|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Dusseldorf|
|Height :||33 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||232.8 km 2|
|Residents:||498,686 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||2142 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0203, 02065 , 02066 , 02841 , 02844, 02151|
|License plate :||YOU|
|Community key :||05 1 12 000|
|LOCODE :||DE DUI|
|City structure:||7 boroughs|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Sören Link ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Duisburg in North Rhine-Westphalia and in the administrative district of Düsseldorf|
Duisburg (with Dehnungs -i , / dyːsbʊʁk /, regionally variable [ ˈdyːsbʊɐ̯ç ] to [ ˈdʏːsbʊʀə̆ɕ ]) is an independent city that lies at the confluence of the Ruhr with the Rhine . The city is part of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region with a total of around ten million inhabitants and belongs to both the Lower Rhine region and the Ruhr area . It is located in the administrative district of Düsseldorf and with around half a million inhabitants is the fifth largest city in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne , Düsseldorf , Dortmund and Essen . The regional center takes 15th place on the list of major cities in Germany . In 2010, Duisburg was the European Capital of Culture as part of the Ruhr area .
Located at the starting point of the historical Hellweg and first mentioned in a document in 883 , the city developed into an urban trading center as early as the Middle Ages , but lost considerable economic and political importance in the 13th century due to the relocation of the Rhine, which cut the city off from the river . In the 19th century, Duisburg grew thanks to its favorable river location with the ports and the proximity to the coal deposits in the Ruhr area on the basis of the iron and steel producing industry to an important industrial location. In terms of urban planning, Duisburg is strongly characterized by industrial facilities of this time, some of which are still in use today and some are integrated into parks, or, as in the inner harbor, are used by companies and cultural establishments. The first and third themed routes of the popular route of industrial culture with numerous monuments lead through the Duisburg city area, namely " Duisburg: City and Harbor " and " Duisburg: Industrial Culture on the Rhine ".
The port (operated by Duisburger Hafen AG ) with its center in the Ruhrort district is considered the largest inland port in the world. It shapes the city's economy as well as the iron and steel industry . Almost a third of the pig iron produced in Germany comes from the eight Duisburg blast furnaces . Traditional steel production and metal processing in Duisburg is increasingly concentrating on the production of high-tech products. As a result of this structural change ( steel crisis ), which has been ongoing since the 1970s, the city suffers from high unemployment.
With the founding of the Duisburg University of Applied Sciences in 1972 - which was initially absorbed by the Gerhard Mercator University of Duisburg and then by the University of Duisburg-Essen - Duisburg gained in profile as a science and high-tech location. The Mercator School of Management with an economic focus was established on campus in 2005 . Since 2006, the university has also had the first public governance school in Germany on the Duisburg campus, the NRW School of Governance . Other university locations in Duisburg are the University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration , the Folkwang University of the Arts and the FOM - University of Economics and Management .
At the same time, local logistics as one of the hubs of Central Europe is an important economic pillar of the city, at the intersection of the Ruhr area and the Rhine and at the core of the central European economic area .
Duisburg is located on the edge of the Niederberg hill country at the confluence of the Ruhr with the Rhine. The urban area extends on both sides of these rivers, with the largest part and the city center on the right bank of the Rhine , only the Rheinhausen district and the larger part of the Homberg-Ruhrort-Baerl district are on the left bank of the Rhine . In the north of the city the Alte Emscher and the Kleine Emscher flow into the Rhine.
In state planning , Duisburg is classified as a regional center . As a city in the Rhineland , it belongs to the Rhineland Regional Association ( LVR), and as a city in the Ruhr area it is a member of the Ruhr Regional Association (RVR). Duisburg is also part of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region and the Rhineland metropolitan region . Since Düsseldorf is only part of the Lower Rhine region with an extended definition , Duisburg is the largest city on the Lower Rhine.
The highest point in the city is Haus Hartenfels at , the lowest point is in Duisburg-Walsum (Kurfürstenstrasse). The mean altitude of the city center is (Duisburg-Mitte, Königstrasse / corner of Hohe Strasse).
A third of the Duisburg population lives in a mountain depression below the water level of the Rhine in a polder area - protected by high Rhine dykes and groundwater pumping stations. The level zero point (bottom of the river bed ) is in Ruhrort .
Location on the Rhine
In the course of its history, the Duisburg area was constantly confronted with the shifting of the Rhine, floods and bank breaks:
- At the turn of the century, a loop of the Old Rhine - coming from the Roman Asciburgium (near Moers-Asberg and Duisburg-Rheinhausen) - flowed through the area where the core of the historic city of Duisburg developed at today's inner harbor.
- In the year 1000 the main arm of the river began to turn away from the old Duisburg, even if a side arm allowed access to the main arm for over 300 years.
The parts of the city on the right and left of the Rhine that were later incorporated into Duisburg were also affected by the relocation of the Rhine:
- Parts of the urban area that today belongs to Wanheimerort were initially on an island (an Oorth ) in front of Wanheim before it landed on the eastern bank in the 18th century.
- Until the 14th century, Ruhrort lay west of the main arm on a Werth or an Oorth before Homberg , where it belonged to the parish of Halen on the left bank of the Rhine; Ruhrort only lost its island position through further relocations of the Rhine and came to the right bank of the Rhine, where it was finally granted its own parish.
- The church village of Halen near Baerl and Knipp Castle on a sandbank in front of it sank into the Rhine around 1595.
- Parts of today's Beeckerwerth were initially on a large sandbank (on a Donk ), on which the first Knipp Castle , which was destroyed by floods in 1595, was located (which was later rebuilt on safe grounds in Beeckerwerth).
The authors Tilmann Bechert ( Excavations Asciburgium ) and Joseph Milz ( History of the City of Duisburg ) as well as the brochure of the City Museum Duisburg on the occasion of the exhibition on Asciburgium , which runs until March 2014, point to the new findings on the Rhine shifts near Duisburg. The shift of the main arm away from Duisburg, which was assumed for a long time in the 13th century, started shortly after the year 1000.
The maps of the Rhine drawn by the cartographer Johann Bucker in 1713 show how the course and bank region of the Rhine have changed both in comparison to the Middle Ages and in the last 300 years of modern times.
Types of use of the Duisburg urban area
As of December 31, 2009, the city's cadastral area totaled 23,281.35 hectares. Of this, 8,544.06 hectares (36.7%) were buildings and open spaces and 347.46 hectares (1.49%) were operating areas. 3,394.24 hectares (14.58%) of the urban area were used for traffic.
44.69% of the area consisted of forest, water areas, agricultural areas, parks and green spaces . Duisburg is one of the cities with an above-average proportion of green space.
The population density does not exceed 15,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. The population density in Neudorf is around 10,000 inhabitants per square kilometer and in Hochfeld around 15,000 inhabitants per square kilometer. Due to the layout of the districts, the population density does not exceed 6,000 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The city of Duisburg is bordered by the cities of Moers , Rheinberg and Dinslaken in the Wesel district in the west and north , the independent cities of Oberhausen and Mülheim an der Ruhr in the east, the city of Ratingen in the Mettmann district in the south , the regional capital of Düsseldorf , the city of Meerbusch in Rhein-Kreis Neuss and the independent city of Krefeld .
Duisburg has already in 1973 with further downstream counties for administration union Euroregion Rhein-Waal together. These include the Lower Rhine districts of Kleve and Wesel , the cities of Düsseldorf, Arnhem and Nijmegen, as well as some Dutch municipalities near the border.
Since the municipal reorganization of January 1, 1975, the Duisburg urban area has been divided into 46 districts , which are spread across the seven districts of Walsum , Hamborn , Meiderich / Beeck , Homberg / Ruhrort / Baerl , Duisburg-Mitte , Rheinhausen and Duisburg-Süd . In local elections , the citizens elect a district council for each city district , which has 19 members. In addition, each city district has a district office.
The Mitte district is the only district with a six-digit population (105,961), making it the largest of the seven districts. He is followed by Rheinhausen (77,933), Meiderich / Beeck (73,881), Süd (73,321) and Hamborn (71,891). With 51,528 inhabitants, the northernmost district of Duisburg, Walsum, is the second smallest, the smallest is Homberg / Ruhrort / Baerl, where 41,153 people live. ( As of 2008 )
The urban district of Homberg / Ruhrort / Baerl, with an area of 37.1 square kilometers, is the third largest district in Duisburg, only the south (49.84 km²) and Rheinhausen (38.68 km²) are larger. The other city districts have areas between 34.98 km² and 20.84 km².
Due to its location in the west of the Federal Republic of Germany, Duisburg has a temperate climate all year round . The total precipitation is therefore around 710 mm. That corresponds roughly to the national average. In addition, Duisburg has a high average temperature , the German Weather Service lists Duisburg together with Heidelberg as the warmest place in Germany. Proof of this is the officially valid measurement period, which lasted from 1961 to 1990, during which the average temperature in Duisburg was 10.9 ° C. The high temperature is favored on the one hand by the urban climate and on the other hand by the mild winter climate of the Lower Rhine. This is influenced by the proximity to the North Sea and the Atlantic low pressure areas .
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Duisburg
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
name of the city
Another medieval mention of the city name took place in 1065: Tusburch in pago Ruriggowe (MGH Diplomata Henrici IV No. 172).
The first syllable of the city's name is said to go back to the Germanic “dheus”, which means something like “bulging” or “shiny”. Duisburggau (Diuspurgau) was the name of the medieval district on the Lower Rhine.
Duisburg is not the only place in Europe with this name. A district of Tervuren in Belgium bears the same name. In the Dutch province of Gelderland there is a town called Doesburg , the etymology being mnl. dôse (swamp area) or dust (undergrowth) + -burg leads. A district of Bonn is called Duisdorf. The village of Duisenburg is located in the Lower Saxony municipality of Bawinkel in Emsland. A mountain near Bad Driburg, south of Donhausen, also bears the name Düsenberg. Other geographical objects also have a 'Duis' in their name, such as the Duisbergkopf hill in the headwaters of the Wurm near Aachen and the Düesberg in Münster .
It is also possible that Duisburg is the Roman Dispargum on the right bank of the Rhine mentioned in the “Ten Books of Franconian History” by Bishop Gregor von Tours , from where the Franks led their conquests to Roman territory on the left bank of the Rhine. In the written explanations of the Corputius Plan of 1566, the identity of Dispargum with Duisburg is still taken for granted.
Roman and post-Roman times
Intensive excavations have proven permanent settlement of the flood-protected "Burgplatz" as early as the first century AD. The Romans maintained a regular presence here to secure the crossing of the Rhine and the mouth of the Ruhr, which the legions used as a bridgehead . The Roman settlement Asciburgium mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania (3rd chapter) , which is associated with excavations near Asberg south of Moers , could, in the opinion of some historical researchers, also be a transshipment point directly on the Westphalian Hellweg , which has been used since the Stone Age, and thus one the ancient Amber Roads; in this case the trade route leading from Massilia ( Marseille ) via the Rhone and Rhine to the North Sea coast .
The "Old Market" had been the central trading center of the border town to the Saxon Empire in the ancestral Franconian empire since the 5th century , which was distinguished by its location on Hellweg and a Rhine ford. The first written mention of Duisburg is dated to 883, the source is the chronicle of Regino von Prüm : the Normans or Vikings conquered Duisburg and wintered here. Due to the favorable geographical location of Duisburg on a high terrace at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers, the city had a strategically important location. The construction of a royal court began as early as 740.
It is disputed whether Chlodio , the first rex or king of the Salfranken who could be identified by name , who lived in the second quarter of the 5th century, had his headquarters in Duisburg, Germany, or in Duisburg, Belgium, east of Brussels .
Middle Ages and early modern times
At the end of the 9th century, Duisburg was hit by the Viking raids in the Rhineland . In the summer of 882, the city was conquered and then occupied by an army led by a Godefried (Duke of Friesland) . Two years later, the Viking Festival was recaptured by East Franconian troops under Count Heinrich von Babenberg . In 885 the Viking army returned, but was lured into an ambush on the banks of the Rhine by Babenberg's troops and completely wiped out.
In the 10th century the royal court was expanded into a royal palace . At least 18 royal stays are documented in that century. In 929 an imperial synod took place in the city.
Around the 10th century, Duisburg began to mint pennies on Cologne lashes . By Konrad II. (1024-1039), Heinrich III. (1039–1056) and Heinrich IV. (1056–1105) there are Duisburg pfennigs with independent coin designs. Typical is the well-cut profile of the emperor and the arrangement of the city name "DI - VS - BV - RG" in the shape of a cross or circle. Some of the pfennigs seem to show a picture of a secular arrangement in the Palatinate on the reverse.
The contract of May 29, 1173 between Emperor Barbarossa and Count Philipp von Flanders testifies that heavy pennies of the Cologne foot were minted in Duisburg in the 12th century. 1190 was then between Heinrich VI. and the Archbishop of Cologne, Philipp I von Heinsberg, agreed that only two mints should be maintained in the diocese of Cologne, one in Duisburg and one in Dortmund. In the 12th century, the Duisburg coin series breaks off.
Duisburg was an imperial-free city until 1290 , when King Rudolf von Habsburg pledged it as a dowry to Count Dietrich von Kleve for 2,000 silver marks . In 1314, the German King Ludwig der Baier changed this pledge from Count von Kleve to Count Adolf VI for 1000 marks . from mountain . However, Duisburg belonged to the county of Kleve again before 1392.
The upward trend in economic development was interrupted by the relocation of the Rhine away from the city around the year 1000 and the increasing siltation of the dead arm of the Rhine in the 13th and 14th centuries . After the flood of 1342, Duisburg developed from a prosperous medieval city on the Rhine, which was supported by German kings and emperors of the Holy Roman Empire , was a member of the Rhenish Association of Cities and, as a merchant city, had trade relations with London , Antwerp , Brussels and other important trading centers , also known as the Magdalenenhochwasser , to an inconspicuous agricultural town . The Duisburg fairs were transferred to Frankfurt am Main in the 14th century .
From 1407 Duisburg became a member of the Hanseatic League at Cologne's suggestion .
In 1610, the Duisburg General Synod was prepared in Düren . This church meeting, also known as the First Reformed General Synod, took place on September 7th of the same year in Duisburg's Salvatorkirche . The Synod is considered the birth of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland .
The flourishing of tobacco and textile manufacturers at the end of the 17th century ushered in a development that eventually led to the “mining town” with high industrialization at the end of the 19th century and the expansion of the Rhine-Ruhr estuary into the largest inland port in the world.
Fr. Adolph W. Diesterweg wrote in 1829 in his "Description of the Prussian Rhine Provinces" succinctly about Duisburg: "4,500 inhabitants, not far from the Ruhr and connected to the Rhine by a canal , conducts very important trade, has a grammar school ."
In 1823 the district of Duisburg was formed, which also included today's large cities of Mülheim an der Ruhr , Oberhausen and Essen . The eastern areas of the district were separated in 1857 and the new Essen district was created.
1824 was the construction of the Curtius - sulfuric acid plant , the first big factory erected. In 1846 Duisburg was connected to the Cologne-Minden Railway Company . The Duisburg district was dissolved in 1873. Duisburg became an urban district and the rest of the district became the district of Mülheim an der Ruhr . From its western part, the Ruhrort district was formed in 1887 , which included large parts of today's city of Duisburg.
Large industrial plants in the iron and steel industry (including Thyssen and Krupp ) settled north and south of Duisburg and, after these areas were incorporated, played a key role in the development of the city as a whole.
At the time, the principle of "ore goes with coal" prevailed in the production of iron and steel. Coal is the basis for the production of coke , which plays an important role in iron and steel production and at the time required much more coke than ore. Coal and coke reached the industrial plants in Duisburg without long transport routes, which benefited from the favorable location conditions in the immediate vicinity of the mines , especially in the central and eastern Ruhr area, and from the transport links to the Rhine and Ruhr as well as to the rail network .
The plants, which were built near the old settlement areas, attracted workers from the Lower Rhine, the German Empire, the Netherlands, Austria and Poland. New settlements emerged around the old cores and the number of inhabitants grew rapidly. In 1904 Duisburg became a major city, in 1905 with the incorporation of Ruhrorts and Meiderichs, the Ruhrorter Hafen, whose first basin was built in 1716, was placed under administration with the Duisburg ports.
Weimar Republic and National Socialism
After the end of the First World War in 1918, anarchy also reigned in Duisburg . There were strikes, street battles and firefights between right and left groups. A hyperinflation depreciated property values of the middle class . In 1921 the city was occupied by French and Belgian troops. On July 14, 1922, French troops paraded through the streets of the occupied city to celebrate the French national holiday . In September 1925, the French and Belgian troops left the city again after the German government had accepted the Dawes Plan . After a period of economic calm, the city fell into a new recession at the end of 1929 . The city was particularly hard hit by the Great Depression at the beginning of the 1930s. At that time it had the highest unemployment rate in the German Reich at 34.1 percent .
In 1929 Duisburg and Hamborn were merged to form the city of Duisburg-Hamborn . As early as 1935, this joint urban district was renamed Duisburg.
Second World War
As an important location for the chemical, steel and iron and steel industries, Duisburg was a regular target for allied bombers. Not only ports, railway tracks and industrial facilities, but also the civilian population were targeted under the British Area Bombing Directive . Due to its exposed location at the confluence of the Ruhr with the Rhine, Duisburg was the approach path for British bombers to the Ruhr area. The city therefore experienced air alarms practically every day from 1942 onwards .
According to an official count by the Duisburg air raid police in 1945, the city was exposed to 299 bomb attacks. New research has shown that there were a total of 311 attacks on the city. The old cityscape was significantly destroyed by the immense number and severity of the attacks. At the end of the war, around 80 percent of the residential buildings were destroyed or badly damaged. In the post-war years, essential areas of the city, including the infrastructure , had to be rebuilt. As part of this reconstruction, many other historical features disappeared, not only in the old town.
From 1942 to 1944 there was a concentration camp in Duisburg . This was initially in Duisburg-Ratingsee , but in 1943 it was relocated to the already bombed Diakonenanstalt am Kuhlenwall. Initially, the Duisburg camp was a so-called satellite camp of the Sachsenhausen concentration camp , later the Duisburg camp was subordinated to the Buchenwald concentration camp . The inmates were forcibly used, among other things, to clean up after air raids.
Post-war and present
After the currency reform, the city was characterized by an unbroken rise in all areas of life. Coal and steel again became the engines of reconstruction . At the end of the 1950s there were hardly any unemployed in the Duisburg employment office. From 1950 to 1965, North Rhine-Westphalia was consistently the highest donor to the financial equalization of the federal states, compared with the other federal states of western Germany .
The economic power of the Duisburg region was above average and was almost 50 percent above the national average. There was a huge influx of people into the city. By 1961 the population soared to 502,933. Despite the coal crisis, which began in 1957 and which also led to the closure of mines in Duisburg, the steel industry experienced a good economy in the 1960s . The industry was increasingly looking for foreign workers. Due to the economic crisis in the first half of the 1970s, however , the number of employees fell in the 1970s .
In 1975 the places Walsum , Homberg , Rheinhausen , Rumeln-Kaldenhausen and Baerl were incorporated. A symbolic labor dispute in Rheinhausen, with which the closure of the Krupp steelworks there was to be prevented, gripped the whole of Duisburg and spread to large parts of the Ruhr area. Ultimately, however, the massive strikes and protests, such as the blockade of the Bridge of Solidarity , were unsuccessful, and the Krupp hut was finally closed on August 15, 1993.
Duisburg, which 20 years previously was one of the German cities with the highest per capita tax income, now had to struggle with considerable location problems due to its one-sided, monostructural industry. In 1988, the city of Duisburg and the Lower Rhine Chamber of Commerce and Industry therefore founded the Gesellschaft für Wirtschaftsförderung Duisburg mbH as part of a joint initiative in a nationally unique model . It was supported and financed by various companies and the city in so-called public-private partnerships . Among other things, it should help to eliminate the space bottleneck in the urban area and to prepare industrial areas that have become free for new industries and for the settlement of service and transport companies. But the new company settlements could not compensate for the loss of jobs in the new millennium either.
The city was particularly threatened by the considerable loss of purchasing power that resulted from the high level of unemployment and the rapid decline in population. In addition, there was the increasing attractiveness of neighboring Lower Rhine cities for shopping. The residents of the Lower Rhine, who used to go shopping in Duisburg, increasingly stayed away in the course of urban developments on the Lower Rhine. The neighboring town of Oberhausen was able to successfully counter this trend with the construction of the CentrO shopping mall , which further exacerbated the migration of purchasing power from Duisburg. In Duisburg, too, the much-discussed settlement of a “mall” (working title MultiCasa) was planned for many years at the main train station, in the area of the disused freight station , near the city center. Since the city council decided in a controversial decision in 2005 to designate the building site as a special area against the will of the investor, this project is off the table. It is currently planned to relocate offices and businesses there - as in the inner harbor.
The inner-city shopping center , Forum Duisburg , has been open on Königstrasse since September 2008 , and together with the newly built City Palais, which houses the new Mercator Hall and a casino , it forms a new center of attraction. A new area called Duisburger Freiheit is planned directly at Duisburg Central Station . At the edge of the city center, the inner harbor is to establish itself as an example of urban redevelopment. To connect the city center and inner harbor, the most striking lighthouse project is an office, residential, gastronomy and hotel area called " The Curve ", the start of which is scheduled for early 2018 at the latest.
On May 25, 2009, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government . As a participant in RUHR.2010 , Duisburg was part of the European Capital of Culture project in 2010 .
Love Parade in Duisburg
On July 24, 2010, the city of Duisburg came into the focus of the global public when 21 people died in a mass panic at the Love Parade . In addition, at least 652 people were injured, around 40 seriously. The Love Parade was u. a. Organized on the site of the former freight yard Duisburg Gbf under the motto "The Art of Love".
In 2016 Duisburg made headlines nationwide when the Duisburg Integration Council passed a resolution with a large majority on June 7th (printed matter 16-0666) with the title: “A lie is a lie and remains a lie. Against the defamation of Turkey “decided. In it, the Integration Council rejected the resolution of the German Bundestag from June 2, 2016 on the genocide of the Armenians and declared that genocide against the Armenians "never happened". The integration council accused the named members of Turkish origin who supported the Bundestag resolution of “betraying our common country of origin”. Lord Mayor Sören Link suspended the resolution and ordered an extraordinary meeting of the Integration Council on June 20, 2016. He criticized "the sometimes martial choice of words, the insults and threats to individual elected officials".
Incorporation and name changes
At the beginning of the 19th century, the city of Duisburg in the Wesel district in the Prussian Duchy of Kleve together with the town of Wanheim-Angerhausen, an enclave in the Duchy of Berg and in the Düsseldorf district , formed the mayor's office of Duisburg. It was the fourth most important of the Kleve cities after Kleve , Wesel and Xanten .
The urban area included other villages or residential areas and settlements, such as Duissern, Feldmark (today's Dellviertel ), Neuenkamp, today's Neudorf and Hochfeld. In 1801, the Kasslerfeld belonging to Moers was transferred to Duisburg.
In 1815, after the collapse of French rule as a result of the Congress of Vienna , the city came back to Prussia and was allocated to the newly formed district of Dinslaken in the administrative district of Kleve in the province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg in the course of the administrative division of the Prussian state . Early as 1822/ 23 came the first changes one: the two Rhine provinces were united, also the administrative districts of Kleve and Dusseldorf and from the districts of Dinslaken and food of the new district Duisburg formed. In 1857 the city of Duisburg withdrew from the mayor's office through the introduction of the city regulations . The mayor's office in Duisburg-Land then only consisted of the municipality of Wanheim-Angerhausen. In 1873 Duisburg became a district and in 1902 Wanheim-Angerhausen, which now belongs to the Ruhrort district, was reunited with the city of Duisburg.
This was followed by further incorporations, namely:
- on October 1, 1905: the cities of Meiderich ( city rights since 1895) and Ruhrort (city rights since 1857, with the municipality of Beeck incorporated in 1904).
- on August 1, 1929: the town of Hamborn (since 1900 a town in the Ruhrort district, later Dinslaken and since 1911 town district) as well as the localities Rahm , Huckingen , Buchholz, Wedau , Bissingheim, Mündelheim, Großenbaum, Serm, Ehingen, Hüttenheim and parts of Bockum and Lintorf (all Angermund district, Düsseldorf district). The reorganized city was initially given the name Duisburg-Hamborn , which was changed to "Duisburg" in 1935.
- on January 1, 1975: the cities of Homberg (city rights since 1921), Rheinhausen (formed in 1923 from the communities Friemersheim and Hochemmerich , city rights since 1934) and Walsum (city rights since 1958), the municipality of Rumeln-Kaldenhausen (until 1950 Rumeln ) and the Baerl district of the municipality of Rheinkamp (until 1950 Repelen-Baerl ).
In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, the city only had about 4,000 inhabitants. Only with the beginning of industrialization did the city's population increase. In 1903 the population exceeded 100,000 for the first time. As a result of incorporations into the city, the 200,000 mark was reached as early as 1906. In 1929, the 400,000 mark was exceeded by new incorporations. Duisburg reached its highest level in 1975 with 591,635 inhabitants, when other districts were incorporated. The population continued to decline until 2014. As of December 31, 2014, Duisburg had 487,839 residents. The population has been increasing since 2015.
As is the case with almost all large cities, Duisburg is also the result of several regional reforms within its current boundaries . For a long time the city was the tenth largest city in Germany. However, since it has lost more than 17 percent of its population in the last 30 years, it is now in 15th place . In 2005/2006 the city was overtaken by Leipzig , Dresden and Nuremberg . In the early 1970s, around 650,000 people lived in what is now the city.
According to the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics of North Rhine-Westphalia, 428,594 people lived in the area before the large incorporations on December 31, 1974 . To date, the number of people living there has fallen by 24 percent to just under 325,000. Compared to 1961, that is a loss of 35 percent. The population density has fallen since 1961 from around 3500 inhabitants per km² to 2304 inhabitants per km² in the area before the regional reform.
In the early 1970s, the proportion of foreigners was less than six percent; today it is around 22 percent. Around 717 migrants became naturalized in 2015 . In the years 2004 to 2014 between 1000 and 1600 were naturalized annually, from 2000 to 2003 it was between 2000 and 3400 annually. According to the report of the Federal Statistical Office from 2010, 32.7% of the Duisburg population had a migration background. The largest group came from Turkey (38,063), followed by Poland (3820). Of these approximately 159,000 people, around 74,700 were foreigners, around 84,800 were German citizens .
At the end of 2018, the proportion of foreigners was 21.8% (109,471 people), the proportion of citizens with a migration background was 42.4% (213,433 people).
In 2012 there were 159,308 employees in Duisburg subject to social insurance contributions. The number of employees subject to social security contributions increased to 174,072 by 2019. Duisburg is one of the cities with one of the highest unemployment rates in western Germany. On November 30, 2014, it was 12.4%. In 2018 it fell to 10.4% due to the good economic situation. As purchasing power that determines Chamber of Commerce for Duisburg one year sum of 17,404 euros per inhabitant, which is well below the national average of 20,621 euros per inhabitant. Around 76,000 people (approx. 15.1%) received benefits in accordance with SGB II (" Hartz IV ") in 2018 .
politics and society
The city of Duisburg had been headed by a council since around 1270 and two mayors since 1275 . The council had ten to 22 members. The electoral mode for the Council has been changed several times. As a rule, its members changed annually on August 10th (Laurentius day). From 1566, the Duke of Kleve retained the right to appoint the mayor and two councilors himself. Nevertheless, the Duke made hardly any use of this.
In addition to the council, another body has appeared since the 15th century as a public participation, the "sixteen". It consisted of four representatives from each of the four districts. Another larger body was the "twenty-four". However, one cannot speak of real citizen participation in the present sense in both bodies. They mostly only had an advisory role.
In 1713 the free election of the council was temporarily suspended. In 1807, in French times, the municipal constitution with a municipal council was introduced. Since 1856 there were "city councilors", later councilors. The management of the city was taken over by the mayor in French times, a mayor in Prussian times and later mayor .
During the time of the Nazis , the Mayor of that was NSDAP used. After the Second World War , the military government of the British Zone of Occupation appointed a new Lord Mayor and in 1946 introduced the local constitution based on the British model.
Then there was a “city council” elected by the people, whose members are known as “city councilors”. The council initially elected the mayor from among its members as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. Furthermore, from 1946 the council also elected a full-time senior city director as head of the city administration .
1997 the dual leadership in the city administration was given up. Since then there has only been the full-time mayor . He is chairman of the council, head of the city administration and representative of the city. Together with seven councilors, including the city director, he forms the administrative board of the city of Duisburg.
In 2004, for the first time in more than 50 years, a mayor who is not a member of the SPD was elected . Adolf Sauerland , CDU, won the second ballot with 61.2 percent against his predecessor Bärbel Zieling , SPD .
In 2011, more than 55,000 signatures were collected for his deselection, this process was unique in a major German city until then. The referendum was carried out on February 12, 2012. According to the official final result, Adolf Sauerland was voted out of office with 129,626 votes (35.52% of those entitled to vote). 91,228 votes (25%) would have been required. 21,538 eligible voters (5.90%) voted against being voted out. On February 16, 2012, City Director Peter Greulich ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) temporarily took over management of the administration, while First Mayor Benno Lensdorf (CDU) performed the representative tasks .
In the mayoral election on June 17, 2012, which was made necessary by the deselection, none of the candidates received the required 50% of the votes. Benno Lensdorf (CDU) and Sören Link (SPD) made it into the runoff election on July 1, 2012 . Link received 71.96% and Lensdorf 28.04% of the valid votes cast.
There is a district council in each city district . These are re-elected with each local election. The chairman of the district council is the district mayor (former district chairman ). The SPD has been making the last election (2014) all seven district mayor Winfried Boeckhorst (Rheinhausen), Hans-Joachim Paschmann (Homberg / Ruhrort / Baerl), Volker Haasper (South), Reinhard Meyer (center), Daniela Stürmann (Meiderich / Beeck ), Uwe Heider (Hamborn) and Georg Salomon (Walsum).
Mayor until 1876
The following mayors are known by name:
Lord Mayor 1876 to 1997
Lord Mayor since 1997
The Lord Mayor has also been the full-time head of administration since 1997.
City directors 1946 to 1997
Until 1997 the City Director was the full-time head of administration.
City directors since 1997
As of 1997, the city director has been placed at the side of the mayor as the full-time head of administration.
The city council
Currently there is the following distribution of seats in the city council according to parliamentary groups, groups and non-party members (as of April 23, 2020)
|SPD||CDU||GREEN||LEFT||JUDU / DAL||HSV||FDP||Non-attached||total|
It is governed by a “household majority” made up of the SPD, GRÜNE and DIE LINKE.
Changes during the current term
In the summer of 2014, the then chairman of the AfD parliamentary group (originally three council members) was expelled from the parliamentary group by his two colleagues, which means that the AfD automatically lost its parliamentary group status and has since been a member of the city council as a group.
At the turn of the year 2014/2015, after an internal dispute, the Pro NRW parliamentary group (originally four council members) disintegrated. As a result, three council members resigned from the party and founded the 'Bürgerbewegung pro Duisburg' parliamentary group, while the only remaining councilor of Pro NRW has been non-attached since then.
At the end of March 2015, the previous faction 'Citizens Movement pro Duisburg' gave up its name after a local traditional association with a similar name successfully obtained an injunction. As a result, the three council members formed the faction 'The Republicans'.
At the end of April 2015, a member of the Republican parliamentary group announced that he was leaving the group. The REP automatically lost its parliamentary group status and have been a member of the city council since then. The councilor who resigned from the REP parliamentary group is now a non-attached member of the city council.
In November 2015, the only remaining councilor of Pro NRW, who has meanwhile also left his party, and the councilwoman of the NPD joined forces to form the group 'NPD / Citizens for Duisburg'.
City administration of Duisburg
The city administration of Duisburg is the municipal self-administration of the independent city of Duisburg with approx. 6000 employees.
Financial situation of the city
Duisburg has been in a financial crisis for decades. The decline of the coal and steel industry and the decline in the associated trade tax income with simultaneously increasing expenditure for social purposes hit Duisburg as a monostructural region at the time .
Since 1977 household security concepts have been put in place, which were often associated with savings in terms of personnel and a restriction of infrastructure offers (pools, halls, sports fields, library branches, etc.). The city of Duisburg has not been able to achieve a budget balance for more than 20 years; The municipal budget has not been approved by the municipal and financial supervisory authorities of the Düsseldorf district government for years. According to the new municipal financial management , i.e. the commercial bookkeeping introduced for the NRW municipalities a few years ago, there is overindebtedness , i. In other words, the city of Duisburg's equity has been used up.
So-called cash loans are actually only supposed to avoid short-term bottlenecks. However, the occasional injection of liquidity became a constant drain for numerous municipalities, including Duisburg. After numerous budget security concepts and increases in municipal income (such as taxes, fees) did not bring the desired success, the city is now to be rehabilitated in the medium term through the so-called Municipal Finances Strengthening Pact, which was launched by the state government of North Rhine-Westphalia in 2012. As a result, the city can count on additional allocations from the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (initially 52.5 million euros annually, degressively from 2017), but must continue to make considerable savings, which continues to put the attractiveness for businesses, citizens and employees of the city administration to a severe test. In September 2012, the district government of Düsseldorf approved the budget restructuring plan presented by the city authorities.
Both the assessment rate for trade tax of 520% (since January 1, 2016) and the assessment rate for property tax B of 855% (since 2015) are among the best nationwide and make Duisburg one of the most expensive locations in Germany in terms of municipal taxes.
|Blazon : "On shields divided across the top half on a gold background (golden yellow) a black double-headed eagle, from the chest upwards, with red tongues, in the lower half a three-tower city wall depicted in silver (white) on a red background."|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: The coat of arms was awarded to the city on January 31, 1977 by the district president in Düsseldorf. However, it is attested as early as 1527. It can partly be described as a "talking" coat of arms, because the castle refers to the name of the city. The imperial eagle indicates belonging to the empire and indicates the former imperial freedom, which was pledged to the Lords of Kleve as early as 1290. The colors red and white indicate that the city was part of the Hanseatic League. The city flag is white and red.|
After the Second World War, the idea of town twinning emerged in Europe, the aim of which was to promote rapprochement between former war opponents and to restore peace in Europe. With this in mind, the city of Duisburg signed its first twinning with the British port city of Portsmouth in 1950, which is still very much alive today, which is expressed, among other things, in various exchange programs. The British city commander, Captain Colin Hutchison, who was stationed in Duisburg in 1948 and had personal contacts in Portsmouth, proposed the city partnership at the time. The partnership with the French port city of Calais , which has existed since 1964, is just as lively .
Today the goals of town twinning are far more extensive. They range from supporting the process of European unification to international understanding and promoting economic and cultural interests. In the past, for example, the city of Duisburg signed city partnerships with the Chinese city of Wuhan or the Turkish city of Gaziantep . In March 2011, a town twinning was concluded with the US Fort Lauderdale .
The city of Duisburg maintains a city partnership with the following cities:
According to the 2011 census , 26% of the population were Protestant , 31% Roman Catholic and 43% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants and Catholics has fallen since then, and at around 53%, people who do not belong to any legally or corporately constituted religious community make up a majority of the population. As of March 31, 2019, of the 503,110 inhabitants, 105,554 (21.0%) were Protestant, 132,502 (26.3%) Catholic and 264,954 (52.7%) were non-denominational or had another denomination. Currently (as of December 31, 2019) 25.6% of the population are Catholic.
In 1543 the city council decided to preach in the evangelical sense and in the following years the Lord's Supper was celebrated in both forms (“bread and wine”), so that by 1555 the Reformation was finally able to gain a foothold. The Reformed Confession was predominant . In 1610, the Synodal Association of the Reformed Parishes Jülich , Kleve and Berg was founded in Duisburg's Salvatorkirche , to which the parish in Duisburg also belonged. The Counter Reformation could not prevail. In 1727 a Lutheran congregation was also formed. Both denominations united in 1891 to form the united congregation of Duisburg. In Prussian times, Duisburg became the seat of a superintendent within the Rhenish Provincial Church of the Evangelical Church in Prussia, from which the Duisburg parish later emerged within what is now the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland . Walsum belongs to the parish of Dinslaken and Duisburg on the left bank of the Rhine to the parish of Moers . Duisburg is the seat of the large evangelical aid organization Kindernothilfe . There is a Nederlandse Kerk in Ruhrort , which is mostly visited by inland waterway operators.
According to the results of the census on May 9, 2011 , 135,610 inhabitants (26%) of Duisburg belonged to the Evangelical Church and 2,660 Evangelical Free Churches.
Roman Catholic Church
In the Middle Ages, Duisburg belonged to the Diocese of Liège and later to the Archdiocese of Cologne . The Catholics who remained in Duisburg after the Reformation continued to belong to the Archdiocese of Cologne . After its dissolution in 1801, Duisburg came to the diocese of Münster . Since 1958 the parishes in the then borders of Duisburg belong to the newly founded diocese of Essen . After the reorganization of the parish structure in 2006/2015, these are the parishes of St. Johann (Hamborn), St. Michael (Meiderich), Liebfrauen (middle) and St. Judas Thaddäus (DU-Süd), each of which consists of several formerly independent parishes .
The areas of the 18 parishes of the dean's office on the left bank of the Rhine in Duisburg-West and the Walsum parish association belonging to the Dinslaken's dean's office were not incorporated into Duisburg until 1975 and continue to belong to the diocese of Münster.
According to the results of the census on May 9, 2011 , 158,160 inhabitants (31%) of Duisburg belonged to the Catholic Church. The number of members is falling continuously, in 2019 it was only 91,247.
Other Christian churches
The Protestant and Roman Catholic parishes in Duisburg are members of the Working Group of Christian Churches in Duisburg, which was founded in 1993 . This working group also includes the Greek Orthodox Church , the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church , the Armenian Apostolic Church , the Working Group of Evangelical Free Churches and the Apostolic Community with four congregations in Beeck, Hamborn, Walsum and Wanheimerort. The New Apostolic Church is also represented in Duisburg with 15 church buildings within the city. Also represented is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (popularly known as "Mormons"). The parish hall is located in Neuenkamp. Even the Syrian Christianity is represented in Duisburg, the Syriac Orthodox Church has its church at the Karl-Jarres road 152. The Syrian Orthodox Christians is ethnic Assyrians from the Near East (also known as Aramaic ).
The Jewish community of the cities of Duisburg, Mülheim an der Ruhr and Oberhausen has a common community center with a synagogue in Duisburg's inner harbor . A move from the small Mülheim community center was necessary for the approximately 2800-strong community. The Jewish community and the three cities of Duisburg, Mülheim and Oberhausen jointly decided to build a new building in Duisburg. Since the inauguration of the community center of the Jewish community Duisburg-Mülheim / Ruhr-Oberhausen in 1999, this place has been filled with life. Among other things, cultural events take place there, such as a Jewish book fair and the Jewish culture days in the Rhineland for the western Ruhr area. But also the commitment in the area of family and youth work is located in the rooms of the community center in Duisburg with the children and youth center Tikwatejnu - Tikwatejnu is Hebrew and means "our hope".
According to a calculation from the figures of the census on May 9, 2011 for people with a migration background, the proportion of Muslims in Duisburg on May 9, 2011 was 14.6 percent (around 71,200 people). In some districts of Duisburg the proportion of the Islamic population is much higher (e.g. Bruckhausen, Marxloh, Obermarxloh, Fahrn). The Merkez Mosque in Duisburg was opened on October 26, 2008 in the Marxloh district . The integrative concept and the cooperation between the city and Islamic religious associations caused a sensation nationwide. In the 2011/12 school year, 17,344 children in Duisburg belonged to Islam, about 3,000 more than the Catholic Church.
In addition to the Sunni-Islamic religious community, there is an important Alevi religious community in the city. The community has two club houses. These are the Alevi Community of Duisburg (Rheinhausen) and the Alevi Cultural Center Duisburg-Marxloh e. V. Both associations belong to the Alevi Congregation Germany e. V. (AABF).
There are a total of 39 mosques in Duisburg. 16 of them are under the direction of the umbrella organization DITIB , eight mosques are managed by the umbrella organization VIKZ , five belong to the umbrella organization IGMG and one to the umbrella organization IGBD . The remaining nine mosques are run independently.
Culture and sights
Duisburg offers a wide range of cultural institutions and events. Outstandingly important events are the Duisburger Akzente , which has been taking place every year since 1977 (except in 2005) , each of which deals with a culturally current topic, and the Traumzeit Festival in the Duisburg-Nord landscape park . The RuhrTriennale and the Ruhr Piano Festival , which take place throughout the Ruhr area, are of national importance .
The sites and activities of industrial culture , which are intended to give the entire Ruhr area a new face, are of particular importance . The Duisburg-Nord landscape park, the Ruhrort district of the port and the inner harbor on the edge of the city center are Duisburg's main attractions on the route of industrial culture .
The Duisburg Theater , built in 1912 according to a design by the Munich architect Martin Dülfer in neoclassical style , is considered the city's cultural center. It has been performed by the Deutsche Oper am Rhein together with the Duisburg Philharmonic since 1956 . The Deutsche Oper am Rhein is a theater community in the neighboring cities of Düsseldorf and Duisburg. In addition to opera and operetta / musical, it also has ballet in its program.
A theater marriage with Düsseldorf existed from 1887 to 1921. This was replaced by an independent Duisburg opera and a theater community with the Schauspielhaus Bochum , which existed until 1935.
Duisburg does not have its own acting ensemble. In the city theater, productions from other theaters are shown, especially from the Rhine-Ruhr region.
Other theaters are the cabaret theater " The column " in Dellviertel, the Small Stage Friemersheim, the children's theater "Kom'ma" in Rheinhausen and cabaret Meiderich. The oldest still existing theater association in Duisburg is the “bühne47 - Ketteler Spielschar” based in the Rheinhausen district. Due to financial difficulties, the curtain came down for the independent theater “ Comödie Duisburg” in July 2008.
In 1962 the Duisburg Mercatorhalle was inaugurated in the city center. It replaced the Tonhalle opened in 1887 and destroyed in 1942 , which stood in the same place. For 40 years, the Mercatorhalle was considered the “parlor” of the city. This concert and event hall was demolished in 2005 to make room for the City Palais , which houses a casino that opened in February 2007 and the "new" Mercator Hall. The large hall of this hall offers space for 1750 people and was opened in April 2007. The Duisburg Philharmonic has its venue in the Mercatorhalle. From August 2012 the Mercatorhalle was closed due to significant deficiencies in fire protection. Now it can be used again.
The Theater am Marientor (TaM) is a former musical theater ("Les Miserables") and is now rented out for a wide variety of stage events. The Duisburg Philharmonic used it as an alternative location from the demolition of the old to the opening of the new Mercatorhalle. After a long period of vacancy, the TaM has been used again by the Philharmonic since the Mercatorhalle was closed again in 2012. A planned sale to a private group of investors who are planning the musical “Braveheart” there therefore appears questionable.
The Rhein-Ruhr-Halle in Hamborn held up to 4450 seats. Unrenovated and not optimally heated, it lost its importance over time and was closed in March 2011. In the districts there are also the Rheinhausen-Halle, the Stadthalle Walsum , the Glückauf-Halle in Homberg - Hochheide and the Steinhof in Huckingen .
The event locations in the backdrop of a disused ironworks are the power station (up to 4,140 seats), the casting hall and the blower hall in the Duisburg-Nord landscape park . Regular comedy and music events also take place in the Grammatikoff on Dellplatz, in the culture and leisure center Dieäule and in Pulp , a station building that was converted into a medieval castle in 2002.
Gastronomy and night life
In Duisburg there are several bars , cafes , discos , pubs and restaurants . The gastronomy mile at Duisburg's inner harbor is particularly well known. Along the water surface, which is divided off and dammed up by a dam, there are several catering establishments , restaurants, cafes, beer gardens and cocktail bars, some in restored old granaries, some in modern office complexes .
Dellplatz in downtown Duisburg is also known for its many restaurants. Since 2011, the Grammatikoff has been offering various types of cultural events in the building of the former HundertMeister cultural center , such as concerts, theater and, above all, comedy . In the immediate vicinity is Duisburg's oldest house brewery, the Webster from 1992, where concerts can also take place. In the university quarter with the oldest Duisburg student bar Finkenkrug you will find a varied bar landscape.
The most famous restaurants include the restaurant in Duisburg's oldest residential building, the Dreigiebelhaus , which was built in 1536, and the Lindenwirtin restaurant in Duissern, which is housed in a half-timbered house built around 1760 . The Schifferbörse in the port district of Ruhrort is also well known .
In 2007 the Casino Duisburg opened in the Citypalais, the largest casino in the Westspiel Group. It has 354 slot machines in the slot machine casino and 29 gaming tables in the classic game. In the first ten months, the Duisburg casino counted 700,000 visitors and generated gross gaming revenue of 55.4 million euros, making it the third-highest gross gaming revenue of all German casinos after Berlin and Stuttgart .
Duisburg also stands for an extraordinary brothel district , in the area of Vulkanstrasse , which is the largest in North Rhine-Westphalia, with around 500 prostitutes , mainly from Eastern Europe. Various rocker groups are active there, mainly the Bandidos .
There are still two movie theaters in Duisburg today. In the 1960s there was a movie theater in almost every district, but the dying of cinema did not stop at Duisburg. Most recently, the "Europa" (which housed the "Comödie" until the bankruptcy in summer 2008), the "Gloria" (now a fashion store) and the "Residenz" ( demolished during the construction of the " Forum Duisburg " shopping center ) three inner-city cinema centers left. But ultimately they too had to close because of competition with the UCI - multiplex cinema at the main train station.
In addition to the multiplex cinema, the Filmforum is one of the oldest municipal cinemas in Germany on Dellplatz . The Filmforum, which opened in 1970, has a cinema in the style of the 1950s and an important archive of film history . It is also the host of the Duisburg Film Week every year . Since 1996 the Filmforum has organized the summer cinema together with the Landscape Park North . For about a month the casting hall of the landscape park serves as the backdrop for the open-air cinema , which shows not only current films but also classics.
Museums and art
The Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Museum - Center for International Sculpture is housed in a museum building from 1964 designed by Lehmbruck's son. Based on the work of the Duisburg artist Wilhelm Lehmbruck (1881–1919), it shows a collection of modern sculpture that is unique in Europe.
The Lehmbruck Museum, which is glazed on almost all sides, is located on the western edge of the Kant Park , a public sculpture park with more than 40 sculptures, including the colossal sculpture David by the German artist Hans-Peter Feldmann . The “dialogue between museum and outside world” is to continue in the adjacent pedestrian zone with its fountain mile and the underground stations designed by artists (among others by Eberhard Bosslet , Isa Genzken and Gerhard Richter ).
One of the city's landmarks is the “lifesaver” fountain by French artist Niki de Saint Phalle with a seven-meter-high, bird-like figure that gives protection and exudes strength, to which a smaller figure clings for help. The sculpture stands on a rotating platform constructed by her husband Jean Tinguely from scrap parts . In reference to the poor financial situation of the city, the work of art is also ironically called "bankrupt vulture" in the vernacular.
Lehmbruck, who was born in Meiderich, is also commemorated by a “ Wilhelm-Lehmbruck-Scholarship ” awarded by the city of Duisburg for young artists, whose scholarship holders are given free living studios in the historic three-gabled house.
The Küppersmühle Museum for Modern Art is presented in an inner harbor granary redesigned by Herzog & de Meuron . The Young Art Collection in the König Brewery in Beeck, the DKM Museum and the Cubus Kunsthalle also deal with modern art.
The DKM Museum in Duisburg city center and the DKM Gallery in the Garden of Memories in Duisburg Inner Harbor , both supported by the foundation of the same name, are private exhibition spaces. While the museum is making the private collection of the patrons Dirk Krämer and Klaus Maas available to the public for the first time and showing temporary exhibitions, the gallery is dedicated exclusively to contemporary art.
The culture and city history museum has been located in a former granary at the inner harbor since 1991. The globes of the Mercator Treasury, which are valuable in terms of scientific history and dedicated to the life's work of the mathematician and cartographer Gerhard Mercator , deserve special attention . In the same building is the Museum City of Königsberg , which shows the history of the old East Prussian city.
The Museum of German Inland Shipping with its extensive collection is housed in a former Art Nouveau indoor swimming pool in Ruhrort / Laar. The museum has two historic steamships anchored in the Ruhrort harbor.
Smaller museums are the Haniel Museum in Ruhrort, the teacher's house Friemersheim in Rheinhausen, the Lower Rhine Carnival Museum on Mattlerbusch, the Natural History Museum in Wedau, the Bee Museum in Rumeln-Kaldenhausen and the mining museum Rheinhausen mining collection. In addition to radios, the Radio Museum in Ruhrort also shows record players. The Tractor Museum of the Rahmer Tractor Club is located in Duisburg-Rahm .
The Atlantis Children's Museum , housed in an inner harbor granary, was a scientific and technical adventure world that had to close at the end of 2007. Instead, the “Legoland Discovery Center” had moved into the Werhahnmühle . A children's museum has been at home in the building again since 2013: In the “Explorado”, children from four to twelve years of age can explore independently with their families on an area of 3,000 square meters.
At the inner harbor, one of the largest archive buildings in Germany was built in 2014 with the State Archive of North Rhine-Westphalia , realized by the construction and real estate company of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia . The listed 48-meter-long storage building from the 1930s was supplemented by a 76-meter-high archive tower in the center and extended to 200 meters.
In the next few years, a Nazi documentation center is to be built, which will be housed in a new building together with the adult education center and the city library. The focus of the center is to be a permanent exhibition on the subject of Duisburg under National Socialism .
The Duisburg town hall goes back to the medieval Koenighof, which stood in the same place. The current building, built in the style of the early Renaissance (historicism), was built in 1902 under the direction of the Karlsruhe architect Friedrich Ratzel .
The first town hall to be found here dates from the Middle Ages and was first mentioned in 1361. It was demolished in 1802 and rebuilt on the site of the old court house on Weinmarkt. In 1843 this town hall was again replaced by a new building at its current location. The Mercator fountain has been located in the middle of Burgplatz in front of the town hall since 1878 .
The Salvatorkirche standing next to the town hall is also located on the grounds of the royal court. A church stood here for the first time in the 9th century. After a fire in the 13th century, the new building was completed in 1415. The Salvator Church on the inner harbor has been Protestant since 1571 . Parts of the Minorite Church from 1271, which was destroyed in the war, have been integrated into the neighboring Catholic Carmel Church from 1961. This monastery church had previously belonged to the complex of the oldest Catholic town church, the Liebfrauenkirche, which was destroyed in the war. Before the Second World War, the town hall, Salvatorkirche and Liebfrauenkirche formed the typical three-tower silhouette of the city.
The Church of Our Lady , rebuilt after the war elsewhere in the midst of the new Duisburg city center at the City Theater. The stained glass windows, canopy and numerous other furnishings in the Church of Our Lady come from the Vatican Church at the Brussels World Exhibition in 1958.
In 1153 the Marienkirche was built as the first settlement of the Order of St. John in Germany. Today's classicist building dates back to 1802 for the most part. The church has been Protestant since the 16th century.
The Hamborn Abbey with the St. Johann Baptist Abbey Church in the north of the city goes on the 11th / 12th. Century back, a previous building is from 900. The abbey belongs to the Premonstratensian order . The late Roman Catholic parish church of St. Dionysius in Mündelheim was built in 1221.
A Jewish community center, completed in 1999, is located in the inner harbor not far from the old synagogue from 1875, which was destroyed in the pogrom night of 1938. It is considered an outstanding example of contemporary sculptural architecture.
With the Merkez-Camii of the DITIB in Marxloh , which was completed in October 2008, there is a prayer room for 1200 believers in Duisburg with a 34 meter high minaret and a 23 meter high silver-colored dome roof.
The three-gabled house on the edge of the inner harbor, built in 1536, is the oldest surviving residential building in Duisburg. The older part of the Duisburg district and regional court was completed in 1876 in the neo-renaissance style.
The Küppersmühle from 1909, which was converted into a museum by Herzog & de Meuron in 1999, is the architecturally most significant part of the warehouse row in the inner harbor.
Between 1981 and 1991, 23 round brick buildings, popularly known as "biscuit jars", were erected; the architect was Peter Poelzig . They are the most distinctive buildings of the university located in Neudorf on the edge of the Duisburg city forest .
The "House of Economic Development" in the university district on Mülheimer Strasse, the technology center on Bismarckstrasse and the microelectronics center were built from 1992 to 1996 by Norman Foster .
The umbrella organization of the Duisburg sports clubs is the Stadtsportbund (SSB) Duisburg, which is affiliated with the State Sports Association of North Rhine-Westphalia . In total, the SSB Duisburg has around 500 clubs with over 110,000 members.
Duisburg is the seat of the State Sports Association of North Rhine-Westphalia, the German Canoe Association , the West German Football and Athletics Association and other supraregional sports associations.
The most famous sports club in Duisburg is MSV Duisburg , founded in 1902 , at that time still under the name Meidericher Spielverein. The club is famous for its soccer team, which is called "zebras" because of their striped jerseys. In 1963 the MSV was one of the founding members of the Bundesliga , which after changeable years in the 1st and 2nd Bundesliga had to relegate to the 3rd division in 2013 due to financial problems . Even before 1963, the Meidericher SV caused a sensation. At that time, Duisburg was considered a football stronghold in the Ruhr area. There were a total of three large, nationally known clubs in the city, although no Duisburg club has ever achieved national success. In addition to MSV, these were Duisburger SpV (which merged with TuS Duisburg 48/99 to form Eintracht Duisburg in 1964 ) and Sportfreunde Hamborn 07 .
In the women's soccer Bundesliga, FCR 2001 Duisburg (formerly FC Rumeln-Kaldenhausen) was one of the best teams and won several titles ( German champions 2000 , UEFA Cup winners 2009 ). Already in the 80s and 90s there was with the KBC Duisburg a top team in women's football (German Champion 1985), the Department moved in 1997 to Eintracht Duisburg 1848. Since the bankruptcy of FCR 2013 running teams in the women's section of the MSV on .
One of the nationally known sports clubs from Duisburg is the ice sports club “Füchse” Duisburg , which played in the German ice hockey league until 2009 and is now fourth class after retiring from the top division. The Füchse Duisburg are the successor club of Duisburger SC, which was active in the top German league from 1979 to 1981.
The traditional handball club and former Bundesliga club OSC Rheinhausen is based in Rheinhausen on the left bank of the Rhine . A traditional hockey club is Club Raffelberg (CR), which celebrated two German championships in field hockey in the 1950s. Today the CR plays in the regional hockey league.
In water polo, the Amateur Swimming Club Duisburg (ASCD) became German runner-up in the past season.
In the northern district of Alt- Hamborn , the first men's team from Squash Inn Team Hamborn 88 also won the runner-up title in the 2010/11 season after being promoted to the first division for the first time.
In addition to these clubs, there are other clubs from Duisburg that are represented with their teams in the top leagues of their sports, some very successfully:
- RESG Walsum (with 16 championships German record champions in roller hockey )
- SHC Duisburg Ducks (with eight championships of German record champions in inline skater hockey , plus three times European Cup winner)
- 1. BC Duisburg (one of the most successful clubs in the German bowling league)
Many sporting events take place throughout the year. The most famous events include the Rhine-Ruhr Marathon and the Duisburg Dance Days. There are also other sporting events in the city.
- Duskatet (inline skating tours through the city area)
- Citirun (entrepreneur run in downtown Duisburg for charitable purposes)
- AOK winter running series of ASV Duisburg (largest winter running series in Germany)
- Kaiserbergfest (traditional sports festival that was held for the first time on the Kaiserberg in 1883, today it takes place in the Duisburg sports park)
- Dragon boat fun regatta in the inner harbor
- Great Duisburg bike tour
- Inner Harbor
- Sports show (sports gala of the Duisburg City Sports Association)
- 24 hours from Duisburg (24 hours mountain bike race in the Duisburg-Nord Landscape Park)
- Every two years at Whitsun, the ultra-marathon Tortour de Ruhr ends on the Rheinorange and starts 230 kilometers upstream at the source of the Ruhr
The sports city of Duisburg also became known for hosting international sporting events, especially for the canoeing and rowing world championships in the Duisburg sports park . In 2013 Duisburg is the host of the Canoe Racing World Championships 2013 with 78 participating nations.
In the individual city districts there are a large number of outdoor sports facilities, which are mainly leased to sports clubs and which are maintained and looked after by them. For the Duisburg clubs there is also the possibility to use the gyms or swimming pools, some of which are privately operated, in the city area. There are also three golf courses in Duisburg : the “Niederrheinischen Golfclub” in Röttgersbach and the “Golf & More” club in Großenbaum and Huckingen. Together they cover an area of 1,160,000 square meters.
The largest and most famous sports facilities are located in the Duisburg sports park in the Neudorf-Süd district (until 2008 Wedau sports park ). These include the 31,500-seat Schauinsland-Reisen-Arena , which replaced the old Wedaustadion in 2005 . The third division soccer team MSV Duisburg plays its home games in the Schauinsland-Reisen-Arena. The swimming stadium and the Scania Arena , the home ground of EV Duisburg, are in the immediate vicinity . In the eastern part of the sports park is the Duisburg regatta track , which is one of the most modern of its kind in the world. The federal and state performance center for canoe racing is also located there. The athletics stadium and the Wedau sports school are also located in the sports park. The name Wedau goes back to the name of a wetland from the 14th century and is delimited by Kruppstraße, Masurenallee, Wedauer Straße and Kalkweg.
Other important sports facilities can be found in the districts.
- PCC Stadium (football stadium, home of the regional league team VfB Homberg and the women of MSV Duisburg)
- Sports hall on Krefelder Straße (home ground of OSC Rheinhausen)
Recreation and leisure
There are numerous local recreation areas in Duisburg. 2,500 hectares of the Duisburg city area are forest areas . The largest forests include the Baerler Busch and the Driesenbusch in Walsum, but above all the Duisburg city forest , which is the third largest city forest in Germany after the Berlin Grunewald and the Eilenriede in Hanover .
There are also just under a dozen parks . The most famous are the Stadtpark in Meiderich and the Biegerpark in Huckingen, but especially the Mattlerbusch Revierpark , built in 1979 in the north of the city with the Niederrhein-Therme as the centerpiece.
In Hochfeld, the Rheinpark is located on a former industrial site. A new urban quarter is being built on the 60-hectare property, which, like the inner harbor, will combine the elements of living, working and leisure. In May 2009 the completion of the first construction phase of the RheinPark with 25 hectares of open and recreational areas was completed. The Rhine meadows in Walsum , Friemersheim and Mündelheim offer further opportunities to relax on the Rhine .
Duisburg has two botanical gardens . The oldest is located on Kaiserberg and was founded in 1890, the Duissern Botanical Garden mostly shows native plants, the Alpinum and the water lily ponds are well known. It is open all year round and accessible free of charge. The larger botanical garden is located in the Hamborn district, it was laid out in 1905. Around 2,500 species of tropical and subtropical plants were presented in six houses on an area of 2,000 square meters . The garden has a tropical house, a subtropical house, a greenhouse for cacti and one with water lilies . A greenhouse is dedicated to plants with special cultivation requirements , for example insect-catching plants such as Venus flytraps , sundew , pitcher and hose plants . The houses in the Hamborn Botanical Garden have been closed since November 13, 2011 due to the precarious financial situation of the city of Duisburg.
In addition to the gastronomy mile and the museums, the inner harbor offers other recreational opportunities, in particular the Garden of Remembrance invites those seeking relaxation. Furthermore, events take place in the inner harbor all year round, such as the marina markets, the inner harbor or the international harbor festival.
The Duisburg- Nord Landscape Park is located in Duisburg-Meiderich and has been named one of the ten most beautiful parks in the world by the renowned British newspaper “The Guardian”. On the site of a former iron and steel works, a new type of park of around 200 hectares was created as part of the International Building Exhibition Emscher Park (IBA) and today offers numerous leisure activities such as climbing in old ore bunkers or diving in a gasometer . Every year around 470 events of various kinds take place on the grounds of the landscape park, for example trade fairs and concerts. In addition, nature was allowed to reclaim the area and more than 300 plant species have now settled in the park. The park has more than 700,000 visitors each year.
In the immediate vicinity of the Duisburg Sports Park and the Duisburg City Forest, the Sechs-Seen-Platte is located in the south of Duisburg . From the mid-1910s, gravel work created six lakes with a water surface of 150 hectares, the entire local recreation area has an area of 283 hectares. While the northern lakes are mainly used for recreational activities - there is an outdoor swimming pool and boat rental, among other things - renaturation measures are taking place around the southern lakes, but you can still look for relaxation here.
Toeppersee is located in Rheinhausen on the left bank of the Rhine . At Toeppersee there is a boat rental, mini golf and one of two Duisburg water skiing facilities . The second water ski facility is located in the lido in the Duisburg sports park.
The Wedau Water World was built at the end of 2007 / beginning of 2008 along the parallel canal of the regatta track in the Duisburg Sport Park . The water world combines the areas of relaxation on the water, fun sports and sports. A high ropes course and a water playground were created, and the path is also used for exercise and exercise. It belongs to the 3-way concept, which in addition to the path of movement also includes the path of knowledge (conveys knowledge about water) and the path of the senses (nature experience path). The Duisburg sports park is around 200 hectares in size and is one of the largest sports and recreation areas in Germany.
In 1934 was Duisburg Zoo as zoo founded and is now among the most modern and largest zoological gardens in Germany. The zoo is especially famous for its dolphinarium , which was built in the 1960s and modernized in 1995. In addition, you can marvel at rare animal species in Duisburg, such as koalas , wombats , fossas or a river dolphin , a total of around 8,981 animals of 418 species live in Duisburg Zoo (as of 2018). The zoological garden, which is located on the slopes of the Kaiserberg and is shared by the federal highway 3, is visited by more than a million people every year.
Carnival plays an important role in the life of Duisburg's citizens . In the archives of the city of Duisburg there is a city bill from 1377, from which it emerges that the councilors and the citizens extensively celebrated fast evening (“Vastavent”). Big carnival balls were not celebrated until the 19th century. The first carnival clubs were founded at the beginning of the 20th century, today there are around 50 carnival clubs with 3500 members in Duisburg. Every year the session begins with the prince selection and the Hoppeditz awakening on November 11th before it reaches its climax with the street carnival in spring. In addition to the Rose Monday procession in the city center, which meandered through Duisburg's streets for the first time in 1928, there are carnival parades in the districts of Meiderich, Serm , Homberg , Neumühl and Wehofen. On Carnival Sunday, Europe's largest children's carnival procession winds its way through the streets of the Hamborn district .
A particularly large number of events take place in Duisburg city center. On one weekend in summer, the big Duisburg city festival is held, which offers a wide range of activities over three days, from concerts to fashion shows to cabaret. Since 1995 the Matjesfest has been taking place at the end of May / beginning of June, which mainly revolves around herring specialties , but there is also a cultural program around the three to four-day spectacle. The wine trade made Duisburg a prosperous city in the Middle Ages. The continuation of the wine trade is offered by the Duisburg Wine Festival , which has been held since 1986 , at which more than 40 winemakers from the German wine-growing regions offer their wines. The wine festival usually takes place in late July / early August. In addition, there are other well-known events in Duisburg city center such as the arts and crafts festival or the Duisburg auto show in paint and chrome . The Duisburg Christmas market takes place from mid-November until just before New Year's Eve . In addition to the around 130 stands, the Ferris wheel , the ice rink and the crystal tree on König-Heinrich-Platz are among the highlights of the market, which, with two million visitors, is one of the largest Christmas markets in Germany.
In the port city there are two port festivals in the calendar year . On the one hand the international harbor festival in the inner harbor with the dragon boat fun regatta, which takes place in mid-June, and on the other hand the Ruhrort harbor festival . An extensive cultural program will be offered along the harbor promenade at the end of July / beginning of August, and the companies operating in the harbor will also present themselves. The highlight of the harbor festival is the high-altitude fireworks Ruhrort in Flammen , which bears the name Niederrhein in Flammen every three years .
On a Saturday night in June or July, the ExtraSchicht takes place in the Ruhr area , which is also known as the Night of Industrial Culture. This event is a cultural festival in an industrial setting . Among other things, the Landscape Park North and the inner harbor are regularly involved in this event.
Regular events also take place in the districts, such as shooting festivals , Christmas and Advent markets or parades to St. Martin . The more well-known festivals include the beach party at Strandbad Wedau, Soul am See , the Rheinhauser Stadtfest or the Beecker Kirmes . The Beecker fair can be traced back to 1539 , although it is said to be much older. Originally it was the parish festival of the Oberhof church in today's Beeck district . This farm already existed in the 9th century. The patron saint of the church was St. Lawrence . His name day on August 10th falls during the main harvest season, which is why the fair has been moved to the Monday after Bartholomäi, August 24th. The "largest fair on the Lower Rhine" thus took place every year at the end of August. On November 24, 2016, however, the City Council of Duisburg decided, with the amendment of the Volksfest statute, that the Beecker Kirmes will take place earlier than usual in the future. Instead of the end of August, the Beecker Kirmes will take place over the first weekend in July from 2017. Starting on Friday up to and including Tuesday, where the fair ends after five days with a final fireworks display.
Dialect and language
The old Duisburg dialects are based on the languages of the early Franks. From the 3rd century onwards, Franconian tribes expanded from the right Lower Rhine to the south and west across the Rhine into the areas partially populated by Romans and Gallo- Romans . One of the first Sal-Franconian kings, called Chlodio , resided in Dispargum Castrum in the 5th century , which is possibly to be equated with Duisburg.
The dialects spoken today in the Lower Rhine region can be traced back to the language of these early Franconians, with the Benrath line (maache-maake border) separating Middle Franconian from Lower Franconian .
Another dialect border, the Uerdinger line, separates the “isch” speakers of Limburg from the “ek” speakers (including in Duisburg) of North Lower Franconian (also known as Kleverländisch ), which begins around the Krefeld district of Hüls (with Hölsch Plott ) and on both sides of the Lower Rhine to Kleve-Emmerich is spoken.
In the 12th century a written and chancellery language emerged on the Rhine and Maas, now called Rhine-Maasland , which gradually replaced Latin as the written language. Around the years 1377/78, this Lower Rhine form established itself as the official language in documents and city accounts in Duisburg.
Until about the middle of the 20th century, a large part of the population in the Duisburg area spoke Lower Rhine dialects, which show similarities to Dutch dialects and together with these, alongside Low German and High German , represent the third historical starting variant for today's German language.
In old Duisburg, as in Ruhrort, Meiderich, Hamborn and the other districts on the right and left of the Rhine, independent local dialects were created . Even today these are kept alive by associations and local poets; the district dialects have been gradually replaced in daily use by a "new" colloquial language in recent years, sometimes referred to as Ruhr area German , called Regiolekt by linguists .
In his "Studies on the Lower Rhine dialect geography in the districts of Rees, Dinslaken, Hamborn, Mülheim, Duisburg", the linguist Heinrich Neuse describes the old Duisburg local dialects at the turn of the 20th century.
The Duisburg variant of Ruhr German differs from the Westphalian variants in the east of the Ruhr area (e.g. Bochum , Dortmund ) in intonation , pronunciation and vocabulary . For example, while the Dortmund colloquial language is influenced by the Westphalian substrate , the Duisburg colloquial language still shows many features of the old Lower Rhine dialects . However, the Duisburg accent is often wrongly not represented in the media , but replaced by that of the eastern Ruhr area .
Infrastructure and economy
In 2016, Duisburg achieved, within the city limits, a gross domestic product (GDP) of € 16.667 billion, making it 23rd in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP was € 33,634 per capita (North Rhine-Westphalia: € 37,416 / Germany € 38,180) and thus below the regional and national average. In 2017, around 225,900 people were employed in the city. Duisburg is one of the German cities with the highest unemployment. The unemployment rate in December 2019 was 10.4% and thus well above the average for North Rhine-Westphalia of 6.4%.
More than five thousand years ago, travelers moved through the Duisburg area and across the Rheinfurt to Hellweg . Today Duisburg is a transport hub of European importance, which is accessible by numerous roads, railways and bridges. The oldest bridges are the Hochfeld – Rheinhausen railway bridge , the predecessor of which was built in 1873, and the Friedrich-Ebert bridge between Ruhrort and Homberg , which dates back to 1907. There are a total of 650 bridges in the Duisburg city area (as of 2008), only 156 of which are managed by the city of Duisburg. The rest is under the administration of the railway, port and others.
Duisburg is an international trade and logistics center and has an optimal connection to the road, rail and waterway network. There is also a direct airport connection with Düsseldorf Airport , which is located directly behind the city limits and is seven minutes by train from Duisburg Central Station. Also located on the outskirts of the Niederrhein Airport .
The center of the port is still today in the area of the Ruhr estuary, where the first Ruhrort port was created at the beginning of the 18th century . Every year around 40 million tons of goods of all kinds are handled there. Over 20,000 ships call at the port every year. The centerpiece is the public port facilities with an extension of 740 hectares, 21 port basins of over 180 hectares result in a shore length of 40 kilometers. In addition, there is the Logport Logistic Center Duisburg with an area of 265 hectares. A number of companies also have private port facilities, so that the total throughput is over 110 million tons.
At the end of the 1930s, Duisburg was connected to the motorway network by what is now the A 3 federal motorway ( European route E 35 ). The Kaiserberg motorway junction on the A 3 with the A 2 and A 430 motorways at that time became famous as the “spaghetti knot”. The western branch of the A 2 and the A 430 has meanwhile become the A 40 ( E 34 ) ("Ruhrschnellweg"). The A 2 motorway continues to exist from the Oberhausen junction.
Duisburg is connected to a number of long-distance cycle paths and regional cycle routes: to the European EuroVelo EV 3 (the so-called pilgrim route from Norway to Spain), to the EuroVelo EV 15 (the Rhine cycle path from the source to the mouth of the Rhine), to the Ruhr rapid cycle route and to the RuhrtalRadweg .
Rail passenger transport
As early as 1846, Duisburg was connected to the rail network by the Cöln-Mindener Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft . In 1862 the station of the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft followed , from 1870 onwards there were three stations in the immediate vicinity with the station of the Rheinische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft .
After the nominally private railway companies were taken over by the Prussian State Railways , the first "Centralbahnhof" in an island location was built in 1886, with access from the north from Mülheimer Straße, which at that time was crossed at the same level .
The island station had to give way to the expansion to a twelve-track through station, in 1934 the reception building of today's main station was built in the style of functionalism on the west side of the track system . This is an important long-distance train station that offers ICE line connections to Amsterdam , Berlin , Basel and Munich , among other things .
The second largest Duisburg train station , Rheinhausen , has a regional express connection. In addition, Duisburg has 15 smaller stations that are served by regional trains operated by Deutsche Bahn AG , the Nord-West-Bahn or the Rhein-Ruhr S-Bahn .
Rail freight transport
In rail freight traffic, Duisburg is no longer a rail hub after its marshalling yards Duisburg-Wedau , Hohenbudberg and the main freight station were closed. With ThyssenKrupp (formerly Eisenbahn und Häfen ) there is still one of the largest industrial railways in Europe.
The core of the network of Duisburger Verkehrsgesellschaft AG (DVG) are two (three in terms of timetable) tram lines and one light rail line , which is operated jointly with the Düsseldorf Rheinbahn AG . The latter, the U79, emerged from the D-Bahn , a regional tram to Düsseldorf . In the inner city area, the Stadtbahn is run as a subway, construction of which began in 1975 and which opened in 1992. In 2000 the U79 was extended to Meiderich with the completion of a tunnel under the Ruhr and ports. The tram lines 901, (902) and 903, which also run through the inner city tunnel, provide connections to the neighboring cities of Dinslaken and Mülheim an der Ruhr in addition to the development of the Hamborn , Walsum and Hüttenheim districts .
The plans to build a complete underground light rail system at the end of the 1960s have since been abandoned for financial reasons and due to the lack of support from the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
In the Rheinhausen district on the left bank of the Rhine , a large part of the urban development is taken over by the regional bus lines of the NIAG , which belongs to the Rhenus Veniro group , since Rheinhausen was originally a town in the Moers district and only became part of Duisburg through a local government reform .
To this day, Duisburg is the most important center of the steel industry in Central Europe and has the largest expansion of production facilities in this area worldwide.
All of the seven blast furnaces operated in the Ruhr area are now in Duisburg. Around half of the pig iron produced in Germany and a third of the crude steel are produced in Duisburg.
All pits, most of which were in the north of Duisburg and what is now Duisburg's west, have now been closed.
The structural change in the steel industry resulted in considerable job losses. In the 1960s, the city was still one of those with the highest per capita tax income in the Federal Republic. Back then there were almost 70,000 steel workers, today only 16,000 of them are left.
The number of jobs subject to social insurance has fallen from just under 280,000 to just 160,000, so that the city still suffers from above-average unemployment as a result.
The number of jobs subject to social security contributions corresponds to a third of the population of Duisburg. This puts the city on the same level as Essen (0.33 jobs per inhabitant). In the neighboring city of Krefeld there are also 0.33 jobs per inhabitant subject to social security contributions.
95,178 employees commute to Duisburg every day, while 87,631 are drawn to the Duisburg area. Most of the out-commuters, around 17,600, have their place of work in Düsseldorf, where the Duisburgers also make up the largest group of in-commuters.
The city has largely lost its former function as a central shopping city far beyond its borders. A loss of purchasing power has been lamented for years. With less than 100,000 square meters, the Duisburg city center has a comparatively small retail space. At the moment, however, new retail space is being built, which will increase the number of square meters by around a fifth.
Today the chemical industry, plant, machine and shipbuilding companies, manufacturers of precision instruments and well-known companies in the food and beverage industry shape the economic structure of the city. Large service companies from the areas of trade, transport and logistics are also traditionally based in Duisburg.
Logistics has an important function in structural change. For example, the “Logport” is a new international logistics center. The Krupp steelworks, which became known nationwide through the Rheinhausen labor dispute, stood there until 1993.
The Microelectronic Center was founded in Neudorf as early as 1987. In today's “Tectrum”, the buildings previously used by Daimler and the two new buildings designed by Norman Foster offer offices, production and laboratory areas for companies from all areas of electronics and their applications.
The first successes in the development of a start- up culture geared towards medium-sized companies came about with the settlement of microTEC Gesellschaft für Mikrotechnologie mbH. In 2006 the number of companies based in the "Tectrum" had already risen to over 50 companies. With industrial applications of micro- and nanotechnologies , as well as information technologies , the companies should form a basis for new jobs in Duisburg. The University of Duisburg-Essen and the affiliated institutes offer direct points of contact.
From around the mid-1990s, Duisburg also developed the area of company-oriented services and became a kind of "stronghold" for call centers. Large companies such as Deutsche Bahn AG , Targobank (formerly Citibank) and Dresdner Bank , but also the telecommunications company Alice / HanseNet , which has taken over the access business from AOL Germany, and sanvartis GmbH (formerly Gesundheitsscout24) operate call centers in Duisburg to cover their nationwide Service numbers. More than 5000 employees can now find a job here.
In Duisburg you can also find the largest pet shop in the world, Zoo Zajac, the pet shop is over 8000 m² in size.
The city administration itself, as a group of the City of Duisburg with its companies and own operations, is an important "company". The privatization of former administrative areas has led to an interdependence in the private sector.
Important companies in Duisburg
The following companies have their headquarters in Duisburg or are major subsidiaries based in Duisburg (independent companies are highlighted):
|Surname||Branch||Employees||in Duisburg since|
|ArcelorMittal Ruhrort GmbH / Hochfeld GmbH||Steel industry||> 100||1997|
|Caramba chemistry||chemical industry||> 1,000||1975|
|CWS-boco International||Hygiene , textiles||> 1,000||1899|
|DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH (formerly Duisburger Kupferhütte)||Steel industry||> 100||2018|
|Duisburger Hafen AG||logistics||> 1,000||1926|
|Duisburg supply and transport company||Services||> 1,000||1971|
|Franz Haniel & Cie.||Parent company||> 10,000||1756|
|Grillo works||Metal and chemical industry||> 1,000||1848|
|Trade for civil engineering and industrial technology||Specialist wholesalers||> 1,000||1994|
|HAVI Logistics||logistics||> 1,000||1981|
|Hövelmann||Beverage production and logistics||> 100||1905|
|Hüttenwerke Krupp Mannesmann||Steel industry||> 1,000||1990|
|Imperial Logistics||logistics||> 1,000||1999|
|Imperial Shipping Group||logistics||> 1,000||1800 (approx.)|
|Imperial Chemical Logistics GmbH (formerly Lehnkering )||Chemical industry / logistics||> 1,000||1872|
|Klöckner & Co||Steel and metal trade||> 1,000||1906|
|King Brewery||Beverage manufacturing||> 100||1858|
|Krankikom||IT economy||> 100||1995|
|KROHNE measurement technology||measuring technology||> 1,000||1921|
|Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Europe||Plant and mechanical engineering||> 100||2002|
|Panopa logistics||Transport and logistics||> 1,000||1955|
|PCC SE||Chemical industry, energy supply , logistics||> 1,000||1993|
|PKF Fasselt Schlage||Legal advice, tax advice, auditing||> 100||1961|
|PricewaterhouseCoopers||Tax advice, auditing||> 100||1924|
|Rhenus Freight Logistics GmbH & Co. KG||logistics||> 100|
|Schauinsland trips||Tour operator||> 100||1918|
|Shimadzu||Measurement technology / medical technology||> 100||1987|
|Sparkasse Duisburg||Financial service providers||> 1,000||1844|
|Stadtwerke Duisburg||power supply||> 100||1854|
|Standard boiler||Plant construction||> 100||1925|
|thyssenkrupp Steel Europe||Steel industry||> 10,000||1999|
|Venator Germany GmbH||chemical industry||> 100||1878|
|Volksbank Rhein-Ruhr||Financial service providers||> 100||1864|
|Business enterprises Duisburg||service provider||> 1,000||2001|
|Xella||Raw and building materials||> 1,000||2002|
- Both companies belonged to what was then Thyssen Stahl AG until 1997 , so the company's history can be traced back to the 19th century.
- The predecessor company goes back to the construction of a steel mill in Duisburg in 1909.
- As Nestrans GmbH since 1990 part of the steel company Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp . Nestrans was taken over by Imperial Logistics in 1999 .
- The company history of thyssenkrupp goes back to the 19th century.
- subsidiary of thyssenkrupp created in 1999 in the course of the merger with Friedrich Krupp AG Hoesch-Krupp .
As early as the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the Duisburg population was served by two daily newspapers . One of the daily newspapers was the Rhein- und Ruhrzeitung, which was founded in 1851 and disappeared in 1941 . The second daily newspaper was the Duisburger General-Anzeiger , founded in 1881 , which remained the most important daily newspaper for Duisburg and the region until the 1960s. In the course of concentration in the press, he disappeared.
Today three local editorial offices from various daily newspapers report on current events. The media house, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the main train station, is home to the Duisburg local editorial offices of the two daily newspapers Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung (WAZ) and Neue Ruhr Zeitung (NRZ), whose central editorial offices are located in Essen . The WAZ media group also operates district editorial offices in the Hamborn, Rheinhausen and Huckingen districts. The Rheinische Post (RP) , headquartered in Düsseldorf , also has a local editorial office in Duisburg.
Further print media in Duisburg are the Wochenanzeiger , which appears on Wednesdays and Saturdays with 243,200 copies each, the weekly Wednesday newspaper stadt-panorama (239,000 copies) and the newspaper Location (13,000 copies), which provides information on all kinds of events once a month. The newspaper group stadt-panorama (central office: Medienhaus Ruhrort, Hafenstrasse 2) also publishes the “Lokal-Nachrichten” (53,200 copies in the west of Duisburg) on the left bank of the Rhine, as well as the district papers “Der Duisburger Norden” (40,000), “Der Hamborner "(40,000)," We in Wanheimerort "(40,000)," Der Buchholzer "(40,000) and" We in the West "(40,000). Finally, the newspaper group mentioned also has the “stadt-panorama-TV” format.
Overall, the papers mentioned have become more and more important, as the "total circulation" of WAZ, NRZ, Rheinische Post and BILD in Duisburg is no longer more than 60,000 copies (for comparison: in 1975 the mentioned newspapers had a total circulation of 140,000 Copies).
On April 1, 1990, Radio Duisburg , the first local radio station in North Rhine-Westphalia, went on air. The station broadcasts up to eight hours of local programming every day, and citizens' radio programs are also broadcast on Radio Duisburg . The rest of the program and the news on the hour are taken over by Radio NRW . From 6.30 a.m. to 7.30 p.m., Radio Duisburg also broadcasts local news every half hour, and all games of MSV Duisburg as well as individual games of Füchse Duisburg and FCR 2001 Duisburg are broadcast live.
In February 2007, WDR opened its new regional studio at Duisburg's inner harbor. In its studio, the WDR produces the television program "Lokalzeit aus Duisburg", which provides information twice a day about news from the city of Duisburg and the Kleve and Wesel districts. Regional news is also produced for the radio station WDR 2 .
In 2006, Studio 47, the first private local television broadcaster in North Rhine-Westphalia, began broadcasting. Studio 47's program is broadcast around the clock every day and can be received on digital cable TV, on the Internet, as well as on MagentaTV and MagentaZuhause. The Duisburg broadcaster Kanal Avrupa has been broadcasting a Turkish-language television program across Europe since 2005 .
The campus radio of the University of Duisburg-Essen, CampusFM , can also be received on the 104.5 MHz frequency in the entire city of Duisburg .
The TV learning channel nrwision bundles TV programs about Duisburg or from TV producers from Duisburg in its media library.
Education and Research
In the city there are 88 primary schools, 20 secondary schools, 15 special schools, ten secondary schools, 13 comprehensive schools, nine vocational colleges and 13 high schools.
With the Landfermann-Gymnasium , the city has one of the oldest schools in the German-speaking area , whose roots go back to the former Latin school founded as Schola Duisburgensis before 1280. The Friedrich-Albert-Lange-Berufskolleg , founded in 1832 as a Sunday school, was the first school in 1846 to be publicly owned by the city of Duisburg.
The University of Duisburg-Essen was created on January 1st, 2003 through the union of the universities in Essen and Duisburg, which with over 42,000 students and 3,400 employees is one of the largest universities in North Rhine-Westphalia. The range of subjects covers the humanities, social and economic sciences, as well as engineering and natural sciences, including medicine. In 1972, Duisburg University was founded as a comprehensive university through the merger of the Pedagogical University and the Technical College for Mechanical Engineering and renamed in 1980 as University - Comprehensive University - Duisburg . From 1994 until it was merged with Essen University, it was called the Gerhard Mercator University of Duisburg. From 1655 to 1818 there was a University of Duisburg , founded by the Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm .
The Duisburg University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration is located in the Großenbaum district . Civil servants are trained in the four departments of municipal administrative service, state administrative service, police enforcement service and social administrative service.
The music academy, founded in 1900, has been a department of the Folkwang University since 1987 . Two courses of study are offered at the Duisburg location, on the one hand as a qualified pedagogue in the music pedagogy course, and on the other hand as a qualified musician in the artistic instrumental training course.
In 1919 the adult education center (VHS) Duisburg was opened. Over 700 course instructors offer further training opportunities in general, political, professional and cultural areas.
The Duisburg research landscape is shaped by a number of institutes that are located at the university. These include the Fraunhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems (IMS), the Institute for Energy and Environmental Technology (IUTA), the Development Center for Ship Technology and Transport Systems ( DST), the Rhine-Ruhr Institute for Social Research and Policy Advice (RISP), the Research Institute for Economic Developments in the Pacific (FIP), the Center for Fuel Cell Technology (ZBT) and the Franco-German Institute for Automation and Robotics (IAR). The Institute for Development and Peace (INEF), located within the university, goes back to a foundation founded by Willy Brandt . The NRW School of Governance under the direction of Prof. Dr. Karl-Rudolf Korte .
Other educational institutions in Duisburg are the German Employees Academy , the Education Center for the Building Trade , the FOM University (FOM), the Administration and Business Academy ( VWA) Duisburg, the Welding Training and Research Institute (SLV) Duisburg, the PTA training institute , the non-profit society for Employment Promotion (GfB) Duisburg, the Business Education Center , the Institute for Measures to Promote Professional and Social Integration (IMBSE), the Psychotherapeutic Institute Bergerhausen (PIB) and the Institute for Technical Documentation, Training and Consulting (ITS) Duisburg.
The Schifferberufskolleg and the school ship Rhine are also based in Duisburg. There prospective sailors are instructed in three-month blocks.
With almost 1,000,000 media holdings, the Duisburg city library is one of the largest city libraries in Germany. In the 1970s, there was an extensive network of branches, which in addition to six city district libraries also included many district libraries. As a result of the austerity measures, seven city district libraries and six district libraries are left today - the central library in the city center has a comparatively extensive collection of Turkish-language literature. The International Children's and Young People's Book Exhibition (IKiBu) has also been held here since 1970 .
The university library of the University of Duisburg-Essen and the archive of the city of Duisburg are also of particular importance .
In 2009 the Confucius Institute Metropole Ruhr was opened, which is located at the University of Duisburg-Essen and, as a cultural institute, aims to impart knowledge of the Chinese language and culture. In addition, companies and politicians who maintain contacts with China are advised. The Duisburg Confucius Institute is the ninth institute in Germany and, like all of them, an official institution of the People's Republic. The city of Duisburg continues to be a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society.
The geographer Gerhard Mercator , who died in Duisburg in 1594, was one of the city's most important citizens. The industrialists August Thyssen and Franz Haniel , who was born in Ruhrort, also had a decisive influence on Duisburg in the 19th and 20th centuries. The most famous Duisburg artist is Wilhelm Lehmbruck, born in Meiderich in 1881 .
The most important politician associated with Duisburg is Karl Jarres , who was Duisburg's Lord Mayor for almost 20 years - from 1914 to 1933 - and from 1923 to 1925 held the office of Reich Minister of the Interior. In the 1925 presidential election Jarres received the most votes in the first ballot, but withdrew his candidacy in favor of Hindenburg in the second ballot.
In 2013 Harvard University included Duisburg-based Hans-Werner Gessmann , founder of the Bergerhausen Psychotherapeutic Institute, in the list of the 30 most influential living psychologists because Gessmann teaches humanistic psychotherapy worldwide , especially humanistic psychodrama in Russia and China.
The composer Ramin Djawadi , born on July 19, 1974 in Duisburg, is famous for his orchestral compositions for film and television. He was trained by Hans Zimmer and wrote, for example, the music for Game of Thrones.
Jürgen Marbach the former managing director of the Düsseldorf airline LTU was born in Duisburg. He worked u. a. also as managing director of marketing, organization and arena of VfL Wolfsburg-Fußball GmbH and was elected chairman of the supervisory board of MSV Duisburg in 2013.
The successful entrepreneur and Fressnapf founder Torsten Toeller lives in Duisburg-Buchholz . On the Forbes list The World's Billionaires 2015, the fortune of Torsten Toeller was given at around 1.7 billion US dollars. He was ranked 1118 of the richest people in the world.
- Barbara Fischer: Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany . Monuments in the Rhineland. City of Duisburg 6.1 = Northern districts . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2007. ISBN 978-3-88462-242-1
- Topographical-statistical description and administrative overview of the Duisburg district from 1845: with special consideration of the circumstances in 1830 . Mülheim ad Ruhr 1846 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf ).
- Heinrich Averdunk : History of the city of Duisburg up to the final union with the Hohenzollern house (1666) . Duisburg 1894.
- Heinrich Averdunk, Walter Ring: History of the city of Duisburg . Essen 1927 (2nd edition: Ratingen 1949).
- Liselotte Cremer and others: Duisburg. Selection directory from the holdings of the city archive and the city library . Duisburg 1983.
- Heike Hawicks, Ingo Runde: Dispargum - Duisburg. Status and problems of research, in: Dispargum. Annual reports of Duisburger Stadtarchäologie 1, 2016, pp. 9–21, ISBN 978-3-946387-11-4 .
- Marco Hofmann: YOU my Duisburg - a journey of discovery through a city with character . Anno-Verlag, Rheinberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-939256-07-6 .
- Regine Jägers: Duisburg in the 18th century. Social structure and population movement of a small town on the Lower Rhine in the Ancien Régime (1713–1814) . Cologne u. a. 2001.
- Eberhard Kröger, Manfred Komorowski: Duisburg Bibliography: Directory of the writings on Duisburg for the period 1987 to 2001 . Ed .: Jan-Pieter Barbian. Essen 2004, ISBN 3-89861-306-2 .
- Evangelical Church in Duisburg . Duisburg (?) 1950.
- Ludger Heid and others: A brief history of the city of Duisburg. From the beginning to the 80s . 4th edition. Braun, Duisburg 1996, ISBN 3-87096-198-8 .
- Günter von Roden : The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . In: History of the City of Duisburg . 5th edition. tape 1 . Duisburg 1980.
- Günter von Roden: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . In: History of the City of Duisburg . 2nd Edition. tape 2 . Duisburg 1979.
- Werner Greve (ed.): War letters from Duisburg. Summer 1942 to March 1945 . Zeitgut-Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-933336-50-3 .
- Joseph Milz: History of the City of Duisburg . Mercator-Verlag, Duisburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-87463-522-6 .
- Hans-Otto Schenk : Notes on the outskirts of the city , Duisburger local glosses, Anno-Verlag, Rheinberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-939256-13-7 .
- Hans Georg Kraume / Michael Kanther (eds.): Duisburg 1933–1945 . Film documentation (DVD), Duisburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-931616-44-1
- Kultur- und Stadthistorisches Museum Duisburg (Ed.): Bombs on Duisburg. The aerial warfare and the city 1940–1960 , Duisburg 2004, ISBN 3-87463-369-1
- Website of the city of Duisburg
- "Steel, dust lung and Schimanski" , Tagesspiegel , May 26, 2004
- From the Ugly Duckling to the City of the World (RP)
- Literature from and about Duisburg in the catalog of the German National Library
- Sound sample of the Duisburg dialect on the website of the language department at the Institute for Regional Studies and Regional History at the Rhineland Regional Council
- historical data collection on Duisburg
- Sporty, poor, loud - that's what statistics say about Duisburg, WAZ, January 30, 2015
- Website of the Lower Rhine Society
- Community newspaper of the Jewish community of Duisburg (1928–1932) Digitized magazine in the library of the Leo Baeck Institute
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