|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||11 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||325.56 km 2|
|Residents:||567,559 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1743 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0421|
|License plate :||HB|
|Community key :||04 0 11 000|
|LOCODE :||DE BRE|
|City structure:||5 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Am Markt 21
|Mayor :||Andreas Bovenschulte ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Bremen in the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen|
The municipality of Bremen is the capital of the State of Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also "Bremen" for short, , regional [ˈbʁeːm]). In addition to the city of Bremen, the city of Bremerhaven, 53 km to the north, also belongs to the two-city state . The city of Bremen is the eleventh largest city in Germany and belongs to the European Northwest Metropolitan Region with a good 2.7 million inhabitants, one of a total of eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany.
Bremen lies on both sides of the Weser , about 60 kilometers from its confluence with the North Sea and its transition into the Outer Weser near Bremerhaven. At the height of Bremen's old town , the Mittelweser merges into the Unterweser , which is expanded to become a sea shipping route from the Bremen railway bridge . The landscape to the left of the Lower Weser, traversed by the Ochtum , is known as the Wesermarsch , the landscape to the right of the Lower Weser belongs to the Elbe-Weser triangle . The Lesum , with its source rivers Wümme and Hamme , the Schönebecker and the Blumenthaler Aue form the tributaries of the Weser from here.
The urban area is about 38 kilometers long and 16 kilometers wide. In terms of area (see: List of the 100 largest municipalities in Germany ), Bremen is the sixteenth largest city in Germany and in terms of population, after Hamburg, the second largest city in northern Germany and the eleventh largest in all of Germany (see: List of major cities in Germany ) .
Bremen is located about 50 kilometers east of Oldenburg (Oldb) and 180 kilometers east of Groningen , 110 kilometers southwest of Hamburg , 120 kilometers northwest of Hanover , 100 kilometers north of Minden and 105 kilometers northeast of Osnabrück . Part of the Bremerhaven port area, the city of Bremen's overseas port area, forms an exclave of the city of Bremen.
The city of Bremen (567,559 inhabitants) is completely enclosed by the state of Lower Saxony (with the exception of the exclave Stadtbremisches Überseehafengebiet Bremerhaven , which is surrounded by the city of Bremerhaven). In the west, the independent city of Delmenhorst (77,559 inhabitants December 31, 2019 ) and the Wesermarsch district (88,583 inhabitants) with the municipalities of Lemwerder , Berne and Elsfleth border, in the north the Osterholz district (113,928 inhabitants) with the municipalities of Schwanewede , Ritterhude and Lilienthal , in the east the district of Verden (137,133 inhabitants) with the communities Ottersberg , Oyten , Achim and in the south the district of Diepholz (217,089 inhabitants) with the communities Weyhe and Stuhr and the city of Syke . This collection of municipalities is known as the “ bacon belt ”, as some of their residents receive income in the state of Bremen, but pay income tax, property tax and other levies to the state in Lower Saxony.
Bremen is with 25 other surrounding municipalities and two districts in the municipal association Lower Saxony / Bremen in which 1.05 million people live.
The closest major cities are in the west the city of Oldenburg (169,077 inhabitants December 31, 2019 ) and in the north the seaside town of Bremerhaven (113,643 inhabitants). For the agglomeration of Bremen around 983,000 inhabitants are estimated, for the larger metropolitan region northwest over 2.37 million. Of the 239,063 employees subject to social security contributions in the city of Bremen, 103,206 or 43.2% of all employees commute from outside the city . Of the 168,443 employees subject to social security contributions who live in the city of Bremen, 32,586 commute to and from their place of work outside the municipality.
The urban area of Bremen is divided into five city districts. Of the total of 88 districts, four are assigned directly to a district, the others are grouped into 18 districts, which in turn are assigned to the districts. Due to its high population, Oberneuland is a district, although it does not consist of several districts. The names of the city and districts go back largely to names that have evolved over time. For certain local administrative tasks 17 are local authorities responsible, four as a common local offices for every several city or districts.
An advisory board is responsible for the districts and independent districts at the local political level. Exception: The districts of the Häfen district are looked after by other advisory boards due to their small number of inhabitants or are not advisory boards. The 22 advisory boards are elected directly by the citizens every four years and meet in public several times a year. The powers of the advisory council are similar to those of the district assembly or district assembly of other city-states.
The city of Bremen also includes the approx. 8 km² large city of Bremen's overseas port area , for which the city of Bremerhaven is responsible under contracts with the city of Bremen as the municipal administration. There are currently contracts for garbage collection as well as fire protection, assistance and rescue services. The area belongs to the Häfen district , but is not assigned to an advisory board due to the lack of geographical proximity to other Bremen districts. This means that the overseas port area is the only part of the municipality of Bremen in which the citizens do not elect an advisory board.
The federal waterway of the Weser , which flows through the city center, represents a border that has evolved over time: Even today, many names distinguish between "left of the Weser" (southern urban area) and "right of the Weser". The border between Bremen-Stadt and Bremen-Nord along the Lesum , a tributary of the Weser, is geographically, historically and important for everyday life . South of the Lesum is Marsch , the Werderland , north of it Geest , the Bremen Switzerland . The political border of the Bremen-Nord district is a little further south. Another tributary of the Weser, the Ochtum , forms the natural southern border of the city of Bremen. The Wümme flows through Borgfeld and is then the border river up to the confluence (together with the Hamme ) in the Lesum.
The largest inland lake is the Sportparksee Grambke with 40 ha.
Bremen has 18 nature reserves , which make up a total area of 2126.9 ha and thus 6.69% of the city area. The largest are the Borgfelder Wümmewiesen (677 hectares), the Ochtum lowlands near Brokhuchting (375 hectares), the Werderland (330.7 hectares) and the western Hollerland (Leherfeld) with an extension (293 hectares).
Surveys in Bremen
The city center lies on a Weser dune, which at the Bremen Cathedral a natural height of ; the highest point at is to the east of the police station (Am Wall 196). The highest natural elevation in the city and in the state of Bremen, is located in Friedehorstpark in the northwestern part of the city of Burglesum . This means that Bremen has the lowest of the highest natural elevations of all federal states . The summit of the landfill in the Hohweg district of the Walle district , which, according to various statements, is between The park elevation towers above and is high.
Like most of Germany, apart from the higher low mountain range and Alpine regions, Bremen has a cool, moderate climate with significant maritime influences due to its proximity to the North Sea , so that the temperature differences between winter and summer are smaller than further inland. Nonetheless, at any time of the year there can be periods under the influence of continental air masses, which lead to heat waves in summer and longer periods of frost in winter. In general, however, temperature extremes are rare, and temperatures below −15 ° C and above 35 ° C only occur every few years. The warmest month is July with an average of 18.0 ° C and the coldest is January with 1.8 ° C (reference period 1981–2010). The highest ever recorded temperature in Bremen was 37.6 ° C on August 9, 1992. The lowest ever officially recorded temperature was −23.6 ° C on February 13, 1940, but Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers reported −27.3 ° C to have measured on January 23, 1823.
As in the rest of the country, the average temperatures in Bremen have risen in recent years, which has led to an increase in the annual average temperature of 0.6 ° C between the two climate reference periods 1961–1990 and 1981–2010. So was z. B. 2014 with an average temperature of 11.1 ° C, as in most regions of the state, also in Bremen, the warmest year since the beginning of the record.
Despite its location in the comparatively little sunshine north-western half of Germany, there has been an increase in the annual sunshine duration of 62 hours between the periods 1961–1990 and 1981–2010 in Bremen over the past few years, from which the months April, May and July benefited most . This trend has intensified again around the turn of the millennium, so that the years 2001–2015 now have an average sunshine duration of 1609 hours, almost 130 hours more than in the old reference period 1961–1990. As almost everywhere in Germany, the winters in particular remain very cloudy and with little sunshine, in December only a little more than an hour of sun is recorded on average per day (out of seven astronomically possible). While Bremen has a little less sunshine in summer than the German area average, the spring is more sunny compared to regions further inland, as the still cool seas counteract the formation of clouds. The sunniest month of the year on average 1981–2010 in Bremen is then also May and not July, as is the case at most of the inland stations.
Precipitation falls throughout the year with a slight tendency towards dry springs and wetter summers, the latter mainly due to showers and thunderstorms. Over the course of a year, an average of 697 mm of precipitation falls at the airport , with not inconsiderable differences within the urban area. The amount of precipitation in the form of snow , on the other hand, is comparatively low and fluctuates a lot from year to year. While in some years there is only a small snow cover on a few days, there are always years with very long-lasting snow cover (most recently in 2010 with 77 snow cover days). On average from 1977 to 2007 there was snow on 19.3 days per year, the snow cover record on February 18, 1979 was 68 cm. Interestingly, this was - despite Bremen's comparatively mild winter location in the north-west German lowlands - at the same time the highest snow cover that has been measured in a German city with over 500,000 inhabitants since the Second World War .
The following climate tables contain data from the reference period 1961–1990 (temperatures, days of precipitation, humidity) and 1981–2010 (precipitation, daily hours of sunshine).
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bremen
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020; wetterkontor.de
According to a study carried out by the Kiel University's Institute for the World Economy in 2012, Bremen was at the lower end of the city comparison with regard to the environmental situation. In terms of “environmental capital”, it came in 66th of the 100 largest independent cities. Several indicators were recorded and compared across Germany: air quality ( fine dust pollution , ozone pollution , nitrogen dioxide pollution ), land use (proportion of settlement and traffic areas, proportion of natural areas) and waste management ( household waste , recycling rate ). In the case of fine dust and ozone pollution, in contrast to nitrogen dioxide pollution, it was not the average concentration but the number of days in which limit values were exceeded that were used as the benchmark. The indicator “natural area” is not defined. On the other hand, it must be taken into account that a large part of the electrical energy in the city of Bremen is generated from fossil fuels, which results in relatively higher CO 2 emissions.
In the city of Bremen, air pollutants have been measured by the Bremen air monitoring system ( BLUES ) since 1987 . Road noise was first systematically recorded in 1977 using a noise register. An environmental information system provides a detailed description of the status of various topics such as nature reserves and water quality.
The place name is in the 9./10. Century attested as Brema, Bremae, Bremun; The latter form, the basis of the current form of the name, is interpreted as a locativically used dative of the plural of the Old Saxon / Middle Low German word brem , border, edge (des Landes / des Wasser / der Düne) '(cf. English brim ).
First settlements up to Christianization
As a bishopric and merchant settlement, Bremen's history goes back to the 8th century. But it was initially still an unsafe mission area. The missionary Willehad wrote in 782: "... we were driven out of Bremen and two priests were killed." In 787, Charlemagne raised the city to the seat of a bishopric. United since the late 9th century with the Archdiocese of Hamburg to form the Archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen, under Archbishop Adalbert (1043–1072) Bremen first gained influence on the imperial level.
Imperial freedom and the Hanseatic League
1260, the city joined the Hanseatic League in was in the Hanseatic but at times an uneasy ally. Thanks to the free trade associated with membership in the Hanseatic League, Bremen flourished, as can be seen from the splendid monuments to this day . The city, which was increasingly gaining economic importance, partly shook off the ecclesiastical rule of the diocese of Bremen and built the Roland (1404) and its town hall (1409) on the Bremen market square , which are now a UNESCO World Heritage Site , as a symbol of its secular freedom .
Expansion of the city
To protect the Weser harbor, which was built between 1574 and 1590, the fortified Neustadt was built on the west bank of the Weser. The Weser increasingly silted up, however, and it became more and more difficult for merchant ships to moor at the slaughterhouse , which had been used as an offshore quay since the 13th century . From 1619 to 1623, Dutch designers built Germany's first artificial harbor in Vegesack downstream .
During the Thirty Years' War , Bremen was able to achieve recognition of its imperial immediacy through the Linz diploma , which was awarded by Emperor Ferdinand III. was issued. This imperial immediacy nevertheless remained threatened. Thus, through concessions in 1741 in the 2nd Stade settlement with the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Bremen had to reach an agreement on the claims to power and the right to contribute .
In 1783 merchants from Bremen began direct transatlantic trade with the USA . In 1802 the city commissioned the landscape gardener Isaak Altmann to transform the former city fortifications into today's ramparts .
French occupation, acquisition of Bremerhaven
Napoleon occupied Bremen in 1811 and integrated it into the French state as the capital of the Bouches-du-Weser department . After their defeat in the Wars of Liberation , the French troops left Bremen in 1814.
In the 19th century, Bremen played a major role in the development of German overseas trade. The first steamship built by Germans was built at Johann Lange's shipyard in 1817 . The paddle steamer Die Weser operated as a passenger and mail ship between Bremen, Vegesack, Elsfleth and Brake , and later also Geestemünde until 1833. Because of the increasing siltation of the Weser, the Bremerhaven settlement was created in 1827 as an outpost on land bought by the Kingdom of Hanover . Friedrich von Bremer and the Mayor of Bremen, Johann Smidt , signed the contract for the acquisition of the port area on January 11, 1827 for Hanover .
The closing of the city gates at sunset, the gate lock, was abolished in 1848 and thus provided space for the city's industrial development. The Wunstorf – Bremen railway line, financed jointly by the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and the Royal Hanover State Railways , went into operation in 1847. After extensive embankment of the surrounding marshland , the terraced houses with so-called Bremen houses, which were typical for Bremen until the 20th century, began in the suburbs in 1853 .
In 1812 Bremen had around 35,000 inhabitants; In 1875 the limit of 100,000 was exceeded. In 1911 the city already had 250,000 inhabitants. In 1857 the North German Lloyd was founded , and later other shipping companies as well. In 1867 Bremen became a member of the North German Confederation and in 1871 of the German Empire . Because of the seaports, the Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck remained customs abroad after 1870/71. They did not join the German Customs Union until 1888 . The free ports of Bremen and Hamburg then remained outside the German customs area. From 1886 to 1895, the navigation channel was corrected to make the Weser safe for seagoing ships to Bremen. In 1890 the Northwest German Trade and Industry Exhibition took place on the grounds of the Bürgerpark . Bremen's economic development continued during the Weimar Republic . Scheduled flights began at the airport in 1920. In 1928 the Columbuskaje in Bremerhaven was inaugurated. By starting here, the passenger ship won Bremen the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic crossing. With the economic importance, the number of inhabitants grew considerably.
Dictatorship and World War II
The beginning of the National Socialist rule meant a deep turning point in the life of the city for Bremen as well. Bremen was incorporated into the Gau Weser-Ems , whose administrative seat was in Oldenburg. It was promised to move the Gauleitung to Bremen, but that did not happen.
At the beginning of 1933 the Jewish community in the state of Bremen had 1,438 members. During the November pogroms in 1938 , shops and private houses were looted and the Jewish cemetery was devastated. Five Jews were murdered and hundreds were arrested. SA troops destroyed the two synagogues in Bremen . By 1941 around 930 Bremen Jews had managed to leave Nazi Germany . In the autumn of 1941 50 children were deported to a concentration camp during a "school trip" . On November 18, 1941 440 Jews were the Minsk ghetto deported and 434 of them on 28 or 29 July 1942 victims of the Holocaust . The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933-1945) lists 921 Jewish residents of Bremen who were deported and mostly murdered.
The first Mißler labor camp was established as early as 1933 , in which 170 prisoners were initially interned, mostly communists and social democrats . Later camps were intended for forced labor , such as the Farge camp , which was built for the construction of the Valentin submarine bunker from around October 1943 for 13,000 Polish, French and Soviet prisoners of war .
In 1939 Bremen lost the city of Bremerhaven (apart from the overseas port area), which was united with the Prussian-Hanoverian Wesermünde . The city of Bremen was enlarged to include today's area north of the Lesum (except for Vegesack, which previously belonged to Bremen), Hemelingen, Arbergen and Mahndorf. Some peripheral communities were simply forgotten (Beckedorf). Other assignments proposed by the American occupation administration after 1945 were rejected by Mayor Kaisen (Syke, Weyhe, Stuhr).
As in many German cities, large building projects were planned in Bremen in accordance with the “Law on the Redesign of German Cities”. These plans ultimately came to a standstill as a result of the Second World War .
In the air war of World War II Bremen suffered heavy destruction. In particular, the north-west with the three large shipyards AG Weser ( Deschimag ) in Gröpelingen and Bremer Vulkan and Vegesacker shipyard in Vegesack was the target of the bombers. The goals were also the Focke-Wulf aircraft construction at the airport , the factories of the Borgward group in Hastedt and Sebaldsbrück as well as the residential areas near the city center, e.g. B. the Stephaniviertel . In 173 attacks by the Royal Air Force and United States Army Air Forces , 62% of the urban fabric was destroyed, killing around 4,000 people. The invasion of British troops on April 26, 1945 ended Nazi rule.
In order to secure supplies for the US troops as a port of embarkation , Bremen and Bremerhaven , located in the British occupation zone , became a US exclave . Wilhelm Kaisen was President of the Senate from 1945 to 1965 . In 1947 the citizens of Bremen adopted the constitution of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen . In 1949 Bremen became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Bremen has been building the new Überseestadt district in the port area since 2000 on an area of 300 hectares . In 1998 the basin of the Überseehafen was filled and built over.
In 1969 the population reached its historic high of 607,184. By the end of 1986 the number of primary residences had fallen to 521,976. In the course of reunification, the population grew rapidly to 554,377 in December 1992. By the end of the century, the number of primary residences fell again to 540,330. As of December 31, 2015, 557,464 residents were registered.
Bremen's constitutional law is based on the state constitution of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen of October 21, 1947.
The parliament of the State of Bremen is the Bremen Citizenship , which is elected by the citizens for four years. The election takes place according to the proportional representation in two separate electoral areas, with 68 members in Bremen and 15 members in Bremerhaven being elected. The MPs elected in the Bremen electoral area also form the local people's representation of the city of Bremen, the city citizenship, while the city of Bremerhaven elects a separate local people's representative, the city council.
At the head of the city and state administration is the Bremen state government , the Senate. Andreas Bovenschulte (SPD) has been President of the Senate and Mayor since August 15, 2019. The deputy to the President of the Senate is also referred to as the mayor. The Bremen Senate as the state government currently has nine members (4 SPD , 3 Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen , 2 Die Linke).
The members of the Senate (senators) are comparable to both the ministers of the regional states and the heads of departments in other major cities. They manage their regional authorities for the state and the municipal authorities belonging to their specialist area for the city of Bremen.
→ See also: List of Mayors of Bremen | List of Bremen Senators | List of Labor Senators from Bremen | List of the building senators of Bremen | List of Education Senators from Bremen | List of Finance Senators from Bremen | List of Health Senators from Bremen | List of interior senators of Bremen | List of Justice Senators from Bremen | List of Social Senators from Bremen | List of Environment Senators from Bremen | List of economic senators from Bremen | List of parliamentary group chairmen of the Bremen citizenship | Election results and senates in Bremen
coat of arms
|Blasonierung : "The crest of Bremen shows red a basic obliquely right erected, with the beard by left facing silver key Gothic form (" Bremer key "). A golden crown restson the shield , whichshowsfive prongs in the shape of a leaf above the ring adornedwith precious stones ("middle coat of arms"). In the case of the small coat of arms, only the key is shown without the crown. The large coat of arms, on the other hand, also has a console or a ribbon-like base on which the shield rests. The shield is held by two erect, backward-looking lions with their front paws . "|
Reasons for the coat of arms: The key is the attribute of the Apostle Peter , the patron saint of Bremen Cathedral. It appears as a coat of arms symbol in Bremen's city seal as early as 1366. The shape of the key changed several times throughout history. Some of the city arms also showed Saint Peter with the key. The forms outside of the escutcheon also changed several times. For example, the lions first appeared on the large coat of arms in 1618. In its current form, the coat of arms goes back to the coat of arms order of 1891.
In Bremen vernacular, a connection is made to the coat of arms of the city of Hamburg by mockingly saying: "Hamburg is the gateway to the world, but Bremen has the key to it."
The oldest city seal in Bremen (1229–1365) shows Bishop Willehad on the left, Charlemagne on the right . The following city seal (1366–1834) shows, sitting next to each other on a bench, on the left the emperor with crown, scepter and orb, and on the right, Saint Peter with tiara , sword and key .
In 1948 a new official seal was introduced, which shows the coat of arms of the flag as the large seal of the President of the Senate , the large coat of arms of Bremen as the small seal for authorities and the middle coat of arms or the Bremen key for other officials .
The flag of Bremen is striped at least eight times (the exact number is not specified) red and white and rolled on the flagstick. It is also known colloquially as the bacon flag .
The national flag contains the flag coat of arms with a key and three lions in the middle. The service flag only carries the key coat of arms. The flag of Bremen bears the colors of the Hanseatic League , red and white.
Bremen maintains active city partnerships with:
- Gdansk , Poland , has been the oldest partnership since 1976 and the first partnership between a West German and a Polish city Bremerhaven sealed a sponsorship for Elbing as early as 1954 .
- Riga , Latvia , 1985
- Dalian , People's Republic of China , 1985
- Haifa , Israel , 1988
- İzmir , Turkey , 1995
- Durban , South Africa , 2011
Currently dormant partnerships exist with:
Bremen maintains informal relationships with:
- Windhoek , Namibia , 2001
- Dudley , UK
- Pune , India
- Tamra , Israel, neighboring community (Arabic) of the twin city Haifa
At the beginning of 2019 the city had debts of almost 9 billion euros. From 2020 the municipal debts of Bremen and Bremerhaven as well as the resulting interest will be shifted to the federal state of Free Hanseatic City of Bremen .
Culture and sights
→ See also: Bremen monuments • List of monuments and statues of the city of Bremen • List of fountains of the city of Bremen • List of important Bremen buildings • List of murals in Bremen • List of tallest buildings in Bremen
Around the market square
The Roland is the focal point and a landmark of the city. The original head of Roland is exhibited in the Focke Museum . During the Second World War it was replaced by a copy for fear of being destroyed by bombing. His gaze is directed towards St. Petri Cathedral , which has the Cathedral Museum and the lead cellar ready for visitors . Next to the Roland is the town hall , in whose Ratskeller wine is served and sold. Roland and City Hall are part of the UNESCO World Heritage . The Town Musicians of Bremen , also a symbol of the city, can be found on the west wall of the town hall . The German Fairy Tale Route ends here . It is joined by the former Council Church of Our Lady .
Churches in the old town
- The Protestant Bremen Cathedral stands on the market square as a partly Romanesque , partly early and finally late Gothic three-nave hall church . It was the seat of the archbishops of the Diocese of Bremen .
- Next to the town hall is the Evangelical Church of Our Lady , which was built in 1229 in the early Gothic style . The spire of the council church has an extraordinary height.
- The Protestant Martinikirche stands on the Weser , a rebuilt late Gothic brick building that was converted into a hall church in 1384 .
- Between Domshof and Schnoor is the Catholic Provost Church of St. Johann , a three-aisled hall church from the 14th century, a former Franciscan monastery church and the only surviving monastery church in Bremen.
- In the Katharinenpassage between Sögestraße and Domshof you can still see the remains of the Dominican monastery with the church of St. Katharinen.
- The Protestant parish church of St. Stephani was built in the Stephaniviertel, at the western end of Bremen's old town . It is a Gothic hall church from the 14th century with a 75 m high neo-Gothic south tower.
On the banks of the Weser
The Schlachte begins at the level of the Martini Church, the historic waterfront promenade with numerous gastronomic offers, which was renovated in the 1990s. Across the way on the peninsula between the Weser and the Kleine Weser is the Teerhof , on which, in addition to the Weserburg Museum and the Society for Contemporary Art (GAK), there are residential buildings built in the 1990s.
The Schnoor is a medieval Gängeviertel in the old town of Bremen and probably the oldest settlement center. The quarter owes its name to the old ship craft. The corridors between the houses were often related to professions or objects: there was an area in which ropes and ropes were made (Schnoor = cord), and an adjacent area in which wire and anchor chains were made (Wieren = wire) . Numerous houses from the 17th and 18th centuries are still preserved and give a romantic impression of life in earlier times. In the years 1856/57 the office building of the landlords was erected here, and the position of landlord was not lifted until September 19, 1945.
Weser Renaissance and Neo-Renaissance
From the time of the Weser Renaissance , u. a. Preserved: the Bremen town hall (Gothic core) from 1612 and the Schütting from 1538 - both on the market, the Stadtwaage from 1587 and the Essighaus from 1618 - both in Langenstrasse - and the commercial building at Ansgariikirchhof from 1620.
In the 19th and 20th Century were u. a. The Post Office 1 on Domsheide (1879), the Bremen Cotton Exchange (1902) and the Bremer Bank am Domshof (1905) were built in a historicizing style in the neo-renaissance style.
Particularly remarkable structures
- The former Wasserkunst (upside down chest of drawers) from 1873 is on the Stadtwerder in the Neustadt.
- The elephant erected as a colonial monument based on a design by the sculptor Fritz Behn is now the anti-colonial monument in the Schwachhausen district .
- The House of the Reich from 1930, built according to plans by Hermann and Eberhard Gildemeister , is in the suburb of the station .
- The Aalto skyscraper of 1962 in the new Vahr designed by Alvar Aalto .
- The town hall from 1964 according to plans by Roland Rainer , remodeled in 2005, is on the Bürgerweide (official names of the Bremen town hall: 1964–2004: Stadthalle Bremen, 2005–2009: AWD-Dome, 2009–2011: Bremen-Arena, since 2011: ÖVB-Arena ). The distinctive, sloping pillars of the original, rare supporting structure, which were preserved during the renovation in 2005, are a landmark of Bremen.
- the drop tower from 1990 of the ZARM of the University of Bremen
- the Science Center Universe
- The Weser Tower from 2009 in Überseestadt with the highest vantage point of 80 meters was designed by Helmut Jahn .
- The Havenhaus in Vegesack at Vegesack harbor and some packing houses from the 19th century, including the Kitohaus, .
- The training ship Germany on the Vegesack bank of the Lesum .
- The Schönebeck Palace
- The moated castle Haus Blomendal
- The Valentin submarine bunker in Bremen-Farge .
- The St. Marien Church , Martin Luther Church and the Evangelical Reformed Church as well as the water tower are in Blumenthal ; all brick buildings in neo -Gothic style .
The Bremen house is a row house type that has its roots in England. In various sizes, it was intended for all social groups and determined residential construction in Bremen from the mid-19th century until the 1930s. In the districts of Schwachhausen, Steintor, Ostertor and Neustadt, you will mainly find the large type, which was built for wealthier citizens, while in working-class quarters like Walle and Gröpelingen the smallest with one or two full floors and lower storey heights.
The Theater Bremen is a municipal theater of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen with performances of operas, operettas, musicals, plays and dance theater. It consists of several venues - the largest of them is the theater on Goetheplatz in the district . In 2007 the Bremen Theater was voted Opera House of the Year under Klaus Pierwoß .
In addition, Bremen has a diverse theater scene with numerous, established theaters in independent or private sponsorship. At the bremer shakespeare company in the Theater am Leibnizplatz , the name says it all . Madame Lothár's travesty theater in Schnoor was a Bremen institution. Staging of modern plays can be seen in the Junge Theater . The Schnürschuh Theater has become known as a children's and youth theater . Founded in 1976, readings and music events are also held there.
In 1994, in addition to the street theater festival La Strada with up to 100,000 spectators annually (see German street theater festivals ), the Outnow festival for international up-and-coming artists from drama, music theater, dance and performance was established.
The museum landscape in Bremen is diverse.
- The Übersee-Museum is one of the most important ethnographic museums in Europe with a tradition going back over 100 years and extensive collections on Oceania, Asia, Africa, America, natural history and trade as well as changing special exhibitions.
- The art gallery , founded by citizens of the city, was built in 1849 according to plans by Lüder Rutenberg . The inventory today includes European works of art from the Middle Ages to the present day.
- In weserburg modern art is on display.
- The Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum and the Ludwig Roselius Museum
- The Gerhard-Marcks-Haus and the Wilhelm-Wagenfeld-Haus Am Wall in Bremen-Mitte
- The Society for Current Art (GAK) presents international, contemporary art.
- The Schwankhalle and the Städtische Galerie Bremen in the Neustadt
- The Focke Museum is the state museum for art and cultural history
- The Heimatmuseum Schloss Schönebeck exhibits the cultural and local history of the area.
- The Cathedral Museum and the lead cellar in St. Petri Cathedral
- The Universe is a modern science center on the university campus.
- The port museum was opened in 2004. It deals with the development of the Bremen ports.
- The Antikenmuseum im Schnoor is a special museum for Greek vases from the period from 560 to 350 BC, opened in 2005. Chr.
- The hospital museum at the Bremen-Ost Clinic as part of the KulturAmbulanz.
The Bremen Philharmonic was founded in 1825 and is the official orchestra of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen. The artistic director of the Bremen Philharmonic is Christian Kötter-Lixfeld, and Markus Poschner has been the general music director since 2007 .
The Deutsche Kammerphilharmonie Bremen , which has been based in Bremen since 1992, is one of the world's most active orchestras. The Estonian conductor Paavo Järvi has been the artistic director since 2004 .
The Music Department of the University of the Arts Bremen with the Academy for Early Music founded in 1986 makes an important contribution to the diverse cultural life of the Hanseatic city in addition to artistic training through numerous concerts and events in the concert hall and gallery.
In the Musical Theater Bremen you will find a combination of music and theater.
The German rock band Wolfsmond (Wie der Wind so frei) , the indie rock band Trashmonkeys , which has since made a name for itself in England, and the sixties beat group The Yankees (Halbstark) come from Bremen .
The German pop singer Ronny (Oh my Darling, Caroline) , who also made a name for himself as the discoverer and producer of the Dutch child star Heintje (Mama) in the 1960s, also comes from Bremen. The lyricist of these and many other famous interpreters, Hans Hee , also lives here .
At Radio Bremen, Michael Leckebusch produced one of the first trend-setting TV music programs of the post-war period with the Beat Club from 1965 . The moderators Uschi Nerke and Gerhard Augustin regularly achieved high ratings among young viewers on the Saturday afternoon broadcast. The program developed to a not inconsiderable degree into a phenomenon of youth culture in Germany. After the Beat Club was u. a. the music store or extra tour produces.
The Rolling Stones named a live album recorded in Bremen, Bridges to Bremen.
→ See also the individual districts
Bremen also has many green areas and parks because of the lowland areas. The most important systems:
The Bremer ramparts emerged from plans by Isaak Altmann from 1805 onwards from the Bremen city wall , which was built up to the 17th century, and the fortifications that followed. They are not only Bremen's oldest, but also the first public park in Germany that was realized by a bourgeois parliament. Today there is a restaurant in the windmill . Most of Bremen's windmills are stations on the Lower Saxony Mill Road .
The Paulines march is the largest with 54 hectares of Bremen sports park and a green corridor. It is located directly on the Weser, east of the Weser Stadium and on the other side of the Weser. This is also the home of Werder Bremen .
The Bürgerpark is the largest privately financed city park in Germany. It connects directly to the Bürgerweide behind the train station and merges into the city forest, with which it covers 202 hectares . The Bürgerpark was laid out in the 1860s by the landscape gardener Wilhelm Benque . Nelson-Mandela-Park with the anti-colonial monument connects to the southwest of the Bürgerpark .
The city forest is separated from the Bürgerpark by a railway line. The Finnbahn is used by up to 500 runners every day.
The Rhododendron Park offers a unique collection of rhododendrons and azaleas on an area of 46 hectares . 500 of the world's 1000 different rhododendron game species grow in this park and the green Botanika Science Center here . The park was expanded to include a theme park around 2000. The botanical garden is 3.2 hectares and is located in the Rhododendron Park. It was rebuilt at this location in 1937.
The Oberneulander parks are mostly English-style green spaces around the mansions of various country estates. These include Höpkens Ruh with 7 hectares and next to it Muhles Park , then Heinekens Park with 2.7 hectares and Ichons Park - both based on plans by Gottlieb Altmann - Menke Park and Park Gut Hodenberg based on plans by garden architect Christian Roselius , Hasse's Park based on plans by Wilhelm Benque and Park Holdheim .
The Achterdiekpark in Oberneuland was created in 1969. The park itself is 8 hectares in size and includes seven ponds. The Achterdiekpark e. V. looks after the system. The subsequent green spaces at Achterdieksee and the federal motorway 27 were created when the Vahr was built in the 1960s. They are 31 hectares in size. A golf course is located right next to the green areas.
The Neustadt wall systems on the left side of the Weser were built on the Neustadt fortifications from 1805 . All that remains is a non-continuous 12 hectare park from the Hohentorshafen to the Piepe . The striking Centaurenbrunnen has stood opposite the secondary school on Leibnizplatz since 1958 .
The park to the left of the Weser , 223 hectares in size, was created as a landscape park from 1975 on the initiative of the association of the same name between Huchting and Grolland. The course of the river Ochtum , which was relocated because of the airport, is the most important element of this park.
The green area at the Sodenmattsee was created in Huchting in 1960 when sand was needed for road construction. Today the park is 19 hectares.
The Blockland is not just a district, but a 30 square kilometer landscape area of the Wümmen lowlands with nature reserves on the left side of the Wümme , with the Wümme cycle path and many excursion restaurants.
The west green corridor has been connecting the Gröpelingen and Walle districts since 1953.
Knoops Park in St. Magnus on the edge of Bremen Switzerland from the 19th century, was designed by Wilhelm Benque. The 60 hectare park is a mixture of an English park and an Italian Renaissance garden.
Wätjens Park in Blumenthal is 35 hectares in size. It was created from 1850 as a park around Wätjen's castle for the shipowner Wätjen according to plans by Isaak Altmann . The park deteriorated and has been renovated since 1999.
The Vegesack city garden with the Weser promenade is also known as the garden by the river . Only 2 hectares in size, it has an almost 1 kilometer long maritime promenade with exotic trees, which leads from the Strandlust hotel to the former shipyard of the Bremer Vulkan .
The common crematorium of all Bremen cemeteries is located at the Huckelriede cemetery. There are 13 municipal cemeteries.
- The Riensberger Friedhof and the Waller Friedhof
After the Franco-German War (1870–1871), two new cemeteries were created a good hour away from the gates of Bremen as a replacement for the two cemeteries close to the city at Doventor and Herdentor: the Riensberger Friedhof im today's district of Schwachhausen and as a western addition the Waller Friedhof . Both cemeteries were opened on May 1, 1875. Many artistically designed tombs, including larger mausoleums , can still be found in both cemeteries .
At the beginning of the 20th century, when both cemeteries no longer had sufficient free space available, the Senate announced a competition for a new municipal central cemetery for the eastern part of Bremen. The first section of the facility was completed in October 1916 - in the middle of the First World War . The inauguration took place in 1920. The resting place for currently more than 100,000 deceased is with 79.5 hectares Bremen's largest cemetery.
- Jewish cemeteries
The Deichbruchstrasse Jewish cemetery has been in use since 1796 and has been Bremen's official Jewish cemetery since 1803. Since 2008 there is a new Jewish cemetery in Schwachhausen .
In the course of each year, the lot booths of the Bürgerpark tombola and rides of the Osterwiese , the Freimarkt and the Christmas market alternate in the squares in the city center . The Freimarkt - the so-called fifth season - is one of the oldest popular festivals in Germany, which was first held in 1035. It takes place every autumn on the Bürgerweide, directly behind the main train station. Those responsible claim to organize the largest event of its kind in northern Germany. The "Small Freimarkt" takes place in front of the town hall at the same time as the "large" Freimarkt. Since 1967, a parade through the city has been organized as part of the two-week Freimarkt.
The museum tram lines 15 and 16 run once a month. The attractions also include regular guided tours through the old town and city tours with the little train Stadtmusikanten-Express. Most of the city tours and sightseeing tours are organized by the Bremer Tourismus-Zentrale, on various topics and in several languages. Some organizers also offer so-called "night watchman tours", which mostly lead through some medieval-looking streets.
The Bremen ice cream bet on Epiphany and the Bremen Schaffermahl in February are important. The Bremen Carnival in February, the Breminale open-air festival on Osterdeich, the International Literature Festival and the Bremen Music Festival in September stand out from the multitude of cultural events . An event with a sporting background that attracts many visitors is the Bremen Six-Day Race, which always takes place in January . In September 2009 the first Maritime Week took place on the Weser .
Popular festivals and cultural events around the Vegesack harbor take place regularly in Bremen-Nord . For example the Vegesack Harbor Festival , the Festival Maritim , the Rock den Deich Festival and the logger market that takes place twice a year . One of the oldest folk festivals in Bremen-Nord is the Vegesacker Markt .
in chronological order
The Senate Medal for Art and Science has been awarded by the Bremen Senate since 1938 and again since 1952.
The City of Bremen's Literature Prize was awarded from 1954 to 1960 by the Senate and, since 1962, when the Senate established the Rudolf-Alexander-Schröder-Foundation . In addition, a sponsorship award has been awarded since 1977.
The Bremen Art Prize has been awarded to artists in German-speaking countries since 1955. Until 1983 it was called the Böttcherstrasse Art Prize . The group of donors has been an association of members of the Kunstverein Bremen since 1983 .
The Villa Ichon Culture and Peace Prize has been awarded annually since 1983 by the Association of Friends and Patrons of Villa Ichon for work or activity as a commitment to peace and of high cultural status.
The Bremen Music Festival Prize has been awarded to outstanding music artists since 1998. In addition, the Deutschlandfunk award for talented young artists is awarded together with Deutschlandfunk .
The Heinrich Schmidt Barrien Prize has been awarded since 2000 by the Bremer Kulturverein Freizeit 2000 and since 2007 by the Friends of Dat Huus op'n Bulten to people and institutions who have made a special contribution to the preservation of the Low German language.
In the Mall of Fame , as the unofficial name of a pedestrian zone in Bremen, the handprints of various celebrities have been admitted since 2003.
The Bremen Town Musicians Prize has been awarded since 2009. The undoped prize is awarded in the four categories of civic engagement (Senate), media (Radio Bremen and Weser-Kurier), culture (international culture) and tourism / city marketing (Bremen Tourist Office ).
Events and customs in Bremen are also referred to as Bremen, such as the Bremer Freimarkt (since 1035), the Schaffermahlzeit (since 1545), the Bremer Eiswette (since 1829), the cabbage and pee eating , the cathedral stair sweeping (since around 1890), the big one Meal of the January company (since the 15th century) or the Bremen Tobacco Collegium (since the early 1950s).
Other special, recent events in Bremen are:
The Bremen Art Prize (since 1985), the Bremen Carnival (since 1986), the Breminale (since 1987), the Bremen Solidarity Prize (since 1988), the Bremen Music Festival Prize (since 1998), the Bremen Film Prize (since 1999) and the Bremen Marathon (since 2005).
There are numerous discos, clubs, bars, lounges and the like. a. in the station suburb with the disco mile . After incidents, an evening gun ban has been in effect on this since 2009. The traditional discotheques include the StuBu and the Lila Eule .
In Bremen there are (as of 2010) eight movie theaters with 38 cinemas and a total of 10,215 seats. Three of them are multiplex cinemas with a total of 32 halls.
Economy and Transport
Foreign trade has always been of particular importance to Bremen. Even if the main focus of goods handling in the Bremen / Bremerhaven port group is now in Bremerhaven, Bremen still has a share in this through the Bremerhaven overseas port area in the city of Bremen . The range of different commercial goods that are imported and exported here extends from fish, meat and dairy products to traditional raw materials such as cotton, tea, rice and tobacco traded on the Bremen Cotton Exchange to wine and citrus fruits. While port handling is carried out by the semi-public BLG Logistics Group , wholesalers such as C. Melchers , Otto Stadtlander and Atlanta can be found in the offices . Bremen is an important location for the automotive, shipbuilding, steel, electronics and food industries. The company Daimler AG is the largest private employer in the city and produces in his Mercedes-Benz plant in the district Sebaldsbrück that until 1963 the Borg Ward belonged GmbH, among others, the car models of the C-Class, the Model T and the SL roadster. In addition, numerous supplier companies have settled in the immediate vicinity. The largest of them is Hella Vehicle Components GmbH from the Hella Group . There is also a large Deutsche Bahn works in Sebaldsbrück .
Shipbuilding and steel industries have undergone a structural change in the past few decades. Many companies, including the two large shipyards AG Weser and Bremer Vulkan , did not survive it; the Bremen steel works were taken over by Arcelor (since 2006: ArcelorMittal ). The aerospace industry, on the other hand, has also changed and today shapes Bremen as a service and high-tech location. In recent years, one of the largest German technology parks , the Bremen Technology Park , has developed at the university , in which around 7500 mostly highly qualified people are currently employed.
Bremen is internationally known as an important aerospace and space technology location. The final assembly of the wings of the Airbus aircraft takes place in Bremen , modules and components for space-compatible laboratories , launch vehicles and satellite systems are produced at Airbus Defense and Space and companies in the OHB technology group . Rheinmetall and Atlas Elektronik develop electronics for military and civil applications in Bremen.
Bremen has a leading position in the food industry. In addition to the Beck & Co. brewery , Vitakraft , Nordmilch , the Könecke Fleischwarenfabrik and the chocolate manufacturer Hachez have their headquarters here. Mondelēz International has its German headquarters here. Kellogg’s moved the headquarters of its German company from Bremen to Hamburg in the first quarter of 2015, but continues to operate a production facility in Bremen.
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- The Bremen Chamber of Commerce represents the interests of Bremen's merchants. It is based in the Schütting .
- The Bremen Chamber of Crafts represents the interests of the craft with over 4900 companies and around 31,000 employees. It is based in the commercial building in Bremen .
- The Bremen Chamber of Employees represents the interests of around 290,000 employees.
- The Chamber of Physicians, Pharmacists, Architects, Hanseatic Lawyers and Notaries, Tax Advisory Chambers, Engineers and Dentists are the other representatives of the liberal professions in Bremen.
Commercial and industrial areas
- The entire district of harbors is located on both sides of the Weser
- the Bremen industrial park in the industrial harbors district with an area of approx. 140 ha.
- The city center as a shopping, trading, banking, administration and media center with around 1300 hectares.
- The Bremen Freight Transport Center (GVZ) in Neustadt with an area of approx. 472 hectares.
- The Überseestadt in the Walle district with an area of around 290 hectares.
- The industrial areas in Neustadt an der Neuenlander Straße - Oldenburger Straße (B 75) with over 210 hectares, with the Airport City at Bremen Airport , with Airbus Bremen (3000 employees) and Astrium Bremen , with the industrial area Ochtum, with Nordmilch -Central headquarters and with the Bremen tram .
- The Bremen Technology Park around the University of Bremen with an area of approx. 172 ha.
- The Hansalinie business park in Hemelingen with an area of approx. 155 hectares.
- The Mercedes-Benz-Werke Bremen industrial park in Sebaldsbrück with an area of around 70 hectares.
- The Bremer Vulkan industrial and commercial area in Vegesack with an area of around 50 hectares.
- The Bayernstraße industrial park in Walle with approx. 60 hectares.
- The Bremer-Kreuz industrial park in Osterholz with an area of around 50 hectares.
- The industrial area Alte Neustadt directly on the Weser with approx. 40 hectares, with u. a. the brewery Beck & Co. and mondelēz international
- The Weserpark in Osterholz with about 25 hectares, with the shopping center of Metro Cash & Carry .
- The Farge-Ost industrial park in Farge with an area of approx. 22 ha.
Use of the waterways
Shipping had a formative importance in Bremen for centuries. Despite the structural change, it still represents an important economic and labor market factor today. The ports in Bremen, which are still used regularly due to their proximity to the freight center, include the Neustädter Hafen as well as the commercial ports, the Hohentorshafen, the industrial ports and the ports in Bremen in Bremerhaven. For inland waterway transport, the Werra, Fulda and Allerhafen still exist upstream from the city center. A new district is being built on the site of the filled overseas port and on the industrial wasteland around it, the Überseestadt . In order to be able to continue to participate in maritime trade even with ever larger ships , Bremen and the state of Lower Saxony are participating in the JadeWeserPort project in Wilhelmshaven , a port for the largest container ships .
Bremen-Nord is connected to the Wesermarsch district in Lower Saxony on the other bank of the Weser by three car ferries. There are also two other passenger ferries in the Bremen area.
The use of the Bremen waters by passenger ships and peat barges is of touristic importance. From and in Bremen there are regular (in the warm season) boat trips on the Weser, the Hunte to Oldenburg (Oldb) , the Aller to Verden and the Lesum and the Hamme to Worpswede as well as harbor tours in Bremen ports. The Sielwall ferry operated by the Hal över passenger shipping company , whose pier on the city side is between the ramparts and the Weser stadium on Osterdeich , runs from March to October across the Weser to Café Sand on Stadtwerder in the Huckelriede district . Peat barges start mainly from the peat harbor at the end of the peat canal in Findorff. The network-like waterways in northeast Bremen are also used by a large number of canoe and kayak clubs.
Bremen International Airport (BRE) is located in the south of Bremen . This aviation location has been located there since 1909. An airport center with numerous branches of partly international companies has been built around the terminal building since 1995. A new airport terminal was inaugurated in 2001 according to plans by the architect Gert Schulze . The passenger volume in 2006 was 1.7 million passengers. At the same time, the number of flights fell in 2006 to 40,419, the lowest level since 1988. An increase was achieved by the airlines Ryanair and Turkish Airlines , which fly direct to new destinations in Europe and Turkey from Bremen . In 2008, 2.5 million passengers were handled. Thanks to the use of larger machines and better capacity planning, the number of flights has never risen above 60,000 a year since 1965, despite the increasing number of passengers. There is only limited night-time operation, the last plane lands on schedule at 11 p.m. The peak hours are mornings and evenings. The airport can be reached via the A 281 . A 6 tram takes you from the main train station directly to the terminal. At the Bremen airport is also the Pilot School of Lufthansa .
The main train station is a long-distance hub of category 2. This is where the main routes from Hamburg to the Ruhr area , to Bremerhaven , to Hanover , to Vegesack and to Oldenburg (- Leer ) meet. Bremen is integrated into the long-distance network of DB via the ICE line Bremen– Munich and the IC lines Hamburg - Cologne and Oldenburg - Leipzig .
In Bremen there are 19 train stations and stops for passenger traffic.
The marshalling yard in the Gröpelingen district was shut down as such on June 12, 2005, the remnants of Bremen's local freight traffic are handled as well as at the port stations and at the Klöckner-Hütte ( ArcelorMittal Bremen) works station. The former freight yard located northwest of the main train station has been demolished. Due to the expansion of the container terminal in Bremerhaven, however, there is again an increase in freight traffic.
There are regional express connections to Bremerhaven , Hanover , Hamburg , Osnabrück and Oldenburg - Norddeich Mole and a regional train connection through the Lüneburg Heath to Uelzen ( via Langwedel, Visselhövede and Soltau ).
Since December 12, 2010 the Nordwestbahn (NWB) has been operating the first three lines of the regional S-Bahn Bremen / Lower Saxony (RS 2: Bremerhaven- Lehe-Bremerhaven-Hbf-Bremen-Hbf ) on behalf of the Zweckverband Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen (ZVBN) –Twistringen; RS 3: Bad Zwischenahn – Oldenburg-Hbf – Hude – Delmenhorst – Bremen-Hbf; RS 4: Nordenham – Hude – Delmenhorst – Bremen-Hbf). On December 11, 2011, the fourth regional S-Bahn line went into operation (RS 1: Bremen-Farge - Vegesack - Bremen Hbf - Verden ).
Passenger traffic on the Bremen-Farge-Bremen-Vegesack railway in Bremen-Nord , which was discontinued in 1961, was resumed in December 2007 with diesel multiple units of the NordWestBahn every half hour. This route was electrified in 2011 and has been part of the RS 1 S-Bahn line since December 11, 2011.
Local public transport ( ÖPNV ) within the city is served by eight trams and 44 bus routes operated by Bremer Straßenbahn AG (BSAG). Most of the districts of Bremen and individual suburbs in Lower Saxony are connected to the public transport network at frequent intervals . The S-Bahn is very important for traffic between Bremen-Stadt and Bremen-Nord. Efforts are being made to extend tram lines into the surrounding area and to increase the rhythm of the existing railway lines in order to better connect the suburbs.
Regional transport is operated by bus routes from other transport companies and companies. Both city and regional transport companies have joined forces in the Bremen / Lower Saxony transport association (VBN).
See also: Bremen streets
Overall, the length of the motorways in the area of the city of Bremen is approx. 50 to 60 km.
In the south, Bremen is touched by the A 1 Rhein-Ruhr- Hamburg motorway in six lanes and in the southeast, at the Bremer Kreuz, the A 1 is crossed by the A 27 Hanover (Walsrode) -Bremerhaven or Cuxhaven , which is also six-lane here and through the eastern Urban area leads. In the north, the four-lane A 270 branches off from the A 27 in Ihlpohl and leads over a length of 10 km to Bremen-Farge. In Gröpelingen, the first part of the four-lane A 281 from the Bremen-Industriehäfen triangle to Bremen-Burg-Grambke has been completed. On the western side of the Weser, the section from the freight center or Neustädter Hafen to the airport or to the airport city was opened to traffic in 2008 with a cable-stayed bridge. The sections are to be connected with a Weser tunnel by 2024, and an extension to the A1 is planned. In the west, the A 28 leads to Oldenburg, and it also connects the Huchting district to the A 1.
A speed limit of 80 km / h applies continuously on the A 270 and A 281 motorways. On the A1, traffic is controlled by an automatic traffic control system.
In addition, the federal highways B 6 (in north-south direction), B 74 and B 75 (in west-east direction) run through Bremen. As part of the completion of the A 281, the B 212 will be given a new route: In future, it will end in the west of Bremen at the A 281 and better connect the Wesermarsch district with Bremen.
The main roads connecting the districts for car traffic are Chausseen, which were renamed Heerstraßen in 1914 .
Bremen has a bicycle traffic share of over 22% of trips. Since the turn of the millennium, a city-wide network of signposts has emerged. The obligation to use has been lifted for around 80% of the road-routing cycle paths, the total length of which is greater than in Copenhagen for roughly the same number of inhabitants . Nationwide, Bremen is reached by the long-distance cycle routes Hamburg – Bremen , Bremen – Osnabrück ( bridge cycle path ) and Wümme cycle path . In addition, the city is an important stop on the Weser Cycle Path , which accompanies the Weser from its place of origin to Bremerhaven.
There are over 600 bridges in Bremen. The Weser is crossed by the following bridges (sorting downstream):
- Weser bridge on BAB 1
- Karl-Carstens-Bridge (so-called "Strawberry Bridge ")
- Wilhelm Kaisen Bridge
- Teerhof Bridge
- Mayor Smidt Bridge
- Bremen railway bridge
In addition, the Weser can be crossed on foot or by bike at the Weser weir , above the strawberry bridge.
The Senate of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and its authorities are responsible for state and city affairs.
Many regionally structured German organizations have a branch in Bremen. Due to its importance for foreign trade, about 40 consulates and honorary consulates can be found in Bremen .
The Bremen Police are the local police in Bremen and also the state police of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen.
The Bremen fire brigade consists of the professional fire brigade divided into six fire and rescue stations (FW 1 to 6) and five other rescue stations. It is supported by 20 volunteer fire brigades from the city or district.
Corporations under public law
Institutions under public law
Education, science and research
The primary level is taught in 74 primary schools in Bremen. The secondary sector has been two-tiered since 2010. 33 secondary schools offer all classic school-leaving qualifications: the vocational qualification and the middle school-leaving certificate after grade 10, the technical college entrance qualification after grade 12 and the Abitur mostly after grade 13. The eight grammar schools in the Bremen city area, on the other hand, offer the Abitur after grade 12. There are also there are still five school centers for upper secondary level with upper secondary school and vocational school. Information on the individual schools can be found in the articles on the Bremen city and districts .
- The State University of Bremen has around 20,000 students and over 1,500 scientists. In 1971/72 it started operations. In 1971/1973 the Bremen University of Education was integrated. Almost all disciplines (except medicine and theology) are represented. Since 2012, the Excellence Initiative has awarded it the most valuable funding line for the future concept .
- The private Jacobs University Bremen in Vegesack, Grohn district, was founded in 1999 based on the US model. The language of instruction is English. In November 2006 the businessman Klaus J. Jacobs announced that his foundation would donate a total of up to 200 million euros to the university. That is why the university has been named Jacobs University Bremen since 2007 . In 2013, 1,370 students were enrolled.
- The State University of Bremen was established in 1982 through the merger of four universities: University of Economics, University of Technology, University of Social Sciences and University of Nautical Sciences. In 2011 around 8,200 students were registered. The oldest forerunner academy was founded in 1799.
- The State University of the Arts Bremen has 70 professors and around 900 students. The oldest forerunner institution was founded in 1873. At the HfK Bremen there is the art and design department, which is located in Speicher XI in Überseestadt , and the music department in Dechanatstraße in the old town .
There are several non-university institutes and research facilities:
- With the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Image-Assisted Medicine (MeVis), two of the 59 research institutes of the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft are based in Bremen . IFAM conducts applied research and development in the fields of shaping and functional materials as well as adhesive technology and surfaces. MeVis develops software assistants for the visualization and quantitative analysis of medical image data.
- The Max Planck Society is represented in Bremen with the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology (MPI-MM) . The institute, which is assigned to basic research , carries out studies on the material cycle of the elements in the oceans and the microorganisms involved.
- The Leibniz Association's Center for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT) conducts basic research on the function of tropical coastal ecosystems.
- The Helmholtz Association is involved in several research institutions in Bremen through the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, for example the Cluster of Excellence Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM).
- Bremen is one of the research locations of the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI).
- The Bremen City Library in Forum Am Wall is owned by the City of Bremen as a municipal, public library with a total of 514,000 volumes, around 1.3 million visitors and around 3.5 million loans. It is one of the largest municipal libraries in northern Germany. The library network also includes six district libraries, nine youth and school libraries, the school librarianship, the bus library, the libraries in the correctional facility and the library in the Central Hospital East.
- The State and University Library Bremen (SuUB) on the university campus is the scientific library of the state and the University of Bremen. In 2007 around 38,000 active users visited the library, and there were 1,972,247 loans including renewals, with a stock of 3,198,948 volumes (books, newspapers), 240,132 dissertations, 6,438 cards, 13,596 rarities, 184 incunabula , 66,963 Sheet music, 96,680 audiovisual materials, 8257 continuously subscribed printed journals and 21,003 continuously subscribed electronic journals.
The four municipal hospitals with 3170 beds and 7600 employees are organized by the Klinikverbund Gesundheit Nord gGmbH:
The four free clinics in Bremen with 1,366 beds and 2,531 employees are part of a cooperative community:
- Ev. DIAKO Bremen , hospital in Gröpelingen
- St. Joseph Stift in Schwachhausen (Catholic)
- Red Cross Hospital in Neustadt, St.-Pauli-Deich
- Roland Clinic in Neustadt, Niedersachsendamm
There are also smaller specialist clinics:
- Clinic Dr. Heines of the Swiss Ameos Group as a specialist clinic for psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychosomatics in Oberneuland
- Paracelsus Clinic Bremen (until 2011 Kurfürstenklinik) in the Vahr of the Paracelsus Clinics , Osnabrück
Radio and television
Bremen is the seat of Radio Bremen , the smallest broadcasting company of the ARD . Radio Bremen produces various television programs on "Radio Bremen TV" and operates four radio waves - one of them with the WDR and the RBB ( COSMO ), plus the cross-media offer Bremen Next . As a private counterpart, Energy Bremen is based in the Hanseatic city with a radio program; In addition, there are the radio stations radio ffn and Hit-Radio Antenne Bremen in the transmission area . In addition, the private television stations RTL and Sat1 maintain correspondent offices in Bremen and produce a half-hour regional magazine for Bremen and Lower Saxony from here. When citizen broadcast Bremen citizens from Bremen free own radio and make TV shows. From the beginning of September 2007 to June 2013 there was the private television station center.tv in Bremen . He produced two hours of current live broadcasts from Bremen every day.
As newspapers of appearing Weser-Kurier and the almost identical Bremer Nachrichten , the latter is entitled to the third oldest still published daily newspaper in Germany. On Mondays and Thursdays, the Weser-Kurier and the Bremer Nachrichten each include the district courier (six issues: Northeast, Southeast, Middle, Links der Weser, West and Huchting). In Bremen-Nord, the regional edition of Die Norddeutsche appears from Monday to Saturday . It had been an independent daily newspaper under the name Norddeutsche Volkszeitung since 1885. Bild is also published with a separate edition for the greater Bremen area . There was temporarily an independent Bremen edition of the tageszeitung ( taz ) , but this was discontinued after a few years for financial reasons and incorporated into the taz nord , which currently consists of three pages general regional section and one alternate page for the states of Bremen and Hamburg exists. The daily newspaper Die Welt also tried to enrich the media landscape with a regional section and gain new readers, but has since reduced the scope to a few pages for the northern German region.
In Bremen there are also three free weekly newspapers that are financed by advertisements: the Bremer Anzeiger, the Weser-Report and in Bremen-Nord Das BLV . With Bremer, Prinz Bremen, Bremen-Magazin, the city magazine Mix, BIG Bremen and Bremborium and the Nordanschlag in Bremen-Nord, a number of independent city magazines are also published. There are also the culture and society magazines Foyer and Brillant as well as numerous smaller publications with a strong local character in individual districts.
In addition, all of the major news agencies and most of the major daily newspapers in north-west Germany, as well as numerous radio stations with correspondent offices or regional editorial offices, are represented.
Supply and disposal
Traditionally, Bremen was largely autonomous in all areas of supply and disposal. Increasing demands on the quality of care initially improved this autonomy after 1945 and restricted it again after 1995.
- Drinking water supply
- The withdrawal of drinking water from the Weser was discontinued in the 1970s due to increasing general pollution and due to the heavy discharge of waste salt (NaCl) into the Werra . Today, the drinking water comes exclusively from local deep wells (Blumenthal) , from wells of the Harz waterworks and other wells from water suppliers in northern Germany. Brewing water for the famous local beers comes exclusively from the Harz supply with its own tap. Out of water out could from 1935 to the 1960s Sösetalsperre from the resin via a pipeline to be promoted to Bremen.
- Service and rainwater disposal
- Large parts of the urban area away from the Domdüne and the dune chain on the Weser and Lesum are below the high water level of the Weser. As a result, the economy has only been able to afford a mixed water sewer system since the 18th century . In the old settlement areas, wastewater from process water and drinking water is discharged together with rainwater collected from the surface . This always has the advantage of being able to flush the sewer system well after increasing the economy in water consumption. Since the 1950s, sewage development in new settlement areas has mainly been carried out in a separate system with separate drainage of wastewater and rainwater. In the event of heavy rain, there can be a backwater in the separation system, so that part of the wastewater accumulates over the rainwater overflows at Ochtum and Wümme uncleared into the rivers.
- Rubble disposal
- The accumulation of rubble from the war damage can be seen at every civil engineering site, hardly any excavated soil is free of brick remains . Today all construction site waste is separated and recycled. Bulky combustible parts are dumped or broken down in a regulated landfill and burned.
- Waste disposal
- In 1969, in the Findorff district , today's waste-to-energy plant (MHKW) Bremen was built to dispose of waste with a low calorific value , such as household waste . From up to 550,000 tonnes (t) of waste, the MHKW Bremen generates around 64 gigawatt hours (GWh) of base load electricity and around 200 GWh of district heating per year . Since 2008 the swb Disposal GmbH & Co. KG has been the operator of the MHKW Bremen.
- The Blockland landfill has been located in the Blockland district since 1969 , a landfill for waste that cannot be further recycled in terms of material or energy . The 40 hectare landfill is operated by Umweltbetrieb Bremen , which is owned by the municipality of Bremen.
- Since 2009, a medium- calorific power plant (MKK) in the Häfen district has been generating electricity from a high-calorific mixture of paper , plastic , wood and packaging residues that can not be recycled . From 230,000 tons of medium-caloric calorific value, the MKK operated by swb Disposal GmbH & Co. KG generates 235,000 megawatt hours (MWh) of electricity per year .
- power supply
- The Bremen 110- kilovolt -Ortsverteilnetz the Weser network Bremen GmbH has three mains supplies with the German Verbundnetz coupled. The majority of the thermal and electrical energy is produced by the swb power plants in Hafen , Hastedt , Mittelbüren and the waste incineration plant . The Mittelbüren power plant, which is fired with furnace gas from the Bremen steelworks ArcelorMittal Bremen , also generates significant amounts of energy for traction power consumption (16⅔ Hz) in the north German lowlands. In addition to the existing plants for energy generation, Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Bremen GmbH & Co. KG (GKB) operates a gas and steam turbine power plant in Mittelbüren , which started operations on December 1, 2016. In addition, there is the Farge power plant in Bremen-Nord, which was taken over by GDF Suez in 2009 . In 2011, the Bremen Weser power station with an output of 10 megawatts went into operation.
- Fresh air supply
- In times of particular attention to air pollution, one characteristic becomes more important: The ambient air in Bremen is initially continuously cleaned by the usual prevailing westerly winds. In addition, the daily temperature change between day and night after sunset causes an evening influx of warm sea air, which brings the air quality back to peak values by morning.
- Exposure to sunlight
- As the average warming in the North Sea area increases, the good weather zone expands increasingly from East Friesland and Oldenburg to the east during high pressure situations, so that a slight increase in the annual average of the daily hours of sunshine is recorded (plus one hour since 1980).
→ For the sporting activities in the districts see there.
As a major club, Bremen is home to the Bundesliga club Werder Bremen , which also has a strong chess and table tennis department.
The Grün-Gold-Club Bremen is world and European champion in formation dancing Latin. The Bürgerpark with the city forest, the Werder area on both sides of the Weser, the park to the left of the Weser and numerous water sports facilities on the tributaries of the Weser and on the Stadtwaldsee are ideal for recreational sports .
The town hall is known as the venue for the Bremen six-day race . The city hall is the venue for other sports competitions, and some home games of the second division handball team SG Achim / Baden from the neighboring town of Achim also took place here in the 2007/08 season. Home games of the first division basketball team Eisbären Bremerhaven take place there occasionally .
Since 2008 the Tournament Dance Club (TTC) Gold und Silber e. V. Bremen with the support of the Disabled Sports Association Bremen e. V. and the State Dance Association Bremen e. V. the offer wheelchair dance .
From 1907 to 2018 races took place on the Bremen racecourse .
In 2017, 10.2% of the citizens of the city of Bremen were members of the Roman Catholic Church. In 2018, 32.7% of citizens in the state of Bremen belonged to the Bremen Evangelical Church , 10.1% to the Roman Catholic Church and 57.2% were “other”.
According to the results of the census on May 9, 2011 , 64,640 residents of Bremen belonged to the Catholic Church. 227,540 residents were Protestant, 7,720 were Protestant Free Churches, 8,390 Orthodox and 1,140 Jewish. 230,060 inhabitants were assigned to the rubrics "Other" or "Not belonging to any public religious community". According to a calculation from the census figures for people with a migration background, the proportion of Muslims in Bremen in 2011 was 8.4 percent (around 45,800 people).
Evangelical regional church
The individual parishes in the city of Bremen have clear differences in tradition and religious life. The Bremen Evangelical Church (BEK) takes this into account by granting its congregations a high degree of autonomy and by placing the principle of “freedom of belief, conscience and teaching” in front of its constitution (→ preamble to the BEK constitution).
The BEK is a voluntary association of most of Bremen's individual municipalities and acts as the “umbrella” for these municipalities. In addition to most of the municipalities in Bremen, the United Protestant Congregation Bremerhaven is the only one of several municipalities in Bremerhaven to belong to the BEK. It is a corporation under public law, with a "President" or a "President of the Church Committee" (a non-theologian) in a leadership role and a "Secretary of the Church Committee" (a theologian) as the spiritual head. This is where the BEK differs from most other regional churches , whose leadership is exercised by a bishop. The church committee is responsible for central administrative and service law tasks. This committee is elected by the Kirchentag, the parliamentary representation of all member congregations (synod), for a term of six years. At the end of 2006, the BEK had 242,386 members. The 32nd German Evangelical Church Congress took place from May 20th to 24th, 2009 in Bremen.
Roman Catholic Church
After the upheavals of the Reformation, a Roman Catholic parish was established in Bremen again from 1648 , which in 1931 became the seat of a deanery . The Dean's Office Bremen (south of the Lesum) belongs to the Diocese of Osnabrück , the Dean's Office of Bremen-Nord belongs to the Diocese of Hildesheim .
The Catholic city dean of Bremen consists of five parish associations : Stadtmitte ( St. Johann ), Häfen / Walle ( St. Marien ), Huchting / Woltmershausen (St. Franziskus), Schwachhausen / Horn / Oberneuland (St. Katharina) and Arsten / habenhausen (St. . Raphael).
The Catholic Community Association of Bremen acts as the “roof” of all Catholic, supra-community institutions. He maintains several Catholic schools and day-care centers from donations. With the “Apostolate of the Sea”, the Catholic seaman's mission Stella Maris, the community association is aimed at seafarers in the port city of Bremen. A Catholic hospital exists with the St. Joseph Foundation. In 2002, the Birgittenkloster Bremen, the first convent of sisters since the Reformation, was founded in the Hanseatic city. The Catholic Church in Bremen has 62,300 members (11.42%).
In 1845 the first Bremen Baptists were founded as a Baptist congregation . Today there are six Evangelical Free Churches in the Bremen area , including an English-speaking international Baptist church . A congregation of brothers is located in the Wilhelm-Busch-Siedlung in the Vahr.
From 1849 an episcopal Methodist church was built in Bremen , which carried out missionary work in Germany from here (today: Frankfurt am Main).
From 1896, returnees from America gathered to a Lutheran congregation, one of the roots of today's Evangelical-Lutheran Bethlehem Congregation, which belongs to the Lower Saxony-West church district in the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church .
In the 1950s, the Elim congregation in Bremen separated from the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches and joined the Pentecostal movement . The community, which today has three community centers in the Bremen city area, is the sponsor of the Grambke social work . In addition to various social institutions, this social service also runs a school.
There are a number of other free church communities, including a Mennonite congregation , Seventh-day Adventists , a church of God , a free evangelical congregation and a congregation in the Mülheimer Verband .
Many regional and free church congregations work together in Bremen at the level of the Evangelical Alliance and operate various diaconal institutions, for example the mother-child house in Bremen-Findorff and the pastoral care center at the Martini Church.
Other Christian religious communities
Also the Old Catholics (Holy Masses in the Roman Catholic Church at St. Joseph-Stift Hospital), the Apostolic Community , the Christian Community (Michael Church on Rembertiring), the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , the New Apostolic Church , the Russian Orthodox Church (services in the Catholic St. Bonifatius Church in Findorff) and Jehovah's Witnesses are represented with communities in the city area.
The Jewish community has a synagogue and a community center on Schwachhauser Heerstrasse . The old synagogue stood in Dechanatstrasse behind the post office until it was destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 . The cemetery of the Israelite community in Bremen is on Deichbruchstrasse in the Hastedt district. The New Jewish Cemetery, founded in 2008, is located in Schwachhausen on Beckfeldstrasse. This cemetery received its own mourning hall in 2012.
The Muslims are organized in several communities. Its largest mosque is the Fatih Mosque in Gröpelingen . With 360 Salafists , the proportion of Islamists among Muslims in Bremen in 2015 is considered to be relatively high.
There has been a Bahá'i community in Bremen since 1965, and it has been meeting in its Am Wandrahm community center since 2000.
Buddhism and Hinduism
Members of South and East Asian religious communities live in Bremen in less firmly established organizational forms, for example Buddhists and Hindus . Their number was given in 2011 as 3.2% of the population. In 2011 the Indian community founded the Hindu Sri Varasiththivinayakar Temple on Föhrenstrasse. The Thai community founded the Buddhist temple Wat Buddha Metta Parami on Heidbergstrasse in 2012 .
According to the census of May 9, 2011, 38.9% of the population in the state of Bremen do not belong to any religious society under public law. The Humanist Association Bremen e. V. in the Humanist Association of Germany (HVD) is a belief community of non-religious people.
Dialects / languages
Standard German is spoken in Bremen , and Low German is rarely spoken . The Bremer Platt as its own dialect can no longer be heard in its pure form, as it has now mixed with the Platt of the surrounding area.
In the spoken in Bremen vernacular many elements of the "Bremer Snak" have found their. The "Bremer Snak" is the Bremen dialect of Missingsch , a mixed language between standard German and Low German.
One of the most famous Bremen specialties is cabbage and pee . In Bremen the kale is called "brown cabbage" because the locally grown cabbage has red pigments in the leaves. This is why the cabbage takes on a brownish color when it is cooked and tastes spicier.
A popular winter pastry from Bremen is the Klaben . This “Urbremische pastry” is a heavy stollen , the word “Klaben” indicates the split shape. It is usually baked at the beginning of December, and in such quantities that it lasts until Easter. In contrast to the Stollen, Klaben is not coated with butter or sweetened after baking.
The most famous honorary citizens of the city of Bremen include u. a. the Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , the publisher Anton Kippenberg , the post-war President of the Senate Wilhelm Kaisen and the poet, translator and architect Rudolf Alexander Schröder . Most recently, Annemarie Mevissen , Barbara Grobien and Klaus Hübotter were honored.
Sons and daughters of the city of Bremen
When people from Bremen became known far beyond their place of birth (in alphabetical order)
- the psychoanalyst Karl Abraham
- the television presenter and comedian Jan Böhmermann
- the Federal President Karl Carstens
- the actress Elfi Eschke
- the writer, elementary school teacher and reform pedagogue Friedrich (Fritz) Gansberg
- the tennis player Angelique Kerber
- the publisher Anton Kippenberg
- the manager Klaus Kleinfeld
- the cabaret artist Piet Klocke
- the violinist Georg Kulenkampff
- the actor and television presenter Hans-Joachim Kulenkampff
- the actor and director Otto Kurth
- the band leader, composer and music producer James Last (Hans Last)
- the colonial merchant Franz Adolf Eduard Lüderitz
- the pastor Joachim Neander
- the astronomer and mathematician Wilhelm Olbers
- the Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Ludwig Quidde
- the writer and musician Sven Regener
- the Africa explorer Gerhard Rohlfs
- the publisher Ernst Rowohlt
- the TV presenter Bärbel Schäfer
- the architect Hans Scharoun
- the architect Fritz Schumacher
- the actress Barbara Sukowa
- the physician and biologist Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus
- the former Federal Environment Minister Jürgen Trittin
- the designer Wilhelm Wagenfeld
- the astronomer Johann Wempe
Other formative personalities
- Robinson Crusoe is the most famous Bremer in world literature: Daniel Defoe had Robinson Crusoe, born in 1632, write in his travelogue, first published in 1719: "My Father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hall: He got a good Estate by Merchandise" ; In York he married a Robinson from a very good family “and from whom I was called Robinson Kreuznaer; But by the usual Corruption of Words in England, we […] write our name Crusoe. "
- The American world bestseller author Mario Puzo (" The Godfather ") has also written a Bremen novel: The Dark Arena. Pan Books, London 1973, ISBN 0-330-23487-0 ; German: The dark arena (= Ullstein-Buch. No. 24939). Ullstein, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-548-24939-6 (from the American by Hans E. Hausner), the Bremen under American occupation with black market a. a. portrays.
- Bremen is the headquarters of the German Society for Rescue of Shipwrecked People (DGzRS), which is responsible for the search and rescue service in emergencies at sea ( SAR ).
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- Werner Kloos : Bremen Lexicon. A key to Bremen. 2., revised. Edition. Hauschild, Bremen 1980, ISBN 3-920699-31-9 .
- Frank Thomas Gatter, Mechthild Müser (ed.): Bremen on foot - 20 forays through history and the present. With contributions from the history work group d. Kultur- und Freizeit AG Hemelingen. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-87975-421-7 .
- Baedekers Bremen Bremerhaven. City-guide. Baedeker, Ostfildern-Kemnat / Munich 1992, ISBN 3-87954-060-8 .
- Herbert Black Forest : The Great Bremen Lexicon . Edition Temmen, Bremen 2002, ISBN 3-86108-616-6 (2nd, updated, revised and expanded edition. Volume 1: A – K, Volume 2: L – Z. Ibid . , 2003, ISBN 3-86108- 693-X ; Erg.-Vol .: A – Z. Ibid . , 2008, ISBN 978-3-86108-986-5 ).
- Klaus Kellner: BremenPass. Kellner Verlag, Bremen 2005, ISBN 3-927155-67-5 .
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- Claudia Dappen, Peter Fischer (illustrations): Discover & experience Bremen. The reading adventure hands-on book for children and parents. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2006, ISBN 3-86108-565-8 .
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See also the section on religious and ideological communities and the article Bremen church history .
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