Show jumping

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jumping is a discipline of equestrian sport in which horse and rider a multi-obstacle course in a specified order overcome. The obstacles can be steep jumps , high jumps , terrain obstacles (ditches, moats, walls, billiards). Obstacles can occur individually, as distances or as open / closed combinations of several individual obstacles.


Phases of the jump (drawing)

Basic jumping training is part of the balanced basic training of a horse. Even today there are dressage tests with an obedience jump. In jumping training, among other things, pole work , cavaletti work , trot jumps, free jumping and gymnastics series are used to train rhythm and coordination. The horse should arch its back over the jump. The arching of the back is known as the bascule . Jumping gymnastics is also useful to compensate for the gymnastics of dressage and leisure horses. In particular, rhythm and back problems can be improved with jumping gymnastics. Gym jumping is also valuable for fully trained show jumpers, as the technique is improved without putting too much strain on the horses. There are successful tournament riders and trainers, such as Ingrid Klimke or Franke Sloothaak , who largely limit their training and education to dressage and jumping gymnastics and who mainly show the high jumps at tournaments .

“In the practical implementation, obstacle heights of 60–100 cm are completely sufficient and protect the legs from excessive stress. Small jumps - big impact! "

- Ingrid Klimke : Cavaletti dressage and jumping

According to initial convictions, young horses usually jump confidently and willingly over smaller obstacles. By using the wrong riding technique, however, they can very quickly be made unhappy to jump, one then says that these horses are "angry". These horses tend to refuse supposedly for no reason . It is very difficult to regain an acid horse's trust.

Phases of the jump in show jumping (bascule not ideal)

Template: Panorama / Maintenance / Para4

Show jumping exams

There are the following types of tests in show jumping:

Jumping competition
A jumping competition can be held according to different judging procedures. Depending on the straightening process, the result is based on errors, time or a combination of both. More information can be found in the article Springprüfung .
Style jumping
In style jumping, the rider is assessed with a grade of 0 to 10. For obstacle errors (throws) there is a 0.5 point deduction, refusals or other disobedience lead to 0.5 points the first time, 1.0 points the second time, if the second refusal takes place at the same obstacle even 2.0 points . A third refusal leads to exclusion. A fall of the rider and a fall of the horse leads to immediate exclusion for reasons of safety. When jumping style, attention is paid to the rider's seat. On long journeys, the rider should be in the light seat and the horse in the canter .
Show jumping test
As part of a show jumping test, the training and suitability of a young horse (up to 7 years of age) for later use in show jumping tests is assessed. The horses / riders get grades from 0 to 10.

Obstacle dimensions

According to the international regulations of the World Equestrian Federation FEI , obstacles in normal jumping competitions must not be higher than 1.70 m. Since the end of the 2010s, these maximum dimensions have been used at the world's most difficult Grand Prix ( CHIO Aachen , Spruce Meadows Masters ).

The dimensions of the obstacles at national tournaments in Germany are up to 1.60 m in height and 2 m in depth. Moats must be at least 2.50 m and a maximum of 4.50 m wide. In special jumping tests according to leveling procedure D, these dimensions can be exceeded ( power jumping , barrier jumping ). In tournaments, different minimum and maximum dimensions are prescribed depending on the class (according to LPO 2018).

Requirements for the number and dimensions of the obstacles according to § 504 LPO
class Height in cm Width in cm 2-fold combinations (max.) 3-fold combinations (max.) Max. Moat width min. Number of obstacles (inside) min. Number of obstacles (outside)
E (beginner) 85 85 1 no - 6th 7th
A * (beginner) 95 95 2 no - 6th 7th
A ** 105 105 2 no 2.50 m 6th 7th
L (light) 115 115 2 1 3.00 m 7th 8th
M * (intermediate) 125 125 2 1 3.50 m 8th 9
M ** 135 135 free free 4.00 m 9 10
S * (difficult) 140 any free free 4.10 m 9 10
S ** 145 any free free 4.30 m 9 10
S *** 150 any free free 4.50 m 10 11
S **** 155 any free free 4.50 m 10 11

With a triple bar, a deviation of + 50cm in width is permitted. Otherwise deviations of up to +/- 5 cm in height and −10 cm / +20 cm in width are possible. From class S * the width is arbitrary.

However, 25% of the jumps per course (of which one steep jump and one oxer ) must meet the dimensions listed above.

History of show jumping as a tournament sport

The common seat of the rider in the early years of equestrian sport
Caprilli, 1868-1907

Show jumping tournaments comparable to today's emerged in the second half of the 19th century. The first important tournaments were those of the Royal Dublin Society (jumping competitions from 1864, today Dublin Horse Show ) and the Concours central in Paris (from 1866).

In the early years of show jumping it was customary for the rider to overcome the obstacles with a long rein and a body leaning far back. The modern jumping seat , shaped by the Italian Rittmeister Federico Caprilli , was particularly helped by the first major military horse show. This was held in Turin in 1902, where Caprilli set a (European) high jump record with 2.08 m.

The first competitions were mere high and long jump competitions, but hunting jumping (forerunners of today's jumping competitions) quickly established itself as a form of test. The first jumps in show jumping were simple obstacles in the style of steep jumps and ditches. At the tournaments in the Belgian Spa in 1899 and 1900, obstacles such as a triple bar and an “open ditch” (wall with a ditch in front of it) were used for the first time in Europe.

Show jumping in the US Army in 1941

For decades, jumping competitions were held over natural obstacles. The obstacles were arranged one behind the other on straight lines, there were few turns and hand changes to ride. The course of the German Jumping Derby, which has remained largely unchanged since the 1920s, still shows today what kind of jumping courses were common back then. The cylindrical wooden poles customary today were already to be found in parcours before the Second World War.

While the Olympic courses of the 1950s were still designed according to this basic idea, the type of lines of the 1976 Olympic jumping courses largely corresponded to that which is common today.

Henk Nooren overcomes an obstacle to the wall at the 1980 Olympic replacement competition

The Olympic jumping courses designed by Olaf Petersen in 1988 led to a major change in the design of the obstacles themselves. Previously, the obstacles were mostly designed in muted colors and were very massive (sometimes nine poles on top of each other), but were then significantly more "airy" obstacles with just a few poles and customizing obstacle components are common. Safety requirements, which give way to the bottom under increased load, now ensure a significantly reduced risk of accidents for horse and rider.

Jumping competitions, in which only female riders are allowed to participate, are traditionally referred to as Amazon jumping. However, since 1975 there have been no separate Amazon championships at World and European Championships, both genders start in the same category. Since then, the number of Amazon jumping has decreased. In the German championships , there is a separate women's competition at the Swiss Championships are not.

In top sport there has been a significant internationalization, commercialization and consolidation of the tournament calendar over the decades, but especially since the 2000s. Until the 1990s, the top riders were able to prepare their best horses for such special courses as the German Jumping Derby, but today one or even several tournaments in the highest category (CSI 5 *, grand prizes with at least 200,000 euros in prize money) are held every weekend of the year ) carried out.

While the Pulsar Crown tournament series offered millions in prize money for the first time at the end of the 1990s , the Global Champions Tour, which has grown to almost 20 tournaments, and its franchise- like appendix (the Global Champions League ) dominate the tournament calendar today . In return, the national prizes , which in their tradition go back to 1909, fight against the threatened loss of importance.

Olympic history

Show jumping has been Olympic (individual) since Paris 1900 (with interruptions at the Games 1904 to 1908), for teams since Antwerp 1920 . In Paris there was a unique high and long jump on horseback.

Up until the Games in Mexico City in 1968 and again since the Games in Tokyo 2020 , a team consists of only three riders, all of whom were rated. If one of them was eliminated, the team was out of the race. Because of this regulation, there were no team medals in Los Angeles in 1932 , as no complete team came through.

From the 1972 Games to the 2016 Games , the team consisted of up to four riders. The three best rides per round were evaluated.

Olympic champion

See also: List of Olympic champions in equestrian sport

Olympic champion
year country athlete horse sport
1900 Belgium Aimé Haegeman Benton II Hunting jumping
1900 France Dominique Gardères Canéla Jump high
1900 Italy Giangiorgio Trissino Oreste Jump high
1900 Belgium Constant van Langhendonck Extra dry Jump far
1912 France Jean Cariou Mignon Hunting jumping
1920 Italy Tommaso Lequio di Assaba Trebecco Hunting jumping
1924 Switzerland Alphonse Gemuseus Lucette Hunting jumping
1928 Czechoslovakia František Ventura Eliot Hunting jumping
1932 Japan Takeichi Nishi Uranus Hunting jumping
1936 Germany Kurt Hasse Torah Hunting jumping
1948 Mexico Humberto Mariles Cortés Arete Hunting jumping
1952 France Pierre Jonquères d'Oriola Ali Baba Hunting jumping
1956 BR Germany Hans Günter Winkler Halla Hunting jumping
1960 Italy Raimondo D'Inzeo Posillipo Hunting jumping
1964 France Pierre Jonquères d'Oriola Lutteur B Hunting jumping
1968 United States William Steinkraus Snowbound Hunting jumping
1972 Italy Graziano Mancinelli Ambassador Hunting jumping
1976 BR Germany Alwin Schockemöhle Warwick Rex Hunting jumping
1980 Poland Jan Kowalczyk Artemor Hunting jumping
1984 United States Joe Fargis Touch of class Hunting jumping
1988 France Pierre Durand Jappeloup de Luze Hunting jumping
1992 Germany Ludger Beerbaum Classic touch Hunting jumping
1996 Germany Ulrich Kirchhoff Jus de pomme Hunting jumping
2000 Netherlands Jeroen Dubbeldam De Sjiem Hunting jumping
2004 Brazil Rodrigo Pessoa Baloubet du Rouet Hunting jumping
2008 Canada Eric Lamaze Hickstead Hunting jumping
2012 Switzerland Steve Guerdat Nino des Buissonnets
2016 Great Britain Nick Skelton Big star

Debate about show jumping

Eadweard Muybridge , horseman in the 19th century. The horse jumps with little bascule.
Good bascule jumping, the horse jumps in an arched line and arches its back.

Contra show jumping

  • Wildlife biologist and TV presenter Antal Festetics notes: “The horse is completely unsuitable for jumping. Unlike the lion, for example, it inherently has a stiff spine, which means it has to take its own weight and even the rider over the hurdle in a show jumping competition. "
  • If a horse with little bascule jumps, it is not good for the horse's back. You see such technology more often in the lower grades. See animation.
  • Animal rights activists regularly point out excesses in show jumping, especially the bars and the blistering of chemical substances.
  • To prevent the horses from touching the bar with their hind legs, the hind leg gaiters can be pulled extremely tight. This makes every touch particularly painful for the horse and it automatically lifts the hind legs higher. The World Equestrian Federation is gradually banning this practice for all international competitions from 2021.

Pro show jumping

  • Festetics' statement that horses have a stiff spine is controversial, as the freely swinging spine ( slackness ) is one of the training goals in both show jumping ( bascule ) and dressage riding .
  • More recent studies by a working group led by Holger Preuschoft, professor emeritus for anatomy from the Ruhr-Universität Bochum , come to the conclusion: “It turns out that the diameter of the spine ... at every point is exactly proportional to the highest forces that we apply to jumping horses have calculated. (…) By the way, from this finding one can deduce the conclusion that horses are definitely made for jumping. "

See also

Similar sports

Since 1997 the sport of off-road Kjöring in which, similar to skijoring , an inline skaters with special off-road rollerblades pulled by a jumper. A course is overcome that consists of different types of obstacles. There are steep and high jumps for riders and skaters, each with ramps attached to the side for the skater, jumps that either only the skater or only the rider jumps, and slalom obstacles especially for the skater. Swiss championships are held.


Web links

Commons : Show jumping  album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Show jumping  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Ingrid and Reiner Klimke, Cavaletti Dressur und Jumping, Stuttgart, 2005
  2. Everything is allowed - just not scheme F , Jessica Kaup, ( Memento from November 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  3. Question-and-answer catalog of the German Equestrian Association: Style jumping ( Memento from October 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  4. Jumping Rules, 26th edition, effective 1 January 2018, Updates effective 1 January 2019 : Article 208 Obstacles - General
  5. Max E. Ammann: History of equestrian sport: jumping, military, dressage, driving . Special edition, Prisma-Verlag, Gütersloh 1983, ISBN 3-570-09074-4 , p. 26-29 .
  6. Max E. Ammann: History of equestrian sport: jumping, military, dressage, driving . Special edition, Prisma-Verlag, Gütersloh 1983, ISBN 3-570-09074-4 , p. 121, 218 (illustrations) .
  7. German Olympic Committee for Horse Riding (ed.): We ride for Germany: 100 years of equestrian sport in the German Olympic Committee for Horse Riding . FN-Verlag of the German Equestrian Association, Warendorf 2013, ISBN 978-3-88542-783-4 , p. 209 .
  8. Otto Becker: "The top horses are bought away" , interview, conducted by Falk Blesken from the Berliner Morgenpost , July 18, 2019
  9. ^ [From the Show Jumping World Cup and other cup inventions], Dieter Ludwig, April 13, 2010
  10. Montevideo: Prohibition of certain hind leg gaiters decided , Julia Basic / Deutsche Reiterliche Vereinigung , November 24, 2017
  11. Offroad Kjöring Swiss Championships 2009
  12. offroad Kjöring