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Pune (India)
Red pog.svg
State : IndiaIndia India
State : Maharashtra
District : Pune
Location : 18 ° 31 '  N , 73 ° 51'  E Coordinates: 18 ° 31 '  N , 73 ° 51'  E
Height : 560 m
Inhabitants :
Agglomeration :
3,115,431 (2011)
5,049,968 (2011)
Postal code : 410301-413802
Website : www.punecorporation.org
Fergusson College;  Mahatma Gandhi Road and Shaniwar Wada Delhi Gate;  HSBC Global Technology India Headquarters;  National War Memorial
Fergusson College; Mahatma Gandhi Road and Shaniwar Wada Delhi Gate; HSBC Global Technology India Headquarters; National War Memorial


Pune ( Marathi : पुणे , Puṇe , formerly Punavadi पुनवडी , formerly Anglicizing Poona (h) ) is a city in the Indian state of Maharashtra . With 3.1 million inhabitants in the actual city and 5 million in the agglomeration (2011 census) it is an industrial center (automobiles, light industry, software development and mechanical engineering ) as well as the cultural center of the region with a university , theater , cinemas and museums . Pune is considered the ninth largest city in India; after Mumbai it is the second largest city in Maharashtra.

Pune is the capital of the Pune District . The city also describes itself as "Oxford of the East".


Pune is located on the Mula and Mutha rivers at a distance of about 150 kilometers (driving distance) southeast of Mumbai at an altitude of about 560 meters above sea level. d. M. on the Dekkan Plateau. Aurangabad , another metropolis and an important industrial center, is just 240 kilometers to the northeast.


As can be seen from two found copper plates with inscriptions, it already existed in the 9th / 10th. Century a settlement called Punyanagari ; the name later became Punak , in the 13th century Kasbe Pune or Punavadi . The British made it into Poona , which remained in effect until 1976.


The first known masters of the settlement, which was strategically located on the trade route between the Deccan and the Arabian Sea , were the Rashtrakutas (9th century); thereafter it belonged to the kingdom of the Yadava until 1327 , who resided in Devagiri , later Daulatabad , which was finally conquered by the Tughluq dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi in 1327. But the Sultanate of Delhi was too far away to control and rule the Deccan and so Pune remained largely independent until the Mughal Empire or the competing Sultanate of Ahmednagar took control.

Under the Marathas of the 17th century, Pune became the capital and the military headquarters of an independent state, which, however, was exposed to constant attacks by the Adil Shahi dynasty, which resided in Bijapur , but which in 1686 had to bow to the troops of the Mughal empire under Aurangzeb Troops had repeatedly occupied Pune as early as 1660 and 1670. After Aurangzeb's death (1707), the Marathas were largely the undisputed rulers of the Deccan. In 1720 Baji Rao I was appointed Prime Minister ( Peshwa ) of the Marathas state; he made himself largely independent in Pune and his successors ruled over the rapidly developing city and large parts of the surrounding area until the arrival of the British .

Pune was the scene of the Third Anglo-Marathen War (1817). In 1820, the British chose Pune as their second presidential seat next to Bombay (now Mumbai ) to escape the summer heat and monsoons . Their garrison to the northwest of the city is still used by the Indian armed forces , and a number of colonial buildings such as the City Hall and Dekkan College have been preserved.

Towards the end of the 19th century, Poona was one of the centers for India's struggle for independence as well as for social reform. The most important personalities of this time were Mahatma Jyotirao Phule , Gopal Krishna Gokhale , Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the women's rights activist Tarabai Shinde . They called for the abolition of the caste system , equal rights for women, peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Hindus, better schools for the poor and complete independence for the country. Even Mahatma Gandhi stayed several times in Poona, where he temporarily under house arrest, but otherwise also from 1942 to 1944 in the palace of the Aga Khan lived.

Since the British colonial era , Pune has developed as an important industrial city and center for higher education. Pune is also the seat of the Southern Headquarters of the Indian Army . Pune is also the seat of a film school, the Film and Television Institute of India, founded in 1960 and autonomous since 1974 . In 1961, a tidal wave caused by the rupture of the Panshet and Khadakwasla dams destroyed large parts of the old town of Pune, killing 1,000 to 2,000 people.

A bomb attack on the German Bakery restaurant in the residential area of ​​Koregaon Park on February 13, 2010, killed 17 people and 45 were injured, some seriously.


In a metropolis like Pune, all religions of India are represented, with the majority of the population (71%) being Hindus . Muslims make up about 12%; For India, the proportion of Buddhists is above average at 10%. 4.5% are Jainas and about 2% belong to Christian churches. In 1886 the Roman Catholic diocese of Poona was founded, which still exists today with Jesuit help. All faith communities have their temples, mosques, churches, synagogues and gurdwaras .

Poona became known because of the religious leader and spiritual teacher Osho (formerly Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh), who moved his ashram here from Bombay in 1974 and - after an interlude in Oregon , United States  - died here on January 19, 1990.

Pataleshwara Temple
Aga Khan Palace
Street scene in Pune


The old part of town, Pesha, to the west between the fortified Shaniwarwada Palace and the Raja Dinkar Kelkar Museum , is by far the more must-see part of town. Old palatial wooden townhouses (wadas) have been preserved in these narrow, bustling streets, and the round Victorian Mahatma Phule Market is a vibrant hub.

Interesting is the Pataleshvara cave temple to the west of the city  - it was carved out of the rock in the same way as the much more elaborate examples elsewhere in Maharashtra ( Ellora , Karli , Bhaja , Bedsa, etc.); it comes from the Rashtrakuta period (8th to 9th centuries). The temple is dedicated to Shiva; What is unusual is a circular Nandi temple within a rectangular encased courtyard.

The Aga Khan Palace, where Mahatma Gandhi , his wife Kasturba, who died in Pune, and other key figures of the Indian independence movement were interned in 1942 , is now partially used as a museum.

International chain branches as well as numerous restaurants and hotels can be found in the streets south of the station, especially on Connaught Road and further south on Mahatma Gandhi Road (MG Road).


The Film and Television Institute of India and the National Film Archive of India have been located in Pune since 1960 . The " Pune International Film Festival " (PIFF), which takes place every January, is the most important film festival in Maharashtra and, along with the film festivals in Goa, Kolkata, Trivandrum, Chennai and Delhi, is one of the most important in India. Pune has a lively theater life. There are always experimental performances in the Sudarshan Hall of the Maharashtra Cultural Center. For 25 years there has been a close relationship between the Berlin Grips Theater and the theater scene in Pune. The Raja-Dinkar-Kelkar-Museum houses an impressive, mostly handicraft collection, one of the most important in Maharashtra. The modernization of the museum was realized with German support. A jazz festival has been held since 2009, organized by the Pune Jazz Club.

In 1894, Bal Gangadhar Tilak initiated the Ganesh Chaturthi , a ten-day festival held annually in August or September in Pune in honor of the deity Ganesha . The Pune Festival is also held during the holidays, showcasing Indian classical music and dance, film, theater, and traditional sports. The city also hosts the most famous festival for Indian classical music, the Sawai Gandharva Music Festival .

In 1937 Pune became the home of BKS Iyengar , the founder of Iyengar Yoga , whose Ramamani Iyengar Memorial Yoga Institute, founded in 1975, is attended by yoga practitioners from all over the world.

In the residential area of Koregaon Park (location on the map ) the “Osho International Meditation Resort” has been located since 1974, which in 2009 was the largest therapy and meditation center in the world with around 200,000 visitors. The meditation center ( Ashram ) was founded by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh .

Near Pune is located with the Girl Scouts Center Sangam one of the four world centers of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts . Also in the vicinity of Pune, in the Malavali Hills, is the " Vedanta Academy ", founded by one of the most famous representatives of this philosophical direction, Swami Parthasarathy.

In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Pune ranked 142nd out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018. The quality of life was thus higher than in other Indian cities such as Mumbai (place: 154) or Delhi (place: 162) and, together with Hyderabad, the best of all the cities examined in India.

Education, science and research

The University of Pune , with more than 500,000 students to the best in the country and has approximately 14,000 foreigners for the largest share of international students. New universities are the FLAME University (focus: humanities and art) and Multiversity (founded by Dr. Bhatkar). Numerous renowned colleges such as Fergusson College, SP College, Symbiosis, St.Vincents and Loyola. Also schools like the traditional Bishops-School. Partner universities are the University of Göttingen and the Free University of Berlin. Indian German studies (today the strongest branch of the university Ranade Institute for Foreign Languages) began in Pune. In the Bund Garden district there has been a Goethe Institute since 1959, which in India is named after the important Sanskrit researcher Max Mueller . A branch of the Alliance Française and a British Council Library are also located in Pune.

Pune is also the location of numerous scientific institutions, including the “National Chemical Laboratory” and the “Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics”.


Modern farm buildings in Pune

Pune is one of the three most important centers of the automotive industry in India and an important location for German investors, including Liebherr , Volkswagen , Daimler ( Mercedes-Benz India ), MAN and many suppliers such as Bosch , Dräxlmaier , LEONI , Knorr-Bremse , Behr-Hella Thermocontrol and ZF Friedrichshafen . Pune is the headquarters of the Firodia Group . In addition, Pune is an important center of the IT industry , agribusiness , renewable energies (including the headquarters of the wind energy company Suzlon Energy ) and Darmstadt-based Döhler GmbH . German machine manufacturers such as the Wirtgen Group also produce and serve the Indian market from here.


The Pune Airport is 10 kilometers north-east from the center of Pune. The construction of a new airport is planned. Pune is connected to all major Indian cities via the railway network. There is a motorway-like trunk road connection to Mumbai (Bombay), about 150 kilometers away . Currently (2020) work is being carried out on a small metro network (" Pune Metro ", mostly as an elevated railway).

Town twinning

The city of Pune maintains a city ​​partnership with the following cities :

NorwayNorway Tromsø (Norway), since 1966
United StatesUnited States San José (United States), since 1992

A special friendship has existed between the Hanseatic city of Bremen and Pune since the 1960s. Henning Scherf inaugurated a memorial in Pune. The Bremen Senate supports the “Forum Städtesolidarität Bremen – Pune eV”, which promotes contacts between the citizens of both cities. This is done through the office of "Agenda 21", the "Association of Friends of Germany (AFG)" and a university cooperation between Symbiosis College and Bremen universities.

There is also a partnership between the Catholic diocese of Poona and the Bavarian partner diocese of Eichstätt .

sons and daughters of the town

Climate table

Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Pune
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 30.1 32.4 35.8 37.9 37.2 32.0 28.1 27.5 29.3 31.7 30.5 29.4 O 31.8
Min. Temperature (° C) 11.6 12.7 16.3 20.1 22.4 22.8 22.0 21.3 20.6 18.8 14.7 11.8 O 17.9
Precipitation ( mm ) 1.6 1.0 2.7 13.1 32.6 125.0 179.1 112.6 131.6 76.8 27.4 5.2 Σ 708.7
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 9.4 10.0 9.7 10.1 10.2 6.2 3.9 3.6 6.0 8.0 9.0 9.3 O 7.9
Rainy days ( d ) 0.1 0.3 0.7 1.6 3.6 12 12.1 21.5 13.3 5.5 2.5 0.9 Σ 74.1
Humidity ( % ) 51 42 36 37 48 66 78 80 75 63 58 54 O 57.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

See also

Web links

Commons : Pune  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 154 kB)
  2. ^ Census of India 2011: Provisional Population Totals. Urban Agglomerations / Cities having population 1 lakh and above. (PDF; 141 kB)
  3. ^ Pune Municipal Corporation: Pune Municipal Corporation. Retrieved on April 21, 2010 (English): "Pune, the Oxford of the East is a historical city in India with a glorious past, an innovative present and a promising future."
  4. Pune blast toll goes up to 17
  5. ^ Harmeet Singh: Eight killed in India restaurant blast. CNN, February 13, 2010, accessed February 14, 2010 .
  6. Asseem Shaikh, Swati Shinde & Mihir Tank Sale: Blast rips Pune's German Bakery; 9 dead, 45 wounded. The Times of India, February 14, 2010, accessed April 12, 2010 .
  7. Sakaal news service: पुण्यावर दहशतवादी हल्ला; नऊ ठार, ५७ जखमी. (No longer available online.) SSakal.com, February 14, 2010, formerly in the original ; Retrieved February 14, 2010 (Marathi).  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  8. Dead in terrorist attack on "German Bakery". In: Spiegel Online . February 13, 2010, accessed February 17, 2010 .
  9. David Signer: To you or in me? In: Die Weltwoche, edition 13/06. Weltwoche Verlags AG, March 29, 2006, accessed on February 17, 2010 .
  10. Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
  11. ^ Pune Airport Plans
  12. ^ Forum Städtesolidarität Bremen-Pune eV (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 7, 2011 ; Retrieved February 17, 2010 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www2.bremen.de