American Forces Network
From 1943 to the 1990s, AFN stood for the broadcasting activities of the US military in western Central Europe ( Western Europe ; see #History below ) with the exception of Austria (1945–1955, see Blue Danube Network ).
Today AFN acts as the global brand name of the Defense Media Activity (DMA, Fort Meade , Maryland; formerly: Armed Forces Information Service , AFIS).
AFN consists of the AFN Broadcast Center ( March Air Reserve Base near Riverside , California; 1986–2003: AFRTS BC ) and the AFN outlets , which are divided into AFN Europe and AFN Pacific . Together they form AFRTS ( American Forces Radio and Television Service ; 1954–1969 and 1982–2000: Armed Forces Radio and Television Service ).
AFN Europe locations
Large map: Europe with Turkey; top left: Azores; top right: Arabian Peninsula
(Note: all frequencies in MHz.)
- AFN Benelux, SHAPE , Belgium (Casteau-SHAPE 106.5; Chièvres 107.9; Everberg 101.7; Florennes 107.7; Brunssum 96.9 and 99.7)
- AFN Spangdahlem , Germany (Bitburg 105.1)
- AFN Kaiserslautern, Germany ( Kaiserslautern 105.1; Pirmasens 103.0; Baumholder 106.1)
- AFN Wiesbaden , Germany (Wiesbaden 103.7)
- AFN Stuttgart, Germany ( Stuttgart 102.3)
- AFN Bavaria, Vilseck , Germany (Grafenwöhr 98.5; Katterbach / Ansbach 107.3; Amberg 89.9; Garmisch-Partenkirchen 90.3; Hohenfels 93.5; Illesheim 104.9; Vilseck 107.7)
- AFN Aviano, Italy ( Aviano 106.0; Hungary: Pápa Air Base 102.7)
- AFN Vicenza, Italy ( Vicenza 106.0; Livorno 106.0)
- AFN Naples, Italy ( Naples 106.0)
- AFN Sigonella, Italy (Sicily) ( Sigonella 106.0)
- AFN Lajes, Portugal (Azores) ( Lajes 96.1)
- AFN Rota, Spain ( Rota 102.5; Moron 92.1)
- AFN Souda Bay, Greece (Crete) ( Souda Bay 107.3)
- AFN Incirlik, Turkey ( Incirlik MW 1593)
- AFN United Kingdom (AFN 360)
- AFN Bahrain, Kingdom of Bahrain ( Bahrain 106.3)
- AFN Guantanamo Bay, Cuba ( Guantanamo Bay 102.1 and 103.1)
- AFN Honduras (106.3)
AFN Pacific locations (Japan and South Korea)
- AFN Casey , South Korea
- AFN Yongsan , Seoul, South Korea
- AFN Osan , South Korea
- AFN Kunsan , South Korea
- AFN Daegu , South Korea
- AFN Okinawa , Japan
- AFN Sasebo , Japan
- AFN Iwakuni , Japan
- AFN Tokyo , Japan
- AFN Misawa , Japan
- AFN Diego Garcia , British Indian Ocean Territory
- AFN Alaska ( Fort Greely ?)
The radio service consists of The Eagle (since 2006; “Eagle 810” was already the name of a radio program from AFN Tokyo), a shell program with outlet windows that has been supplied from the AFN Broadcast Center since 2014, as well as eleven special interest programs:
- Freedom ( alternative )
- Gravity (Urban / Club)
- HotAC ( Hot Adult Contemporary )
- Joe Radio (Hits of the '80s,' 90s and today; 2012)
- Legacy ( Classic Rock ; 2011)
- The Voice (1978)
- NPR (1997)
- PowerTalk (2008)
- Clutch (Sport, 2011)
- Fans (Sports, 2011)
It is distributed via satellite (encrypted), the Internet ( AFN 360 since 2013) and, for The Eagle, also terrestrially (see #AFN Europe above ).
In addition to the main program in the variants AFN | prime Atlantic and AFN | prime Pacific (so named since 2004) there are six special channels:
- Spectrum (1997)
- Movie (2004)
- Family (2004) / Pulse (2013)
- News (2001)
- Sports (2001)
- Sports2 (2015)
The programs are encrypted and can only be received with decoders available from military outlets . PowerVu is used as encryption . The decoders and satellite receivers from Scientific Atlanta have now been taken over by Cisco Systems . Since December 16, 2017, all channels have been broadcast in HD (previously only the first sports program).
AFN Sports, AFN Sports2 and AFN News take over large parts of the program from US television. In-house information is broadcast during the commercials.
Program schedules can be found in The Stars and Stripes and since 1999 on the Internet.
In 1941 American soldiers began radio activities in Panama and Alaska. On May 26, 1942, the Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS) is established by the War Department ; Major Tom Lewis (1901–1988) was in charge until 1945. The headquarters are located on the Fox premises in Hollywood (1954 moved to 1016 North McCadden Place, Los Angeles), studios in New York and San Francisco. The AFRS's first in-house production was Mail Call , a mailbox program , on August 11, 1942 . The first American Expeditionary Stations (AES) were opened in North Africa in 1942, followed by stations in the Pacific region in 1944. The programs are delivered by means of records, initially by sea, then by air; in addition, AFRS operates a shortwave service . In addition to the BBC General Forces Program (1944/45), AFN London has been accompanying the invasions of American, British and Canadian troops in Europe since July 4, 1943. At the beginning of 1946 there were 239 stations overseas and 19 shortwave transmitters in the USA.
TV service starts at Loring Air Force Base, Maine for Christmas 1953; April 1954 the AFRS becomes AFRTS (Armed Forces Radio and Television Service), whose task is defined in October 1954 by DoD Instruction 5120.2. As early as 1954 there was Armed Forces Television (AFTV) in Europe in the Azores. Satellite transmissions begin in 1978 (SATNET; 24h since 1982, encrypted since 1989). The purchase conditions for TV broadcasts taken over are favorable; In 1987, Daily Variety magazine reported that AFRTS had an annual budget of $ 27.4 million, while the market value of the broadcasts acquired was estimated at $ 117 million.
In 1986 the AFRTS center was relocated from Hollywood to the suburb of Sun Valley , and in 1995 to Riverside. 1997 AFRTS ends the production of its own moderated radio programs; the two additional programs Spectrum and NewSports will be launched on television and the main programs will have a uniform appearance (AFN Atlantic, Pacific, Americas –2001, Korea –2006; prime Freedom 2006–2013 for Iraq / Afghanistan).
In October 2013, due to financial bottlenecks, there was a government shutdown for several days .
On September 1, 2015, Defense Secretary Ashton Carter used AFN and DoD social media to talk to troops around the world, as did President Barack Obama on September 11, 2015 on the occasion of the fourteenth anniversary of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks .
AFN in Germany and Europe
|Affiliates in Germany||Broadcasting||Radio station (1992) Station
name Frequency (transmission power)
Munich-Ismaning 1107 kHz ( 40 kW)
Augsburg-Welden 100.0 MHz ( 15 kW)
Augsburg 1485 (1)
Berchtesgaden 1485 (0.3)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1485 (0.3)
Regensburg 1485 (0.3)
(2003–2010: AFN Hessen,
since 2010: AFN Wiesbaden )
Weißkirchen (Oberursel) 873 ( 150 )
Großer Feldberg 98.7 ( 60 )
Bad Hersfeld 1143 (0.3)
Fulda 1143 (0.3)
Gießen 1143 (0.3)
Bonn 107.6 (0.076)
(1945–1949: AFN Bremen)
|1945-07-28||1993||Bremerhaven 1143 (5)
Garlstedt 92.9 (0.1)
Sögel 93.5 (1)
|-||THE POWER STATION|
|AFN Berlin||1945-08-04||1994||Berlin-Dahlem 1107 (10); 87.9 (1)||-||The Great 88|
(1993–2012: AFN Heidelberg)
Stuttgart 102.3 ( 100 )
Stuttgart-Hirschlanden 1143 (10)
Crailsheim 1485 (0.3)
Göppingen 1143 (0.3)
Heidelberg-Wieblingen 1143 (1); 104.6 (0.37)
Karlsruhe 1143 (1)
Mannheim 101.9 (0.05)
Schwäbisch Gmünd 102.6 (0.1)
Ulm 102.6 (1)
(since 1995: AFN Bavaria)
|1950-01-28||-||Nuremberg 1107 (10)
Grafenwöhr 1107 (10)
Ansbach 1485 (0.3)
Hof 1143 (1)
Hohenfels 1485 (0.3)
Illesheim 101.0 (0.37)
Wertheim 1143 (0.3)
|28,500||The big gun|
|AFN Kaiserslautern||1953-12-14||-||Kaiserslautern 1107 (10); 100.2 (5)
Bitburg 1143 (0.3)
Pirmasens 103.0 (0.5)
(since 2006: AFN Benelux)
Mönchengladbach 1143 (1)
Rheinberg 105.1 (1)
Kalkar 106.1 (0.04)
other stations in Belgium and the Netherlands
(2007-2008: AFN Franconia)
|1980-05-01||2008||Würzburg 1143 (0.3)
Bad Kissingen 1143 (0.3)
Bamberg 1143 (0.3)
Schweinfurt 1143 (0.3)
Wildflecken 1143 (0.3)
|44,300||Big Red Radio|
(1994–2011: AFN Eifel)
The transmission systems were partly operated by the AFN itself (like Weißkirchen for AFN Hessen), but there were also systems from Deutsche Telekom AG ( Stuttgart-Hirschlanden transmitter ) and Hessischer Rundfunk (since the switch to DVB-T HR tubular mast on the large one Feldberg im Taunus, previously the telecommunications tower Großer Feldberg of T-Systems ) for broadcasting AFN programs.
On the Großer Feldberg, the FM frequency was at 98.7 MHz until the AFN Frankfurt program was discontinued (until approx. 1962 at 94.9 MHz; last until January 18, 2017 AFN Wiesbaden , then taken over by Deutschlandradio ) was broadcast in stereo at an early stage, while many other AFN stations were initially operated in mono. This transmitter in particular could still be received in large parts of Northern Bavaria (Lower Franconia, Upper Franconia) with the appropriate range and because of the high transmitter location.
The AFN's strongest transmitter until it was shut down in 2013 was located in Weißkirchen, northwest of Frankfurt am Main . It transmitted with 150 kW transmission power on the medium wave frequency 873 kHz.
In the vicinity of the properties of the American armed forces, there was often the possibility of unencrypted reception of the AFN television program. AFN broadcast in the American TV standard M - NTSC , but with low power. On German televisions in B / G - PAL standard, it is possible that only a vertical black and white picture without sound was displayed (depending on the device). More modern devices sold in Europe were mostly able to display a stable color image thanks to their ability to display NTSC videos, but they also usually lacked sound reception. Since July 15, 2010, more and more TV stations have been switched off because analogue terrestrial broadcasting - according to information from AFN - is no longer profitable and more and more people are relying on encrypted satellite reception. Since September 23, 2010, all terrestrial AFN TV channels in Germany have been switched off.
1940s and 1950s
The first station broadcast under the name AFN London from the BBC studios in London from July 4, 1943 , after the liberation of France in 1944 AFN Paris was added. The first broadcasters to reach Germany were mobile units on trucks; the first such mobile transmission unit of the 1st US Army advanced in February-April 1945 from Paris via Spa , Frauenberg and Kassel to Ettersberg near Weimar. AFN Munich ( 7th US Army ) started broadcasting on June 10, 1945 from Kaulbach-Strasse in Munich (more transmitters soon in Stuttgart and Nuremberg). AFN Frankfurt ( 1st US Army ) followed a month later (Kaiser-Sigmund-Straße); The broadcast was initially from a small truck that was located behind the IG Farben building , the US headquarters , and then from the Heiligenstock transmitter (soon also via a transmitter in Bayreuth).
In August of the same year the European headquarters was relocated from London to Frankfurt am Main ( Höchst Castle ). This was followed at short intervals by stations in Bremen ( 9th US Army ; another transmitter in Bremerhaven) and Berlin ( AFN Berlin , Villa Joachim von Ribbentrop ; the American military government set up the RIAS for the German population of Berlin ) as well as a short-lived transmitter in Kassel. In December 1945 AFN switched off London , and all stations in France were also given up until 1948; the number of stations fell from 1945 to more than 300 to just under 60 in 1949. The AFN reported, sometimes live, of events such as the Nuremberg war crimes trials or the Berlin airlift . AFN Stuttgart became independent in 1948 , housed in the Hotel Graf Zeppelin. In 1949 AFN Bremen became AFN Bremerhaven when it was moved to the Carl-Schurz-Kaserne .
For Austria there was the Blue Danube Network (BDN, with studios in Salzburg / KZCA, Linz / KOFA and Vienna / WOFA; 5th US Army ), from which in 1955 the Southern European Network (SEN) in Italy (since 1979 Southern European Broadcasting Service , SEB; AFN South since 1993 ).
The 1950s was the decade of expansion for the network. In 1950, AFN Nuremberg expanded with the move to the Grand Hotel. In 1953 AFN Kaiserslautern was added, which has been broadcasting from the studios in the Vogelweh Complex since 1954 . April 1957 television was established by the Air Force in Ramstein ( channel E30 ≙ US channel 26).
In May 1958 AFN France was re-established with the commissioning of AFN Orleans , in November AFN Poitiers was added, in 1959 AFN Verdun .
Well-known programs and moderators
Well-known programs from the various AFN stations in Germany:
- AFN Berlin - The Juice and Disco as well as Frolic at five (5pm) DJs George Hudak, Magnificent Magoo (Jim McCauley), Steve Kostelac, Dan Simmons, Rhythm And Blues Showcase , Merryly Music , Wake Up Easy with DJ Tom Tucker, Old Gold Retold with DJ Rik DeLisle as well as Open House Show (12 p.m.) and Stickbuddy Jamboree (2 p.m.).
- AFN Frankfurt - Stickbuddy Jamboree , Old Gold Retold , 16.05 to Nashville , Town and Country , GCS - Gertie's Country Show . This station made Bill Ramsey famous. The Rest of the Story - Paul Harvey commented on topics on the news show that evening.
- AFN Munich - Early Bird (7 o'clock, long-standing theme song: Doris Day "When the red, red robin comes bob, bob, bobbin 'along" 1954) Luncheon in Munchen (12 o'clock), Midnight in Munich , Hillbilly Guesthouse , Munich Night Train (midnight, long-time theme song: Jimmy Forrest "Night train" 1952), Weekend World , and Bouncin 'in Bavaria (5 pm, long-term theme song: Sy Oliver “House Party” 1951), Outpost concert , long-term theme song : Johannes Brahms. 1st symph. 4th movement. DJ Chuck Herrmann, DJ Jim Sampson , DJ Bill Higgenbotham.
- AFN Bavaria - Christy Whitaker (aka C-Dub), Da Flyin 'Hawaiian and Andre 6'4000 (The Joe Show)
Worldwide broadcasts, famous disc jockeys / speakers:
- Wolfman Jack ; Charlie Tuna; Mary Turner; Times Sondock
- Top 40: Casey Kasem ( American Top 40 ); Rick Dees ( Weekly Top 40 , American Music Magazine )
- Country: Gene Price; Harry Newman; Bob Kingsley ( American Country Countdown ); Gertie ( GertiesCountryShow )
- Oldies: Jim Pewter; Dick Clark ( Rock, Roll & Remember )
- Soul: Don Tracy
- Swing: Chuck Cecil ( The Swinging Years , one hour on Sundays, until 1955)
- Classical: Doug Ordunio
- News: Paul Harvey ; Jan Wood
- Bremerhaven: Bill Boyd
- Berlin: Rik De Lisle
1960s and 1970s
1973 AFN Frankfurt FM got a softer music profile ( the easy FM ), and it was switched to a 24-hour stereo operation. At times even classical music was broadcast ( Adventures in Good Music ).
In 1976, television moved from Ramstein to new studios in Frankfurt, which is where color television began.
1980 came AFN Würzburg 1986 AFN Soesterberg (NL) to the network. The television station in Soesterberg had already started operations in 1984 (output 20 kW, but on US channel 80, which is beyond the European UHF spectrum).
In-house TV productions included news programs such as AFN Television News or AFN Ten o'clock News and regional information programs as well as programs such as Gasthaus (approx. 1975–1992) or AFN Mailbox .
There was also extensive news on the radio. At the beginning of April 1989, Z-ROCK (since January 1991: Z-FM ) was launched, a station that was intended to appeal to the musical tastes of younger listeners. The medium wave program (partly also broadcast via VHF) was called Power Network since July 1989 .
As part of the Desert Shield and Desert Storm operations , AFDN ( Armed Forces Desert Network ; started in 1990 as Desert Shield Network ) was looked after by European broadcast personnel in Saudi Arabia in 1991 .
In 1992 a broadcasting network was set up in the former Yugoslavia, which broadcast until 2002. These stations were initially as AFN Zagreb , since 1996 as AFN Balkans in various regions (Croatia, Macedonia 1993, Bosnia 1995, Albania 1999, Kosovo, Hungary) to be heard.
From 1993 to 1994 AFN Somalia and 1994 AFN Entebbe (Uganda) were operated by European AFN technicians.
With the troop reduction after the Gulf War in 1991 and the end of the Cold War in Europe, station closings had also become inevitable. The stations in Munich closed in 1992, Bremerhaven in 1993 and Soesterberg in 1994. AFN Stuttgart was relocated to Heidelberg in 1993 and has served both cities since then, as well as Mannheim. AFN Berlin ended its program in 1994 following the end of the city's four-power status . In 1995 AFN Nurnberg went “off air”, relocated together with the new technology to Vilseck and has since been heard as AFN Bavaria in Grafenwöhr , Vilseck and Hohenfels. In 1998 the station in Augsburg was given up. It was only this year that all US military channels broadcast worldwide under the name AFN . The local windows went from medium wave to VHF.
At the end of April 2006, the broadcast concept for Europe was changed again. A basic block transmission model in the style of some Canadian radio stations was introduced or expanded further. New name: "AFN - The Eagle - Music Worth Fighting For". In 2008 the slogan was changed to "AFN - The Eagle - Serving America's Best". The European headquarters in Mannheim now produces a 24-hour basic program with blocks of broadcasts, thus replacing the Z-FM programs. Various genres of music, AFN broadcasts and purchased radio programs are mixed in this basic program. Between these blocks, the local AFN radio stations have broadcast blocks for themselves, which they can fill in with their own programs (for example local morning shows and local afternoon shows). Although this is similar to the previous concept, it has now been expanded. Popular programs such as The Jonathan and Mary Show (formerly also broadcast via the Mannheim base program) have been removed from the program. This new program direction has its advantages and disadvantages. On the one hand, there has been an increase in quality in the area of music. On the other hand, the individual local stations have lost their individuality. The previous station names (such as HOT-FM for Heidelberg or The Big Gun for Bavaria) have been dropped. They all have the same name: The Eagle . Thus the old radio station jingles, some of which were self-produced with a lot of love and wit, have largely disappeared.
In 2016, the Mönchengladbach (January) and Vilseck (October) transmitters, the last medium-wave transmitters throughout Germany, were shut down, and in January 2017 the PowerNet program , which was formerly broadcast via medium-wave (most recently only via the Internet), was discontinued .
List of management personnel
- 1943 Gurney, Charles (MAJ)
- 1943–1944 Hayes, John (LTC)
- 1944–1945 Light, Robert (LTC)
- 1945–1946 Sanders, Ernest (LTC)
- 1946–1947 Swain, Oren (LTC)
- 1947–1948 Rigel, William (MAJ)
- 1948–1949 Ball, Walter (LTC)
- 1949–1953 Johnson, Philip (COL)
- 1953–1955 Price, Harold (LTC)
- 1955–1958 Tourtellotte, Franklin (LTC)
- 1958–1960 Kale, Samuel (LTC)
- 1960–1964 Cranston, Robert (LTC)
- 1964–1965 Phinney, Jack (LTC)
- 1965–1966 Bloecker, Victor (LTC)
- 1966 Bickley, Eugene (LTC)
- 1966–1968 Cody, Henry (LTC)
- 1968 Buchanan, Gerald (MAJ)
- 1968–1970 Jones, Arthur (LTC)
- 1970–1974 Roeder, Harold (LTC)
- 1974–1977 McBride, Floyd (LTC)
- 1977 Bubniak, Robert (MAJ)
- 1977–1980 Odom, Fredwin (LTC)
- 1980–1982 Bubniak, Robert (LTC)
- 1982–1984 Crescioni, Charles (LTC)
- 1984–1987 Craven, Sonny (LTC)
- 1987–1990 Eaton, Bruce (COL)
- 1990–1993 Fowler, Zachary (COL)
- 1993–1995 Gaylord, Robert (COL)
- 1995–1998 Marovitz, Mitchell (COL)
- 1998–2001 McWilliams, David (LTC)
- 2001-2003 Edrington, Michael (LTC)
- 2003-2006 Sims, Ricky (LTC)
- 2006–2009 Malcom, Scott (COL)
- 2009–2012 Bigelow, William (COL)
- 2012–2014 Reed, Sherri (LTC)
- 2014– Smith, Doug
In the early 1960s there were AFRTS stations in the following areas (some stations were merged into networks):
- Atlantic area: Panama Canal Zone (CFN / SCN), Trinidad , Puerto Rico ( Armed Forces Caribbean Network , AFCN), Guantanamo Bay ; the NATO areas Canada , Greenland / Denmark, Iceland , Great Britain , West Germany / France (AFN Europe), Italy (SEN), Greece , Azores / Portugal and Turkey ; Spain , Morocco , Libya , Saudi Arabia , Eritrea , Iran (1954–76)
- Pacific Area: Japan / Okinawa / Guam (FEN), South Korea (AFKN), Taiwan (AFNT), Philippines (later AFPN), Pacific Islands Trust Area (Kwajalein / CPN, Eniwetok), Midway Islands , Johnston Island , Alaska (AN)
Central America, CFN / SCN (1941 / 54–1999)
The soldiers stationed in the Panama Canal Zone set up PCAN ( Panama Coast Artillery News , Pacific Coast) and PCAC ( Panama Coast Artillery Corps , Atlantic Coast) as their own transmitters in 1941 . In 1949 they moved into a building in Fort Clayton . In 1954 the station was called the Caribbean Forces Network ( CFN ), in 1963 it was called the Southern Command Network ( SCN ) and continued to broadcast after 1979, the year the Canal Zone was handed over to Panama, and since 1987 for the US troops stationed in Honduras . It was not until 1999 that the SCN stopped broadcasting.
Alaska, AN (1941-2001)
Far East / Japan, FEN (1944–1997)
The FEN ( Far East Network ; Japan, Okinawa, Korea, Philippines, Guam) developed in 1945 from the PON ( Pacific Ocean Network ) founded in 1944 , a network that originally set up its stations on many small Pacific islands during the Second World War 1950 the Korean section ( AFKN ) was split off. When it was officially constituted in 1951, the FEN had six stations in Japan (in Sapporo , Hachinohe , Sendai , Tokyo , Osaka and on Kyushu ). The television service began in 1955 in the Philippines and Okinawa, in 1960 in Japan (Misawa). The headquarters had been in Yokota since 1978 ; this station has been broadcasting since August 30, 1997 under the new name AFN Tokyo (at times also Eagle 810 ).
Korea, AFKN (1950–1997/2001)
With the outbreak of the Korean War , AFN also came to Korea. First, AFKN ( American Forces Korea Network ) broadcast from the US military hotel in Seoul, after the seizure of Seoul by Chinese troops in 1950, the broadcasters packed their equipment in trucks and sent mobile broadcasts from the vehicles. The stations were named like Bayonet (Dongduchon, Camp Casey ), Cavalier / Tomahawk (Munsan), Gypsy (Uncheon), Vagabond (Seoul, Yongsan ), Comet ( Osan , Camp Humphreys), Mercury ( Gunsan ), Kilroy ( Daegu ), Homesteader ( Busan ); later names were Thunder AM and Eagle FM . The television service began in 1957. Since 1998, on April 2, 2001, the network was called AFN Korea instead of AFKN .
Philippines, AFPN (1965–1976)
In 1965 the stations in the Philippines formed AFPN ( Armed Forces Philippines Network ) until they were reintegrated into the FEN in 1976. 1974–76 also included Thailand and Taiwan in organizational terms.
Taiwan, AFNT (1957–1979)
From AFNT ( Armed Forces Network Taiwan ) 1979 civilian Taiwanese was ICRT ( International Community Radio Taipei ), which is still in English on the air.
Vietnam, AFVN (1962 / 67–1973)
The first broadcasts in Vietnam were thanks to the Navy, which broadcast from well-equipped studios in aircraft. The name of the network in Vietnam was initially AFRS ( American Forces Radio Saigon ) or AFRVN ( Armed Forces Radio Vietnam ), but was renamed AFVN ( American Forces Vietnam Network , 1967) with stations u. a. known in Da Nang, Nha Trang, Pleiku and Saigon. The program Dawn Buster , which opened with the legendary exclamation Gooooooood Morning, Vietnam , became very well known through the film " Good Morning, Vietnam " . The DJs Pat Sajak and Adrian Cronauer also became known . From 1971 to 1973 all stations in Vietnam were closed.
Thailand, AFTN (1966–1976)
Parallel to the fighting in Vietnam, US forces were also stationed in neighboring Thailand, which had their own AFTN ( American Forces Thailand Network ) radio network ; the AFVN and AFTN logos are strikingly similar. There were studios at the following locations: Udon Thani Airport (1970: A damaged phantom plane crashed into the studios), Ubon Ratchathani Airport and the Nakhon Ratchasima and Takhli air bases . This service was discontinued in 1976.
Antarctica, AFAN (since 1963)
The southernmost of all AFRTS transmitters were on McMurdo Station in Antarctica: KMSA / WASA on medium wave in the 1960s, then AFAN ( American Forces Antarctic Network ) on short wave, later on three VHF transmitters.
Iraq (2003-2011), Afghanistan (2006-2014)
In the course of the Iraq war , AFN Baghdad was started in 2003 and then a broadcasting network with stations in Baghdad, Kirkuk, Tikrit, Balad, Sinjar, Mosul and Talill was set up ( AFN Iraq ), which was on the air until 2011. In Afghanistan , stations were set up in Kabul, Bagram, Ganci and Kandahar for the troops there ( AFN Afghanistan ); these broadcast exclusively on ultra-short wave. The regional television program was called AFN | prime Freedom (2006–2013).
- British Forces Broadcasting Service (BFBS)
- Canadian Forces Network (CFN)
- Radio Forces Françaises de Berlin (FFB)
- Radio Volga , station of the Soviet armed forces
- Anja Schäfers: More than rock 'n' roll. The radio station AFN until the mid-sixties (= Transatlantic Historical Studies 52). Stuttgart 2014.
- The Link with Home - and the Germans listened ; Publication by the Allied Museum Berlin (2001)
- Patrick Morley: This Is the American Forces Network. The Anglo-American Battle of the Air Waves in World War II. Westport, CT (2001)
- Trent Christman: Brass Button Broadcasters. A Lighthearted Look at 50 Years of Military Broadcasting. Paducah, KY (1992)
- John Provan : The Story of the American Forces Network. Kelkheim / Ts., O. J. Translation by Anja Schäfers MA, Hamburg: The story of "the American Forces Network" , Kelkheim / Ts., O. J.
- Herb Glover, John Provan, Roger Williams: AFN Europe 1943–2003: 60 years and counting . In: R&R July 2003
- RADIOJournal: The story of AFN , part 1 (6/2003) , part 2 (7/2003)
- Official websites of the AFN websites:
- Podcasts via DVIDS (Defense Video & Imagery Distribution System)
- History of AFRTS - the first 50 years (history 1942–1992, 126 pages)
- DMA - Riverside, American Forces Network Broadcast Center (History 1941–2017, PDF, 167 pages)
- durenberger.com: Voice of America and Armed Forces Radio ; stellamaris.no: Allied Armed Forces (etc.) Radio Stations
- Video: Special Report - AFN Europe Operations (early 1980s)
- Audio: AFN Europe Reflections: 70 Years of Radio Excellence (2013); AFN (The Great88) * air checks
- 2005 registered with the USPTO , 3035868 [RN]
- DODD 5105.74
- 32 CFR part 372 (1980), DoDD 5122.10 (PDF 2000)
- 32 CFR part 372a (1981); DoDI 5120.20 (2010), DoDM 5120.20-M (PDF 2014)
- DODD 5120.20 (PDF 1991), DoD 5120.20-R (PDF 1998)
- stripes.com: FM frequency changes coming to AFN Kaiserslautern, Wiesbaden
- lyngsat.com: American Forces Network Europe on Eutelsat 9B at 9.0 ° E ( Memento from January 7, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- AFN 360 Europe ( app ), AFN 360 Pacific ( app )
- MyAFN - Radio Frequencies
- Nick Turse: The Complex: How the Military Invades Our Everyday Lives . Henry Holt and Company, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4299-4163-1 , pp. 203 .
- ww2.stripes.com archive 1948–1999 ; for Berlin also in the Berlin Observer , archive 1945–1994
- scncz.com: PCAN, CFN, SCN & AFRS Origins
- radioheritage.net: AFRS Alaska ; www.kadiak.org/misc.html
- Golden Age of Radio Spotlight on Networks: AFRTS
- loringremembers.com: Loring's Armed Forces Radio and Television Service
- Television Factbook 42 (1972/73) pp. 957-b.
- usarmygermany.com: Armed Forces Network, Europe with drawings of the studio buildings in Germany
- Source: Terrestrischer Rundfunk, FTZ 17 AB 11, 1993 edition; Allocation to the studios: MW locations of the AFN 1975 ( Memento from April 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- from here also VoA Europe on 1197 kHz (1985–1995), RADIOJournal 3/1996
- soundcloud.com: AFN Bremerhaven
- AFN Survival Team Nuremberg ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Video: AFN Kaiserslautern history
- wuerzburgwiki.de: AFN Würzburg
- AFN switches off legendary medium wave transmitter by Jens F. Hofstadt on radioszene.de; Published on May 22, 2013
- AFN TV reception in Germany with detailed. Instructions and station list ( Memento from January 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- The Billboard , Vol. 57, No. 32 (August 11, 1945), p. 9
- fox12.de: How the AFN-Sender Kassel came about ... ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Video: SEB 35th Anniversary Special 1990
- The Stars and Stripes , April 26, 1957, p. 12 ; German translation (wrongly dated 1954)
- G. Sauder: Network of the Enlightenment: new readings on Johann Heinrich Merck . 2001, p. 167
- The Stars and Stripes , Mar 2, 1973 AFN-Frankfurt FM changing tune
- The Stars and Stripes , Nov 10, 1973 AFN-Frankfurt plans 24-hour stereo on FM
- AFN Soesterberg Netherlands ; soesterberg-usaf.com: About AFN Europe ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Audio: AFN Soesterberg Afternoon Show "Afterburner", March 1989
- soesterberg-usaf.com: AFN Soesterberg ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Video: AFN Television News Outtakes 1980s
- Video: AFN Ten o'clock News from 1/1982
- about Berlin Tonight or Bremerhaven: Spotlight (1980)
- Video: AFN Gasthaus - The Final Show
- Video: AFN Mailbox 1988 hosted by Ann Mulligan and Herb Glover
- Audio: Newsworld - AFN's total information service from 9/1982
- Video: Armed Forces Desert Network
- Video: History of AFN Balkans
- Videos: AFN Bremerhaven Close of Station, Report from AFN News , Radio Bremen, Buten & binnen
- radioeins.de: Last German medium wave transmitter shut down
- afneurope.net: AFN PowerNet service discontinued January 19, 2017
- Source up to here: parker5nc.tripod.com/afvn/afn.html
- AFRTS Broadcast Guide ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Third edition 1961)
- Video: AFN Central Pacific Network ( CPN ), Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands , the only station operated by a civil contractor
- radioheritage.net: AFRS Jungle Network
- Doug Smith: Official FEN History (2000); radioheritage.net: AFRS Japan
- H. Jordan Roscoe: A brief history of the Far East Network (1961)
- Recent AFKN data ; American Forces Korea Network Alumni Pages ; philcobill.com: AFKN Sound Bites - 1984-1997
- Doug Smith: Official FEN History (2000); BroaDWcast - Armed Forces Network
- icrt.com.tw: About ICRT
- www.afvnvets.net ; www.afvn.tv
- www.aftn.net ; AFTN Network History
- The Antarctic Sun: Turn up the volume (2012); radioheritage.net: Antarctic Radio Melts