|coat of arms||Germany map|
|height :||75 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||165.62km2 _|
|Resident:||98,693 (Dec 31, 2020)|
|population density :||596 inhabitants per km 2|
|area code :||0355|
|License plate :||cb|
|Municipality key :||12 0 52 000|
|LOCODE :||DE COT|
|City structure:||19 districts|
|Address of the
|Lord Mayor :||Holger Kelch ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Cottbus in Brandenburg|
Cottbus , Lower Sorbian Chóśebuz [ ˈxɨɕɛbus ], is an independent city with 98,693 inhabitants (31 December 2020) in the state of Brandenburg . After its capital Potsdam , it is the second largest city in terms of population and, alongside Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt (Oder) , one of the four regional centers of the state. Cottbus is considered the political and cultural center of the Sorbs in Lower Lusatia , although only a small minority lives in the city. The city is a service, sports, scientific and administrative center. An Olympic base , the Cottbus State Theater and the Cottbus campus of the Brandenburg Technical University are located here .
In the sporting field, Cottbus is known for the tournament of masters in apparatus and artistic gymnastics as well as the successful work in cycling . In addition, almost a fifth of Cottbus residents are active in one of the approximately 140 sports clubs. Measured against their size, there are a relatively large number of parks and green areas, such as Prince Pückler 's Branitzer Park . In the next few years, the Cottbuser Ostsee should increase the recreational value as a future project.
Cottbus was first mentioned in a document in 1156 and, as the largest city in Lusatia today, has been almost entirely in Brandenburg or Prussia since the 15th century . Cottbus is not far from the Spreewald .
place name and spelling
Until the beginning of the 20th century, the spelling of the city's name was disputed. While the more modern spelling with a K was used for Berlin street names and is still used in part (“ Kottbusser Tor ”), the traditional C was retained locally. Because the city's proper nomenclature contradicted pre-1996 rules, it remains the valid spelling following the "strong recommendation" of the Standing Committee on Geographical Names for the application of spelling reform to geographic names. In this context it should be mentioned that both the spelling Cottbuser and Cottbusser , with one or two s , are permitted. According to the city's main statute , it bears the official name "Cottbus/Chóśebuz". In addition to its name, it bears the designation "Universitätsstadt/Uniwersitne město".
In addition to the official place name in German and Lower Sorbian, the neighboring Slavic languages each have their own names for Cottbus, such as Choćebuz in Upper Sorbian , Chociebuż in Polish and Chotěbuz in Czech .
The place name is derived from the Lower Sorbian personal name Chóśebud , which in turn means "alert" or "alert hero". The place name is thus to be interpreted as "settlement of Chóśebud".
Cottbus is the largest city in Lower Lusatia and is located on the middle Spree between the Lusatian border wall in the south and the Spreewald in the north. The city stretches 15.6 kilometers east-west and 19.2 kilometers north-south. The Spree, which reaches a width of 36 meters in Cottbus, flows through the city over a distance of 23 kilometers.
The total area of the city is 164.2 square kilometers, of which 35.2 square kilometers are forest areas, another 3 square kilometers are water areas. The nearest major cities are Dresden , about 90 kilometers southwest, Zielona Góra in Poland , about 100 kilometers northeast, and Berlin , about 100 kilometers northwest of Cottbus.
The urban area of Cottbus is divided into 19 districts . The population figures given relate to April 30, 2021. Starting from the city center, the districts are as follows (Lower Sorbian names in brackets):
|district||resident||Area in km²||population density||first mention||incorporation||local councils|
|4||Spremberger Vorstadt (Grodkojske pśedměsto)||13,917||3.6||3,866||–|
|19||Great Gaglow (Gogolow)||1,478||4.6||321||1389||2003||5|
According to the main statute of the city of Cottbus , local advisory councils are to be elected in the districts that were incorporated in 1993 and later . Among other things, these should support the city councilors and the city administration in their work.
In addition, there are 19 other parts of the community and other settlement sites .
Neighboring communities and districts
As an independent city, the city of Cottbus is completely surrounded by the Spree-Neiße district and borders in the north and north-east on the communities of Drachhausen , Drehnow and Turnow-Preilack , the city of Peitz and the communities of Teichland and Heinersbrück . In the east and south it borders on the communities of Wiesengrund and Neuhausen/Spree , in the southwest on the town of Drebkau with Klein Oßnig and in the west on the communities of Kolkwitz , Briesen and Dissen-Striesow .
The city of Cottbus is located in the temperate climate zone . The mean annual temperature in the CLINO period 1971-2000 was 9.3 degrees Celsius . The warmest month is July with an average of 18.6 degrees Celsius. The coldest month is January with an average of −0.6 degrees Celsius. The difference between the maximum and the minimum, called the amplitude , is 19.2 degrees Celsius.
The mean annual rainfall from 1971 to 2000 was 559 millimeters. Most precipitation falls in July with an average of 74 millimeters, the least in February with an average of 34 millimeters. There is precipitation all year round, but it is heavier in summer. The climate is therefore humid all year round .
Monthly average temperatures and precipitation for Cottbus
|Political affiliation of Cottbus since 1156|
|Holy Roman Empire||Margraviate of Lusatia||1156-1445|
|Margraviate of Brandenburg||1445-1701|
|Kingdom of Prussia||1701-1806|
|Prussia||Margraviate of Brandenburg||1806-1807|
|Saxony||Margraviate of Lower Lusatia||1807-1813|
|Prussia||occupied by Prussia||1813-1815|
|Province of Brandenburg||1815-1867|
|North German Confederation||Kingdom of Prussia||1867-1871|
|Deutsches Reich||Kingdom of Prussia||1871-1918|
|Deutsches Reich||Free State of Prussia||1918-1933|
|district of Cottbus||1952-1990|
The history of settlements in Cottbus in today's old town can be traced back almost 2000 years. In the 3rd and 4th centuries, Germanic settlers settled in the old town area . Since the 6th century, Slavic tribes have migrated from the south-east into the area between the Elbe / Saale and the Oder . This was followed in the 8th century by the Lusitzi , a West Slavic tribe. They built a central Slavic rampart on a valley sand island on the west bank of the Spree . Under the protection of the Slavic castle , the Wends established an outer bailey settlement, which developed into an early urban settlement in the 11th and 12th centuries. On November 30, 1156, the name "Cottbus" was first mentioned. Cottbus seems to have received city rights between 1216 and 1225. The Cottbus city wall was built in the 14th century.
The "Lords of Cottbus", a Franconian noble family , ruled from 1199 to 1445. The Kotebuz family was also called Kottwitz , which is why the place names Kottevitz, Kotwitz and Kottwitz were used and written in old maps from the 15th and 16th centuries. The von Cottbus/ Kottwitz founded five other places named Kottwitz, Chotěvice in Saxony, Silesia and Bohemia. In 1304 the House of Wettin had to sell Lusatia due to financial difficulties . For this reason, the city of Cottbus changed hands frequently until 1370. In the years 1405 and 1406 John III. the cloth makers and linen weavers guilds their privilege .
Since 1445, Cottbus has been under Brandenburg and Prussian rule, with the exception of the period from 1807 ( Peace of Tilsite ) to 1815 ( Congress of Vienna ), when the city was annexed to the Kingdom of Saxony . In 1468, lightning struck the city and reduced the whole of Cottbus, including the upper church, to rubble and ashes. In 1479 a fire destroyed the city again.
In 1522 a first attempt was made to introduce the Reformation into the city . It was only Margrave Johann von Küstrin who finally established the Protestant denomination in 1537. For centuries, the city was predominantly Protestant . Places of worship were the parish church of St. Nikolai (upper church) and the church of the Franciscan monastery founded around 1300 (monastery church). There was also a St. Catherine 's Church on the site of today's Castle Church , which burned down in 1600. The Lutheran confession was dominant , but from 1620 there was also a Reformed congregation at the castle. The castle church was built in 1714.
After the Reformation, only a small remnant of Catholic believers remained in Cottbus and the surrounding area. These were looked after by the Neuzelle monastery . Occasional services were held in St. Catherine's Church until 1590. From 1646 the city council permitted services in the Gottesackerkirche Ad sanctam portam on two Sundays a year .
Waves of plague and devastation during the Thirty Years' War also brought destruction, hardship and misery to the city and its population. Wallenstein marched through Cottbus with his troops. The city experienced repeated occupation, looting and destruction. At the end of the war in 1648 only a few hundred people lived in Cottbus.
In the 18th century the French Huguenots settled and Cottbus experienced an economic boom. In the same century, part of the fortifications were demolished and the people of Cottbus used the site to plant mulberry trees for silk moth breeding. Gardens were planted and the city began to expand in all directions. From 1756 to 1763 the Seven Years' War raged . This was also noticeable in Cottbus. Although no direct combat operations took place, there were passages and billeting of troops. As a result of the provisions of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the district of Cottbus , including Lower Lusatia , was annexed to Prussia . Before that, Cottbus had been an exclave in Saxon territory.
With industrialization in the 19th century, the city experienced a significant boom. Cottbus became a center of Lower Lusatia - an industrial city with modern infrastructure, with cultural and social buildings. It developed into an important transport hub with the construction of the railways. During this time, many new businesses were founded in Cottbus. These include, for example, a wool yarn spinning mill and a Baumkuchen bakery. In the course of administrative development, Cottbus was given a district court in October 1824 . On March 17, 1831, the revised town ordinance was introduced. The city constitution, drawn up by the district administrator , the mayor and representatives of the citizenry, received government approval on December 14, 1831. From February 12th to 15th, 1832, the elections for the first city parliament took place. In October 1835, the cloth maker Heinrich Kittel received a factory concession. He combined spinning, weaving , fulling and finishing under one management. The old machines were still driven by a horse -drawn gullet . By the early 1840s, however, steam engines and the Jacquard loom became dominant. These were the beginnings of the large companies in the Cottbus textile industry , in which the English textile machine and wool manufacturer William Cockerill, junior played a significant role.
1830 were by King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Both denominations within Prussia were united to form a unified state church ( United Church ), and the Protestant communities of Cottbus also belonged to the "Evangelical Church in Prussia" or its provincial church in Brandenburg, the head of which was the respective king of Prussia as "summus episcopus". As a reaction to this forced state unification, the Evangelical Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church arose throughout the Kingdom of Prussia . She demanded her right to freedom of religion by wanting the full application of the Lutheran constitution, worship and doctrine. Thus, in 1846/47, a church community first came into being in Cottbus, which, however, was only able to build its Evangelical-Lutheran Kreuzkirche in 1878/79.
20th Century (1914 to 1990)
On August 1, 1914, many citizens in Cottbus also cheered the start of the First World War . At the grammar school, emergency maturity exams were held, and a few days later, the No. 52 Infantry Regiment marched to the station to the cheers of thousands of Cottbus residents. In September, a camp for 10,000 prisoners of war was set up at the racecourse north of the city. On September 4, 1914, the first transport arrived with 7,000 Russian prisoners of war. In 1915 a prison camp was added to the east of the city.
After the First World War, the textile industry continued to dominate the economy, although unemployment was sometimes high. In the 1932 elections, the NSDAP already won a majority of votes. During the National Socialist period in 1936, the old Prussian prison was converted into a women 's prison in 1939 . For anti-Semitic persecution, see Judaism below.
In 1934 the discovery of gold in Cottbus caused a stir.
From 1938 the ZKW tracked vehicle for the Wehrmacht was manufactured in Cottbus by the Zittau phenomenon works . In 1939 the Focke-Wulf aircraft works relocated parts of their production to Cottbus. In addition, a German commercial aviation school and a hydrogenation plant were built .
In the autumn of 1940, the people of Cottbus experienced the first air raids on the city. On February 15, 1945, an air raid by 459 US B-17 bombers destroyed large parts of the city. The attack claimed more than 1000 lives. On April 22, 1945, troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front of the Red Army took the city after three days of heavy fighting.
From 1952, Cottbus was the capital of the district of Cottbus in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). On June 17, 1953 , there was also a popular uprising in Cottbus . When restrictions were to be imposed on the standard of living, people took to the streets and also raised political demands. Soviet tanks and workers' militias crushed the uprising.
From 1957 the area around Cottbus became the most important supplier of coal and energy. But also the construction industry , the textile and furniture industry as well as food production determined the economic structure of the city, which received the status of a major city in 1976.
In the Federal Republic of Germany
With the completion of German unity in October 1990, a far-reaching structural change in the city and region began through the privatization of the economy. Cottbus became a service, science and administration center. In the course of the Brandenburg district reform of 1993 , the district of Cottbus became part of the newly formed district of Spree-Neisse . The city itself remained independent. In 2006, the city celebrated the 850th anniversary of its first documentary mention. Since January 1, 2007, Cottbus has been the seat of the Berlin-Brandenburg Finance Court .
From 2010, Cottbus developed into a stronghold of right- wing extremism . After clashes with locals, an “immigration freeze” for refugees was imposed in 2018, and the city is now “known for conflicts between locals and migrants”. In the 2019 local elections , the AfD became the strongest party. According to estimates by the Office for the Protection of the Constitution , the right-wing extremist scene in the region is particularly active and well connected. An association called "Zukunft Heimat" invites neo-Nazis , right- wing populists and citizens to agitate against refugees together . The dentist Hans-Christoph Berndt is considered a leading figure and heads the AfD faction in the city council and in the state parliament of Brandenburg .
In the history of the city, the following communities or districts were incorporated into Cottbus:
- 1871: Castle area, Mill Island, Metze and Markgrafeninsel
- 1872: Brunschwig am Berge, Brunschwig in der Gasse, Brunschwig manor and municipality of Ostrow
- 1904: Sandow rural community and Brunschwig estate district
- 1926: Subdivision of Madlow
- 1927: part of Branitz and Ströbitz
- July 1, 1950: Madlow, Sachsendorf, Saspow, Schmellwitz and Ströbitz as well as parts of Groß Gaglow and Klein Gaglow
- 1974: Branitz Park
- 6 December 1993: Branitz , Dissenchen (with Schlichow ), Döbbrick (with Skadow ), Kahren, Merzdorf and Willmersdorf
- October 26, 2003: Gallinchen, Groß Gaglow and Kiekebusch
The incorporations since the affiliation to the Federal Republic of Germany primarily served the purpose of maintaining the status of a major city (with at least 100,000 inhabitants) and the associated financial benefits. Some of these incorporations, especially those of the southern districts in 2003, took place against the declared will of the residents. To date, no further incorporations have been made.
The population development of Cottbus is subject to strong fluctuations. The fluctuations in the number of inhabitants between the 14th and 17th centuries are the result of the plague . The population of Cottbus exceeded 100,000 on September 4, 1976, making it a major city. In just 13 years until 1989, it reached its all-time high of almost 130,000, mainly due to the lignite combine. Since the fall of communism in the GDR , the city has lost around 46,000 inhabitants in its urban area from 1990 to 2007 due to high unemployment and the decline in the birth rate. There were more deaths than births and more people moving away than people moving in. The status as a major city with over 100,000 inhabitants could only be maintained in the first 13 years after reunification through the incorporation of around 17,000 inhabitants from the surrounding area. As a result of the 2011 census , the population was given as 99,984 as of May 9, 2011. Cottbus then lost its status as a major city, which it only regained for a short time. At the beginning of 2021 there were 98 347 inhabitants.
As a result of the decline in population and the expansion of the urban area, the population density dropped significantly. While on December 31, 2000 it was still 720 people per square kilometer, on December 31, 2020 there were 598 people per square kilometer.
The proportion of foreigners (residents without German citizenship ) was 2.8 percent at the end of 2000 and 9.1 percent in 2021. In total, around 9,000 people were involved in 2021. In 2011 only 6.1% of Cottbus residents had a migration background .
The most populous districts, each with more than 10,000 inhabitants, are Sandow, Ströbitz, Schmellwitz, the Spremberger Vorstadt and Sachsendorf. The sparsestly populated districts, each with fewer than 1000 inhabitants, are Skadow, Saspow and Willmersdorf. In 1991, the median age of the city's population was 35.5 years. In 2000 it was already 40.9 years, in 2011 it was 45.7 years. The "youngest district" was Sielow at the end of 2008 with an average age of 41.8 years, the highest average age was in the district of Madlow with 49.9 years, followed by Sandow (48.9).
According to the 2011 census , 11.2 percent of the residents were Protestant, 3.5 percent Roman Catholic and the overwhelming number 85.3 percent were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or made no statement. Since then, the number of Protestants has continued to fall. At the end of 2017, Cottbus had a population of 100,945, of whom 9,743 (9.7 percent) were Protestants , 3,558 (3.5 percent) were Catholics and 86.8 percent had either another or no religious affiliation.
The Christianization of Lusatia started in Meissen and was completed around 1100. Bishop Eido von Rochlitz was able to preach successfully in Lower Lusatia during his missions from 992 to 1015 thanks to his knowledge of the Slavic languages, and the mission was also successfully continued from 1058 under Benno von Meißen . The city of Cottbus initially belonged to the Diocese of Meissen . Because of the great distance between the sparsely populated Lower Lusatia and Meissen in Saxony, there was an official in Lübben who acted as the bishop's deputy. Cottbus was the seat of an archpriest .
There are a number of ecumenical events in Cottbus. For example, the Night of Open Churches (NdoK) event has been held in cooperation with the various churches for a number of years .
After the abolition of the sovereign church regime in 1918, the provincial church in Brandenburg was a founding member of the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union . In 1947 it became an independent state church headed by a bishop . In 2004 the church merged with the Evangelical Church of Silesian Upper Lusatia to form the Evangelical Church in Berlin-Brandenburg-Silesian Upper Lusatia . The Protestant parishes of Cottbus belong - unless they are free churches - to the church district of Cottbus within the ecclesiastical district of the same name (ACK), whose seat is also in Cottbus. To this day, the Old Lutherans are present in the city with a rectory and the Kreuzkirche. Today, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Cross is part of the Lusatia church district of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church .
In addition to the regional church congregations, there are several free churches in Cottbus, for example an Evangelical Free Church ( Baptists ), an Evangelical Methodist Church , the Apostolic Community , the Biblical Faith Community Cottbus e. V. and the Free Christian Community Sachsendorf. Since 2001, the Moravian Church (lat. Unitas Fratrum) Moravian Church again a house as "Cottbus stop" directly in Cottbus. The "Church for Cottbus" is in the process of being founded. It is a founding initiative of the FeG Inland-Mission in the Federation of Free Evangelical Churches in Germany .
The places of worship available to evangelical believers today include: the upper church of St. Nikolai , the monastery church , the Lutheran church and the Madlower Martinskirche . The Castle Church was rededicated in 2014.
Roman Catholic Church
After several requests to the responsible state and church authorities, the foundation stone of today's Christ Church was laid in 1848 for the growing number of Catholics and the church Zum Guten Hirten was consecrated on October 27, 1850. Especially in and through industrialization, the number of Catholics soon grew to over 2,500, and so on October 7, 1934, Cardinal Adolf Bertram of Wrocław dedicated a new church for the growing community to the patronage of St. Maria Friedenskönigin , which was well chosen in the context of the time . In 1964 the war-damaged church Zum Guten Hirten was restored and a second Cottbus parish was formed around the so-called Christ Church. Since 2012, both congregations have been brought together again in one parish and bear the old title Zum Guten Hirten . Today the community belongs to the Diocese of Görlitz .
The Christ Church (to the Good Shepherd), the Edith Stein Church and the provost and parish church of St. Maria Friedenskönigin are available as places of worship for Roman Catholic Christians.
In order to provide non-denominational support for the educational and medical care of the population, the socially active, and in particular nursing, Catholic Order of the Poor Maids of Jesus Christ (also: Dernbach Sisters) from Dernbach in the Westerwald settled on December 1, 1886. His work in outpatient nursing, in the kindergarten and in the old people's home lasted until May 1, 1965.
Association of Evangelical Free Churches
The Association of Evangelical Free Churches (VEF) is represented by three congregations in Cottbus: The Adventist congregation has its community center at Gaglower Straße 13. The place of worship of the United Methodist Church is at Virchowstraße 41. The Evangelical Free Church congregation (also called Baptists ) meets for the service in their church building at Bautzener Straße 111.
Other churches and denominations
The oldest information about Jews in Cottbus dates back to 1448, when Joachim II gave them the right to live in the city and put them under his protection. In 1510 all Jews had to leave Cottbus after the alleged sacrificial act of garlic.
The first application for the settlement of a Jewish family in Cottbus was not received until 1692, and Jewish citizens were mentioned in 1740. In 1811 a prayer room in the rear building of a cloth maker on Mauerstraße was mentioned for the first time. In 1814 only 17 Jews lived in Cottbus. With the year 1816 and the affiliation to Prussia , where the Jewish Edict had been in force since 1812 , the Jewish community also grew slowly. In 1847, the Jews of the city and its surroundings decided to start forming a Jewish community . In 1858 the community was finally considered to have been founded. In 1866 there were 31 members, in 1902 there were already 90 members.
The systematic disenfranchisement, discrimination , persecution and extermination of Jewish citizens by the National Socialists began as early as 1933 . This year alone, 315 laws and regulations were passed against them. Furthermore, in 1933 the local police authority Cottbus VI, which was exclusively responsible for so-called “Jewish matters”, was founded.
On March 31, 1933, a Cottbus daily newspaper issued a call for a boycott , which, in addition to grocery stores, also affected all the offices of Jewish lawyers, the branches of Jewish doctors and cloth mail order companies and was to apply from April 1, 1933. In addition, numerous naturalizations that had taken place between 1918 and 1933 were revoked. In 1936, 334 Jewish citizens lived in Cottbus, including 87 children, 128 women and 119 men. In February 1937, 499 Jews were already living in Cottbus. Many of them had fled to Cottbus from the surrounding communities, hoping to be able to live more anonymously in a larger city. At the same time there was a wave of emigration wanted by the government, with payment of the required “ Reich Flight Tax ”, accompanied by forced expropriation of houses, shops and factories. On October 1, 1936, 34 Jews emigrated, mainly to South Africa and Brazil. During the November pogroms of 1938 , the National Socialists also burned down the Cottbus synagogue . It was later demolished and a department store was built in its place in the 1960s. In memory of the Jewish community and its synagogue , there is a plaque on the forecourt of the Stadtwerke in Karl-Liebknecht-Straße , which was erected in 1988 and renewed in 1998. The night of November 9 was the prelude to the deportations of Jewish citizens to concentration camps . The first transport left the city in mid-November 1938. After the end of the war only twelve members of the former congregation were still alive.
On July 15, 1998, the Jewish community in Cottbus was re-established. It works as a non-profit organization as a registered association. It currently has around 350 members, all of whom came to Germany from the former Soviet Union . However, the community did not have a worthy synagogue as of early 2015. A further complication was that the premises no longer had the necessary capacities. After several years of efforts to find better community rooms, the Protestant Castle Church was handed over to the Jewish community on September 18, 2014 to be converted into a synagogue. On January 27, 2015, the official dedication of the new synagogue took place with the participation of the state rabbi and the vice president of the Central Council of Jews in the presence of around 1,000 citizens.
- Alternative for Germany (AfD, 11 seats)
- Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU, 9 seats)
- Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD, 8 seats)
- The Left (7 seats)
- Our Cottbus! (5 seats)
- Alliance 90/The Greens (4 seats)
- Active Independent Citizens (AUB), Brandenburg United Citizens' Movements/Free Voters (3 seats)
- Free Democratic Party (FDP, 2 seats)
- Social Upheaval (SUB) (1 seat)
A mayor has probably been at the head of the city of Cottbus since the 13th century , but only a few names have survived. They acted as speakers for the residents and were subordinate to the lord of the castle. At the latest since the 16th century there was also a council consisting of councilors and four mayors. Later the number of mayors changed. Since the 19th century, the head of the city has usually carried the title "Mayor". The council then bore the designation City Council .
Today the mayor is directly elected by the people. He is the highest representative of the city and head of the Cottbus city administration. The last election took place on September 14, 2014. Holger Kelch (CDU) was elected mayor with 50.7 percent of the votes. His opponents were the previous incumbent Frank Szymanski (SPD) with 37.3 percent and Lars Krause ( The Party ) with 12.0 percent. The term of office of the Lord Mayor is eight years.
The Local Alliance for Families is still running in 2008 as one of several nationwide model projects. It serves to promote families and civic engagement in cooperation with politics, administration, citizens, educational institutions and associations.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "The coat of arms of the city of Cottbus shows a battlemented, squared red castle in silver with a closed gate. Between the towers with knobbed pitched roofs, two small houses protrude over the wall. Above it hovers a silver triangular shield with an erect red crab.”|
|Justification for the coat of arms: The Cottbus city coat of arms, approved in 2000, shows a closed gate with two towers between which there is a red crab on a silver shield. The question of how the crab got on the city coat of arms and what meaning it has is hotly debated among researchers. Without a doubt, the lords, whose heraldic animal was the crab from Aschaffenburg descent, put it on the city coat of arms as a sign of their rule over the city, their property. Heraldic animals are symbols, the crab stands for protection (the armor) and defense (the scissors). It also symbolizes rebirth because the crustacean changes its chitinous shell every year . An astrological significance of Cancer cannot be ruled out either. Other researchers suspect that the origin can be traced back to the cancer-rich Spree or the raw material for the kitchen.|
The crab as a heraldic symbol is relatively rare. However, the assertion that Cottbus is the only city with the crab in its coat of arms is wrong. The cities of Bad Wurzach , Bernkastel-Kues , Kreßberg , Vörstetten and Pram in Upper Austria also have a crab as their heraldic animal . The districts of Bernkastel-Wittlich and Spree-Neisse also have cancer in their coats of arms. Originally, devout knights carried it in their shields. This heraldic animal probably came to Cottbus from the Franconian . Fredehelm von Cottbus , who died in 1307, descended from the Frankish noble family of Kottwitz , whose coat of arms symbols were a ram's horn in addition to the crab. In the city's oldest sculptural work of art , the tombstone in the monastery church with the portrait of Fredehelm and his wife Adelheid, the crab is depicted on the breastplate and shield of the knight. From there the cancer probably came into the oldest surviving city seal from the 14th century. This is the oldest tradition of the coat of arms.
The flag of the city of Cottbus is three-striped red-white-red in a ratio of 1:8:1 and has the city coat of arms in the middle stripe.
Cottbus has partnerships with the following cities:
- Montreuil , France , since 1959
- Grosseto , Italy , since 1967
- Lipetsk , Russia , since 1974
- Zielona Góra , Poland , since 1975
- Targovishte , Bulgaria , since 1975
- Košice , Slovakia , since 1978
- Saarbrücken , Saarland , Germany , since 1987
- Gelsenkirchen , North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany , since 1995
- Nuneaton and Bedworth , United Kingdom , since 1999
An intensive partnership is maintained with Zielona Góra, as there are annual agreements on cooperation with the Polish city and this is advertised in the local tourist information office. Street names in Cottbus are dedicated to the partner cities of Zielona Góra, Saarbrücken, Gelsenkirchen and Lipezk.
Culture and sights
Theaters, stages and ensembles
The city of Cottbus has a large number of theatres , stages and ensembles . The best-known is probably the Cottbus State Theater , built according to plans by the architect Bernhard Sehring . It is the only state theater in Brandenburg and presents drama , musical theater and ballet . In addition, the Stadthalle of Cottbus offers space for around 2000 people. International ensembles such as the Chinese National Circus, the Russian State Ballet and pop, folk and Schlager stars regularly make guest appearances in this event hall: e.g. B. Harry Belafonte , Rosenstolz , Gitte Hænning . The small theatre, the TheaterNative C , was founded as a private theater in 1989 and has become a determining factor in the Cottbus art scene. It offers drama, cabaret , boulevard , as well as children's theater and experimental productions . The piccolo theater has been a theater for children and young people since 1991. The audience at the Rainbow Puppet Theater consists mainly of children between the ages of four and ten, for whom the visit is often the first theater experience of their lives and leaves a lasting impression.
Musically, the Cottbus Philharmonic Orchestra , the Cottbus Singing Academy, the Cottbus Children's Musical and the children's and youth ensemble Pfiffikus , the student theater Stage 8 and the Theater an der Wendeschleife in Gladhouse are resident in the city.
With the Weltspiegel film theater , Cottbus has the second oldest purpose-built cinema in Germany after the Burg Theater in Burg (near Magdeburg) . This was built in Art Nouveau style. The Obenkino in the Gladhouse and the KinOh Stadthalle are other small cinemas in the city center . There is also a UCI cinema world in the Groß Gaglow district , near the Lausitz Park shopping center.
The Cottbus Film Festival has been held in Cottbus every autumn since 1991, with a focus on Eastern European cinema. The festival center is located in the Stadthalle Cottbus. Venues continue to be the Staatstheater, the Kammerbühne, the Weltspiegel film theater, the Obenkino and the Zelig.
museums and galleries
The Fürst-Pückler-Museum Park and Branitz Castle Foundation brings the history of the park and its creator Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau closer to visitors in the castle and in the multimedia exhibition in the manor .
The Wendish Museum provides insights into the culture and history of the Wends in Lower Lusatia . Numerous exhibits on costumes, writing and literature, art and music as well as on customs and lifestyle document the unique culture of the Slavic population.
Both the city museum and the city archive are regarded as the historical memory of the city of Cottbus. They are contact persons for citizens interested in history, local researchers and historians. Both institutions are dedicated to the history of the city . Interesting individual topics are also presented with special exhibitions in the town hall and other municipal facilities.
The Brandenburg Pharmacy Museum on the Altmarkt is the only pharmacy museum in the state of Brandenburg. Complete pharmacy furnishings from around 1830 and the first half of the 20th century are on display there.
The Dieselkraftwerk Art Museum , until April 2006 Brandenburg Art Collections Cottbus, houses works from the genres of painting , sculpture , graphics , photography and posters and works primarily with the thematic complex of landscape , space, nature and the environment. The Haus 23 Gallery , the Fango Gallery and the Temporary Gallery offer sculptors, painters, photographers and filmmakers from Cottbus and the region the opportunity to exhibit their works.
The "Juri Gagarin" space flight planetarium was opened on April 26, 1974 at today's Lindenplatz and the original Spacemaster star projector - space flight planetarium from Carl Zeiss in Jena was in use until the end of 2012. Its dome with a diameter of 12.5 m offers space for 91 visitors. Since June 19, 2013, a new Chronos II − InSpace hybrid projection system has been used.
- The State Theater on Schillerplatz was built in Art Nouveau style by Bernhard Sehring in 1907/1908 .
- The New Town Hall was built between 1934 and 1936. The colonnades of columns on Berliner Strasse show reliefs symbols of old Cottbus craftsmanship . A plaque commemorates the birthplace of the painter Carl Blechen .
- The power station was built from 1901 to 1903 in neo-Gothic industrial architecture. It was used with two water turbines , steam engines and boiler systems to supply the city's tram system .
- In the 10th century, the Wends built a Slavic rampart on the valley sand island on the west bank of the Spree , the largest Slavic castle in Lower Lusatia and today's Schlossberg. There the 46 m high, medieval castle tower rises, which received its crenellated crown and neo-Gothic tower hood in 1877 with the new construction of the courthouse .
- Since February 2005, the architecturally unusual information, communication and media center and the Panta-Rhei-Halle on the campus of the Brandenburg Technical University have been among the nationally recognized sights of Cottbus.
- Branitz Castle in Branitz Park was built in 1772 in the late Baroque style and rebuilt around 1850 by Gottfried Semper on behalf of Prince Hermann von Pückler-Muskau .
- Other well-known buildings are the Cottbus water tower , the Bauhaus school , the diesel power plant and the Japanese tea house . With the Stadthalle Cottbus , the city also has the largest event hall in the state of Brandenburg.
The 31 m high Spremberg Tower was built in the 13th century as part of the 1,200 m long fortifications and, together with the bastion and gatehouse , forms the southern city gate . It received the crenellated crown between 1823 and 1825. The Mint Tower is the oldest tower in the city. The “Lords of Cottbus” probably had the Cottbuser Heller minted here with the Cottbus heraldic animal , the crab , as early as 1483. Towers , gates and Wiekhäuser along the medieval city wall reveal the layout of the old town . The Lindenpforte was created in order to be able to reach the market in the new town more quickly from the old town. For this purpose, the wall tower in Mauerstraße was breached in 1879.
- The Altmarkt with market fountain was once an important trading center, originally surrounded by half-timbered houses. Today it is surrounded by baroque town houses .
- The Wendish Quarter was built between 1984 and 1989 on historic city grounds between Berliner Platz and Oberkirchplatz, mainly in prefab construction with a façade structure typical of the old town. Visual art works come from Sorbian and German artists.
- The 300 m long Spremberger Strasse , which has been redesigned as a pedestrian zone , was once an important trade route and is characterized by residential and commercial buildings from the 19th century and the 1950s.
- Four building eras come together at Schlosskirchplatz . The house at the eastern end of the square was the seat of the mayor , the pastor and the French judge . To the south is a work by the architect Erich Mendelsohn in the typical Bauhaus style .
- The oldest buildings in Cottbus, the Loh and Weißgerber houses, are located on the Mühlengraben . These document the three development phases of the tanning trade. The small house from 1727 was both a workshop and a residential building. The middle one, which was built around 1760, was already a pure Wiekhaus . The brick building was built around 1860.
- The evangelical castle church was built in 1419 as St. Catherine's Church and was later destroyed several times by fire. Today's church was built on its foundation walls after the Huguenots moved in in 1714 as a single-nave plastered building with a hipped roof and sacristy . In 1870 she received the neo-Gothic tower. The church was handed over to the Jewish community on September 18, 2014 to set up a synagogue.
- The evangelical upper church of St. Nikolai , a late Gothic three-aisled brick building from the 14th century, is the largest church in Lower Lusatia and was formerly the place of worship for the Germans and for the upper urban bourgeoisie. Inside, the star vault and the high altar built in 1664 with magnificent alabaster carvings are worth seeing. In the nave and in the chapel extensions there are several important grave monuments from the 16th and 17th centuries. There is a good view over Cottbus from the 55 meter high church tower .
- The evangelical monastery church is also called the "Wendish Church" because it was formerly responsible for the Wendish rural population and the serving people. It is the remains of the former Franciscan monastery from the 13th and 14th centuries. The oldest church in Cottbus contains the tombstone of the city's founder, which shows the heraldic animal that is still valid today , and is an important testimony to the city's history.
- The Lutheran Church , built in 1911 to 1912 by Robert Leibnitz in simple Art Nouveau forms as a free-standing hall with a tower on the side .
- The Kreuzkirche of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church was erected in 1878/79 as a towerless neo-Gothic brick building for the Evangelical Lutheran (Old Lutheran) Church .
- The Catholic provost and parish church “St. Maria Friedenskönigin” , erected in 1934/35 as a two-tower brick building
- Catholic Christ Church , built in 1850 as a brick hall in simple neo-Gothic forms
- Edith-Stein Catholic Church in the district of Sachsendorf, a modern and simple building
- Evangelical Martin 's Church in the district of Madlow, Gothic brick building from the late 14th century with a rectangular nave and square tower, the attached sacristy is made of field stone masonry
- Memorial plaque to the resistance against the Kapp Putsch on the Spremberg Tower
- Commemorative plaque on the site of the old Jewish cemetery destroyed by the National Socialists at No. 54 Straße der Jugend under the sign of the Star of David
- Memorial stone for persecuted and murdered Jewish citizens of Cottbus at the mourning hall of the new Jewish cemetery on Dresdener Straße, extension of the Straße der Jugend
- A total of 77 stumbling blocks set into sidewalks for former Jewish fellow citizens
- Memorial and memorial grove for the victims of National Socialism at the southern cemetery
- Memorial with sculpture on the Soviet memorial grove of the southern cemetery for 400 fallen in the spring offensive of 1945
- Soviet memorial grove in the Ströbitz cemetery for prisoners of war and forced laborers who died
- Memorial to the victims of the anti-fascist resistance struggle on the Pushkin Promenade
- Cottbus prison memorial on the site of the former prison
Architecturally or historically valuable buildings in the city are marked with the Cottbus Architecture Path. Signage on buildings indicates this and shows the history of the buildings. The path is divided according to the era in which it was created, and there are signposts at the respective locations indicating which buildings are to be found in the vicinity.
Fire station Ewald-Haase-Strasse 3–3b (built in 1929/1930)
In the Weimar Republic, the housing shortage was met with state programs. In addition to affordable living space, a more powerful fire brigade was needed. The construction of the new fire station took these requirements into account in the simple, factual architectural style of modernity. Its inauguration was celebrated in 1930 on the 31st Brandenburg Association Day. The building complex is characterized by the striking tower with two clocks, which forms the opposite point to the tower of the upper church at the other end of the street. In terms of structure, the main fire station follows the ideals of New Building: cubic forms determine the height and depth staggering and the windows and doors are lined up like a ribbon. The residential building on the right with apartments for the firefighters belongs to the complex. When the demands on the fire brigade increased further after the Second World War, vehicle parking spaces and accommodation rooms were added to the main building on the left in 1967/68 - in the same modernist design. After 1990, an apartment in the neighboring house was used to accommodate a control center. Since the new fire brigade control center was inaugurated in Dresdener Strasse in 1999, the historic fire station has been the seat of the professional fire brigade, the rescue service and, since 2000, the Sandow volunteer fire brigade.
City Hall (built in 1934/1936)
With the enormous increase in the population of Cottbus since the 1870s, which had increased to almost 40,000 inhabitants since 1900 due to economic development, there was an increase in administrative tasks, which was taken into account with the construction of this new town hall in 1934. It supplemented the premises of the old town hall on the Altmarkt, which no longer stands today. In connection with the new building, residential buildings were demolished, including the birthplace of the painter Carl Blechen at Berliner Straße 5.
In 1945 the town hall was almost completely burned out. After restoration measures, it was used by the district council from 1952 and has been the seat of the Lord Mayor since 1990. Twelve craft marks in the spandrel of the granite arcade arches, the sculpture "Mother with Child" on the west side and the two portal frames of the side entrances have been preserved from the architectural decoration of the building period. During extensive renovation and conversion work from 1995 to 1998, the new entrance hall and a new stairwell with elevator in glass architecture were created.
Art Museum Dieselkraftwerk (built in 1928)
This industrial building from 1928 is designed like a Moorish castle with a campanile. Architect Werner Issel from Berlin-Lichterfelde so imaginatively hid the machine, converter and switch house for a 1500 hp diesel generator, which was switched on during peak demand in the Cottbus power grid. The clinker used in the facade comes from Ilse Bergbau AG in Großräschen. The expressionistic triad of fiery red (window frames), pigeon blue (steel doors) and turquoise (tiled backsplash in Ullersdorfer Spaltviertel) catches the eye. The targeted use of colors as structuring architectural elements is typical for the construction period of the 1920s.
In 2008, after a long period of vacancy and extensive renovations, the building was reopened as an art museum by the city of Cottbus on the initiative of the association. The house-in-house construction for the exhibition rooms in the former engine house allowed the interior facade to be preserved with the original bricks. A café and the administration offices can be found in the switchgear. Here, too, the equipment details are reminiscent of the former use.
There are four designated nature reserves in the city area (as of February 2017).
- Saret sign in the district of Saspow with a chest circumference of 7.50 meters (2016)
parks and green spaces
The Branitzer Park is the most important and well-known park in Cottbus. Branitz came into the possession of the Counts von Pückler in 1696. In 1845, Hermann von Pückler-Muskau began building the new park. The landscape park he created, which was completed under his successor, is a work of garden art of international importance. Along with Peter Joseph Lenné and Friedrich Ludwig Sckell , the well -known writer and world traveler Prince Pückler was one of the most well-known German garden designers of the 19th century. The Branitzer Park was created as a zoned landscape park with differently designed park areas.
In the center of the complex is the castle built between 1770 and 1772 . The castle is surrounded by the pleasure ground, which is richly furnished with flower beds, sculptures , other decorative elements and ornamental trees . Pückler also used foreign trees here, while he only had native trees planted in the other park areas.
The adjoining "inner park" with an area of about 100 hectares includes, among other things, the estate economy, the garden center, the park forge, the Cottbuser and Branitz gatehouses and the pyramid level. Prince Pückler also designed the fields surrounding the park , the "Outer Park", as an ornamental farm on a total area of around 600 hectares. For the design of the park, Prince Pückler used the high groundwater level and the nearby Spree to create an artificial water system in his park. With the excavation from the lakes and canals , he had the artistically perfect terrain relief of the park created. The reed lake section is modeled particularly beautifully.
The pyramid level impresses with the two unique earth pyramids, the formerly stepped land pyramid (built 1860-1863) and the sea pyramid, the tumulus (built 1856). Prince Pückler had himself buried in the tumulus in 1871. In 1884 his wife and partner , Lucie von Pückler-Muskau, who died in 1854, was also reburied there.
Through the masterful grouping of the trees, the artistically successful shaping of the relief and the skilful routing, the prince created a kind of picture gallery with the Branitz Park, in which the viewer is presented with a series of three-dimensional landscape pictures while walking.
Goethe Park and Carl Blech Park
In 1898, the first park in Cottbus, the Goethe Park , was created on the damp lowland of Mühleninsel on the initiative of Mayor Paul Werner and the Beautification Association. The official pond within the park was created around 1600 for fish farming . From 1914 to 1935, the once swampy area was further expanded. The design of the bank areas with perennial plantings on the streams near the diesel power plant was made in 1954 for the exhibition "Green and Blooming on the Spree". The Carl-Blechen-Park , with rare trees and flowering shrubs on the east side of the Spree, was created in the 1930s. His waterfront promenade created in 1934 and 1935 was continued with the "Rosenufer" running south, today 's Ludwig-Leichhardt- Allee.
Eliaspark and Spreeauenpark
The Elias Park was created in 1902 by a foundation of the Elias Council of Commerce . This three and a half hectare park was redesigned as part of the first federal garden show in the new federal states in 1995. The Spreeauenpark , which is much larger at 55 hectares , was only created in the run-up to the 1995 Federal Horticultural Show . In the middle of meadow areas under shady trees, new paths, play and sports facilities, a water playground and the playhouse were created as a meeting place for children and young people. The Spreeauenpark has delighted millions of visitors since the BUGA. A rose garden , a rhododendron grove , meadow landscapes with alternating planting and an apothecary's and farmer's garden are grouped around the 1.2 hectare park pond . For connoisseurs, the tertiary forest with plants and trees from different geological eras, boulders from the Ice Age and a fossil stump of a sequoia tree is a special attraction.
Opened in 1954, the Tierpark Cottbus today borders on the Spreeauenpark and the Branitzer Park. With more than 1200 animals of over 170 species from all parts of the world, it is the largest zoological garden in Brandenburg, known among other things for the breeding of waterfowl . With the support of the city of Cottbus, various companies and the Tierpark-Förderverein (founded in 1994), the Tierpark is constantly being modernized and expanded. In the summer of 2014, the construction of a new predatory enclosure, which was planned as a home for Sumatran tigers , was completed.
By far the best-known club in the city is Energie Cottbus ( football ). The FCE, active in the 2020/21 season in the Regionalliga Nordost , managed promotion to the first Bundesliga and two relegations in the 1999/2000 season, but was relegated to the second Bundesliga in the 2002/2003 season . In the 2005/2006 season, the club was able to achieve re-entry into the first Bundesliga, from which it was relegated again in the 2008/2009 season. The Stadium of Friendship currently has a capacity of 22,528 spectators. It offers 10,949 covered seats, 7,795 covered and 3,630 uncovered standing places, as well as 154 places in the wheelchair handicap area.
Other larger clubs are the HSV Cottbus (volleyball, karate - state performance base Brandenburg, judo, health sports, weight training, lacrosse), which emerged from a new foundation from the former USV university sports club in 2004, the handball club LHC Cottbus , which in the 2007/2008 season played in the second handball Bundesliga , the White Devils ( basketball ), the Cottbus Crayfish ( American football ), the Crabettes ( cheerleading ), as well as the 1st women's team of SV Energie (volleyball) , which has been successful in the regional league for years Play Northeast. The RSC Cottbus cycling club produced numerous world champions and Olympic champions.
Altogether there are more than 120 sports clubs in Cottbus. There are four umbrella organizations in the city : the PSV Cottbus 90 e. V. , the SCC Breitensport e. V. , the Stadtsportbund Cottbus e. V. and the Versehrtensportgemeinschaft Cottbus e. V
The medal winners of the Olympic and Paralympic Games are honored on the path of glory in front of the New Town Hall . After the London games, there are now 37 plaques of honor embedded in the ground.
Cottbus is an Olympic base for cycling , gymnastics , soccer (m), track and field , handball (m) and volleyball (w). 50 sports halls , 49 sports fields and stadiums , 20 tennis courts , 70 skittle and bowling alleys , five shooting ranges , four bathing lakes , a horse riding facility , a swimming pool with outdoor pool and a boathouse are available to all those interested in active leisure sports .
Since 2013, a Paralympic training center for athletics has also been set up with training facilities suitable for the disabled.
The sports center , which is managed by the sports facilities of the city of Cottbus, is one of the largest and most modern sports facilities in the southern Brandenburg region. It is used for children's and youth sports, junior and elite sports, as well as popular and disabled sports. The complex includes the Max Reimann Stadium , an athletics stadium that meets international requirements with all its facilities. Furthermore, the Cottbuser Radstadion , with its covered cycle track, national and international competitions take place with great approval, for example the World Cup in track cycling in 1995 and 1996. There is also an athletics hall, two gyms, two soccer fields and a boxing hall on the site . With the Lausitz Arena , it also has a multi-purpose sports hall for around 2000 spectators.
One-off sporting events
- 2010: DFB Futsal Cup , final city in the Mission Olympic city competition
- 2011: 7th World Championship in firefighting
- 2013: 64th Federal Cycling Meeting, Women’s World Cup qualifier (Germany – Russia)
Regular sporting events
At the Tournament of Masters - the sporting event of the highest quality in the state of Brandenburg - an average of 200 gymnasts from around 40 nations compete against each other in apparatus gymnastics and fight for the coveted title at the FIG World Cup.
In summer, from 1991 to 2011, the sports center in Cottbus hosted the annual International Lausitz Athletics Meeting , where new records were regularly set in all athletics disciplines. The meeting record in the 100-meter dash is 10.00 seconds for men and 11.14 seconds for women. Since 2003 there has been the annual International Springer Meeting at the end of January with the disciplines of women's high jump (meeting record 2.01 m) and men's pole vault (meeting record 5.90 m). Other athletics events in Cottbus are the Lausitzer Citylauf (2017 AOK City Run@Bike) and the Spreewald-Marathon .
Since 1999, the 24-hour swim has been a fixed part of the city's sports calendar. This is traditionally carried out by the German Life Saving Society in Cottbus in November. With 2143 participants in 2019, it is one of the largest popular water sports events in Germany. During the event in 2018, a total of almost 5500 kilometers were swum.
fairs and exhibitions
The trade fairs and exhibitions take place in the Messe Cottbus with multifunctional exhibition areas of 6,500 m². The trade fair is conveniently located on the city ring road and in the immediate vicinity of the Spreeauenpark.
The Cottbus travel market takes place every year in January . This fair offers offers for holidays, tourism, leisure, caravans, camping and boats. With up to 250 exhibitors and 15,000 visitors, this exhibition is one of the largest in Cottbus. At the same time, the Fit+Gesund exhibition takes place every year , which is dedicated to the topic of wellness, cures and health. At the end of January, the exhibition center hosts a craft exhibition every year. This is the only exhibition on handicrafts in southern Brandenburg.
The Impuls fair , which takes place every year in February, deals with training, further education, business start-ups, business security and work. In March, the Cars & Bikes exhibition takes place in the exhibition halls. This is the largest automobile and two-wheeler exhibition in the state of Brandenburg. With 27,000 visitors in 2005, this exhibition was the most visited since the Federal Horticultural Show in 1995. International artists show their skills at the Tattoo Convention . The CottbusBau exhibition, which is the largest construction trade fair in the state of Brandenburg, takes place regularly in March .
In October, Cottbus hosts the Autumn Fair . With more than 330 exhibitors, this is the consumer exhibition with the most visitors in the state of Brandenburg.
Other events on the exhibition grounds are the exhibitions Vital & Co. and the Erotic Fair .
Big events and carnival
Major events that take place every year include: the student satire festival Ei(n)fallen (January), the Altstadtnacht (April), the Cottbus Environment Week (May/June), the night of the open churches ( Pentecost ), the city festival (June), the Spreeauennacht (August), the Day of Associations (August/September), the Pottery Festival (September), the Lausitz Farmers' Market (September/October), the Night of Creative Minds (October), the FilmFestival Cottbus - Festival of Eastern European Film (November) and the Christmas Market (December ).
On every Tulip Sunday (February/March) the largest carnival parade in East Germany takes place with the procession of happy people . Numerous floats, bands and dance groups from carnival clubs from Cottbus and the surrounding area attract around 100,000 visitors every year. Every year the carnival gala Heut steppt der Adler takes place in the Stadthalle , which is recorded by Rundfunk Berlin Brandenburg.
Education and Research
General education schools
In the school year 2013/2014 there were twelve elementary schools , two high schools , two comprehensive schools , five high schools , three special needs schools and one upper school center in the city, which are in municipal sponsorship and which were attended by 9835 students. There are also other private schools , e.g. also a Waldorf school and the Evangelical Gymnasium .
With the Pückler-Gymnasium and the Oberstufenzentrum II Spree-Neiße there are also two other public schools in the city area, which are sponsored by the Spree-Neiße district.
Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg
After the merger of the Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus and the Lausitz University of Applied Sciences on July 1, 2013, there is a state university in Cottbus to form the Brandenburg Technical University of Cottbus-Senftenberg (BTU) . The university expert Birger Hendriks was appointed as representative for the foundation. One problem is the falling number of students overall, which is not being compensated for by more foreign students. In 2020, Gesine Grande was elected by the Senate of the BTU as the new President of the Senate of the BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg. The coalition agreement of the traffic light coalition 2021 stipulates the establishment of a medical faculty in Cottbus as compensation for the reduction in coal mining.
Other educational institutions
In 1907, the Kingdom of Prussia founded a preparatory institute with a teacher's seminar for teacher training . The city built a school building and directors' villas based on designs by Arno Pasig. On June 25, 1910, the teacher training college was inaugurated, which provided training until 1925. After renovations, a pedagogical academy opened in 1930 , renamed the college for teacher training in 1933 and downgraded to the teacher training college in 1941 .
After the reconstruction of the school building, which was destroyed in the war, the Pedagogical Institute, a training center for new teachers in the GDR, moved in for a few years. However, as the center of the bilingual region in Lower Lusatia, Cottbus was to receive a Sorbian high school, which began on September 1, 1952 with 46 students in the building. In 1960 it became the Sorbian Advanced High School and after 1990 the Lower Sorbian Gymnasium .
There is also a technical school for economics and a medical school at the Carl Thiem Clinic , which is a teaching hospital of the Berlin Charité . Cottbus also has an adult education center and the school for Lower Sorbian language and culture .
In addition, the BTU maintains its own university libraries with the information, communication and media center (IKMZ) with over 890,000 media units, as well as around 80,000 units at the Sachsendorf site and around 100,000 units at the Senftenberg site . There are also other specialist and government libraries , such as B. those of the Carl-Thiem-Klinikum , the State Office for Occupational Safety or the Finance Court Berlin-Brandenburg .
Other special libraries are the Pückler library in Branitz Castle , as a purely reference library with a collection focus on literature by and about Pückler , garden and travel literature as well as art and cultural history of the 19th and 20th centuries, German history of the 19th century and regional history as well as the Lower Sorbian Library with a focus on the history, language, art and culture of the Sorbs .
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016, Cottbus generated a gross domestic product (GDP) of 3.308 billion euros within its city limits. GDP per capita in the same year was EUR 33,067 per capita (Brandenburg: EUR 26,887, Germany EUR 38,180) and was therefore above the regional but below the national average. The GDP per employed person was 52,747 euros. In 2016, the city's GDP grew nominally by 2.5 percent, compared to 4.3 percent in the previous year. Around 62,700 people were employed in the city in 2016.
A large number of companies are based in Cottbus. This includes e.g. B. LEAG , which controls the administration of opencast mines and power plants in East Germany from Cottbus. ABB is an electrical engineering group and is also based in Cottbus. Deutsche Bahn has a vehicle maintenance workshop in the city . Envia Mitteldeutsche Energie AG is a regional energy and communications service provider in eastern Germany. This company also has a location in Cottbus. Deutsche Post AG operates one of its 82 mail centers in Germany in Cottbus .
The ten largest companies in 2013 by total assets are:
- Vattenfall Europe Generation AG
- Sparkasse Spree-Neisse
- Vattenfall Europe Mining AG
- Building Management Cottbus GmbH
- VR Bank Lausitz eG
- EG living 1902
- Carl Thiem Clinic Cottbus gGmbH
- LWG Lausitzer Wasser GmbH & Co. KG
- Stadtwerke Cottbus GmbH
- SpreeGas company for gas supply and energy services mbH
Other companies come primarily from the fields of architecture, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, services, retail, energy, finance, research, healthcare, trade, mechanical engineering and telecommunications.
As of September 30, 2019, there were 45,929 employees in Cottbus, broken down as follows:
- Agriculture and forestry, fisheries 154
- manufacturing industry a total of 4,933, including:
- Construction 2,410
- manufacturing industry 1,403
- Total service sector 40,842, including:
- Commerce, transport, hospitality 10,216
- Information and communication 882
- Financial and insurance services 894
- Real estate, professional scientific and technical services 3,034
- other economic services 4,590
- public administration, defence, social security, external organizations 5,524
- Education and instruction 2.307
- Healthcare 4,716
The federal autobahn 15 , which comes from the Spreewald triangle ( A 13 Dresden – Berlin) and is part of the European route 36 in the direction of Poland / Ukraine , runs through the southern urban area of Cottbus . The Autobahn has four lanes and has two Autobahn junctions in Cottbus: Cottbus-West and Cottbus-Süd. Cottbus is also crossed by federal highways 97 , 168 and 169 . The B 169 forms the southern and eastern part of the city ring at the same time. Until the end of 2004, the federal highway 115 also ran through Cottbus, which today's L 49 leads right through the city center.
The bypass in the east of the city, which is currently being planned and under construction and is to be formed by the B 97n and B 168n, is intended to keep a large part of heavy goods transport and through traffic out of the city center in the future. A 6.7-kilometer first section of the bypass, from Peitz to the L 49 in Kahren , was released on September 3, 2012 . The second phase is still in the planning phase. The time of the start of construction is not known. With the completion of the second section, Cottbus will have a third motorway junction (Cottbus-Ost) near the district of Kahren. A third section is to run south from the junction outside the city area and join the B 97 north of Groß Oßnig . Whether the third section will actually be realized has not been finally decided.
The density of private passenger cars is well below the Brandenburg average (2014: 510). Despite the falling population, the number of registered passenger cars has hardly changed. Private motorization has increased, albeit less than the national average.
|Private motorization in Cottbus||2008||2009||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014|
|non-commercially registered passenger cars on January 1st||42,256||41,997||42,162||42,595||42,629||42,512||42,532|
|Passenger cars per 1000 inhabitants on 31 December of the previous year||411||413||415||417||426||425||427|
Train lines run from Cottbus in all directions: Regional Express and regional train lines of the DB Regio and the Ostdeutsche Eisenbahn (ODEG) to Wismar via Berlin and in the direction of Görlitz and Zittau ( Berlin–Görlitz railway ), Dresden ( Priestewitz–Cottbus railway ), via Finsterwalde and Falkenberg (Elster) to Leipzig ( Halle–Cottbus railway line ), Frankfurt (Oder) ( Cottbus–Guben railway line ) and to Forst (Lausitz) ( Cottbus–Forst railway line ). There is also a daily domestic German long-distance connection to Emden and Norddeich Mole, and until December 2014 there were also international train connections to the Polish cities of Wrocław ( Breslau ), Kraków ( Kraków ) and Żagań (Sagan). Since 2016, the so-called “culture train” has been running from Berlin to Wroclaw on weekends. In addition to the main station , there are three other Deutsche Bahn stations in the Cottbus urban area: Cottbus-Sandow, Cottbus-Merzdorf and Cottbus-Willmersdorf Nord.
The Kiekebusch stop has not been served since 2006. From 1898 to 1970 there was also a train connection with the Spreewaldbahn from Cottbus Spreewaldbahnhof via Burg to Lübben . The tracks of this narrow- gauge railway have been almost completely dismantled since 1983. Only the entrance building of the Spreewald train station can still be found not far from the main train station. The Intercity-Express Cottbus/Chóśebuz is named after the city.
Local public transport
Local public transport is served by trams and buses operated by Cottbusverkehr GmbH and DB Regio Bus Ost GmbH, both of which are members of the Verkehrsverbund Berlin-Brandenburg (VBB). There are 39 lines in total, including 4 Cottbus tram lines , 18 city bus lines, 17 regional lines and 3 night lines. The line network has 633 stops and is approximately 1137.2 km long. A total of 21 trams and 54 buses are in use.
In addition, a park railway (600 mm gauge) connects the Cottbus-Sandow train station with the Stadion derFreundschaft football stadium , the exhibition centre, the Cottbus animal park and the Branitzer Park . Traffic is limited to the summer months.
Cottbus has two regional airports. The commercial airfield Neuhausen is about 15 kilometers away. With 16,000 to 20,000 aircraft movements per year, the airfield is one of the five largest airfields in Brandenburg. Europe- wide on -demand flights , training courses as well as sightseeing and commercial flights by plane and helicopter are offered. Air sports, such as skydiving and gliding, are offered by local clubs.
The Cottbus-Drewitz airport , about 25 kilometers away , offers Europe-wide flights on demand. The former airfield Cottbus-Nord was used by the National People's Army and is closed today. The technology and industrial park , an approximately two square kilometer commercial area, is now being planned and built there.
The two international airports are further away from Cottbus:
pedestrian and bicycle traffic
In the so-called “ bicycle climate test ” in 2012 by the General German Bicycle Club , Cottbus was able to achieve fifth out of 42 places (right after the state capital Potsdam) in the category of cities with 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants.
long-distance hiking trails
long-distance cycle routes
The city is traversed by some important long- distance cycle paths and is the starting point for some bike tours in the Spreewald or the opencast mining region . The following cycle paths run through Cottbus:
- Cucumber bike path
- Lusatian Energy Cycle Path
- Leichhardt Trail
- Lower Lusatia mining tour
- Sorbian impressions in the Spree-Neisse district (north and south tour)
- Spree cycle path
- Tour Brandenburg
Public legal radio
In the spring of 1990, the regional studios of Radio DDR II in Cottbus, Potsdam and Frankfurt (Oder) founded the joint radio program Antenne Brandenburg . On January 1, 1992, the program and some of the editorial offices were taken over by Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB) and later by its legal successor, RBB. In its Cottbus radio studios, RBB produces around five hours of radio programs a day in German and, for the Bramborske Serbske Radijo , in Lower Sorbian.
The RBB regional studio in Cottbus, with around 50 employees, also produces television programs and individual television reports. In Cottbus, for example, the programs RBB regional , THEODOR – Geschichte(n) aus der Mark and the Lower Sorbian-language program Łužyca (Lausitz) produced (as of 2012). In addition, deliveries are made for Das Erste and the third television programs as well as production aids for ZDF .
Since the closure of the old Friedrichstadtpalast in Berlin in 1980, large television shows have been produced regularly in Cottbus, including, for example: Ein Kessel Buntes ( DFF ), Die Goldene Note (DFF), Musikanten sind da (DFF), Melodien fürMillen (ZDF) , Musikantenstadl (DFF/ARD/ SRF / ORF ), Festival of Folk Music (ARD) and Music for Her (MDR). The entertainer Harald Juhnke wrote television history with his surprising appearance in the first German-German entertainment show Musikantenstadl on December 17, 1989. Every January, the RBB in Cottbus produces the carnival show Heut' steppt der Adler for the ARD .
In addition to public broadcasting, private radio stations are also represented in Cottbus. The station 94.5 Radio Cottbus focuses on Cottbus and the surrounding area . BB Radio and 94.3 rs2 broadcast regional program windows and news at times . In addition, other FM stations such as Radio B2 and Berliner Rundfunk 91.4 can also be received. With Lausitz TV (LTV), there is also a free-to-air local television station on the cable network.
The regional daily newspaper Lausitzer Rundschau is published in Cottbus and the surrounding area in a monopoly position . The newspaper 20cent belonged to the Lausitzer Rundschau via the Saarbrücker Zeitungsverlag as the parent company. She was discontinued on February 28, 2009. The Märkische Bote , the Lausitzer Woche and the Wochenkurier are advertising papers for the region. The event magazines Blicklicht and Hermann are also published . While the newspaper Terrassenmagazin is aimed at a young target group, the weekly newspaper Nowy Casnik is produced in Lower Sorbian for the Sorbian/Wendish population.
Cottbus was a garrison town of the Prussian army from 1868 to 1918 . In 1886, the newly built Alvensleben barracks were occupied by the 52nd Infantry Regiment . After an interruption in the interwar period , Cottbus again became a military base during the rearmament of the Wehrmacht when the army moved into the new Hermann-Löns barracks in 1938 . After the war it was occupied by Soviet troops until 1958 and was then handed over to the National People's Army . The 15th Panzer Regiment was housed in the accommodation, now called Paul Hornick Barracks , until 1990 .
In addition, in the southern suburb of Sachsendorf , which was incorporated in 1950, there was also a barracks area built in the 1930s for the Wehrmacht, which remained occupied by Soviet troops (most recently: the 35th Air Assault Brigade) until the 1980s.
Famous personalities who were born in Cottbus include the painter Carl Blechen , the physiologist Gustav Theodor Fritsch , the sports reporter Heinz Florian Oertel , the actor Uwe Kockisch , the discus thrower Robert Harting and the cyclist Tony Martin .
Alphabetical sorting by authors/editors
- Steffen Krestin: Cottbus. Sutton Verlag, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 3-89702-420-9 .
- Thomas Kläber and Hartmut Schatte: Fascination Cottbus. Regia Verlag, Cottbus 2005, ISBN 3-936092-59-1 .
- Thomas Kläber, Norbert Krauzig and Erich Schutt : Cottbus - beautiful sides of a city. ALfa-Verlag, Cottbus 2002, ISBN 3-935513-05-4 .
- Andreas Peter: Getting to know Cottbus in a playful way. A quiz with 100 questions & answers. Niederlausitzer Verlag, Guben 2006, ISBN 3-935881-33-9 .
- Erhard Etzlaub (1462–1532) road map “The country roads through the Roman Empire” from 1501, Goldene Straße, (e.g. Löbau city archive)
- "Heraldry of St. Roman Reichs, and general Christianity by Martin Schrot, printed in the Princely Office Munich" 1581, depiction of the cancer coat of arms of Kotwitz under "The 4th Freyed Gentlemen" page 77
- Arrest Architects: Kunstmuseum Dieselkraftwerk Cottbus. Jovis Verlag, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-939633-82-2 .
- Ingrid Halbach, Karl-Heinz Müller, Steffen Delang, Gerold Glatte and Peter Biernath (eds.): Architekturführer Cottbus. Walks through the city and surroundings. Publisher for construction, Berlin and Munich 1993, ISBN 3-345-00506-9 .
- Jelena Findeisen: Monument topography Federal Republic of Germany . Monuments in Brandenburg. City of Cottbus 2.1 = old town, mill island, new town and Ostrow, inner suburb of Spremberg, "city promenade", western city extension, historic Brunschwig . Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft , Worms 2001. ISBN 978-3-88462-176-9
- Arielle Kohlschmidt, Siegfried Kohlschmidt and Thomas Kläber: Cottbus: 1156-2006 - 850 years. CGA publishing house, Cottbus 2005, ISBN 3-937503-12-9 .
- Steffen Krestin: chronicle of the history of the city of Cottbus . BVB-Verlag-Ges., Nordhorn 2003, ISBN 3-936092-98-2 .
- Steffen Lohbrandt (edit.): Plan of the city of Cottbus. 1927 (reprint with street directory) Niederlausitzer Verlag, Guben 2006, ISBN 978-3-935881-40-1 .
- Harriet striker and Frank Mangelsdorf (eds.): Once and now. Cottbus. Culturcon Media, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-941092-63-1 .
- Erich debris: Cottbus 1950-1995. Illustrated book, Steffen Verlag, Friedland 2011, ISBN 978-3-940101-94-5 .
- Bilderbuch Deutschland , Cottbus, documentation, production: RBB , first broadcast: March 19, 2006, 45 min.
- BTU Cottbus , documentation, production: Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus-Senftenberg, IKMZ video library
- The sun rises in the east , Energie Cottbus, documentation, production: 2001
More content in Wikipedia
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- Who are the people? 13 August 2018, retrieved 14 August 2018 .
- 2011 census: Population in regional comparison by migration background -in %-
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- Largest 50 companies in Cottbus ( Memento of 28 February 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
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