cottbus

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Cottbus
cottbus
Map of Germany, position of the city of Cottbus highlighted

Coordinates: 51 ° 46 '  N , 14 ° 20'  E

Basic data
State : Brandenburg
Height : 75 m above sea level NHN
Area : 165.15 km 2
Residents: 99,678 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 604 inhabitants per km 2
Postcodes : 03042-03055
Area code : 0355
License plate : CB
Community key : 12 0 52 000
City structure: 19 districts

City administration address :
Neumarkt 5
03046 Cottbus
Website : www.cottbus.de
Lord Mayor : Holger Kelch ( CDU )
Location of the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg
Berlin Polen Freistaat Sachsen Freistaat Thüringen Sachsen-Anhalt Niedersachsen Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Frankfurt (Oder) Cottbus Potsdam Brandenburg an der Havel Landkreis Prignitz Landkreis Ostprignitz-Ruppin Landkreis Oberhavel Landkreis Uckermark Landkreis Barnim Landkreis Havelland Landkreis Potsdam-Mittelmark Landkreis Märkisch-Oderland Landkreis Teltow-Fläming Landkreis Dahme-Spreewald Landkreis Oder-Spree Landkreis Elbe-Elster Landkreis Oberspreewald-Lausitz Landkreis Spree-Neißemap
About this picture
View into the city center of Cottbus, to see the new town hall (red open cuboid) and the sheet metal Carré

Cottbus , Chóśebuz [ ˈxɨɕɛbus ] in Lower Sorbian , is a city in the state of Brandenburg . After its state capital Potsdam , it is the second largest city and next to Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt (Oder) one of the four regional centers of the state. Although only a small Sorbian minority lives in the city, Cottbus is considered the political and cultural center of the Sorbs in Lower Lusatia . The city is a service, sports, science and administrative center. There is an Olympic base here, the Cottbus State Theater and the Cottbus campus of the Brandenburg Technical University .

In the sporting field, Cottbus is known for the tournament of champions in apparatus and artistic gymnastics as well as the successful work in cycling. In addition, almost a fifth of Cottbus residents are active in one of the approx. 140 sports clubs. Considering their size, there are a relatively large number of parks and green spaces, such as Prince Pückler's Branitz Park . In the next few years, the Cottbuser Ostsee is to increase the recreational value as a future project.

Cottbus was mentioned for the first time in 1156 and, as the largest city in Lusatia today, has been almost entirely Brandenburg and Prussian since the 15th century.

It is not far from the Spreewald and can be reached with direct connections from Berlin, Dresden and Leipzig.

Place name and spelling

Bilingual entrance sign for Cottbus

Until the beginning of the 20th century, the spelling of the city name was controversial. While the more modern spelling with K was used for Berlin street names and is still partially used (" Kottbusser Tor "), the traditional C was retained on site . Because the city's official self-designation contradicted the rules in force before 1996, it remains the valid spelling, following the urgent recommendation of the Standing Committee on Geographical Names for the application of the spelling reform to geographical names. In this context, it should be mentioned that both the Cottbuser (in) and Cottbusser (in) spelling, i.e. with one or two s , is permitted. According to the main statute of the city, it bears the official name "Cottbus / Chóśebuz". In addition to its name, it bears the designation "University City / Uniwersitne město".

In addition to the official place names in German and Lower Sorbian, there are also separate names for Cottbus in the neighboring Slavic languages, for example Choćebuz in Upper Sorbian , Chociebuż in Polish and Chotěbuz in Czech .

The place name is derived from the Lower Sorbian personal name Chóśebud , which in turn means "awake" or "watchful hero". The place name is thus to be interpreted as the "settlement of Chóśebud".

geography

Geographical location

Cottbus is the largest city in Lower Lusatia and is located on the middle Spree between the Lusatian border wall in the south and the Spreewald in the north. The city extends in an east-west direction 15.6 km, in a north-south direction 19.2 km. The Spree, which is 36 m wide in Cottbus, flows through the city for a distance of 23 km.

The total area of ​​the city is 164.2 km², of which 35.2 km² is forest area and another 3 km² is water. The closest major cities are Dresden , approx. 90 km southwest, Zielona Góra in Poland , approx. 100 km northeast, and Berlin , approx. 100 km northwest of Cottbus.

City structure

The urban area of ​​Cottbus is divided into 19 districts . The specified population figures refer to April 30, 2020. Starting from the city center, the following districts are concerned (Lower Sorbian names in brackets):

Districts of Cottbus
District Residents Area (km²) PE density (PE / km²) First
mention
Input
common-making
Local councils
1 Middle (Srjejź) 10,636 1.7 6,256 1156 -
2 Schmellwitz (Chmjelow) 14,034 8.1 1,733 1414 1950 -
3 Sandow (Žandow) 15,293 8.7 1,758 1415 1905 -
4th Spremberger suburb (Grodkojske pśedměsto) 13,974 3.6 3,882 -
5 Ströbitz (Strobice) 15,599 11.7 1,333 1452 1950 -
6th Sielow (Žylow) 3,511 18.8 187 1300 1993 7th
7th Saspow (Zaspy) 671 4.3 156 1455 1950 -
8th Merzdorf (Žylowk) 1,091 7.4 147 1411 1993 3
9 Dissenchen (Dešank) 1,124 30.7 37 1536 1993 3
10 Branitz (Rogeńc) 1,452 5.4 269 1449 1993 3
11 Madlow (Módłej) 1,612 3.0 537 1346 1950 -
12 Sachsendorf (Knorawa) 10,807 6.6 1,637 1779 1950 -
13 Döbbrick (Depsk) 1,676 15.5 108 1551 1993 3
14th Skadow (Škódow) 554 4.6 120 1407 1993 3
15th Willmersdorf (Rogozno) 650 6.4 102 1449 1993 3
16 Kahren (Kórjeń) 1,231 14.0 88 1300 1993 3
17th Kiekebusch (Kibuš) 1,271 3.7 344 1427 2003 5
18th Gallinchen (Gołynk) 2,652 5.5 482 1421 2003 4th
19th Great Gaglow (Gogolow) 1,443 4.6 314 1389 2003 5
cottbus 99.281 164.3 604 1156

In the districts that were incorporated in 1993 and later , local councils are to be elected in accordance with the main statutes of the city of Cottbus . These are intended to support the city council and the city administration in their work.

In addition, there are 19 other parts of the municipality and other settlement areas .

Neighboring communities and districts

As an independent city, the city of Cottbus is completely enclosed by the Spree-Neiße district and borders in the north and northeast on the communities of Drachhausen , Drehnow and Turnow-Preilack , the city of Peitz and the communities of Teichland and Heinersbrück . In the east and south it borders on the municipalities of Wiesengrund and Neuhausen / Spree , in the southwest on the city of Drebkau with Klein Oßnig and in the west on the municipalities of Kolkwitz , Briesen and Dissen-Striesow .

climate

The city of Cottbus is located in the moderate climatic zone . The annual mean temperature in the CLINO period 1971-2000 was 9.3 degrees Celsius . The warmest month is July with an average of 18.6 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is January with an average of −0.6 degrees Celsius. The difference between the maximum and the minimum, the so-called amplitude , is 19.2 degrees Celsius.

The mean annual rainfall in the period 1971-2000 was 559 millimeters. Most of the precipitation falls in July with an average of 74 millimeters, the least in February with an average of 34 millimeters. There is precipitation all year round, but it is stronger in summer. The climate is humid all year round .

cottbus
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
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Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de: Climate data Cottbus
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Cottbus
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 2 4th 8th 14th 19th 23 24 24 20th 14th 8th 3 O 13.6
Min. Temperature (° C) −3 −3 0 3 8th 12 13 13 10 6th 2 −2 O 5
Precipitation ( mm ) 36 29 33 42 58 65 53 69 50 38 43 47 Σ 563
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.6 2.3 4th 5.3 7.2 7.3 7.4 6.9 5.1 3.8 1.8 1.3 O 4.5
Rainy days ( d ) 17th 15th 12 13 12 12 14th 14th 12 14th 16 15th Σ 166
Humidity ( % ) 85 82 77 72 69 70 69 73 78 82 83 86 O 77.1
T
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Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
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  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

history

Political affiliation of Cottbus since 1156
Country Administrative unit /
member state
Affiliation
Banner of the Holy Roman Emperor with haloes (1400-1806) .svg Holy Roman Empire
Margraviate Lausitz 1156-1445
Margraviate of Brandenburg 1445-1701
Kingdom of Prussia 1701-1806
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892) .svg Prussia Margraviate of Brandenburg 1806-1807
State flag of Saxony before 1815.svg Saxony Margraviate Niederlausitz 1807-1813
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892) .svg Prussia
occupied by Prussia 1813-1815
Brandenburg Province 1815-1867
North German ConfederationNorth German Confederation North German Confederation Kingdom of Prussia 1867-1871
German EmpireThe German Imperium German Empire Kingdom of Prussia 1871-1918
German EmpireGerman Empire German Empire Free State of Prussia 1918-1933
Nazi stateNazi state German Empire
German Reich NSGerman Reich (Nazi era)
Prussia 1933-1945
Germany 1946Germany 1945 to 1949 Soviet zone
Prussia 1945-1947
Brandenburg 1947-1949
Germany Democratic Republic 1949German Democratic Republic GDR
Germany Democratic Republic 1949GDR
Brandenburg 1949-1952
Cottbus district 1952-1990
Flag of Germany.svg Germany Brandenburg since 1990

middle Ages

The history of the Cottbus settlement in today's old town area can be traced back almost 2000 years. In the 3rd and 4th centuries Germanic settlers settled in the old town area . Since the 6th century, Slavic tribes migrated from the southeast into the area between the Elbe / Saale and Oder . The Lusitzi , a West Slavic tribe, followed in the 8th century . They built a middle Slavic castle wall on a valley sand island on the west bank of the Spree . Under the protection of the Slavic castle , the Wends built a suburb settlement, which developed into an early urban settlement in the 11th and 12th centuries. On November 30, 1156, the name "Cottbus" was first mentioned in a document. Cottbus seems to have received city rights between 1216 and 1225. The Cottbus city wall was laid out in the 14th century.

The "Lords of Cottbus", a Franconian noble family , ruled from 1199 to 1445. The Kotebuz family was also called Kottwitz , which is why the place names Kottevitz, Kotwitz and Kottwitz were used and written in old maps from the 15th and 16th centuries. The von Cottbus / Kottwitz founded five other places called Kottwitz, Chotěvice in Saxony, Silesia and Bohemia. In 1304 the Wettins had to sell the Lausitz due to financial difficulties . For this reason, the city of Cottbus changed hands frequently until 1370. In the years 1405 and 1406, Johann III. the cloth makers and linen weavers' guilds their privilege .

Modern times

Since 1445 Cottbus was under Brandenburg rule, with the exception of the period from 1807 ( Tilsiter Peace ) to 1815 ( Congress of Vienna ), when the city was incorporated into the Kingdom of Saxony . In 1468 lightning struck the city and laid the whole of Cottbus, including the upper church, to rubble and ashes. In 1479 a fire destroyed the city again.

Also Pestwellen and devastation during the Thirty Years' War brought destruction, poverty and misery for the city and its population. Wallenstein moved through Cottbus with his troops. The city experienced multiple occupations, looting and destruction. At the end of the war in 1648 only a few hundred people lived in Cottbus.

The French Huguenots settled in the 18th century and Cottbus experienced an economic boom. In the same century, part of the fortifications was demolished, and the Cottbus residents used the area to plant mulberry trees for silk moth breeding. Gardens were laid out and the city began to expand in all directions. The Seven Years War raged from 1756 to 1763 . This was also noticeable in Cottbus. Even if there was no direct combat action, there were still passes through and billeting of troops. Due to the regulations of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the district of Cottbus including Niederlausitz was connected to Prussia . Before that, Cottbus was an exclave in Saxon territory.

Younger story

With industrialization in the 19th century, the city experienced a significant boom. Cottbus became a center of Lower Lusatia - an industrial city with modern infrastructure, with cultural and social buildings. It developed into an important traffic junction through the construction of the railways. During this time, many new businesses were founded in Cottbus. These include a wool yarn - spinning and a layer cake -Bäckerei. In the course of the administrative structure, Cottbus received a regional court in October 1824 . On March 17, 1831, the revised town order was introduced. The city ​​constitution, drawn up by the district administrator , the mayor and representatives of the city council, received government approval on December 14, 1831. From February 12 to 15, 1832, the elections for the first city parliament took place. In October 1835, the cloth maker Heinrich Kittel received a factory license. He combined spinning , weaving , fulling and finishing under one line. The old machines were still driven by a horse goblet . However, in the early 1840s, steam engines and the jacquard loom became predominant. It was the beginnings of large companies in the Cottbus textile industry , in which the English textile machine and wool manufacturer William Cockerill, Junior, played a major role.

In 1861 a gymnastics club was founded, whose members set up a gymnast fire brigade after the major fire of May 9, 1862 , which was constituted in February 1863, which is considered the year the Cottbus fire brigade was founded . It lasted until 1877 when Cottbusers founded a volunteer fire brigade .

Kaiser-Wilhelm- Platz , until 1888 Neustädter Platz , from 1946 Ernst-Thälmann- Platz , today Brandenburger Platz

On August 1, 1914, the beginning of the First World War was celebrated in Cottbus . Emergency examinations were held at the grammar school , and a few days later Infantry Regiment No. 52 marched to the station to the cheers of thousands of Cottbusers. In September, a camp for 10,000 prisoners was set up on the racetrack in the north of the city. On September 4, 1914, the first transport with 7,000 Russian prisoners of war arrived. In 1915 a prison camp was added to the east of the city.

After the World War, the textile industry continued to dominate the economy, although unemployment was sometimes high. From 1938 the ZKW phenomenon works in Cottbus manufactured the ZKW tracked vehicle for the Wehrmacht. Around 1,000 workers produced around 150 tracked vehicles per month. 1939 Aircraft laid Focke-Wulf parts of their production to Cottbus where only reconnaissance aircraft Fw 200 and later to 1945 fighter aircraft of the type Focke-Wulf Fw 190 were mounted. During the time of National Socialism , a German air traffic school and a hydrogenation plant were also established . In the autumn of 1940 the Cottbus people experienced the first air raids on the city. On February 15, 1945, an air raid by 459 American B-17 bombers destroyed large parts of the city. Around 4,000 explosive bombs were thrown on the station grounds, the eastern and southern city districts, the Branitz settlement and several industrial companies. The attack claimed more than 1,000 lives. On April 22, 1945 troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army took the city after three days of heavy fighting.

From 1952 Cottbus was the capital of the Cottbus district of the GDR . From 1957 the area around Cottbus became the most important coal and energy supplier. But also the construction , textile and furniture industry as well as food production determined the economic structure of the city, which received the status of a major city in 1976 .

With the completion of German unification in October 1990, the privatization of the economy began a profound structural change in the city and region. Cottbus became a service, science and administration center. In the course of the Brandenburg district reform of 1993 , the Cottbus district became part of the newly formed Spree-Neisse district . The city itself remained independent. In 2006 the city celebrated the 850th anniversary of its first mention. Cottbus has been the seat of the Berlin-Brandenburg Finance Court since January 1, 2007 .

Incorporations

Cottbus-Sachsendorf-Madlow in particular has expanded thanks to the residential construction programs.

In the history of the city, the following municipalities or districts were incorporated into Cottbus:

  • 1871: Castle area, Mühleninsel, Metze and Margrave Island
  • 1872: Brunschwig am Berge, Brunschwig in der Gasse, Brunschwig Rittergut and Ostrow community
  • 1904: rural community Sandow and manor district Brunschwig
  • 1926: Part of Madlow
  • 1927: Branch of Branitz and Ströbitz
  • July 1, 1950: Madlow, Sachsendorf, Saspow, Schmellwitz and Ströbitz as well as parts of Groß Gaglow and Klein Gaglow
  • 1974: Branitzer Park
  • December 6, 1993: Branitz , Dissenchen (with Schlichow ), Döbbrick (with Skadow ), Kahren, Merzdorf and Willmersdorf
  • October 26, 2003: Gallinchen, Groß Gaglow and Kiekebusch

The incorporation since it became part of the Federal Republic of Germany primarily served the purpose of maintaining the status of a large city (with at least 100,000 inhabitants) and the associated financial benefits. In some cases, these incorporations, especially those of the southern districts in 2003, took place against the declared will of the residents. To date, no further incorporations have been made.

Population development

Population development of Cottbus from 1871 to 2018

The population development of Cottbus is subject to strong fluctuations. The fluctuations in the number of inhabitants between the 14th and 17th centuries are the result of the plague . The population of Cottbus exceeded 100,000 on September 4, 1976, making it a major city. In just 13 years until 1989, it reached its historical high of almost 130,000, primarily thanks to the brown coal combine. Since the fall of the Wall in the GDR , the city lost around 46,000 inhabitants in its urban area from 1990 to 2007 due to high unemployment and the decline in the birth rate. There were more deaths than births and more emigrations than immigrants. In the first 13 years after the fall of the Wall, the status of a large city with over 100,000 inhabitants could only be maintained through the incorporation of around 17,000 inhabitants from the surrounding area. For the beginning of 2009 the city statistics still reported 100,068 inhabitants. At the end of January 2009, according to a press report, the number of residents fell below 100,000. For the first time in 2010 more immigrants (4,978) to Cottbus were reported again than outward movements (4,305) and the increase in births to over 800 per year, the population rose again to over 100,000. As a result of the 2011 census , the population on May 9, 2011 was given as 99,984. With that Cottbus lost the status of a big city. Cottbus regained this status when the State Statistical Office counted 100,416 inhabitants on December 31, 2016. As of December 31, 2019, Cottbus counted 99,678 according to figures from the Berlin-Brandenburg State Statistical Office , which means that its status as a major city was again lost.

As a result of the population decline and the enlargement of the urban area, the population density fell sharply. While it was 720 people per km² on December 31, 2000, on December 31, 2012 only 608 people lived in one km².

The proportion of non-German citizens was 2.8% at the end of 2000, 3.4% at the end of 2011, 2.2% at the end of 2015 and then rose to 8.5% by the beginning of 2018. In total, there were around 8,500 people in 2018, 4,000 of them refugees, the number of which has increased tenfold since 2013. Similar to Salzgitter before , after clashes with locals, a "migration stop" was imposed, but Cottbus is now "known for conflicts between locals and migrants". In 2011, 6.1% of Cottbus residents had a migration background .

The most populous districts, each with more than 10,000 inhabitants, are Sandow, Ströbitz, Schmellwitz, the Spremberger Vorstadt and Sachsendorf. The most populous districts, each with less than 1,000 inhabitants, are Skadow, Saspow and Willmersdorf. In 1991 the median age of the city's population was 35.5 years. In 2000 it was 40.9 years, in 2011 it was 45.7 years. "Youngest district" at the end of 2008 is Sielow with an average of 41.8 years, the highest average age is in the Madlow district with 49.9 years, followed by Sandow (48.9).

Religions

Denomination statistics

According to the 2011 census , 11.2% of the population were Protestant, 3.5% Roman Catholic and the vast majority of 85.3% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants has continued to decline since then. At the end of 2017 Cottbus had 100,945 inhabitants, of which 9,743 (9.7%) Protestants , 3,558 (3.5%) Catholics and 86.8% either had another religion or no religion at all.

Christianity

The Christianization of Lusatia took place from Meißen and was completed around 1100. Bishop Eido von Rochlitz was able to successfully preach in Lower Lusatia during his missions from 992 to 1015 thanks to his knowledge of the Slavic languages , and the mission was continued successfully from 1058 under Benno von Meißen . The city of Cottbus initially belonged to the diocese of Meißen . Because of the great distance between the sparsely populated Lower Lusatia and Meißen in Saxony, there was an official in Lübben as the bishop's deputy. Cottbus was the seat of an archpriest .

There are a number of ecumenical events in Cottbus . For example, the event "Night of the Open Churches" (NdoK) has been held for several years in cooperation with the various churches.

Protestant church

In 1522 a first attempt was made to introduce the Reformation in the city . The final establishment of the Protestant denomination was not achieved until Margrave Johann von Küstrin in 1537. The city was then predominantly Protestant for centuries . Churches were the parish church of St. Nikolai (upper church) and the church of the Franciscan monastery founded around 1300 (monastery church). In addition, there was a Katharinenkirche on the site of today's castle church , which burned down in 1600. The Lutheran creed was predominant , but from 1620 there was also a Reformed congregation at the castle. In 1714 the castle church was built.

1830 were by King Friedrich Wilhelm III. both denominations within Prussia united in a unified regional church ( Uniate Church ). Thus the Protestant parishes of Cottbus belonged to the "Evangelical Church in Prussia" or its provincial church Brandenburg, whose head was the respective King of Prussia as "summus episcopus". As a reaction to this state compulsory union, the Evangelical Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church emerged throughout the Kingdom of Prussia . She demanded her right to religious freedom by wanting to see the full Lutheran constitution, worship and teaching in effect. A parish was established in Cottbus in 1846/47, but it was not until 1878/79 that it was able to build its Evangelical Lutheran Kreuzkirche. To this day, the Old Lutherans are present in the city with a parish office and the Kreuzkirche. Today the Evangelical Lutheran Kreuzkirchengemeinde belongs to the Lausitz church district of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church .

After the elimination of the state church regiment in 1918, the provincial church of Brandenburg was a founding member of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union . In 1947 it became an independent regional church with a bishop at its head. In 2004 the church merged with the Evangelical Church of Silesian Upper Lusatia to form the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia . The Protestant parishes of Cottbus belong - if they are not free churches - to the church district Cottbus within the church district of the same name (ACK), whose seat is also in Cottbus.

In addition to the regional church congregations, there are several free churches in Cottbus, for example an Evangelical Free Church congregation ( Baptists ), an Evangelical Methodist Church , the Apostolic Community , the Biblical Religious Community Cottbus e. V. and the Free Christian Community of Sachsendorf. Since 2001 the Moravian Brethren (lat. Unitas Fratrum) engl. Moravian Church is again a house as "Stop Cottbus" directly in Cottbus. The "Church for Cottbus" is being founded. It is a founding initiative of the FeG Inland Mission in the Federation of Free Evangelical Churches in Germany .

As places of worship the Protestant believers are today u. a. the upper church St. Nikolai , the monastery church , the Luther church and the Madlower Martinskirche are available. The castle church was rededicated in 2014.

Roman Catholic Church

Provost and parish church “St. Maria Queen of Peace "

After the Reformation only a small number of Catholic believers remained in Cottbus and the surrounding area. These were looked after by the Neuzelle Monastery . Occasional services were held in the Katharinenkirche until 1590. From 1646 the city council allowed services in the Gottesackerkirche “Ad sanctam portam” on two Sundays a year.

After several requests to the responsible state and church authorities, the foundation stone of today's Christ Church was laid in 1848 for the growing number of Catholics and the church "Zum Guten Shepherd" was consecrated on October 27, 1850. Especially in and through industrialization, the number of Catholics soon grew to over 2500 and so on October 7, 1934, a new church was built for the growing community by Cardinal Adolf Bertram from Wroclaw on the patronage “St. Maria Queen of Peace ”. In 1964 the war-damaged church “Zum Guten Hirten” was restored and a second Cottbus parish was formed around the “Christ Church”. Since 2012, both parishes have been reunited and bear the old title “To the Good Shepherd”. Today the community belongs to the diocese of Görlitz .

The Christ Church (For the Good Shepherd), the Edith Stein Church and the provost and parish church " St. Maria Friedenskönigin " are available as places of worship for Roman Catholic Christians .

In order to support the pedagogical and medical care of the population on a non-denominational basis, the socially active, and especially nursing Catholic order, poor servants of Jesus Christ (also: Dernbacher Sisters), settled in Dernbach in the Westerwald on December 1, 1886 . His activities in outpatient nursing, in the kindergarten and in the nursing home lasted until May 1, 1965.

Association of Evangelical Free Churches

The Association of Evangelical Free Churches (VEF) is represented by three congregations in Cottbus: The Adventist congregation has its congregation center at Gaglower Straße 13. The Church of the Methodist Church is located at Virchowstraße 41. The Evangelical Free Church congregation (also called Baptists ) meets for worship in their church building at Bautzener Straße 111.

Other churches and religious communities

The New Apostolic Church , the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and Jehovah's Witnesses are also represented in Cottbus.

Judaism

Schlosskirche, synagogue of the Cottbus Jewish community

The oldest news about Jews in Cottbus comes from the year 1448, when Joachim II granted them the right to live in the city and placed them under his protection. In 1510 all Jews had to leave Cottbus after the alleged host sacrilege of Knoblauch.

It was not until 1692 that the first application for a Jewish family to settle in Cottbus was received again; in 1740, Jewish citizens were mentioned. In 1811 a prayer room in the back house of a draper on Mauerstrasse was mentioned for the first time. In 1814 only 17 Jews lived in Cottbus. With the year 1816 and the affiliation to Prussia , where the Jewish edict had been in effect since 1812 , the Jewish community also grew slowly. In 1847, the Jews of the city and its surroundings decided to set up a Jewish community . In 1858 the community was finally considered founded. In 1866 there were 31 members, in 1902 there were already 90 members.

The systematic disenfranchisement, discrimination , persecution and extermination of Jewish citizens by the National Socialists began as early as 1933 . In this year alone, 315 laws and ordinances were enacted to their disadvantage. In addition, the Cottbus VI local police authority, which was exclusively responsible for so-called “Jewish affairs”, was founded in 1933.

On March 31, 1933, the call for a boycott appeared in a Cottbus daily newspaper , which, in addition to grocery stores, also affected all offices of Jewish lawyers, the branches of Jewish doctors and mail order shops and was to apply from April 1, 1933. In addition, numerous naturalizations that had taken place between 1918 and 1933 were revoked. In 1936, 334 Jewish citizens lived in Cottbus, including 87 children, 128 women and 119 men. In February 1937 there were already 499 Jews living in Cottbus. Many of them had fled to Cottbus from the surrounding communities, hoping to be able to live more anonymously in a larger city. At the same time there was a wave of emigration wanted by the government, with payment of the required " Reich flight tax ", accompanied by the expropriation of houses, shops and factories. On October 1, 1936, 34 Jews emigrated, mainly to South Africa and Brazil. During the November pogroms in 1938 , the National Socialists also burned the Cottbus synagogue down. It was later demolished and a department store was built in its place in the 1960s. In memory of the Jewish community and its synagogue, there is a plaque on the forecourt of the Stadtwerke in Karl-Liebknecht-Straße , which was put up in 1988 and renewed in 1998. The night of November 9th was the beginning of the deportations of Jewish citizens to concentration camps . The first transport left the city in mid-November 1938. After the war ended, only twelve members of the former community were still alive.

On July 15, 1998, the Jewish community in Cottbus was re-established. It acts as a non-profit registered association. It currently has around 350 members, all of whom came to Germany from the former Soviet Union . However, the community did not have a worthy synagogue until the beginning of 2015. To make matters worse, the premises no longer had the necessary capacity. After several years of striving for better community rooms, the Protestant castle church was handed over to the Jewish community for conversion as a synagogue on September 18, 2014 . On January 27, 2015, the new synagogue was officially consecrated with the participation of the regional rabbi and the vice-president of the Central Council of Jews in the presence of around 1,000 Cottbus residents.

politics

Election of the Cottbus City Council 2019
Turnout: 56.3% (2014: 39.7%)
 %
30th
20th
10
0
17.2%
13.7%
15.6%
22.3%
9.1%
5.9%
4.1%
9.4%
1.8%
0.8%
AUB f
UC! H
SUB
Otherwise.
Gains and losses
compared to 2014
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 16
 14th
 12
 10
   8th
   6th
   4th
   2
   0
  -2
  -4
  -6
  -8th
-10
-12
-10.5  % p
-7.3  % p
-5.3  % p
+ 15.1  % p
+ 2.8  % p
-0.4  % p
+1.0  % p
+ 9.4  % p
-0.4  % p
± 0.0  % p
AUB f
UC! H
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Otherwise.
Template: election chart / maintenance / notes
Remarks:
f Active Independent Citizens / BVB / FREE VOTERS
h Our Cottbus!
Allocation of seats in the
Cottbus City Council 2019
         
A total of 50 seats

City Council

The city ​​council has 50 members in addition to the Lord Mayor Holger Kelch ( CDU ). Since the local elections on May 26, 2019, it has been composed as follows:

mayor

A mayor has been at the head of the city of Cottbus since the 13th century , but only a few names have survived. They acted as spokesmen for the residents and were subordinate to the lord of the castle. By the 16th century at the latest, there was also a council consisting of councilors and four mayors. Later the number of mayors changed. Since the 19th century, the mayor has usually carried the title of "Lord Mayor". The council was then called the city ​​council .

The Lord Mayor is elected directly by the people today. He is the highest representative of the city and head of the city administration of Cottbus. The last election took place on September 14, 2014. Holger Kelch (CDU) was elected Lord Mayor with 50.7% of the vote. His opponent candidates were the previous incumbent Frank Szymanski (SPD) with 37.3% and Lars Krause ( Die PARTTEI ) with 12.0%. The mayor's term of office is eight years.

Civic engagement

The local alliance for families is still running in 2008 as one of several national model projects. It serves to promote families and civic engagement in cooperation with politics, administration, citizens, educational institutions and associations.

badges and flags

coat of arms

Coat of arms of Cottbus
Blazon : “The coat of arms of the city of Cottbus shows a tinned, square red castle with a closed gate. Two small houses protrude above the wall between the towers, which have pointed roofs. A silver triangular sign with an upright red crab hovers above it. "
Justification of the coat of arms: The Cottbus city ​​coat of arms approved in 2000 shows a closed gate with two towers, between which there is a red crab on a silver shield. The question of how cancer got into the city's coat of arms and what significance it has is hotly debated among researchers. Without a doubt, the gentlemen, whose heraldic animal was the crab from the Aschaffenburg descent, put it in the city arms as a sign of their rule over the city, of their property. Heraldic animals are symbols, the cancer stands for protection (the armor) and defense (the scissors). It also symbolizes rebirth because the crustacean changes its chitin shell every year . An astrological significance of Cancer cannot be ruled out either. Other researchers suggest that the origin can be traced back to the cancerous Spree or the raw material for the kitchen.
City seal of Cottbus, around 1900
City arms before 1945
City arms after 1945 to 1990
City seal of Cottbus, 1987

The cancer as a heraldic symbol is relatively rare. The claim that Cottbus is the only city to have cancer in its coat of arms is wrong. The cities of Bad Wurzach , Bernkastel-Kues , Kreßberg , Vörstetten and Pram in Upper Austria also have a crab as a heraldic animal . In addition, the districts of Bernkastel-Wittlich and Spree-Neisse also have cancer in their coat of arms. Originally devout knights carried him in their shield. This heraldic animal probably came to Cottbus from Franconia . Fredehelm von Cottbus , who died in 1307, came from the Franconian noble family Kottwitz , whose coat of arms symbols were a ram's horn as well as cancer. In the oldest sculptural work of art in the city, the tombstone in the monastery church with the portrait of Fredehelms and his wife Adelheid, the cancer is depicted on the breastplate and the knight's shield. From there the cancer probably came into the oldest surviving city seal from the 14th century. This is the oldest tradition of the coat of arms.

Cancer on shield and breastplate by Fredehelm von Cottbus, 1306, grave slab in the monastery church

flag

The flag of the city of Cottbus is three-striped red-white-red in a ratio of 1: 8: 1 and with the city coat of arms in the median.

Town twinning

Cottbus maintains city ​​partnerships with the following cities:

FranceFrance Montreuil France 1959
ItalyItaly Grosseto Italy 1967
RussiaRussia Lipetsk Russia 1974
PolandPoland Zielona Góra Poland 1975
BulgariaBulgaria Targovishte Bulgaria 1975
SlovakiaSlovakia Košice Slovakia 1978
GermanyGermany Saarbrücken Saarland , Germany 1987
GermanyGermany Gelsenkirchen North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany 1995
United KingdomUnited Kingdom Nuneaton and Bedworth United Kingdom 1999

The relationship with Zielona Góra, with whom there are annual agreements on cooperation and which is also advertised in the local tourist information office, is particularly intense. Zielona Góra as well as Saarbrücken, Gelsenkirchen and Lipezk are each dedicated to street names in Cottbus.

Culture and sights

Theaters, stages and ensembles

Piccolo theater
The Cottbus City Hall is used for events and shows

The city of Cottbus has a large number of theaters , stages and ensembles . The best known is probably the Cottbus State Theater , built to designs by the architect Bernhard Sehring . It is the only state theater in Brandenburg and presents drama , music theater and ballet . In addition, the Cottbus town hall offers space for around 2000 people. International ensembles such as the Chinese National Circus, the Russian State Ballet as well as stars from pop, folk and Schlager perform regularly in this event hall . B. Harry Belafonte , Rosenstolz , Gitte Hænning . The small theater, TheaterNative C , was founded as a private theater in 1989 and has become a defining factor in the Cottbus art scene. It offers drama, cabaret , boulevard as well as children's theater and experimental productions . The piccolo theater has been a theater for children and young people since 1991. The audience at the Puppenbühne Regenbogen consists mainly of children between the ages of four and ten, for whom the visit is often the first theater experience of their lives and leaves lasting impressions.

These are musical in town Philharmonic Orchestra Cottbus, the Singakademie Cottbus, the Cottbus children's musical and ensembles, the Children's Ensemble Pfiffikus , the student theater stage 8 , and the theater at the turn loop in the Glad House resident.

Cinemas

With the film theater Weltspiegel , Cottbus owns the second oldest purpose-built cinema in Germany after the Burg Theater in Burg (near Magdeburg) . This was built in Art Nouveau . The Obenkino in the Gladhouse and the KinOh Stadthalle are other small cinemas in the city ​​center . There is also a UCI Kinowelt in the Groß Gaglow district , near the Lausitz Park shopping center.

The Cottbus Film Festival has been taking place in Cottbus every autumn since 1991, with a focus on Eastern European cinema. The festival center is located in the Cottbus town hall. The venues are still the State Theater, the Kammerbühne, the Weltspiegel film theater, the Obenkino and the Zelig.

Museums and galleries

The Fürst-Pückler-Museum Park und Schloss Branitz Foundation brings the history of the park and its creator, Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau, closer to the visitor in the palace and in the multimedia exhibition in the manor .

The Wendish Museum provides insights into the culture and history of the Wends in Lower Lusatia . Numerous exhibits on traditional costumes, literature and literature, art and music as well as customs and way of life attest to the unique culture of the Slavic population.

Both the city ​​museum and the city ​​archive are considered to be the historical memory of the city of Cottbus. They are the point of contact for citizens interested in history, local researchers and historians. Both institutions are dedicated to the city's history . The city museum was closed to the public from 2010 to the end of 2014. Interesting individual topics are also presented with special exhibitions in the town hall and other municipal facilities.

The Brandenburg Pharmacy Museum on Altmarkt is the only pharmacy museum in the state of Brandenburg. Complete pharmacy furnishings from around 1830 and the first half of the 20th century are shown there.

The art museum Dieselkraftwerk , until April 2006 Brandenburgische Kunstsammlungen Cottbus, houses works from the genres painting , sculpture , graphics , photography and posters and it works primarily with the complex of themes of landscape , space, nature and the environment. The gallery Building 23, the gallery mud and the temporary gallery offer sculptors, painters, photographers and filmmakers from Cottbus and the region the opportunity to exhibit their works.

The airfield museum shows 80 years of history of Cottbus airfields and aviation in Lusatia .

Other museums are the water museum in the Cottbus waterworks, the Spreewehrmühle technical monument and the Parkschmiede Cottbus-Branitz technical monument .

planetarium

The “Juri Gagarin” space flight planetarium was opened on April 26, 1974 at today's Lindenplatz and the original Spacemaster star projector from Carl Zeiss in Jena was in use until the end of 2012 . Its dome with a diameter of 12.5 m offers space for 91 visitors. Since June 19, 2013 a new hybrid projection system of the type Chronos II - InSpace has been used.

Buildings

Secular buildings

Individual structures

The city archive of Cottbus, at the corner of Rudolf-Breitscheid-Straße, was built during the founding period
new town hall
City fortifications
city ​​wall

The 31 m high Spremberger Tower was built in the 13th century as part of the 1,200 m long defense system and forms the southern city ​​gate with the bastion and gatehouse . He received the crenellated crown between 1823 and 1825. The Mint Tower is the oldest tower in the city. The "Lords of Cottbus" probably had the Cottbuser Heller minted here as early as 1483 with the Cottbus heraldic animal , the cancer . Towers , gates and Wiekhäuser along the medieval city ​​wall reveal the layout of the old town . The Lindenpforte was built in order to be able to reach the market in the new town faster from the old town. For this purpose, the wall tower in the Mauerstrasse was broken through in 1879.

Building ensembles
The Altmarkt from the tower of St. Nikolai Church
Mühlengraben
  • The old market with market fountain was once an important trading center, originally surrounded by half-timbered houses. Today it is surrounded by baroque style town houses .
  • The Wendish Quarter was built from 1984 to 1989 on historical urban land between Berliner Platz and Oberkirchplatz, predominantly in slab construction with a facade structure typical of the old town. Visual artistic works come from Sorbian and German artists.
  • The 300 m long Spremberger Strasse , redesigned as a pedestrian zone , was once an important trade route , which is characterized by residential and commercial buildings from the 19th century and from the 1950s.
  • Four building eras come together at the Schlosskirchplatz . The house at the eastern end of the square was the seat of the mayor , the pastor and the French judge . In the south there is a work by the architect Erich Mendelsohn in the typical Bauhaus style .
  • The oldest Cottbus buildings, the Loh and Weißgerber houses, are located on the Mühlengraben . These document the three development phases of the tanning trade. The small house from 1727 was both a workshop and a residential building. The middle one, which was built around 1760, was already a pure Wiekhaus . The brick building was built around 1860.

Sacred buildings

  • The Protestant castle church was built in 1419 as Katharinenkirche and later destroyed several times by fires. After the Huguenots moved in in 1714, today's church was built on its foundation walls as a single-nave plastered building with a hipped roof and sacristy . In 1870 it received the neo-Gothic tower. The church was handed over to the Jewish community on September 18, 2014 for the establishment of a synagogue.
  • The Protestant upper church St. Nikolai , a late Gothic three-aisled brick building from the 14th century, is the largest church in Lower Lusatia and was formerly the place of worship for the Germans and for the upper class urban bourgeoisie. Inside, the star vaults and the high altar , built in 1664 with its splendid alabaster carving, are well worth seeing. In the nave and in the chapel annexes there are several significant grave monuments from the 16th and 17th centuries. There is a good view over Cottbus from the 55 meter high church tower .
  • The Protestant monastery church is also called "Wendish Church", as it was formerly responsible for the Wendish rural population and the people who serve. It is the remainder of the former Franciscan monastery from the 13th and 14th centuries. The oldest church in Cottbus holds an important testimony to the city's history with the grave slab of the city founder, which shows the heraldic animal that is still valid today .
  • The Luther Church , built between 1911 and 1912 by Robert Leibnitz in simple Art Nouveau forms as a free-standing hall with a side tower .
  • The cruciform church of the independent Evangelical Lutheran Church was built in 1878/79 as a towerless neo-Gothic brick building for the Evangelical Lutheran (old Lutheran) church .
  • The Catholic provost and parish church “St. Maria Friedenskönigin ” , built in 1934/35 as a two-tower clinker building
  • Catholic Christ Church , built in 1850 as a brick hall building in simple neo-Gothic forms
  • Edith-Stein Catholic Church in the Sachsendorf district, a modern and simple building
  • Evangelical Martinskirche in the district of Madlow, Gothic brick building from the late 14th century with a rectangular nave and square tower, the attached sacristy is made of field stone masonry

Historical monuments

View from Branitz Castle to the Pergola Garden, Cottbus-Branitz (autumn 2002)
Memorial plaque to the resistance against the Kapp Putsch at the Spremberger Tower
Cenotaph for the victims of the anti-fascist resistance struggle on the Pushkin promenade
Stumbling blocks in Lessingstrasse 4

Architecture path

Architecturally or historically valuable buildings in the city are marked with the Cottbus Architecture Trail. Signs on buildings indicate this and show the history of the buildings. The path is structured according to the period in which it was created; at the respective locations there are signs indicating which buildings can be found in the vicinity.

Modern
  • Fire station Ewald-Haase-Straße 3-3b (built in 1929/1930)

In the Weimar Republic, the housing shortage was met with state programs. But not only inexpensive living space was needed, the fire brigade also had to become more efficient. The construction of the new fire station took these requirements into account in the simple, functional architectural style of modernism. Its inauguration was celebrated in 1930 on the 31st Brandenburg Association Day. The building complex is determined by the striking tower with two clocks, which forms the counterpoint to the tower of the upper church at the other end of the street. In terms of its structure, the main fire station follows the ideals of the New Building: cubic shapes determine the height and depth graduation and the windows and doors are lined up like a ribbon. The residential building on the right with apartments for the fire fighters also belongs to the complex. When the demands on the fire brigade increased further after World War II, vehicle parking spaces and accommodation rooms were added in the left main building in 1967/68 - in the same modernist design. After 1990, they even used an apartment in the neighboring house to house a control center. Since the new control center of the fire brigade in Dresdener Straße was inaugurated in 1999, the historic fire station has been the seat of the professional fire brigade, the rescue service and, since 2000, the Sandow volunteer fire brigade.

  • Town hall (built in 1934/1936)

With the population of Cottbus, which has risen enormously since the 1870s and which had increased to almost 40,000 inhabitants since 1900, due to the economic development, there was an increase in administrative tasks, which were taken into account with the construction of this town hall in 1934. It supplemented the premises of the old town hall on the Altmarkt, which is no longer there today. Residential buildings were demolished in connection with the new building, including the birthplace of the painter Carl Blechen, Berliner Straße 5.

In 1945 the town hall was almost completely burned out. After restoration measures, it was used by the district council from 1952 and has been the seat of the mayor since 1990. Twelve handicraft symbols from the architectural decorations in the gusset of the granite arcade arches, the sculpture "Mother with Child" on the west side and the two portal frames of the side entrances have been preserved. During extensive renovation and renovation work from 1995 to 1998, the new entrance hall and a new staircase with elevator in glass architecture were created.

  • Dieselkraftwerk art museum (built in 1928)

This industrial building from 1928 is designed like a Moorish castle with a campanile. Architect Werner Issel from Berlin-Lichterfelde so imaginatively hid the machine, converter and switch house for a 1500 HP diesel generator, which was switched on in the Cottbus power grid when there was a peak demand. The clinker brick built into the facade comes from Ilse Bergbau AG in Großräschen. The expressionist triad of fire red (window frames), pigeon blue (steel doors) and turquoise (tiled mirror in Ullersdorf's split quarters) catches the eye. The targeted use of colors as structuring architectural elements is typical for the construction period of the 1920s.

In 2008, after a long slumber and extensive renovations by the city of Cottbus, the house was reopened as an art museum on the initiative of the friends' association. The house-in-house construction for the exhibition rooms in the former machine house allowed the interior facade to be preserved with the original clinker bricks. A café and administrative offices can be found in the switch house. Here, too, equipment details are reminiscent of the former use.

Protected areas

There are four designated nature reserves in the city area (as of February 2017).

Natural monuments

  • Saret sign in the Saspow district with a chest height of 7.50 m (2016).

Parks and green spaces

Branitzer Park, view of the sea pyramid, Prince Pückler's grave
Branitzer Park, view of the land pyramid
Branitzer Park, view of the castle

Branitz Park

The Branitzer Park is probably the most important and best-known park in Cottbus. Branitz came into possession of the Counts of Pückler in 1696. In 1845 Hermann von Pückler-Muskau began building the new park. The landscape park he created, which was completed under his successor, is a garden work of art of international importance. The well-known writer and world traveler Prince Pückler was one of the most famous German garden designers of the 19th century alongside Peter Joseph Lenné and Friedrich Ludwig Sckell . The Branitzer Park was laid out as a zoned landscape park with design-differentiated park areas.

In the center of the complex is the castle , which was built between 1770 and 1772 . The castle is surrounded by the Pleasureground , which is richly equipped with flower beds, sculptures , other decorative elements and ornamental trees . Here Pückler also used foreign trees, while he only had native trees planted in the other park areas.

The adjoining "inner park" with an area of ​​around 100 hectares includes, among other things, the estate economy, the gardening , the park forge, the Cottbus and Branitz gatehouses and the pyramid level. Fürst Pückler also designed the field corridor surrounding the park , the "outdoor park", as an ornamental farm on a total area of ​​around 600 hectares. For the design of the park, Prince Pückler used the high groundwater level and the nearby Spree to create an artificial water system in his park. With the excavation from the lakes and canals , he had the landscaped relief of the park created. The reed lake area is particularly beautiful.

The pyramid level impresses with the two unique earth pyramids, the formerly stepped land pyramid (built 1860–1863) and the lake pyramid, the Tumulus (built 1856). Prince Pückler was buried in the tumulus in 1871. In 1884 his wife and partner , Lucie von Pückler-Muskau, who died in 1854 , was reburied there.

Through masterly grouping of the trees, artistically successful shaping of the relief and skilful routing, the prince created a kind of picture gallery with the Branitz Park, in which the viewer is presented with a series of three-dimensional landscape images while walking.

Goethepark and Carl-Blechen-Park

Carl Blechen Park
Goethe Park
Elias Park
Schillerplatz

In 1898 the first Cottbus park, the Goethepark , was built on the humid lowlands of the Mühleninsel , on the initiative of Mayor Paul Werner and the Beautification Association. The official pond within the park was created as early as 1600 for fish farming . From 1914 to 1935, the once marshy area was further expanded . The design of the bank areas with perennial plantings on the streams near the diesel power station was carried out in 1954 for the exhibition "Greens and Bloom on the Spree". The Carl-Blechen-Park , with rare trees and flowering perennials on the east side of the Spree, was created in the 1930s. Its lakeside promenade, created in 1934 and 1935, has been continued with the “Rosenufer” running south, today's Ludwig-Leichhardt- Allee.

Eliaspark and Spreeauenpark

The Eliaspark was created in 1902 by a foundation of the Elias Commerce Council . This three and a half hectare park was redesigned as part of the first Federal Horticultural Show in the new federal states in 1995. The Spreeauenpark , which is much larger at 55 hectares , was created in the run-up to the 1995 Federal Horticultural Show . In the midst of meadows under shady trees, new paths, play and sports facilities, a water playground and the playhouse as a meeting place for children and young people were created. The Spreeauenpark has delighted millions of visitors since the BUGA. A rose garden , a rhododendron grove , meadow landscapes with alternating plantings and a pharmacist and farm garden are grouped around the 1.2 hectare park pond . For connoisseurs, the tertiary forest with plants and trees from different geological epochs, boulders from the Ice Age and a fossil sequoia stump is a special attraction.

Animal park

Opened in 1954, the Cottbus zoo is now adjacent to the Spreeauenpark and the Branitzer Park. With more than 1,200 animals in 170 species from all parts of the world it is the largest zoo in Brandenburg, known among other things, by the breeding of water birds . With the support of the City of Cottbus, various companies and the Tierpark-Förderverein (founded in 1994), the zoo is constantly being modernized and expanded. In the summer of 2014, the construction of a new predator enclosure, which was planned as a domicile for Sumatran tigers , was completed.

Sports

Fire Brigade World Cup 2011 in the sports center
Way of fame

societies

By far the most famous club in town is Energie Cottbus ( football ). The FCE, active in the 3rd division in the 2018/19 season , managed to move up to the first Bundesliga in the 1999/2000 season as well as being relegated twice, but were relegated to the second Bundesliga in the 2002/2003 season . In the 2005/2006 season, the club was able to return to the first Bundesliga, from which it was relegated again in the 2008/2009 season. The Stadium of Friendship currently has a capacity of 22,528 spectators. It offers 10,949 covered seats, 7,795 covered and 3,630 uncovered standing places, as well as 154 places in the wheelchair handicap area.

Other larger clubs are the HSV Cottbus (volleyball, karate - state performance base Brandenburg, judo, health sports, weight training, lacrosse), which emerged from a new foundation from the former USV university sports club in 2004, the handball club LHC Cottbus , which in the 2007/2008 season played in the 2nd handball Bundesliga , the White Devils ( basketball ), the Cottbus Crayfish ( American football ), the Crabettes ( cheerleading ), as well as the 1st women's team of SV Energie (volleyball) , which has been successful in the regional league for years Play Northeast. The cycling club RSC Cottbus produced numerous world and Olympic champions.

There are a total of more than 120 sports clubs in Cottbus. There are four umbrella organizations in the city : PSV Cottbus 90 e. V. , the SCC Breitensport e. V. , the Stadtsportbund Cottbus e. V. and the disabled sports community Cottbus e. V.

On the path to fame in front of the New Town Hall, the medal winners of the Olympic and Paralympic Games are honored. After the games in London there are now 37 plaques of honor embedded in the ground.

Sports facilities

Cottbus is the Olympic Training Center for sports cycling , gymnastics , soccer (m), Athletics , Handball (m) and volleyball (w). 50 sports halls , 49 sports fields and stadiums , 20 tennis courts , 70 skittles and bowling alleys , five shooting ranges , four swimming lakes , an equestrian center , an indoor swimming pool with an outdoor pool and a boathouse are available for active leisure sports .

Since 2013, a Paralympic training base for athletics has also been set up with training facilities suitable for the disabled.

sport Center

The sports center , which is managed by the sports facility of the city of Cottbus, is one of the largest and most modern sports facilities in the South Brandenburg region. It is used for children's and youth sports, youth and top-class sports, as well as popular and disabled sports. The complex includes the Max Reimann Stadium , an athletics stadium that meets international requirements with all of its facilities. Furthermore, the Cottbuser Radstadion , with its covered racing track, national and international competitions take place with great approval, for example the World Cup in track cycling in 1995 and 1996. In addition, there is an athletics hall, two gyms, two football fields and a boxing hall on the site . With the Lausitz-Arena , it also has a multi-purpose sports hall for around 2000 spectators.

Unique sporting events

  • 2010: DFB Futsal Cup , final city in the Mission Olympic city ​​competition
  • 2011: 7th world championship in fire fighting
  • 2013: 64th Federal Cycling Meeting, women's soccer World Cup qualifier (Germany - Russia)

Regular sporting events

Start and finish of the Lusatian City Run 2006

At the Tournament of Masters - the highest quality sporting event in the state of Brandenburg - an average of 200 gymnasts from around 40 nations compete against each other in apparatus gymnastics and fight for the coveted title at the FIG . World Cup.

In the summer from 1991 to 2011, the sports center in Cottbus hosted the annual Lausitz Athletics Meeting , where new records were regularly set in all disciplines of athletics. For men, the meeting record in the 100-meter run is 10.00 seconds, and for women it is 11.14 seconds. Since 2003 there has been an annual international jumpers meeting at the end of January with the disciplines high jump for women (meeting record 2.01 m) and pole vault for men (meeting record 5.90 m). Other athletic events in Cottbus are the Lausitzer City Run (2017 AOK City Run @ Bike) and the Spreewald Marathon .

Since 1999, 24-hour swimming has been an integral part of the city's sports calendar. This is traditionally carried out in November by the German Life Saving Society Cottbus. With 2143 participants in 2019, it is one of the largest popular sports events in water sports in Germany. During the event in 2018, a total of almost 5500 kilometers were swum.

With the dragon boat regatta on the Spree, the DAK company run , the Beach Volleyball Cup at the BTU and spring cycling, other popular sports events have established themselves in Cottbus.

Regular events

Trade fairs and exhibitions

The trade fairs and exhibitions take place in the Cottbus exhibition center with multifunctional exhibition areas of 6,500 m². The fair is conveniently located on the ring road and in the immediate vicinity of the Spreeauenpark.

Every year in January the Cottbus travel market takes place. This fair offers everything to do with holidays, tourism, leisure, caravans, camping and boats. With up to 250 exhibitors and 15,000 visitors, this exhibition is one of the largest in Cottbus. At the same time, the “ Fit + Gesund ” exhibition takes place every year , which is dedicated to all aspects of wellness, cures and health. Every year at the end of January, the exhibition grounds host a craft exhibition. This is the only trade fair in southern Brandenburg.

The Impuls trade fair , which takes place every year in February, deals with training, further education, business start-ups, corporate security and work. The Cars & Bikes exhibition will take place in the exhibition halls in March . This is the largest automobile and two-wheeler exhibition in the state of Brandenburg. With 27,000 visitors in 2005, this exhibition was the most popular since the National Garden Show in 1995. International artists show their skills at the tattoo convention . The CottbusBau exhibition, which is the largest construction trade fair in the state of Brandenburg, takes place regularly in March .

In October Cottbus hosts the autumn fair . With more than 330 exhibitors, this is the consumer exhibition with the most visitors in the state of Brandenburg.

Other events on the exhibition grounds are the Vital & Co. exhibitions and the erotic fair .

Big events and carnival

Cottbus Christmas Market

The major events that take place every year include a. the student satire festival Ei (n) falls (January), the old town night (April), the Cottbus environmental week (May / June), the night of the open churches ( Pentecost ), the city ​​festival (June), the Spreeauennacht (August), the day of the associations (August / September), the pottery festival (September), the Lausitz farmers market (September / October), the night of creative minds (October), the FilmFestival Cottbus - festival of Eastern European film (November) and the Christmas market (December ).

Every tulip Sunday (February / March) there is also the largest carnival parade in East Germany with the procession of happy people . Numerous motif floats, chapels and dance groups from carnival associations from Cottbus and the surrounding area attract around 100,000 visitors every year. Every year the carnival gala Heut tapp der Adler takes place in the town hall , which is recorded by the Berlin Brandenburg broadcasting company.

Education and Research

General education schools

In the city there are currently (as of the 2013/2014 school year) twelve primary schools , two secondary schools , two comprehensive schools , four grammar schools , three special schools and one upper school center which are run by the city and have 9835 pupils. There are also other private schools u. a. also a Waldorf school and the Protestant grammar school .

With the Pückler-Gymnasium and the Upper School Center II Spree-Neisse, there are also two other public schools in the city, which are, however, sponsored by the Spree-Neisse district.

Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg

View from the main building onto the BTU campus on the central campus
BTU teaching building on the central campus

After the merger of the Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus and the Lausitz University of Applied Sciences on July 1, 2013 to form the Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg (BTU), there is only one state university in Cottbus . The university expert Birger Hendriks was appointed as the commissioner for the establishment.

At an early stage, lively resistance from both universities formed against the state government's plan to merge universities. A popular initiative launched by the Universities Initiative with over 42,000 signatures (around 33,000 of which are valid) was rejected by the Brandenburg State Parliament with the votes of the government coalition on November 15, 2012. In response to this rejection, the protest initiative launched a referendum . 80,000 signatures would have been required for the law to be checked again by the state parliament. As of October 9, 2013, the project failed due to the low popularity of only around 18,000 signatures from the Brandenburg electorate.

The BTU is divided into six faculties:

  • Faculty 1 MINT - mathematics, computer science, physics, electrical engineering and information technology
  • Faculty 2 Environment and Natural Sciences
  • Faculty 3 Mechanical Engineering, Electrical and Energy Systems
  • Faculty 4 Social Work, Health and Music
  • Faculty 5 Economics, Law and Society
  • Faculty 6 Architecture, Civil Engineering and Urban Planning

The BTU also maintains several research centers u. a .:

  • Research Center for Landscape Development and Mining Landscapes (FZLB)
  • Center for Energy Technology Brandenburg (CEBra)
  • Research Center for Lightweight Materials (Panta Rhei gGmbH)
  • Joint Lab Institute for Electronics Research (together with the Humboldt University of Berlin , the Technical University of Berlin and the Technical University of Wildau)
  • Human Ecological Center (HöZ)
  • Center for Law and Administrative Sciences (ZfRV)
  • Center for Flow and Transport Processes (CFTM²)
  • German-Polish Center for Public Law and Environmental Protection (together with the University of Wroclaw )

Other educational institutions

In 1907 , the Kingdom of Prussia founded a preparatory institute with a teachers' seminar for teacher training . The city built a school building and director's mansions based on designs by Arno Pasig. On June 25, 1910, the teachers' seminar was inaugurated, which provided training until 1925. After renovations, a pedagogical academy opened in 1930 , renamed the college for teacher training in 1933 and upgraded to a teacher training college in 1941 .

After the school building, which had been destroyed in the war, was restored, the Pedagogical Institute, a training center for new teachers in the GDR, moved there for a few years . As the center of the bilingual area in Niederlausitz, Cottbus was to receive a Sorbian high school, which began on September 1, 1952 with 46 students in the building. In 1960 the Sorbian Extended High School emerged and after 1990 the Lower Sorbian Gymnasium .

There is also a technical college for business and a medical school at the Carl-Thiem-Klinikum , which is a teaching hospital of the Berlin Charité . Cottbus also has an adult education center and a school for Lower Sorbian language and culture .

Libraries

Public libraries in the city are the City and Regional Library in Berlin street , a media inventory of more than 250,000 units ( as of June 2005 ) and the library Sandow eV with approximately 7500 units.

In addition, the BTU maintains its own university libraries with the Information, Communication and Media Center (IKMZ) over 890,000 media units, as well as around 80,000 units at the Sachsendorf site and around 100,000 units at the Senftenberg site . There are also other specialist and government libraries , such as B. those of the Carl-Thiem-Klinikum , the State Office for Occupational Safety and Health or the Finance Court Berlin-Brandenburg .

Other special libraries are the Pückler library in Branitz Castle , as a pure reference library with a focus on literature by and about Pückler , gardening and travel literature as well as art and cultural history of the 19th and 20th centuries, German history of the 19th century and regional history as well the Lower Sorbian library with a focus on the history, language, art and culture of the Sorbs .

Economy and Infrastructure

In 2016, Cottbus generated a gross domestic product of € 3.308 billion within its city limits . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 33,067 per capita (Brandenburg: € 26,887, Germany € 38,180) and thus above the regional but below the national average. The GDP per labor force was € 52,747. In 2016, the city's GDP grew nominally by 2.5%, compared with 4.3% in the previous year. In 2016, around 62,700 people were employed in the city.

Established businesses

LEAG administration building (formerly Vattenfall)

A large number of companies are based in Cottbus . This includes B. LEAG , which controls the administration of opencast mines and power plants in East Germany from Cottbus. ABB is an electrical engineering group and is also based in Cottbus. The German railway in the city has a vehicle maintenance facility. The Envia Central German Energy AG is a regional power and communication services provider in Eastern Germany. This company also has a location in Cottbus. The German Post AG operates in Cottbus one of its 82 mail centers in Germany.

The ten largest companies in 2013, according to total assets:

Other companies come primarily from the fields of architecture, chemistry and pharmaceuticals, services, retail, energy, finance, research, healthcare, trade, mechanical engineering and telecommunications.

The business location is one of 15 regional growth centers in the state of Brandenburg. This promotes selected future-oriented industries.

As of September 30, 2019 there were 45,929 employees in Cottbus, who are distributed as follows:

  • Agriculture, forestry, fisheries 154
  • manufacturing industry total 4,933, including u. a .:
    • Construction 2.410
    • manufacturing 1,403
  • Service sector in total 40,842, including u. a .:
    • Trade, transport, hospitality industry 10,216
    • Information and Communication 882
    • Financial and Insurance Services 894
    • Real estate, professional scientific and technical services 3,034
    • other economic services 4,590
    • public administration, defense, social security, external organizations 5,524
    • Education and instruction 2.307
    • Health care 4,716

The unemployment rate is as of September 2019 by 7.4%, that is, there were a total of 3,818 unemployed . The city is thus above the national average of 5.9%.

traffic

Road traffic

Map of the road network
Aerial view on the western north ring in Cottbus

The federal motorway 15 runs through the southern urban area of ​​Cottbus, coming from the Spreewald triangle ( A 13 Dresden - Berlin ) and as part of the European route 36 in the direction of Poland / Ukraine . The motorway has four lanes and has two motorway junctions in Cottbus: Cottbus-West and Cottbus-Süd. Cottbus is also crossed by federal highways 97 , 168 and 169 . The B 169 forms the southern and eastern part of the city ring at the same time. Until the end of 2004 the federal highway 115 ran through Cottbus, which as today's L 49 runs right through the city center.

With the bypass in the east of the city, which is currently being planned and built and which is to be formed by the B 97n and B 168n, a large part of the heavy goods transport and through traffic is to be kept away from the city center in the future. A 6.7 km long first section of the bypass from Peitz to L 49 in Kahren , was born on 3 September 2012 release . The second section is still in the planning phase. The start of construction is not yet known. With the completion of the second section, Cottbus will also have a third motorway junction (Cottbus-Ost) at the level of the Kahren district. A third section is to run outside the urban area from the junction to the south and join the B 97 north of Groß Oßnig . It has not yet been finally decided whether the third section will actually be implemented.

The density of private cars is considerably below the Brandenburg average (2014: = 510). Despite the falling population, the number of registered cars hardly changes. Private motorization has increased, albeit less strongly than the national average.

private motorization in Cottbus 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Non-commercially registered cars (as of 1.1.) 42,256 41,997 42,162 42,595 42,629 42,512 42,532
Cars per 1,000 inhabitants (December 31, previous year) 411 413 415 417 426 425 427

Rail transport

Platform with place names (German / Lower Sorbian )
The old station building before the Second World War
Cottbus-Sandow stop
Cottbus-Merzdorf stop
Cottbus-Willmersdorf Nord stop
Disused Kiekebusch stop
Regional express to Berlin

From Cottbus there are railway lines in all directions: Regional Express and regional train lines of the DB Regio and ODEG to Wismar via Berlin and in the direction of Görlitz and Zittau ( Berlin – Görlitz railway ), Dresden ( Priestewitz – Cottbus ), via Finsterwalde and Falkenberg (Elster) to Leipzig ( Halle – Cottbus railway ), Frankfurt (Oder) ( Cottbus – Guben railway ) and to Forst (Lausitz) ( Cottbus – Żary railway ). There is also a daily domestic long-distance connection to Emden and Norddeich Mole, and until December 2014 there were international train connections to the Polish cities of Wrocław ( Breslau ), Kraków ( Cracow ) and Żagań (Sagan). Since 2016, the cultural train has been running from Berlin to Wroclaw on weekends . In addition to the main train station are three other railway stations of Deutsche Bahn in the Cottbus City area:

  • Cottbus-Sandow
  • Cottbus-Merzdorf
  • Cottbus-Willmersdorf North

The Kiekebusch stop has not been served since 2006. From 1898 to 1970 there was also a train connection with the Spreewald Railway from Cottbus Spreewaldbahnhof via Burg to Lübben . The tracks of this narrow-gauge railway have been almost completely dismantled since 1983. Only the reception building of the Spreewaldbahnhof can still be found not far from the main station. The Intercity-Express Cottbus / Chóśebuz is named after the city.

Local public transport

Tram in front of the town hall at the entrance to the Stadthalle stop
Cottbus tram network

Local public transport (ÖPNV) is served by trams and buses operated by Cottbusverkehr GmbH and DB Regio Bus Ost GmbH, both member companies of the Berlin-Brandenburg Transport Association (VBB). There are a total of 49 lines, four of which are Cottbus tram and 44 bus lines. The line network has 634 stops and it is approx. 934 km long. A total of 21 trams and 54 buses are in use.

In addition, a park railway (600 mm gauge) connects the Cottbus-Sandow train station with the Stadion der Freund football stadium , the exhibition center, the Cottbus zoo and the Branitzer Park . Traffic is limited to the summer months.

air traffic

Cottbus has two regional airports. The Neuhausen airfield is approx. 15 km away. With 16,000 to 20,000 aircraft movements per year, the airfield is one of the five largest airfields in Brandenburg. Europe-wide charter and taxi flights, training courses as well as sightseeing and business flights by plane and helicopter are offered. Air sports, such as parachuting and gliding, are offered by local clubs.

The Cottbus-Drewitz airfield, approx. 25 km away, also offers Europe-wide charter and taxi flights. The former Cottbus-Nord airfield was used by the NVA and is closed today. The Technologie- und Industriepark (TIP) , an industrial park of around two square kilometers, is now being planned and built there.

The three international airports are located at a greater distance from Cottbus:

Pedestrian and bicycle traffic

Signpost for cyclists in the direction of the city center

In the city ranking in the bicycle climate test 2012 by the ADFC , Cottbus was able to achieve fifth place (of 42) in the category cities with 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, directly after the state capital Potsdam . According to a survey by the city, cyclists now make up 22 percent of the total traffic volume.

Long-distance hiking trails

Long-distance cycle routes

The city is traversed by some important long-distance cycle paths and is the starting point for several cycle tours in the Spreewald or the open-cast mining region . The following cycle paths run through Cottbus:

media

Public legal radio

House of Friendship, Cottbus Radio Studio, 1955

Cottbus is the seat of a regional studio for Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (RBB). Since August 2, 1925, the German Radio Club from Cottbus started broadcasting regularly. They had a reception range of up to 600 km. In 1946 the Cottbus studio of the state broadcaster Brandenburg was founded. It only broadcast radio programs. The GDR government made the studio subordinate to the National Committee for Broadcasting from 1952. In the period that followed, regional radio broadcasts lasting up to six hours were produced daily on Radio DDR II in German and Lower Sorbian . In 1989 the Cottbus studio got its own outdoor studio in Bautzen for the production of radio broadcasts in Upper Sorbian . The Studio Bautzen was taken over by the MDR on January 1st, 1991 .

In the spring of 1990, the regional studios of Radio DDR II in Cottbus, Potsdam and Frankfurt (Oder) founded the joint radio program Antenne Brandenburg . On January 1, 1992, the program and part of the editorial team were taken over by Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB) and later by its legal successor, RBB. In its Cottbus radio studios, the RBB produces around five hours of radio broadcasts a day in German and, for the Bramborske Serbske Radijo, in Lower Sorbian.

The RBB regional studio Cottbus with around 50 employees also produces TV programs and individual TV programs. In Cottbus u. a. the programs RBB regional , THEODOR - Geschichte (n) aus der Mark and the Lower Sorbian language program Łužyca ( Lausitz ) produced (as of 2012) . In addition, deliveries are made for Das Erste and the third television programs as well as production aids for ZDF .

Since the closure of the old Friedrichstadtpalast in Berlin in 1980, major television shows have been produced in Cottbus, for example: A Kessel Buntes ( DFF ), The Golden Note (DFF), Musikanten sind da (DFF), Melodies for Millions (ZDF) , Musikantenstadl (DFF / ARD / SRF / ORF ), Festival of Folk Music (ARD) and Music for You (MDR). The entertainer Harald Juhnke wrote television history with his surprising appearance in the first German-German entertainment show Musikantenstadl on December 17, 1989. Every January, the RBB in Cottbus produces the carnival program Heut 'steppt der Adler for ARD .

Private broadcasting

In addition to radio organized under public law, private radio stations are also represented in Cottbus. The station 94.5 Radio Cottbus broadcasts entirely focused on Cottbus and the surrounding area . BB radio and 94.3 rs2 broadcast with occasional regional program windows or news . In addition, other stations can be received via VHF such as Radio B2 and Berliner Rundfunk 91.4 . With Lausitz TV (LTV) there is also a local TV station that can be freely received in the cable network.

Print media

The regional daily newspaper Lausitzer Rundschau appears in a monopoly position in Cottbus and the surrounding area . The newspaper 20cent belonged to the Lausitzer Rundschau as the parent company via the Saarbrücker Zeitungsverlag . It was discontinued on February 28, 2009. The Märkische Bote , the Lausitzer Woche and the Wochenkurier are advertising papers for the region. The event magazines Blicklicht and Hermann are also published . While the Konturmagazin newspaper is aimed at a young target group, the Nowy Casnik weekly newspaper is published in Lower Sorbian for the Lusatian minorities of the Wends and Sorbs.

Former garrison

Cottbus was a garrison town of the Prussian army from 1868 to 1918 . In 1886 the newly built Alvensleben barracks was occupied by the 52nd Infantry Regiment . After an interruption in the interwar period , Cottbus once again became a military base for the armament of the Wehrmacht , when the army moved into the new Hermann Löns barracks in 1938 . After the war it was occupied by the Soviet troops until 1958 and was then handed over to the National People's Army . Until 1990, the 15th Panzer Regiment was housed in the accommodation, now known as Paul Hornick Barracks .

In addition, in the southern suburb of Sachsendorf , which was incorporated in 1950, there was a barracks area, also built in the 1930s for the Wehrmacht, which was occupied by the Soviet troops until the 1980s (most recently: 35th air storm brigade).

Personalities

Famous personalities from Cottbus include the painter Carl Blechen , the physiologist Gustav Theodor Fritsch , the Resistance member Adolphe Low , the athlete Ulrike Bruns , the discus thrower Robert Harting and the cyclist Tony Martin .

literature

in alphabetical order by authors / editors

General

  • Steffen Krestin: Cottbus. Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 3-89702-420-9 .
  • Thomas Kläber and Hartmut Schatte: Fascination Cottbus. Regia-Verlag, Cottbus 2005, ISBN 3-936092-59-1 .
  • Thomas Kläber, Norbert Krauzig and Erich Schutt : Cottbus - beautiful sides of a city. ALfa-Verlag, Cottbus 2002, ISBN 3-935513-05-4 .
  • Andreas Peter: Get to know Cottbus while playing. A quiz with 100 questions and answers. Niederlausitzer Verlag, Guben 2006, ISBN 3-935881-33-9 .
  • Erhard Etzlaub (1462–1532) Road map "The country roads through the Roman Empire" from 1501, Goldene Straße, (e.g. Löbau City Archives)
  • "Book of Arms of Heil. Rom. Reichs, and general Christianity by Martin Schrot, printed in the Fürstlichen Statt München ”1581, representation of the crab coat of arms of Kotwitz under“ The 4th gefreyte Herren ”page 77

architecture

  • Anderhalten Architects: Art Museum Dieselkraftwerk Cottbus. Jovis Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-939633-82-2 .
  • Ingrid Halbach, Karl-Heinz Müller, Steffen Delang, Gerold Glatte and Peter Biernath (eds.): Architectural guide Cottbus. Walks through the city and surroundings. Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin and Munich 1993, ISBN 3-345-00506-9 .

Monument topography:

history

  • Arielle Kohlschmidt, Siegfried Kohlschmidt and Thomas Kläber: Cottbus: 1156–2006 - 850 years. CGA-Verlag, Cottbus 2005, ISBN 3-937503-12-9 .
  • Steffen Krestin: Chronicle of the history of the city of Cottbus . BVB-Verl.-Ges., Nordhorn 2003, ISBN 3-936092-98-2 .
  • Steffen Lohbrandt (arrangement): Plan of the city of Cottbus. 1927 (reprint with street directory) Niederlausitzer Verlag, Guben 2006, ISBN 978-3-935881-40-1 .
  • Harriet Stürmer and Frank Mangelsdorf (eds.): Once and now. Cottbus. Culturcon-Medien, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-941092-63-1 .
  • Erich Schutt: Cottbus 1950–1995. Illustrated book, Steffen Verlag, Friedland 2011, ISBN 978-3-940101-94-5 .

Filmography

  • Picture book Germany , Cottbus, documentation, production: RBB , first broadcast: March 19, 2006, 45 min.
  • BTU Cottbus , documentation, production: Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus , IKMZ video library
  • The sun rises in the east , Energie Cottbus, documentation, production: 2001

Web links

Portal: Lausitz  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Lausitz
Wiktionary: Cottbus  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Cottbus  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Cottbus  - travel guide
Wikisource: Cottbus  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

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  3. Welcome to the Stadtsportbund Cottbus eV on July 29, 2020
  4. Recommendation of the Standing Committee for Geographical Names (StAGN) of September 17, 1999 to adapt the spelling of toponyms to the reformed rules
  5. Cottbuser . Duden.de
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  7. Arnost Muka: Serbski zemjepisny słowničk. Budyšin, 1927, p. 97 ( digitized version ).
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  12. a b DWD Meteorological Station Cottbus
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  45. Result of the local elections in 2019
  46. ^ Result of the mayoral election in 2014
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  48. cancer representation Kotwitz "armorial of healing. Rom. Empire and general Christianity, by Martin Schrot, printed in the princely place of Munich ”1581, sheet 77 under“ The 4th gefreyte Herren ”.
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  69. Opponents of the Lausitz university merger start a referendum. LR-online, December 20, 2012.
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This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on January 8, 2006 .