Robert Bosch GMBH
|Robert Bosch GMBH
|founding||November 15, 1886|
|Seat||Stuttgart , Germany|
|Number of employees||398,200 (2019)|
|sales||77.7 billion euros (2019)|
|As of March 11, 2020|
The Robert Bosch GmbH is in 1886 by Robert Bosch founded German company with registered office in Stuttgart and headquarters in Gerlingen , which among other things as automotive suppliers , as a manufacturer of industrial technology ( Rexroth ), consumer goods ( power tools , household appliances ) and of energy and building technology ( thermotechnology , security systems ). With its automotive division, which was responsible for 60% of group sales in 2019, Robert Bosch GmbH is the world's largest automotive supplier.
The company had around 132,700 employees in Germany in 2019; Together with around 440 subsidiaries and regional companies in 60 countries, around 398,200 people work at Bosch. In 2019, global sales of 77.7 billion euros were achieved.
The Robert Bosch Stiftung holds 92% of the shares in Robert Bosch GmbH , but has no voting rights. The limited partnership Robert Bosch Industrietreuhand KG is made up of active and former members of the management, representatives of the Bosch family and personalities from the business world and has 93% of the voting rights, but practically no GmbH shares.
The remaining shares and voting rights are owned by the descendants of the company's founder Robert Bosch. Due to this construction between participation and voting rights, as well as the company form of the GmbH - which is atypical for a company of this size - the corporate profits of Robert Bosch GmbH flow to the non-profit Robert Bosch Stiftung or remain in the GmbH.
On the list of the 500 richest Germans compiled by Manager Magazin , the assets of the Bosch family for 2013 are estimated at 3.0 billion euros (2012: 3.2 billion euros), which corresponds to 33rd place. (see also chronology of the richest Germans )
After Hans Walz (1926 to 1963), important leaders of the company were Hans Lutz Merkle (1963 to 1984) and Hermann Scholl , who was managing director from 1993 to 2003 and then chaired Bosch Industrietreuhand KG from 2003 to 2012. Scholl has been Honorary Chairman of the Bosch Group since July 1, 2012.
Major companies of the Bosch Group in Germany
- Robert Bosch Power Tools GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Service Solutions GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Automotive Service Solutions GmbH (100%)
- Robert Bosch Car Multimedia GmbH (100%) (legal successor of Blaupunkt GmbH since the beginning of 2008 , for the areas remaining with Bosch)
- Bosch Sensortec GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Engineering GmbH (100%)
- Robert Bosch Tool Corporation USA (100%), with the 100% subsidiary Dremel Corporation
- Bosch Emission Systems GmbH & Co. KG (100%)
- Robert Bosch Fahrzeugelektrik Eisenach GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Rexroth AG (100%)
- BSH Hausgeräte GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Sicherheitssysteme GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Sicherheitssysteme Montage und Service GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Thermotechnik GmbH (100%) (see Junkers & Co. , Buderus , Bosch Industriekessel and Bosch KWK systems)
- ETAS GmbH (100%)
- Robert Bosch Automotive Steering GmbH (100%)
- AIG Planungs- und Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (100%)
- Hawera Probst GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Healthcare Solutions GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Software Innovations GmbH (100%)
- Bosch SoftTec GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Solarthermie GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Power Tec GmbH (100%)
- Bosch Connected Devices and Solutions GmbH (100%)
- Robert Bosch Battery Systems GmbH (100%)
- Lithium Energy and Power GmbH (50%); together with GS Yuasa (25%) and Mitsubishi Corporation (25%)
- ITK engineering (100%)
- Robert Bosch Manufacturing Solutions GmbH (100%)
- EM-motive GmbH (100%)
- Coup GmbH (100%)
Structure of the company
The Bosch Group is divided into four corporate divisions:
- Automotive engineering ( English Mobility Solutions ),
- Industrial technology ( English Industrial Technology )
- Durable goods ( English Consumer Goods ) and
- Energy and Building ( english Energy and Building Technology )
Several business and product areas are combined in the corporate divisions.
The Automotive Technology business sector became the world's top-selling automotive supplier for the first time in 2004 and achieved this position again in 2018 with sales of 47.6 billion euros. In 2019, Bosch automotive technology generated sales of 46.8 billion euros - that was 60% of total sales.
The following business areas belong to this division:
- Powertrain Solutions (PS): Injection technology, engine control and exhaust gas aftertreatment for diesel and gasoline engines as well as components for electric drives including fuel cell technology, emerged in 2018 from the former Diesel Systems and Gasoline Systems divisions
- Chassis Systems Control (CC): ABS , ESP , driver assistance systems, speed, steering angle and yaw rate sensors, brake boosters and brake discs
- Electrical Drives (ED): Motors and drives for window lifters, seat adjustments and sunroofs, servomotors for ABS and ESP, wiper systems, motor cooling, drives for e-bikes and e-scooters
- Car Multimedia (CM): electronic systems at the interface to the vehicle user
- Automotive Electronics (AE): Semiconductors, sensors and control units for body electronics, brake control systems and engine control
- Automotive Steering (AS): steering systems, steering columns as well as steering and transmission pumps
- Automotive Aftermarket (AA): Spare parts, diagnostic and workshop technology, franchise concepts for independent repair shops: Bosch Car Service , since 2009 also the AutoCrew concept adopted by ZF
- Connected Mobility Solutions (CS): networked mobility services, founded in 2018
- E-Bike (EB): E-bike drive systems with batteries and controls, business has existed since 2009, and in 2020 it became an independent division
The Automotive Electronics division has had semiconductor factories (fabs) in Reutlingen since 1971 . Since 1995 there has been a factory for the production of 6-inch wafers . In March 2010 a new factory for 8 inch wafers (200 mm) was opened. Bosch has been building a new semiconductor plant for 300 mm wafers in Dresden since 2018. The new factory costs around one billion euros, making it the largest single investment in the history of the Bosch Group.
In 1995, Bosch was the first to bring the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) onto the market. In 2004, the share of cars equipped with ESP among newly registered vehicles in Europe was 36%. Since November 1, 2014, new vehicles have to be equipped with ESP.
In 2004, the diesel share of newly registered cars in Western Europe rose to 48%. Bosch played a key role in shaping this trend. With the third generation of Common Rail , Bosch has currently the most advanced system on the market that improves performance, fuel consumption and cleanliness.
The Denoxtronic metering system for exhaust gas aftertreatment by means of selective catalytic reduction represents a further development . It uses compressed air support and has been in series production since 2004 in the first generation. The successor generation Denoxtronic 2 has been available for passenger cars since mid-2006 shortly before the market launch in the USA . The products allow the reduction of nitrogen oxides by injecting a reducing medium into the exhaust system of motor vehicles. The conversion of nitrogen oxides takes place in the SCR catalytic converter .
At the beginning of April 2017, it was announced that Bosch will work with Daimler on a development project for autonomous driving . At the beginning of November 2018, however, it was announced that a robot driving service would be introduced.
As an alternative to the combustion engine, Bosch is investing in fuel cell technology and aims to become the leading supplier of electric drive systems. Together with the Swedish company PowerCell , Bosch plans to start series production of fuel cells for commercial vehicles and passenger cars from 2022. In November 2019 it was announced that Bosch holds a good 11 percent of the shares in PowerCell. Bosch has also had a stake in Nikola Motors , a manufacturer of electric trucks with fuel cells from Phoenix (Arizona), since 2019 .
The subsidiary Bosch Rexroth AG, a global supplier of drive and control technology , belongs to this division, which contributes 10% (7.5 billion euros) to sales (2019) . Bosch Rexroth serves the core markets of factory automation and mobile hydraulics .
Special machine construction, which produces assembly systems and special machines for the Bosch Group's own needs, is also assigned to the Industrial Technology division.
The former Packaging Technology division , which also belonged to this division, was sold in 2019 and renamed Syntegon Technology in 2020 .
Durable goods accounted for around 23% (17.8 billion euros) of the Bosch Group's sales in 2019. This business division is divided into the two business divisions BSH Hausgeräte GmbH and Power Tools .
In 2015, Bosch increased its stake in BSH Hausgeräte GmbH to 100%. The subsidiary sells household appliances under the brands Bosch, Siemens , Constructa , Neff and Gaggenau, among others .
Bosch manufactures and sells power tools under the Bosch and Dremel brands for industry, trade and DIY enthusiasts. Under the house name "Bosch", on the one hand, DIY products are sold with a predominantly green product color, whereas products that are mainly intended for industry and trade are supplied under the name "Bosch professional" in a blue housing color. Colloquially, the latter are also known as "Bosch blue". The product range also includes accessories such as drills and saw blades as well as garden tools.
In 2003, Bosch was the first to introduce lithium-ion technology in battery-powered power tools. The Ixo cordless screwdriver equipped in this way was the world's best-selling power tool, with six million units sold (as of October 2007) since 2004. The technology is gradually being transferred to other cordless tools.
Energy and building technology
The two divisions Thermotechnology ( Junkers , Buderus , Loos ) and Security Technology ( Bosch Sicherheitssysteme GmbH) contribute 7% to the Bosch Group's sales with 5.6 billion euros (2019).
In thermotechnology, Bosch is a manufacturer of heating products (oil and gas boilers, heat pumps) and hot water devices.
1886 to 1920
The company's history begins with the establishment of the workshop for precision mechanics and electrical engineering in a backyard in Stuttgart-West on November 15, 1886. A year later, Bosch presented the first low-voltage magneto for gas engines . The first magneto for automobiles followed ten years later.
Bosch opened the first factory in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906 the 100,000 was manufactured. Magneto. In the same year, the eight-hour day was introduced at Bosch. In 1910 the Feuerbach plant near Stuttgart was founded and built . In 1913 the manufacture of headlights began in the “Lichtwerk” in Feuerbach.
In 1917 Bosch was converted into a stock corporation.
In the early 1920s, Illies & Company set up a sales office for Bosch goods in Calcutta, India. For the next three decades, Bosch operated in India by importing goods.
In 1926, the product range was expanded to include windscreen wipers , and diesel injection pumps were added a year later .
In 1929, Bosch founded the Fernseh AG with Zeiss Ikon and DS Loewe . In the years that followed, this company made significant achievements in the field of television technology .
In 1932, the purchase was made the gas equipment production of Junkers & Co. , the development of the first drill of Bosch and the presentation of the first Blaupunkt - car radio .
Negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began as early as the end of 1933 to relocate parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative factories in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH (DLMG) in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim - later Trillke-Werke GmbH (see Hildesheimer Wald: ELFI / Trillke / Bosch / Blaupunkt-Werk ). Both factories were used exclusively for arms production. These "shadow factories" were created in the greatest secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937 Bosch AG became a GmbH.
The Bosch subsidiary DLMG in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and female concentration camp inmates, including many women from the Warsaw uprising . They had to produce accessories for the German Air Force aircraft. A camouflage factory was built in Hildesheim for the entire electrical equipment of tanks, tractors and trucks of the Wehrmacht. From October 1943, no new German tanks drove without the starter elements from Hildesheim. In 1944 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke works, of which 2,019 were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people who had been deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an increasing number of factories and relocated parts of production to 213 locations in more than 100 locations. According to a study by two historians, the Bosch Group employed “at least 20,000 forced laborers throughout the war”.
Company founder Robert Bosch died on March 12, 1942.
Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp inmates of the DLMG and Trillke-Werke, researched the history of the two shadow factories and published several books and exhibitions on them as part of a project by the Berlin History Workshop. In 2016 the website "Bosch - Forced Labor in the Hildesheim Forest" was activated.
After the Second World War, Bosch began a partnership with the Japanese company Denso in 1953 . Most recently, there was a non-strategic financial stake in the amount of around 5% of the Denso shares, which were sold at the end of 2012 for proceeds of € 1.1 billion.
In 1951 the Indian Motor Industries Company Ltd. (MICO) was founded, of which Bosch immediately bought 49% of the shares. MICO became Bosch's sole local distributor until a MICO factory was founded in Adugodi, Bangalore in 1953, which produced various products under Bosch license. In 1961 the factory in Bangalore already had 2000 employees and Bosch had bought 57.5% of the MICO company shares over the years. Further investments followed, a second MICO factory was built in Nasik from 1969 to 1971, and a third went into operation in 1988 in Naganathapura. In the late 1980s, India had the second largest number of Bosch employees outside Germany. In 2008 MICO was renamed Bosch Limited.
The Robert Bosch Foundation was established in 1964. Other significant changes were the construction of a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968 and the relocation of the head office to Gerlingen in 1970.
From 1981 the company took a stake in Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH in Frankfurt am Main , which was renamed Telenorma in 1985 and completely taken over two years later. From 1994 this business area operated as Bosch Telecom GmbH .
Outstanding developments of the company up to the year 2000 were the lambda probe (1976), the first electronic anti-lock braking system (ABS) 1978, the electronic engine control ( Motronic ) 1979, the traction control system (ASR) 1986, the xenon light for cars ( Litronic ) 1991, the Electronic Stability Program (ESP) , which became known primarily through the moose test in 1995, the common rail high-pressure diesel direct injection in 1997 and the gasoline direct injection in 2000.
In 2000, the Private Networks division (now Tenovis or Avaya ) was sold.
In 2001, Bosch took over Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which was later renamed Bosch Rexroth AG and comprised the hydraulic , pneumatic , indramat , linear technology and foundry business areas . In 2018 the Rexroth AG logo was changed significantly. The addition: "a Bosch Company" is intended to make it clear that the company wants to move even closer to the parent company. In 2003 Buderus AG was taken over and heating technology was incorporated into BBT Bosch-Buderus-Thermotechnik GmbH . In the same year, Bosch opened a new test center in Vaitoudden near Arjeplog in Lapland in northern Sweden, and in 2004 a new development center was added in Abstatt .
Important developments in these years were the electrohydraulic brake (EHB) 2001, the common rail diesel injection with piezo injectors, the digital car radio with drive (Blaupunkt) and the cordless screwdriver with lithium-ion battery (Ixo) in the year 2003.
To date, Bosch has received the German Future Prize three times :
- 2005 together with Siemens VDO Automotive AG for the development of piezo injectors which reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from diesel engines
- 2008 for small and inexpensive micromechanical sensors for use in consumer electronics
- 2013 together with Trumpf , the University of Jena and the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Optics and Precision Mechanics for a new production tool that allows precise material processing in industrial mass production with ultra-short laser pulses
In 2008 Bosch announced plans for a new center for research and advance engineering with an initial 1700 employees in Renningen . In November 2014, the first departments moved to the new research location, and 1700 employees had moved in by the opening in October 2015. The Car Multimedia (CM) and Bosch Center for Artificial Intelligence (BCAI) departments followed in 2017 and 2018, increasing the workforce at the Renningen site to around 2,200.
After taking over Erfurt- based ersol Solar Energy AG (since September 2009 Bosch Solar Energy AG) in 2008, Bosch was also active in the field of solar technology . Expansion in this area was planned, including through another acquisition. In November 2009, the acquisition of a majority share in Aleo Solar AG was announced. In March 2013, Bosch announced its intention to dispose of the solar division, which lasted around 3,000 employees, mainly in eastern Germany, after accruing losses of several billion euros.
In 2009, the Bosch Group invested around 3.6 billion euros in research and development (R&D ratio: 9.4%), and over 3,850 patents were registered. In addition to improving energy efficiency in all business areas with renewable energies, the company plans to expand new business areas such as medical technology.
China has developed into an important market and production location for Bosch . In 2012, the company had 34,000 employees there and sales of 41.7 billion yuan , which corresponds to about 5 billion euros.
In January 2013, the group took third place in the ranking of the 500 largest family businesses in Germany by the Wirtschaftsblatt magazine .
In 2013, the pneumatics division was spun off from the Bosch Rexroth group and sold. Today it operates under the name Aventics.
In September 2014 it was announced that Bosch would take over the remaining 50% of Bosch-Siemens-Hausgeräte from Siemens . The expenses for this amounted to three billion euros.
In September 2014, Bosch completely took over ZF Lenksysteme, a joint venture between Bosch and ZF Friedrichshafen. The company now operates under the name Robert Bosch Automotive Steering GmbH .
In 2014, Bosch applied for over 4,000 patents.
On June 9, 2015, Bosch announced that it was looking for a partner for a joint venture or a buyer for the area of starters and generators. In August 2016, the division was spun off into a separate subsidiary in order to be able to sell it by May 2017. At the end of 2017, the sale of the subsidiary SEG Automotive Germany GmbH to ZMJ (Zhengzhou Coal Mining Machinery Group Co., Ltd.) and CRCI (China Renaissance Capital Investment) was completed.
In 2018, Bosch was again at the forefront in Germany with over 4,200 patent applications. In the field of artificial intelligence patents, Bosch will be among the first 20 at the beginning of 2019.
During the COVID-19 pandemic , Bosch announced that it had developed a rapid test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Shortly after the situation in Germany became more serious, a reliable (95%) and faster (2 h) test could be presented. The development went so quickly because an existing molecular diagnostic procedure for SARS-CoV-2 could be repurposed. The test analyzes samples for characteristic RNA sections that distinguish the virus. The big breakthrough is that the process is significantly faster than the previous PCR test.
Bosch announced that it will achieve CO 2 -neutral energy supply at all locations worldwide from 2020 .
The management of Robert Bosch GmbH currently consists of eleven members, the chairman of the management (since 2012 Volkmar Denner ) and his deputy (since July 2013 Stefan Asenkerschbaumer) as well as nine other managing directors with different areas of responsibility and functions.
Chief Executive Officer
In the company's history, the following people have presided over the management:
- 1886 to 1926: Robert Bosch (company founder)
- 1926 to 1963: Hans Walz
- 1963 to 1984: Hans Lutz Merkle
- 1984 to 1993: Marcus Bierich
- 1993 to 2003: Hermann Scholl
- 2003 to 2012: Franz Fehrenbach
- since 2012: Volkmar Denner
The 20-member supervisory board is led by chairman Franz Fehrenbach from Stuttgart, who was chairman of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH from 2003 to 2012. His deputy is Frank Sell from Leonberg. He is chairman of the works council of the Feuerbach plant and chairman of the general works council.
In 2016, Robert Bosch GmbH came under fire for developing the controversial engine control software caused by the exhaust scandal and delivering it to Volkswagen AG . Since 2008, Robert Bosch GmbH is said to have delivered over 17 million motor and metering control units, some of whose software contained inadmissible disconnection devices. Engineers at Robert Bosch GmbH are said to have been aware of the problem since 2006. The criticized software should be kept secret in the documentation. As a result, Bosch set aside over 1.2 billion euros for legal risks. In 2017, Bosch paid US civil plaintiffs € 304 million in a settlement. In 2019, Bosch had to pay a fine of 90 million euros to settle the legal disputes in Germany. The total is made up of the penalty for the administrative offense (2 million euros) and a profit skimming (88 million euros). The fine for Bosch is therefore significantly lower than for Volkswagen and its subsidiaries Audi and Porsche . These were sentenced to fines totaling more than two billion euros.
- Hans K. Herdt : Bosch 1886–1986. Portrait of a company. DVA, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-421-06324-9 .
- Theodor Heuss : Robert Bosch. Life and achievement. Wunderlich, Stuttgart a. a. 1946. (Extended new edition, DVA, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-421-05630-7 )
- Marlis Prinzing: The strike at Bosch in 1913. A contribution to the history of rationalization and the labor movement (= magazine for corporate history. Volume 61). Steiner, Wiesbaden a. a. 1989, ISBN 3-515-05379-4 (At the same time: Tübingen, University, Master's thesis, 1987).
- Angela Martin: I saw the name Bosch. Polish women as concentration camp prisoners in the Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH. Metropol, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-932482-79-4 .
- Ewa Czerwiakowski, Angela Martin (ed.): Patterns of remembering. Polish women as concentration camp prisoners in a Bosch camouflage factory. Metropol, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936411-69-7 .
- Johannes Bähr , Paul Erker: Bosch. History of a global company. CH Beck, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-406-63983-8 .
- Reinhard Johler , Felicia Sparacio (Ed.): Abfahren. Arrive. Be a Boschler. Life stories from the world of work. Tübingen Association for Folklore, Tübingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-932512-65-0 .
- Josefine Hoffmann: " Agreements and Achievements - MICO in the German Bosch Archive ." in: MIDA Archival Reflexicon (2020), ISSN 2628-5029 , 1–10.
- François Bon : Retour usine. In: Temps machine . Verdier, Lagrasse 1993. (Literary description of the production of generators in a factory of the Bosch group in Stuttgart; in French)
- Website , bosch.de
- The trademarks of Robert Bosch GmbH at the DPMA on tmdb.de
- Bosch archive at archive.bosch.com
- Early business reports and newspaper articles on Robert Bosch GmbH in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- ↑ a b according to Commercial register HRB 14000, Stuttgart District Court
- ↑ Imprint. Retrieved February 25, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c annual report. Retrieved April 29, 2020 .
- ↑ a b Automobil Industrie: The top 100 automotive suppliers of 2018. In: www.automobil-industrie.de. Vogel Communications Group GmbH & Co. KG, June 6, 2019, accessed on May 6, 2020 .
- ↑ Professor Dr.-Ing. Hermann Scholl Honorary Chairman of the Bosch Group Press release from July 1, 2012 ( memento from March 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on bosch-presse.de
- ↑ Company. Retrieved April 26, 2018 .
- ↑ Christina Deinhardt: Electromobility division: Bosch founds Powertrain Solutions. Retrieved November 4, 2019 .
- ↑ Bosch establishes business unit for networked mobility services. Retrieved April 26, 2018 .
- ↑ 10 years of Bosch eBike Systems. Retrieved April 27, 2020 .
- ↑ Bosch opens eight-inch fab , EDN Network of March 18, 2010. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ Largest single Bosch investment , press release from Robert Bosch GmbH of March 18, 2010. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ Laying of the foundation stone for the 300 millimeter semiconductor plant in Dresden. Retrieved September 10, 2019 .
- ↑ Andreas Floemer: Bosch and Daimler are cooperating on fully automated and driverless driving. In: t3n.de. April 4, 2017. Retrieved November 30, 2019 .
- ↑ S-Class becomes fully autonomous: Robot driving service from Daimler and Bosch . welt.de/motor. November 9, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
- ↑ Thomas Gerlach: The diesel no longer pulls . In: The daily newspaper: taz . December 21, 2018, ISSN 0931-9085 , p. 4–5 ( taz.de [accessed February 17, 2019]).
- ↑ Press release: Bosch enters series production of fuel cells for trucks and cars - cooperation with stack manufacturer Powercell agreed. Robert Bosch GmbH, April 29, 2019, accessed on May 5, 2019 .
- ↑ Press release: Robert Bosch GmbH aqcuires Midroc New Technology's shares in PowerCell Sweden AB. PowerCell AB, November 15, 2019, accessed November 17, 2019 .
- ↑ Press release: Bosch and Hanwha Have Invested Over $ 230 Million in Nikola. Nikola Motor Corporation, September 5, 2019, accessed September 26, 2019 .
- ↑ Figures from the 2019 Annual Report , accessed on July 15, 2019.
- ↑ a b zeit.de of September 22, 2014, shale gas instead of dishwasher , accessed on October 10, 2019.
- ↑ a b Josefine Hoffmann: Agreements and Achievements - MICO in the German Bosch Archive . In: MIDA Archival Reflexicon . 2020, ISSN 2628-5029 , p. 3–4 (English, projekt-mida.de ).
- ↑ Hendrik Ankenbrand: Forced Labor: The Guilt of Robert Bosch . ISSN 0174-4909 ( faz.net [accessed July 8, 2019]).
↑ Angela Martin: I saw the name Bosch. Polish women as concentration camp prisoners in the Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH. Metropol, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-932482-79-4
Ewa Czerwiakowski, Angela Martin (Hrsg.): Muster des Erinnerns. Polish women as concentration camp prisoners in a Bosch camouflage factory . Metropol, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-936411-69-7 .
Exhibitions in collaboration with Hanna Sjöberg:
- Kleinmachnow Town Hall 2006 ... on the Bosch site
- Documentation Center Nazi Forced Labor Berlin 2008 z. B. Bosch
- House of Encounter with History Warsaw 2011 Hidden in the forest
- ↑ BOSCH - Forced Labor in the Hildesheim Forest. Retrieved July 7, 2019 .
- ↑ Press release from November 8th, 2012. Robert Bosch GmbH, accessed April 6, 2018 .
- ↑ German Future Prize, Prize Winner 2005: Piezo Injectors. Retrieved May 6, 2020 .
- ↑ German Future Prize, 2008 Prize Winner: Smart Sensors. Retrieved May 6, 2020 .
- ↑ German Future Prize, Prize Winner 2013: Producing with flashes of light. Retrieved May 6, 2020 .
- ↑ Renningen Bosch opening from the Stuttgarter Zeitung (from August 25, 2015)
- ↑ Press release on the opening of the research center in Renningen ( memento from February 23, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) on bosch-presse.de (from October 14, 2015)
- ↑ Renningen at a glance. Retrieved February 24, 2019 .
- ^ Loss business: Bosch is getting out of solar business , faz.net , March 22, 2013.
- ↑ Bosch Corporate Research - Facts and Figures ( Memento from January 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), archive link accessed on November 8, 2019.
- ↑ Florian Langenscheidt , Bernd Venohr (Hrsg.): Lexicon of German world market leaders. The premier class of German companies in words and pictures. German Standards Editions, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-86936-221-2 .
- ↑ bosch.com: About Bosch in China , accessed on February 14, 2014.
- ↑ The largest family businesses in Germany. (PDF; 307 kB) In: Wirtschaftsblatt . Retrieved October 29, 2013 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ Bosch completely takes over home appliance company BSH. In: time online . Retrieved November 3, 2014 .
- ↑ Bosch takes over ZF Lenksysteme completely. In: Handelsblatt . Retrieved September 15, 2014 .
- ↑ ZF Lenksysteme is now called Robert Bosch Automotive Steering. In: automobil-produktion.de. Retrieved February 2, 2015 .
- ↑ heise online: New record for patent applications in Germany. March 2015, accessed November 27, 2019 .
- ↑ Bosch examines the sale of divisions. In: Economic Week. Retrieved June 10, 2015 .
- ^ Chronicle of Robert Bosch GmbH. In: hildesheimer-allgemeine.de. Retrieved January 22, 2017 .
- ↑ Sale of SEG Automotive Germany GmbH to ZMJ with its partner CRCI successfully completed. In: Bosch press portal. Retrieved February 24, 2019 .
- ↑ WORLD: Bosch with the most innovations: patent statistics . February 28, 2019 ( welt.de [accessed November 27, 2019]).
- ↑ The number of AI patents has risen sharply. In: www.tagesspiegel.de. January 31, 2019, accessed November 27, 2019 .
- ↑ Pandemic: test results in a few hours: Bosch develops Covid-19 rapid test. Retrieved March 26, 2020 .
- ↑ Bosch will be climate neutral from 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2020 .
- ↑ Press release: Changes in the management of March 22, 2013 ( Memento of March 31, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on bosch-presse.de
- ↑ An overview of the management of Robert-Bosch-GmbH on bosch-presse.de
- ↑ Bosch boss before moving to the supervisory board ( memento of March 24, 2012 in the Internet archive ) on ftd.de
- ↑ Our employees. Retrieved June 26, 2020 .
- ↑ ZEIT ONLINE: Diesel scandal: Bosch has to pay a fine of 90 million euros . In: The time . May 23, 2019, ISSN 0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed May 29, 2019]).
- ↑ Martin Seiwert, Annina Reimann in Wirtschaftswoche: Internal documents: Bosch apparently deeply involved in the exhaust gas scandal. August 31, 2018, accessed May 29, 2019 .
- ↑ automobil-produktion.de of February 1, 2017, Bosch pays EUR 304 million to US civil plaintiffs due to the emissions scandal , accessed on October 7, 2019.
- ↑ faz.net of February 15, 2017, emissions scandal in America - Richter wants to wave comparisons between VW and Bosch , accessed on October 7, 2019
- ↑ wiwo.de (WirtschaftsWoche) from May 4, 2017, Denner dampens expectations , accessed on October 12, 2019.
- ↑ tagesschau.de: Bosch pays 90 million euros fine in the diesel scandal. Retrieved May 29, 2019 .