Equestrian sport

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Show jumping
Portrait with Racehorse and Jockey, Johann Closterman , oil on canvas, around 1690

The equestrian sport is a part of the sport , of all sports including that the horse be exercised as a partner. It can be roughly divided into equestrian sport, driving sport , vaulting and ground work . Equestrian competitions are called tournaments (for example, horse shows).

Equestrian sport

In contrast to tourist riding, which is also referred to as "being carried by the horse" in equestrian language, equestrian sport is to be understood as an active activity: In sporty riding , the rider does not sit passively on the horse, but actively walks with the movement of the horse Horse and willingly influences it. The horse is guided by so-called aids , such as weight shifting, thigh pressure and rein guidance. The rider, not the horse, determines the speed, direction and gait of the common movement. The voice is an aid that is not permitted in dressage tournaments. Other aids are a whip , curb and spurs. A special feature of equestrian sport is that, with the exception of the vaulting area , there is no gender segregation. Women and men compete equally against each other. Even with the animals there is no differentiation in terms of breed and sex. The horses are divided into ponies and horses, depending on their size: up to 1.48 m pony, from 1.49 m it is a horse. The Olympic equestrian disciplines dressage, jumping and eventing are the only Olympic sports that are carried out in this way. There are an estimated 3.89 million riders in Germany, around 1.3 million of whom practice the sport intensively (as of 2016).

Dressage riding

Trakehner in dressage

Dressage work is the basis for practicing all riding disciplines. A dressage is an out - and training of the horse and its natural movements. It begins with the breaking in of the young horse and ends after passing through the training scale, in checking the completed assembly through perfect execution of all known dressage lessons. When riding in, the rider ensures that the horse comes into equilibrium under his weight, that it learns to walk straight and on curved lines in all three basic gaits, as well as to understand the rider's weight, thigh and rein aids and the different ones To carry out lessons. The focus is on professional, species-appropriate and horse-friendly gymnastics. Only a well-exercised and well-drained horse (i.e. a horse that reacts well to all aids) can become a reliable, efficient and healthy partner in sport. The different levels of difficulty (in Germany: E - beginner, A - beginner, L - easy, M - medium, S - difficult, in Austria: A - beginner, L - easy, LM - transition class, M - medium and S - difficult) contain specific, increasing lessons and tasks, whereby every utility horse should at least meet the requirements of A dressage. In each class, the learned and existing harmony between rider and horse is presented in the execution of the various dressage lessons. Dressage is an Olympic discipline, held in the Grand Prix, Grand Prix Special and Grand Prix Freestyle classes. The team evaluation is carried out by adding up the results of the three best riders of each team in the Grand Prix, the individual evaluation by adding up the results of the three partial tests of each rider. The music freestyle is a crowd puller and is becoming more and more important in all classes. Since the World Cup in 2006, the individual ratings have been rated in two categories; on the one hand the individual champion in the Grand Prix Special and on the other hand the individual champion in the freestyle.

Show jumping

Parcours inspection
Jump over moat

Show jumping is overcoming obstacles on horseback. It requires a lot of skill, balance, a sense of rhythm and precise action from the rider's aids in order to ride a horse correctly over obstacles. The difficulty with show jumping is to ride a horse to the jump so that the horse can develop an optimal flight curve when jumping. The horse must not jump too close to the obstacle, and not too far away. As a rule of thumb, the distance from the obstacle when jumping should be roughly the same as the height of the obstacle. This means that with an obstacle height of 1.20 meters, the horse should be able to jump about 1.20 meters in front of the obstacle. There are fixed obstacle heights for the specific classes, with twenty percent of the jumps in a course being allowed to be increased up to ten centimeters. The lines of the course for higher classes also place increasing demands on the rideability of the horse and the rider's tactical overview.

Classes and corresponding heights / widths of jumping competitions in Germany:

  • E-jumping (entry level): 0.80-0.90 m / 0.75-1.05 m
  • A * jumping (initial level): 0.90-1.00 m / 0.85-1.15 m
  • A ** - jumping (initial level): 1.00-1.10 m / 0.95-1.25 m
  • L-jumping (easy): 1.10-1.20 m / 1.05-1.35 m
  • M * jumping (intermediate): 1.20-1.30 m / 1.15-1.30 m
  • M ** - jumping (intermediate): 1.30-1.40 m / 1.25-1.55 m
  • S * jumping (difficult): 1.35–1.45 m / any
  • S ** - jumping (difficult): 1.40–1.50 m / any
  • S *** jumping (difficult): 1.45-1.60 m / any
  • S **** - jumping (difficult): 1.50–1.60 m / any

Exception triple bar width + 50 cm

Eventing: Fixed obstacle and digging in the field

Eventing (formerly military , now also "eventing")

The Eventing consists of three competitions of dressage, jumping and cross-country riding in a competition together. The test has a military origin. In the eventing test, horse and rider often need a lot of courage , trust, perseverance and flexibility. One or more constitutional examination (s) of the horse play a special role in order to avoid overload. From the class A terrain test, the routes are over a kilometer long. That is why the stamina of the horse and the rider is required.

Hunting riding

Hunting riding means riding in hunting fields behind a master. It is ridden on a cross-country course with natural and created obstacles. Unlike parforce hunting , hunting is pure equestrian sport, so no game is hunted . There are drag hunts, which are ridden with a pack of dogs, and fox hunts, which are ridden without dogs.

Another type of hunting is archery or mounted archery . While the horse gallops along a track within a given time, the rider shoots the bow at three differently oriented targets in the middle of the track. Points are awarded according to the target orientation (to the front - center - to the rear) and the respective target ring. If the horse and rider are faster than the specified time, the seconds are credited as bonus points.

Endurance riding

The emerging sport of endurance riding requires great endurance from horse and rider. The United Arab Emirates , Italy and France are considered leaders in endurance sports . Endurance riding was discovered as a competitive sport in Germany in the late 1960s. The German endurance equestrian sport has been part of the “Verein deutscher Endreiter und -fahrer e. V. “, currently there are around 2,000 members.

As with other competitions, endurance riding is divided into different categories, from short distances to the toughest of 160 kilometers. Horse and rider must cover the respective distance at minimum speed; a maximum speed is only specified in the bronze category or initial level. The horses are regularly checked by a veterinarian and must reach all stations in a healthy state and with a pulse rate of no more than 64 beats per minute (after 20 minutes). If the horse fails the veterinary exam, it will be disqualified to avoid being harmed from excessive stress.

In endurance riding there are regulations that u. a. regulate the qualification for different classes. The “bronze buckle qualifier” belongs to the simpler classes (length 32.2 km, speed from 10.5 km / h to 12.8 km / h). Everyone who wants to compete in higher classes must keep a record of their horse. This protocol must be presented before the start of the competition. The horses or ponies must be at least five years old to participate in endurance riding. For the "endurance riders" (gold category and toughest route) the horse must be at least seven years old. A well-known endurance ride is the “golden horeshoe” in Exmoor , a very difficult stretch of 160 kilometers that has to be ridden in two days.


Orientation riding (TREC) is trail riding in nature according to pace with a map and compass as a competition. TREC rides according to FITE regulations are divided into three categories: the orientation ride (POR, up to 60 kilometers, including marching number route and point-to-point tasks), the terrain obstacle course (PTV, 16 natural and near-natural obstacles on a three up to five kilometers long) as well as rideability (MA, each without timing errors: 150 m at a slow canter and 150 meters at a fast pace).

In Austria, this sport is also carried out in entry-level competitions within the regulations. The route lengths are only 20 to 25 kilometers with little difficulty and slow speed. There are no jumps at PTV, many exercises are “on the hand”. No membership or horse registration is necessary for these beginners' competitions, so that open participation is possible.

In addition, orientation rides that are not regulated by FITE take place in many places. In addition to the actual orientation ride, there are still tasks to be mastered that demonstrate the mutual trust between rider and horse. From spring to late summer in particular, numerous riding clubs offer O-rides. Some take place with a map, others have signposted routes. After two to five kilometers (depending on the total length of the O-Ride) there are stations on the route where tasks such as throwing from a horse or riding a water bucket from one place to another without spilling water. Some tasks are on time. Not only the skill of the individual rider is tested, but also his expertise about horses, their needs and their health. There are points for each task. At the end of the O ride, the points of all participants are counted and the best three are awarded (mostly with prizes such as food , cleaning equipment , snaffles ). It can be started individually or in two groups (depending on the organizer).

Western riding

Sliding stop

Western riding is a riding style originally from the western United States, which is based on the requirements of cowboy work on horseback, for which there are tests in different disciplines and degrees of difficulty. The disciplines are u. a. Western Pleasure, Western Horsemanship, Trail, Western Riding, Reining, Superhorse, Hunter under Saddle, Hunt Seat Equitation, Hunter Hack, Pleasure Driving, Cutting, Working Cowhorse, Team and Cattle Penning, Rodeo, Pole Bending and Barrel Racing . There are also the following western riding and breeding associations: EWU (Erste Westernreiter Union), AQHA (American Quarter Horse Association), DQHA (German Quarter Horse Association), NSBA (National Snaffle Bit Association), APHA (American Paint Horse Assn.), PHCG (Paint Horse Club Germany), ApHC (Appaloosa Horse Club), ApHCG (Appaloosa Horse Club Germany), NRHA ( National Reining Horse Association ), NCHA (National Cutting Horse Association), GTPA (German Team Penning Association) and other smaller ones Associations. The most popular western horses are Quarter Horses , Paint Horses and Appaloosas , although more and more other breeds (e.g. Haflingers ) are enjoying increasing popularity. But ponies are also used more and more often.

The reining discipline has a special position. In 2000, Reining was recognized by the International Equestrian Federation (FEI) as the seventh discipline alongside dressage, jumping, eventing, driving, vaulting and endurance riding. In Germany, Reining is looked after by the professional association, the German Equestrian Association (FN) in Warendorf . The German Reining FN championships for young people and seniors are held every year. The FEI European Championship takes place every two years, alternating with the World Equestrian Games or in the Olympic year with an individual World Championship. Individual world championships are reserved for equestrian disciplines that are not part of the Olympic equestrian games - dressage, jumping and eventing.

Gait tests

Gaited horse tests are a sport to evaluate expressiveness. It is exercised in the gaits tölt, pass and their variations (see horse gait and gaited horse ). In a tölt test, several tempos must be ridden on both hands. Difficulty levels here are as follows

  • Sport C
  • Sports B
  • Sports A


The Hestadagar concept comes from the Icelandic horse riding. Hestadagar are events with competitions for recreational riders . Hestadagar have their own program of tasks with a special guiding principle for popular sports. In principle, Hestadagar are open to all horse breeds if they are suitable for the task at hand.

Recreational riding

Leisure riders are a large and heterogeneous group. They often value a harmonious relationship between humans, horses and nature. They often keep their horses in an open stable and often ride according to the easy riding style (see also: Ursula Bruns ) or western riding . They rarely take part in tournaments , but increasingly take part in mass sports competitions, for example Hestadagar or the serenity test .

Trail riding

Trail rides can be carried out alone, in small or large groups, organized or guided, over a single day or several days or weeks. When trail riding, the focus is on experiencing nature together. There are special equestrian hiking maps in which tested and sometimes specially maintained trails with all the necessary stations are shown. Courses, courses, competitions and badges are also offered.

Formation and quadrille riding

Voltes in the Quadrille Riding School

Formation riding describes the coordinated riding of different hoof figures with a group of riders. Xenophon already reports of such rides. Formation riding was systematised and perfected in the cavalry schools . Quadrille riding is a special form of formation riding with a number of participants divisible by four. The name Quadrille comes from the formal, originally French dance of the same name . A formation theory defines a model for formation riding. Well-known forms are:

  • Dressage quadrilles
  • pas de deux
  • Jumping quadrilles
  • Driving quadrilles (consists of several teams)
  • Tandem or driving school quadrilles (each rider leads another horse from the saddle)
  • Historic quadrilles
  • Military formations

Art riding

In art riding, acrobatic exercises are performed on a moving horse. In contrast to vaulting , the horse does not walk on a lunge, but is steered by the rider.

horse race

Horse racing is usually understood to mean gallop or trot races . Mainly thoroughbred horses are used, but there are also cold blood and warm blood races .

Equestrian games


Buzkashi ( Persian بزکشی,, DMG buzkašī , 'grab a goat': buz 'goat' + kashi 'take out') is a traditional equestrian game in Afghanistan , similar to polo , except that this game is played around a dead goat or a dead calf instead of a ball.



Horseball is a type of basketball on horseback. There are two teams with six players each, two of which are substitutes. The game is played 2 × 10 minutes with a three-minute break at half-time. The ball is similar to a soccer ball, but with six loops on the outside to hold it in place. Each team tries to throw the ball into the opposing team's basket, with at least three players having had contact with the ball. You can throw the ball at one another, but you cannot hold it in your hand for more than ten seconds. If the ball falls on the ground, the horse will pick it up again, with the horse at least walking.

Mounted Games

Mounted Games

Mounted Games are a team equestrian sport that originated in India to keep equestrian soldiers fit in peacetime. With the exception of Germany, Mounted Games are only ridden on ponies.

A Mounted Games team consists of five riders with their ponies, whereby only four riders are used in a row per game. As with relay races in athletics, several teams always play against each other. Each rider has to deal with certain tasks (games) between the start and transition lines, which are 54 meters apart. The games are divided into three categories: Tempo, Technique and Aufspringspiele. If mistakes are made, they must first be corrected before the race can continue. The last rider is marked with a cap tape and determines the position of his team when crossing the finish line. There are usually two qualifying runs with six to eight games each. The most successful teams then fight for the tournament victory in ten games in the A final, the other teams compete against each other in the B, C or D final.


Pato is an equestrian sport related to polo that is mainly played in Argentina .

Patrol ride

In a patrol ride, groups of two, so-called patrols, ride a predetermined route with guards. You can orientate yourself with the help of path markers, verbal directions or with the help of a map. Various tasks have to be solved at the post. There are posts where knowledge is queried and skill stations where tasks with and without a horse have to be completed. Typical tasks are, for example, to set a table from the horse or to open a gate, ride through and close it again, ride the horse over obstacles of skill, a skill course for the rider during which he has to lead the horse by the reins, horse quiz, Dressing up of rider and horse to match the motto of the patrol ride (e.g. Indian, Hollywood or hunting) and quiz questions. Points are awarded for the tasks and at the end there is an award ceremony for the participating patrols. Patrol rides are common in Switzerland and in the German border area with Switzerland.



Polo is a team sport on horseback that is very similar to hockey and pato . The players try to use the so-called stick or mallet, a type of elongated hockey stick, to drive a ball into the opponent's goal from their horses. The game is always "four on four" and the direction is changed after every goal. The game is led by two referees, also mounted, and a third on the sidelines. A variant of polo is arena polo, here the teams only consist of three players. Most of the professional polo players come from Argentina, where polo is very popular, as well as horse breeding etc.


Polocrosse is a combination of polo and lacrosse , which is played on horseback.

Ring riding

Ring rider in Epenwöhrden, Dithmarschen

When riding a ring you have to hit a small ring at a gallop with a spear (sometimes a small setter that you hold in your hand like a pistol). The ring hangs on a frame called a gallows (or Gallich), under which you have to ride at a gallop. This equestrian sport is particularly popular in Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark.

Roland riding

Roland riding is an equestrian sport similar to ring riding, in which a human-like wooden figure or its wooden shield has to be hit.

Learning to ride, riding school and riding holidays

There is a wide range of clubs and riding schools that enable beginners without any experience and without their own horse to gain their first experience in handling horses. When choosing a riding school, special attention should be paid to the health of the school animals. Instead of a stand, a species-appropriate form of housing, e.g. B. in spacious and bright boxes (if possible with a window to the outside). All school horses should also be given daily exercise in the paddock or pasture and regularly trained by trained riders in order to rule out misconduct. Saddle equipment, i.e. the saddle , the bridle (or bridle or bit), must be available and suitable for every horse. So there can be no saddle pressure on the horse's back. In order to prevent this from happening, the riding instructor should check the position of the saddle equipment on each horse before the lesson. In a well-run stable it should also not happen that a horse that is medically ill has to continue walking in class. Clear signs of illness are, for example, dull fur, glassy or cloudy eyes and disinterest. In better stables, in addition to practical riding lessons, regular theory lessons are also offered, in which one learns a lot about horse keeping and care. In addition to the health aspects, attention should also be paid to the riding preferences of the riding student.

There are many other points to consider when choosing a stable, this is just one selection.

There is also the possibility of learning to ride on a riding holiday. In addition to beginners, this riding holiday can also be aimed at very advanced riders who want to learn new riding styles or who simply want to ride other horses for a while. Here, too, the same selection criteria apply for choosing a suitable stable as for a riding stable for regular riding lessons.

Age groups in equestrian sports

In tournament sport , the riders are divided into different age groups. These are particularly important for championships (from city / district championships to world championships), where separate evaluations are almost always made according to age groups. Age groups are also important in other tournament sports, so individual tests or entire tournaments are only advertised for certain age groups.

The FEI subdivides the age groups as follows:

  • Pony riders: from 12 to 16 years on ponies
  • "Children": from 12 to 14 years on large horses
  • Juniors: from 14 to 18 years
  • Young riders: from 16 to 21 years
  • Rider: from 22 years to 39 years
  • Seniors: from 40 years (international "Veteran Riders", earlier you were immediately senior after the boy rider days)

All tests that have no age restriction relate to the age group of the rider. Every rider from the age of 22 automatically counts in this age group, but the competitions are also open to younger riders. In international sport, the senior age group only exists in show jumping. There, however, many riders over the age of 40 start in the competitions of the "riders".

The distribution of the age groups may differ from the above scheme at national level.

See also


Driving: dressage with a single horse

Driving in the broadest sense describes driving horse-drawn vehicles as sport and for hobby purposes ( recreational driving ).

The individual sporting disciplines are dressage , obstacle driving and off-road driving . The article Tension describes the combinations of wagons, carriages and horses .


Group vaulting (freestyle)

In vaulting, acrobatic gymnastics and gymnastics exercises are performed on the horse and presented at various competitions. A distinction is made between single, double and group vaulting. Groups consist of six or eight athletes, with a maximum of three vaulters on the horse at the same time. There are compulsory and freestyle gymnastics, the individual ratings are added together to form a final grade.

Vaulting promotes a sense of balance and has a positive influence on the development of motor skills, especially in younger people. In addition, the vaulter learns how to handle the horse, as well as the daily cleaning and care of the horse.

In 2008 the performance classes were reallocated. LK D became A, LK C became L, LK B became M *, LK A became M ** LK S is a new addition and is again divided into Junior and Senior.

today before 2008 mandatory
A. D. Jump up, basic seat, flag, push-up, inside and outside seat, kneeling, support swing forward, exit
L. C. Jump up, basic seat, flag with arm (first leg, then arm), standing, support swing forwards, half a mill, support swing backwards, exit inwards
M * B. Jump up, flag with arm at the same time, whole mill, scissors, standing, flank 1st part, high turn to the outside
M ** A. Landing, flag with arm at the same time, whole mill, scissors, standing, flank
S junior Jump up, basic seat, half a mill, support swing backwards, flag with arm at the same time, support swing forwards and high turn outwards
S senior Jump, basic seat, flag with arm at the same time, whole mill, scissors, standing, flank

Handicraft / floor work

Ground work for the show too: Friesian stallion on the long rein

The work of the horse from the ground, that is, without riding. Ground work is the generic term, which is subordinate to, for example, lunge work , circus lessons , free work, pure dominance training - as it is practiced in Join Up - and manual labor.

Handicraft in the narrower sense of the classical art of riding is a technique in which a horse handler leads a horse and walks behind or diagonally behind the horse. Working on a long rein is just as possible as working with a double lunge . When working on the long rein, the horse handler stands next to the horse. Work on the simple reins with the horse is particularly practiced in the Iberian region. The horse can learn and carry out practically all lessons up to high school . Lessons can only be worked through on the hand, without the rider's weight, which is a problem for the horse. If the sequence of movements and the movement pattern are established, the lessons can be transferred to riding.

Floor work exclusively through body language, voice and whip is called freedom training . A master of this discipline was Fredy Knie sen. from Circus Knie , Switzerland.

Free work uses voice and body language. The book " The Horse Whisperer " made working with body language known even among non-riders.

Groundwork is also used intensively in western riding and recreational riding , on the one hand to introduce the horse to gymnastic exercises without the rider's weight, as in classic equestrianism, but on the other hand to train the horse's dexterity and obedience. Obstacles are also used for this (barrels, bars, seesaw). A rope halter is used for effective groundwork, which in contrast to the stable halter enables communication with the horse. In Germany, this work was shaped by Linda Tellington-Jones and Ursula Bruns .

therapeutical riding

Therapeutic riding is an umbrella term for curative educational vaulting and curative educational riding as work with people with psychological and social abnormalities, and hippotherapy as physiotherapy on the horse. When walking, the horse has the same movements as the human. This means that therapeutic riding helps people who can no longer walk upright after an accident, illness or the like to learn it again. If the injured person is led to walk, the horse's movement is saved by the brain. The storage helps to be able to walk again soon or to strengthen the muscles and / or correct the posture. Mentally ill people can regain confidence when dealing with animals, especially horses.

Equestrian sports for people with disabilities

In equestrian sports for the disabled , disabled people practice equestrian sports - in Olympic disciplines up to the Paralympics .

Performance plowing

Farmer with a two-horse carriage and a single plow doing performance plowing

Power plowing is a revival of centuries-old traditions. Fixed areas of a stubble field (often 10 × 40 m) are plowed with horses and (mostly) caving plows. In addition to the general appearance of the plowed field, the assessment is based on the furrow depth, cutting furrow and final furrow. The handling of the horses is also assessed. Usually there is a horse handler next to the plowman, some are able to lead the horses in addition to plowing.

Associations and associations

Tournament riders are obliged to be a member of a club. There are also clubs for recreational riders, trail riders, western riders, endurance riders or for driving and breeding.

German Equestrian Federation (Fédération Equestre Nationale)
The German Equestrian Association (FN - Fédération Equestre Nationale) is the German umbrella organization for classic dressage and show jumping (see also: classic equestrian art ) as well as for vaulting, eventing and driving. In 2009 the association had 7,663 riding and driving clubs and a total of 748,839 members. The FN not only looks after tournament sports, but also popular sports with horses. In addition, the association, founded in 1905, deals with questions of horse breeding and keeping , animal and landscape protection , as well as legal regulations that affect equestrian sport, such as riding path rights. The German Equestrian Federation (FN) is part of the International Equestrian Federation (FEI - Fédération Équestre Internationale). For example, the World Equestrian Games and international tournaments are co-organized and monitored by the FEI.
Icelandic Horse Rider and Breeder Association eV (IPZV eV)
The Icelandic Horse Rider and Breeder Association eV (IPZV eV) is the umbrella organization for all Icelandic horse clubs in Germany. With 160 clubs in eleven regional associations, including the largest German riding club in total, the Icelandic Horse Breeding and Sports Association North eV (IPZV Nord eV) , more than 25,000 Icelandic horse riders and breeders are organized in the IPZV umbrella association.
Association for Equestrian Games V. Mounted Games Germany (VRMGD)
Umbrella organization for the national Mounted Games activities. Associate member of the FN, member of the IMGA (International Mounted Games Association)
Association of recreational riders and drivers in Germany (VFD)
The Association of Leisure Riders and Drivers in Germany (VFD) , which was founded in 1973, is primarily dedicated to popular horse sport and questions of species-appropriate horse keeping . Originally a result of an initiative against a severe restriction of riding rights in the woods and fields planned at the beginning of the 1970s, lobbying for riding rights is still an important part of the work of the VFD. In addition, the VFD offers training in equine studies and hiking - and cross-country riding and organizes its own tournaments and tests.
Association of endurance riders and drivers in Germany
The endurance riders and drivers are organized in it.
First Western Rider Union Germany (EMU)
The first Western Equestrian Union Germany (EMU), founded in 1978, is aimed at western riders. The EWU organizes tournaments in the following disciplines, among others: Western Pleasure, Horsemanship, Trail, Western Riding, Superhorse, Reining, Cutting and Working Cowhorse. In addition, it offers exams and courses for interested western riders without tournament ambitions in the areas of horse studies and cross-country riding. The EMU has been affiliated with the FN at federal level since 1993.
German Trail Rider Academy V. (DWA)
is a registered association that sees itself as an association for trail riders. The focus is on the training of trail riders and the organization of trail rides at home and abroad.


  • Jasper Nissen: horses, riders, drivers, breeders. 1979.

See also

Portal: Equestrian  - Overview of Wikipedia content on equestrian
Commons : Equestrian  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Web links



Individual evidence

  1. Facts & Figures Equestrian Sports and Horse Breeding. pferd-aktuell.de, accessed on March 13, 2019 .
  2. www.vdd-aktuell.de ( Memento of the original from October 28, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.vdd-aktuell.de
  3. www.visit-exmoor.co.uk ( Memento of the original from October 16, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.visit-exmoor.co.uk
  4. Alpen Patrouillenritt  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / www.flumserberg.ch  
  5. Names of the international tournaments and their abbreviations by the FEI ( Memento of the original from July 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , German Equestrian Association (PDF file) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.pferd-aktuell.de
  6. EM Children - An age group has established itself ( Memento of the original from June 17, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , German Equestrian Federation @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.pferd-aktuell.de
  7. see also dressage test # rider under 25
  8. ^ German Equestrian Association: Horse Topics AZ: Numbers, dates and facts. ( Memento of the original from October 1, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (accessed on 23 September 2010) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.pferd-aktuell.de