Hassia for Hessen. It was produced for the first time in 1984 at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt by fusing lead with iron.


    • Dietwulf Baatz u. a .: The Romans in Hesse . Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-8062-0599-X .
    • Gerd Bauer u. a .: The Hessen Lexicon . Frankfurt 1999, ISBN 3-8218-1751-8 .
    • Wilhelm Diehl: Hassia Sacra . Vol. 1–11, Darmstadt 1921 ff.
    • Karl Ernst Demandt : History of the State of Hesse . 2nd edition, Bärenreiter, Kassel and Basel 1972, ISBN 3-7618-0404-0 .
    • Messages from the Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies . (1845–1860 as periodical sheets ). Association for Hessian History and Regional Studies, Kassel 1845 ff. ( Full text ).
    • Walter Heinemeyer: The becoming of Hesse . Ed. Historical Commission for Hesse, NG Elwert, Marburg 1986, ISBN 3-7708-0849-5 .
    • Fritz-Rudolf Herrmann, Albrecht Jockenhövel: The prehistory of Hesse . Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-8062-0458-6 .
    • Wilhelm Müller: Hessian place name book . 1st volume Starkenburg, Darmstadt 1937.
    • Frank-Lothar Kroll: Hessen, a strong story . Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-8062-2004-2 .
    • Hans Sarkowicz (ed.): The great Hessen. Insel, Frankfurt a. M. 1996, ISBN 3-458-16817-6 .
    • Uwe Schultz: The history of Hesse . Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-8062-0332-6 .
    • Wolfgang Schroeder , Arijana Neumann (Ed.): Politics and Regieren in Hessen, VS - Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden 2016, ISBN 978-3-531-17302-3
    • Ph. AF Walther: The Grand Duchy of Hesse . Darmstadt 1854.

    Literature on political history in Hessen

    • Peter Assion: From Hesse to the New World. Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-458-14603-2 .
    • Gerd Bauer: The history of Hesse. Frankfurt 2002, ISBN 3-8218-1750-X .
    • Gerhard Beier : Labor movement in Hessen. On the history of the Hessian labor movement through one hundred and fifty years (1834–1984). Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1984, ISBN 3-458-14213-4 .
    • Gerhard Beier: SPD Hessen - Chronicle 1945 to 1988. Verlag JHW Dietz Nachf. GmbH, Bonn 1989, ISBN 3-8012-0146-5 .
    • Karl E. Demandt: History of the State of Hesse. 2nd edition, Kassel 1972.
    • Joschka Fischer : Governing is about studying. Athenaeum, Frankfurt 1987, ISBN 3-610-08443-X .
    • Eckhart G. Franz: The Chronicle of Hesse. Chronik-Verlag, Dortmund 1991, ISBN 3-611-00192-9 .
    • Eike Hennig (Ed.): Hessen under the swastika. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt 1983, ISBN 3-458-14114-6 .
    • Bernd Heidenreich, Eckhart G. Franz (Ed.): The Hessians and their history. Wiesbaden 1999, ISBN 3-927127-32-9 .
    • Hans Herder (Ed.): Hessian Emigrant Book. Frankfurt 1983, ISBN 3-458-14115-4 .
    • Hessian State Chancellery: The Hessen InfoBook. Numbers, data, facts and service. Hessian State Chancellery, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-933732-61-1 .
    • Eugen Katz: Farm workers and agriculture in Upper Hesse. Dissertation in: Munich Economics Studies . Ed .: Lujo Brentano, Walther Lotz, Gotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart / Berlin 1904.
    • Frank Lothar Kroll: Hessen. A strong story. Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-8062-2004-2 .
    • Walter Mühlhausen: Hessen 1945–1950. Frankfurt, ISBN 3-458-14292-4 .
    • Utta Müller-Handl: Thoughts often run back - Hessian refugee women remember. Publishing Historical Commission for Nassau , Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 3-922244-91-2 .
    • Christine Wittrock : Injustice goes hand in hand with a sure step. Materials on the regional history of fascism in Hesse, CoCon Verlag, Hanau, ISBN 3-928100-71-8 .
    • Hessen - 60 years of democracy. Contributions to the state anniversary. In Memoriam Wolf-Arno Kropat ed. by Helmut Berding and Klaus Eiler. Historical commission for Nassau  : Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 978-3-930221-17-2 .

    Literature on art history in Hessen

    • Chr. Belser AG for publishing businesses & Co: Art travel guide Hessen. Gondrom, Bindlach 1988, ISBN 3-8112-0588-9 .
    • Renate Liebenwein, Stefan Rothe: Kaiserpfalz and skyscrapers. (1200 years) Art in Hessen. Koenigstein i. Ts. 2000, ISBN 3-7845-4612-9 .
    • Hans Sarcowicz, Ulrich Sonnenschein (ed.): The great Hessen. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1996, ISBN 3-458-16817-6 .

    Literature on nature in Hessen

    • Hermann-Josef Rapp (Ed.): Reinhardswald. A cultural story . Euregio, Kassel 2002, ISBN 3-933617-12-X .
    • Hans Joachim Fröhlich : Paths to old trees. Vol. 1 - Hesse . WDV Wirtschaftsdienst, Frankfurt am Main 1990, ISBN 3-926181-06-0 .
    • Wilhelm Sievers (Hrsg.): Geographical messages from Hessen . Giessen 1900–1911.
    • Wilhelm Sievers: To the knowledge of the Taunus . Stuttgart 1891.
    • Stiftung Hessischer Naturschutz (Hrsg.): The Wetterau - fields, floodplains and visions . Herwig Klemp, Wardenburg / Tungeln 2001, ISBN 3-931323-10-2 .
    • Gerd-Peter Kossler, Gottfried Lehr, Klaus Seipel: The corrected river - The Nidda between regulation and renaturation . Distribution: Gerd-Peter Kossler, Frankfurt 1991, ISBN 3-9800853-3-3 .

    Literature on folklore in Hessen

    • Hans Friebertshäuser: The Hessian dialect book . CH Beck, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-406-32317-0 .
    • Hans Friebertshäuser: Small Hessian Dictionary . CH Beck, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-406-34192-6 .
    • Hessian papers for folk and cultural research . Jonas (periodicals), Marburg / Lahn.
    • Carl Heßler: "Hessian Folklore". The former Kurhessen and the hinterland at the end of the 19th century. Volume II, unchanged reprint of the original edition from 1904, NG Elwert Marburg, reprint under license from Verlag Weidlich Würzburg 1984, ISBN 3-8035-1037-6 .
    • Regina Klein : In the meantime . Deep-hermeneutic case studies on female localization in the modernization process 1900–2000, Psychosozial-Verlag, Gießen 2003, ISBN 3-89806-194-9 .
    • Robert Mulch et al. a .: South Hessian dictionary . Giessen 1966 ff.

    See also

    Portal: Hessen  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of Hessen

    Web links

    Further content in the
    sister projects of Wikipedia:

    Commons-logo.svg Commons - multimedia content
    Wiktfavicon en.svg Wiktionary - Dictionary entries
    Wikisource-logo.svg Wikisource - Sources and full texts
    Wikinews-logo.svg Wikinews - News
    Wikivoyage-Logo-v3-icon.svg Wikivoyage - Travel Guide

    Individual evidence

    1. Development of the population in Hesse from 1960 to 2017. Statista , 2018, accessed on December 4, 2018 .
    2. Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
    3. Gross domestic product of Hesse since 1970 on statista.com, accessed on July 6, 2018.
    4. [1]
    5. Hessian Statistical Office: Distribution of seats in the 2018 state elections in Hesse and changes compared to 2013. Accessed on December 28, 2018 .
    6. a b area in the Hessian statistics. Hessian Statistical Office (Statistics Hessen), accessed on May 23, 2018 .
    7. Federal Statistical Office: Land use December 31, 2014
    8. Alsfelder Allgemeine from July 13, 2010: Hesse center remains Mücke barely
    9. ↑ National forest inventory - tree species distribution - forest area according to federal states. In: wald.de. September 30, 2006, accessed January 7, 2017 .
    10. 100 Wild Brooks for Hesse: Participation competition starts. In: hessen.de. August 30, 2019, accessed September 3, 2019 .
    11. nature reserves. Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, accessed on August 12, 2020 .
    12. Landscape protection areas. Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, accessed on August 12, 2020 .
    13. Profiles of the Natura 2000 areas. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, accessed on August 12, 2020 .
    14. Tabular overview of all natural forest reserves in Hesse. (PDF, 41 KB) Retrieved August 12, 2020 .
    15. Kellerwald-Edersee National Park. Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, accessed on August 12, 2020 .
    16. Expansion of the world heritage site beech forests to 12 nations. Hessian Ministry for the Environment, Climate Protection, Agriculture and Consumer Protection, accessed on August 12, 2020 .
    17. ^ Designation of the state of Hesse from December 12, 1946 . In: The head of the state chancellery (ed.): State gazette for the state of Hesse. 1947 no. 2 , p. 9 , item 11 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 963 kB ]).
    18. Article 160 of the Hessian constitution stipulates: “This constitution comes into force when it is accepted by the people. At the same time, the Basic State Law of November 22, 1945 ceases to apply. ”On the day of the referendum, the State of Greater Hesse became the State of Hesse .
    19. a b c d e Population in Hesse since 1950. Hessian State Statistical Office , accessed in April 2019 .
    20. a b Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany . tape 1952 . Metzler-Poeschel, ISSN  0081-5357 , p. 12 ( DigiZeitschriften ).
    21. a b Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany . tape 1973 . Metzler-Poeschel, ISSN  0081-5357 , p. 34 ( DigiZeitschriften ).
    22. Federal Statistical Office
    23. Source: Bertelsmann Foundation
    24. Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1955, page 113.
    25. Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1966, page 157.
    26. Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1976, page 152.
    27. Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1986, page 106.
    28. a b Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 2005, page 78.
    29. Hessen 2018 data and figures, page 12.
    30. ↑ The number of foreigners is increasing - Hesse is so colorful . Hessischer Rundfunk from June 27, 2014. Accessed June 30, 2014.
    31. ^ Census database - results of the 2011 census. In: erresults.zensus2011.de. Retrieved January 7, 2017 .
    32. Relevant population figures (cut-off date: June 30, 2014) for the election of the Foreigners Advisory Council on November 29, 2015. (PDF; 785 kB) Hessian State Statistical Office, archived from the original ; accessed on August 17, 2015 .
    33. Evangelical Church in Germany - Church membership numbers as of December 31, 2018 EKD, January 2020
    34. ^ Homepage of the Hessian humanists
    35. ^ Diesseits.de: Gießen: Humanists found district association for Central Hesse , accessed on July 12, 2014.
    36. A survey on religiosity, religion-related tolerance and the role of religion in Hesse 2017 . Hessian Ministry for Social Affairs and Integration. Retrieved May 2, 2019.
    37. Study: Significantly more Muslims in Germany. Deutsche Welle, June 23, 2009.
    38. Life expectancy in Germany by federal state and gender in 2015/2017. Retrieved October 22, 2019 .
    39. BBSR Homepage - Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR) - Research and policy advice - Where life expectancy is highest in Germany. Retrieved October 22, 2019 .
    40. ^ The hospitals in Hesse on December 31, 2017. Accessed on October 28, 2019 .
    41. The constitution of Württemberg-Baden was older, but the state was incorporated into Baden-Württemberg in 1952.
    42. Red-Green in Hesse wants more freedom of information (2008)
    43. Hesse shines at the meeting of the Commissioners for Freedom of Information with absence (2012) ( Memento from October 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
    44. Opening balance sheet and annual financial statements on the homepage of the Hessian Ministry of Finance. ( Memento of the original from December 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved April 6, 2013 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / verwaltung.hessen.de
    45. Annual Report 2013. Accessed November 29, 2014
    46. Annual Report 2015. Accessed on July 25, 2017
    47. Annual Report 2013, p. 67.
    48. Budget accounts of the state of Hesse on the website of the Hessian Ministry of Finance. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
    49. ^ Budget accounts 2013. Accessed November 29, 2014.
    50. Further information on Hesse's European policy in the EU regional portal , ( Memento from February 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) accessed on June 25, 2012.
    51. European policy strategy of the Hessian state government  ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.hmdj.hessen.de
    52. Representation of the State of Hesse at the EU ( Memento of the original dated February 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved June 25, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.hessen.de
    53. Agreement on informing the Hessian state parliament by the state government in matters of the European Union ( memento of July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) of June 28, 2010 (PDF).
    54. a b c d Law on the emblem of the State of Hessen of 4 August 1948 . In: Hessische Staatsministerium (Hrsg.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 1948 no. 21 , p. 111 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 394 kB ]).
    55. Volker Schmidt: Hesse coat of arms: Hesse should pay for the lion. In: fr-online.de . February 8, 2013, archived from the original on April 12, 2013 ; accessed on January 7, 2017 .
    56. ^ Hessian Ministry of the Interior and for Sport: The Hessian state coat of arms
    57. ^ Ordinance on the national emblems of the State of Hesse (national emblem ordinance) . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior and for Sport (ed.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 2014 No. 15 , p. 212 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 2.5 MB ]). in the current version.
    58. Hessian partner regions on the website of the Ministry of Justice ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    59. ^ Website of the State of Hessen: Cooperation and representative offices of the State of Hessen abroad Invest in Hessen. (No longer available online.) In: hessen-yaroslavl.de. November 25, 2014, archived from the original on August 23, 2014 ; accessed on January 7, 2017 .
    60. All figures in this section relate to January 31, 2018 and have been rounded to the nearest 1,000.
    61. ^ State of Hessen: Mining in Hessen
    62. Status of onshore wind energy expansion in Germany, as of June 30, 2016 ( memento of July 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Website of the Deutsche Windguard. Retrieved July 31, 2016 (PDF)
    63. Unemployment rates in May 2011 ( Memento from May 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    64. a b c Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices according to NUTS 3 regions. Eurostat , February 26, 2016, accessed on December 2, 2016 .
    65. a b c Purchasing power of Germans increases by 2 percent in 2016. GfK , December 15, 2015, accessed on December 2, 2016 .
    66. Süddeutsche Zeitung
    67. statistik-hessen.de: Gross domestic product and gross value added in current prices in Hessen 1991 to 2012 according to economic sectors ( Memento from September 14, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
    68. Homepage Energieland Hessen
    69. © Federal Statistical Office (Destatis),: Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online ( en ) November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
    70. ^ Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency
    71. census database
    72. Landesbank Hessen-Thüringen Economics / Research: The 100 largest companies in Hessen (PDF; 981 kB) Helaba Frankfurt, October 2013, p. 10.
    73. ^ Clear the way for train operations between Frankenberg and Korbach, HNA dated September 11, 2015
    74. skate-IN magazine from August 16, 2001: Inline-Hockey goes International. Retrieved online on August 7, 2018
    75. ↑ Training centers . Retrieved September 20, 2019 .
    76. State performance center. Retrieved September 20, 2019 .
    77. BSP at a glance. Retrieved September 20, 2019 .

    Coordinates: 50 ° 36 '  N , 9 ° 1'  E