International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

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The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration ( IAST ) is the academic standard for rendering Sanskrit in Latin script. It is based on a transliteration system that was presented at the 1912 Orientalist Congress in Athens . IAST enables a clear transliteration of Devanagari and other Indian scripts .

This table lists the IAST character inventory (uppercase and lowercase letters) with their Devanagari equivalents and the IPA pronunciation for Sanskrit and Hindi in traditional order.

Vowels अ  [ə]
a A
आ  [ɑː]
ā Ā
इ  [i]
i I
ई  [iː]
ī Ī
उ  [u]
u u
ऊ  [uː]
ū Ū
ऋ  [ɹ̩]
ṛ Ṛ
ॠ  [ɹ̩ː]
ṝ Ṝ
ऌ  [l̩]
ḷ Ḷ
ॡ  [l̩ː]
ḹ Ḹ

Diphthongs ए  [eː]
e E
ऐ  [aːi]
ai Ai
ओ  [oː]
o O
औ  [aːu]
au Au

Anusvara अं  [ⁿ]
Visarga अः  [h]

voiceless consonants क  [k]
k K
च  [c]
c C
ट  [ʈ]
ṭ Ṭ
त  [t̪]
t T
प  [p]
p P
aspirated voiceless consonants ख  [kʰ]
kh Kh
छ  [cʰ]
ch Ch
ठ  [ʈʰ]
ṭh Ṭh
थ  [t̪ʰ]
th Th
फ  [pʰ]
ph Ph
voiced consonants ग  [g]
g G
ज  [ɟ]
j J
ड  [ɖ]
ḍ Ḍ
द  [d̪]
d D
ब  [b]
b B
aspirated voiced consonants घ  [gʰ]
gh Gh
झ  [ɟʰ]
ढ  [ɖʰ]
ḍh Ḍh
ध  [d̪ʰ]
ie Dh
भ  [bʰ]
bh bh
Nasals ङ  [ŋ]
ṅ Ṅ
ञ  [ɲ]
ñ Ñ
ण  [ɳ]
ṇ Ṇ
न  [n]
n N
म  [m]
m M
Half vowels   य  [j]
y Y
र  [r]
r R
ल  [l]
l L
व  [v]
v V
Sibilants   श   [ɕ]
ś Ś
ष  [ʂ]
ṣ Ṣ
स  [s]
s p
voiced fricative ह  [ɦ]
h H

Transliteration standard for Indian scripts

In the specialist literature, the phonetic notation according to NLAC (standard for Romanization of Indian scripts according to the Indian National Library ) can be found as an extension of the IAST, which was previously used .

ISO 15919 is an IAST-based standard that contains additional letters from Indian scripts that do not appear in Sanskrit.

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