Dressage riding

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Trakehner in dressage
Dressage arena 20 meters × 60 meters

Dressage is a discipline of equestrian sport in which the natural disposition of the horse is promoted and refined through gymnastic exercises. The aim of dressage is the rideable horse , which can be prompted to carry out a desired task (“lesson”) precisely in response to minimal signals ( “help” ). The dressage training of the horse is the basis of every riding activity and finds its completion in the high school . The so-called scale of training is decisive for the training of all horses in dressage .

Goal setting

Dressage riding promotes and refines the horse's natural movements and enables him to optimally carry the rider's weight , thereby helping to keep the horse healthy. In this context, dressage means less the conditioning of the horse on commands in the sense of freedom training, but rather the gymnastics and sensitization of the horse to increase strength, mobility and permeability :

“The basic idea of ​​classical dressage is to keep a riding horse healthy for as long as possible by practicing gymnastic exercises, through which the horse should be able to remain usable for riding without being damaged. The horse should become more beautiful, expressive and self-confident through the systematic training, which results in the overall image of a [...] harmoniously built athlete. "

The training of a dressage horse is classically based on the training scale .

Dressage as a tournament sport


Dressage riding around 100 years ago: A major in the Swiss Army rides a dressage test on a curb

Dressage as a sport emerged from the comparison between officers at the end of the 19th century and, like most equestrian disciplines, was initially reserved for them. While the so-called "Carousels" or "Horse-Ballets" (comparable to today's quadrilles ) were the usual riding demonstrations in court circles for a long time , in 1873 the "Society for Prämierung well-trained Campagne Horses" in Pressburg for the first time a price riding as an individual riding competition carried out. These exams spread throughout Europe in the years that followed. In addition to the usual lessons in today's dressage tests, they also contained obstacles. The successor to these obstacles was an obedience jump at the end of dressage tests until the 1970s.

The rules of the sport, which have been Olympic since 1912 , are based on the military requirements of the European cavalry . Today women are leaders in dressage around the world. Since 2009 men and women have been rated jointly at the German Dressage Championships. For decades, Germany has dominated the dressage sport due to its success in horse breeding ; it is one of the most successful sports in which German athletes compete internationally.

Tournament sport

At tournaments , riders and horses in dressage tasks are rated with a value from 0 (not shown) to 10 (excellent). Either a grade is given for the entire task or an overall grade that results from separate grades for each individual lesson of the task. The tests are carried out individually or in small groups on a standardized dressage arena and assessed jointly or individually by up to five judges.

The dressage exercises consist of a certain number of lessons that are shown in a certain order or, in a freestyle, with background music in a freely chosen sequence. The horse moves in the basic gaits of step, trot and gallop on straight and curved lines (train figures ), forwards, sideways or backwards. In the higher disciplines of dressage, more complicated movement sequences are shown ( traversal , passage , piaffe , canter pirouette, etc.).

The seat and the aids provided by the rider, the movement and rideability of the horse as well as the correctness of the execution of the required lessons are assessed.

Dressage riders are repeatedly criticized for using the " roll cure ", also known as hyperflexion. The rider acts so strongly on the reins that he forces his horse to lower his head and curl his neck.

Dressage, despite its Olympic successes, received little attention from the German-speaking media, from the end of 2010 onwards there was a temporary increase in media coverage. The reason for this was the marketing of the stallion Totilas , sometimes referred to as a “wonder horse” , which was also reflected in the tabloids.

Olympic history

Dressage has been Olympic since Stockholm 1912 (individual) and Amsterdam 1928 (team). Women have been integrated into the teams since 1952 .

Individual gold medal winners 2012: Charlotte Dujardin and Valegro
The German dressage team at the award ceremony of the team competition in Hong Kong
Olympic champion
year Individual winner Team winner
country athlete horse
1912 Sweden Carl Bonde Emperor -
1920 Sweden Janne Lundblad U.N -
1924 Sweden Ernst Linder Piccolomini -
1928 German Empire Carl-Friedrich von Langen Daredevil German Empire
1932 France Xavier Lesage Taine France
1936 German Empire Heinz Pollay Kronos German Empire
1948 Switzerland Hans Moser lobster France
1952 Sweden Henri Saint Cyr Master Rufus Sweden
1956 Sweden Henri Saint Cyr July Sweden
1960 USSR Sergei Ivanovich Filatov Absent -
1964 Switzerland Henri Chammartin Woermann Germany
1968 USSR Ivan Michailowitsch Kisimow ichor BR Germany
1972 BR Germany Liselott Linsenhoff Piaff USSR
1976 Switzerland Christine Stückelberger garnet BR Germany
1980 Austria Elisabeth Theurer Mon Chérie USSR
1984 BR Germany Reiner Klimke Ahlerich BR Germany
1988 BR Germany Nicole Uphoff Rembrandt BR Germany
1992 Germany Nicole Uphoff Rembrandt Germany
1996 Germany Isabell Werth gigolo Germany
2000 Netherlands Anky van Grunsven Bonfire Germany
2004 Netherlands Anky van Grunsven Salinero Germany
2008 Netherlands Anky van Grunsven Salinero Germany
2012 Great Britain Charlotte Dujardin Valegro Great Britain
2016 Great Britain Charlotte Dujardin Valegro Germany

Since Atlanta 1996, dressage riding has also been a discipline in the Paralympics , the Olympic Games for athletes with a physical disability.


The world records in the three most difficult dressage competitions - Grand Prix de Dressage , Grand Prix Spécial and Grand Prix Freestyle - are each over 80 percent, in the Freestyle even over 90 percent. The following lists contain the current records as well as previous world records.

Grand Prix de Dressage
Result equestrian horse date place
87.460% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro December 16, 2014 CDI-W London
87.129% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro April 19, 2014 World Cup finals in Lyon
85.942% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro 22nd August 2013 European championship in Herning
84.447% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro 17th December 2012 CDI-W London
84.085% NetherlandsNetherlands Edward Gal Totilas August 26, 2009 European Championships in Windsor
81.333% NetherlandsNetherlands Anky van Grunsven Salinero June 22, 2006 CHIO Rotterdam
Grand Prix Spécial
Result equestrian horse date place
88.022% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro April 29, 2012 CDI 4 * Hagen am Teutoburg Forest
86.458% NetherlandsNetherlands Edward Gal Totilas July 17, 2010 CHIO Aachen
84.042% NetherlandsNetherlands Adelinde Cornelissen Parzival August 27, 2009 European Championships in Windsor
Grand Prix Freestyle
Result equestrian horse date place
94.300% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro 17th December 2014 CDI-W London
93.975% United KingdomUnited Kingdom Charlotte Dujardin Valegro 17th December 2013 CDI-W London
92.300% NetherlandsNetherlands Edward Gal Totilas December 16, 2009 CDI-W London
90.750% NetherlandsNetherlands Edward Gal Totilas August 29, 2009 European Championships in Windsor
87.925% NetherlandsNetherlands Anky van Grunsven Salinero March 25, 2006 CDI-W 's-Hertogenbosch


See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Dressage riding  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
Commons : Dressage  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Robert Stodulka, p. 150
  2. The Beginnings of Dressage , Max E. Ammann in the Horse Week , October 6, 2015
  3. for example the article "The miracle horse: Totilas in sex stress" of BILD
  4. CDI-W London 2014: Result Grand Prix de Dressage
  5. World Cup Final 2014: Result Grand Prix de Dressage
  6. European Championships 2013: Result Grand Prix de Dressage
  7. CDI-W London 2012: Result Grand Prix de Dressage
  8. European Championship Dressage 2009, result Grand Prix de Dressage
  9. Grand Prix de Dressage, CHIO Rotterdam 2006 ( Memento from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  10. CDI 4 * Hagen aTW 2012: Result Grand Prix Spécial ( Memento from May 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  11. CDIO 5 * at the CHIO Aachen 2010: Result Grand Prix Spécial
  12. European Dressage Championship 2009, result Grand Prix Spécial
  13. CDI-W London 2014: Result Grand Prix Freestyle (PDF)
  14. CDI-W London 2013: Result Grand Prix Freestyle (PDF)
  15. CDI-W London 2009: Result of the Grand Prix Freestyle (PDF; 49 kB)
  16. European Dressage Championship 2009, result of the Grand Prix Freestyle (PDF; 20 kB)
  17. CDI-W 's-Hertogenbosch ( Memento from July 14, 2014 in the Internet Archive )