|description||Daily newspaper ( boulevard )|
|publishing company||Axel Springer SE ( Germany )|
|First edition||June 24, 1952|
|Frequency of publication||Monday to Saturday|
|Sold edition||1,241,142 copies|
|( IVW 2/2020, Mon-Sat)|
|Range||8.63 million readers|
|( MA 2020 I )|
The national tabloid , which has been published by Axel Springer Verlag since June 24, 1952, was for a long time the daily newspaper with the highest circulation in Europe. The sold circulation is 1,241,142 copies, a decrease of 71.9 percent since 1998.
In January 2020, 458,942 readers used the paid digital service Bild plus . It is the largest in Europe and the fifth largest in the world in terms of subscriber numbers. The total digital offer of the Bild -Zeitung is the most visited news site in Germany and had around 25 million visitors in March 2019 according to a survey by the online research group (agof).
In March 2020 there were 21 picture editors. The nationwide and 20 regional ones, which produce 25 different regional editions in addition to the federal edition.
The reporting of Bild has been the subject of numerous public discussions and criticism for decades.
History of picture
|Editors-in-chief of the picture|
|1952||Rolf von Bargen|
|since March 2018||Julian Reichelt|
The first issue of the Bild newspaper appeared on June 24, 1952 with a total circulation of 455,000 copies. It had four pages and was distributed free of charge, after which a newspaper cost 10 pfennigs . In terms of content, there were only current photos of world events in large format on the cover and back, plus longer captions and three comic strips. The inner part was filled with brief reports, competitions, horoscopes and short stories. The first headline read: "The border at Helmstedt is being secured!"
The model of the publisher Axel Springer for style and content was the high-circulation tabloid press in Great Britain, which he had got to know better during the British occupation in Hamburg. Springer saw the "printed answer to television" in the Bild newspaper. The starting team included ten editors and two secretaries. The Bild newspaper was originally a sales newspaper , but you can now subscribe to it.
The content and form were still a long way from today's Bild -Zeitung. Often the articles only consisted of a photo with a caption. According to Springer, the front part should be political, while the back mostly featured gossip stories about celebrities . The concept was to create an easy-to-read newspaper that could also retain readers.
The newspaper was initially called 10-Pfennig-Bild-Zeitung or Groschenblatt and was sold from the vendor's tray by street vendors who wore a long white raincoat and a white cap with a raised front on which the name of the newspaper was written. Rolf von Bargen was responsible for the content until October 1952. On November 1, 1952, Rudolf Michael became editor-in-chief. On December 11, 1952, the first advertisement appeared in the Bild newspaper, advertising for Chlorodont toothpaste.
Under editor-in-chief Rudolf Michael, the Bild newspaper printed fewer pictures and more text, and the verbal eye-catcher, the headline , was introduced. In terms of content, the Bild newspaper continued to offer so-called human interest topics and little politics. After the circulation had fallen to 200,000 copies a day by the end of 1952 and the Bild newspaper was already threatened with financial failure, the circulation rose sharply until March 1953 and passed the one million mark. The regional edition of Bild Hamburg appeared for the first time on April 11, 1953 .
From 1955 to 1970, Bild had a mascot. Lilli , a blonde, long-legged girl from the pen of the cartoonist Reinhard Beuthin , for whom a doll was created in 1955. The 30 centimeter tall picture Lilli was the model for the American Barbie doll. Lilli became so popular in Germany that in 1958 a film was made about her Lilli - a girl from the big city . The main role was cast in a competition in the Bild newspaper. The winner was the Danish actress Ann Smyrner .
In 1956 the circulation was 2.5 million copies. The Bild am Sonntag , the first image offshoot appeared. On October 14, 1957, the regional edition of Bild -Berlin was introduced. On May 25, 1959, Axel Springer laid the foundation stone for the publishing and printing facility on Kochstrasse in Berlin . When Rudolf Michael resigned from the editor-in-chief in 1958 for reasons of age, the sold circulation was over 3 million copies. Bild had become the daily newspaper with the highest circulation in Europe.
In the 1960s, Bild reflected the atmosphere of the economic boom . Axel Springer defended his concept that “the masses , not the intellectuals ” were his target group. Politics became more important under the conservative editor-in-chief Karl-Heinz Hagen. The newspaper represented strict anti-communism and vehemently opposed the division of Germany . Under the more liberal and then only 34-year-old editor-in-chief Peter Boenisch , compared to Hagen , there was a sudden change of course from 1962. Politics took a backseat and lighter topics like movie stars, celebrities and sports became more important. In January 1962, 26 page-1 headlines came from these areas and only two from politics. Whenever political reports were made, domestic politics and German-German relations came to the fore. Bild took part in the button campaign “Open the gate” and reported in detail on the refugee movement from the GDR . After the Wall was built on August 13, 1961, the headline read: “The East is acting - what is the West doing? The West is doing NOTHING! ”At the time of the construction of the Wall in 1961, Bild spent weeks opening up the title page with a graphic of barbed wire as a border.
The publisher's growing market power worried many observers at the end of the 1960s. In 1964, the business magazine Capital discussed the Springer Group's market shares in a detailed report from the point of view of press concentration. From May 1966, these phenomena became a central topic in West German media politics and in the following spring also met with greater resonance in the public broadcasting media. Various West German publishers, largely under the direction of Spiegel publisher Rudolf Augstein, judged the Springer Group to be a threatening journalistic monopoly power, which Melchert's dissertation on the subject critically describes as a strategic "anti-Springer campaign". The media in the GDR used the criticism of the Cold War to create a monopoly of opinion for the Bild newspaper in West Germany.
In response to the discussion, the Federal Government set up a press commission chaired by the President of the Federal Cartel Office to investigate the concentration. The commission came to the judgment that the expansive Springer group threatened the diversity and freedom of the press . At this point in time, the Springer Group (annual sales almost one billion marks) owned 19 newspapers and magazines with a total circulation of 17.5 million. The main threat was the position of power less in the magazine sector, but seen in the newspaper sector. Axel Springer Verlag sold five of its magazines after the 1968 ruling.
In 1964, Bild succeeded for the first time in directly influencing a federal law that had already been passed . In July 1964, Post Minister Richard Stücklen announced an increase in telephone charges. Bild reported: “We won't put up with anything!” And “Take the Bundestag out of vacation!” In the specially convened session of Parliament during the summer break , the price increase was partially withdrawn.
In 1965 the price of the Bild newspaper rose from 10 to 15 pfennigs. In order to be able to enforce this better, Springer had unsuccessfully asked Ludwig Erhard to hand over a 15-Pfennig coin. The 13-year history as a groschenblatt ended.
Since the end of 1966, the critical comments of the so-called Springer press against the protesting student body increased . This increasingly verbal-aggressive hostility led the students to a strong emotional underpinning of their theoretically derived condemnation of the supposed opinion leader Springer. At the same time, Springer repeatedly received the approval of politicians during these years.
For APO , Bild and Springer-Verlag became an enemy. The “ Expropriated Springer!” Campaign was initiated and openly demanded that the group be broken up. On October 6, 1967, an agreement was reached on a joint APO campaign against Springer between representatives of various student associations ( LSD , SHB , SDS ), the ASten of various universities, the Campaign for Disarmament (KfA) of the Republican Club (RC) and the Publication organ Berliner Extra-Dienst .
On June 2, 1967, the student Benno Ohnesorg was shot dead by a police officer in Berlin. This event escalated the conflict between Springer-Verlag and students. The incident was hushed up and the students were not only clearly portrayed as the aggressors in the Bild newspaper, but also repeatedly brought into the vicinity of terrorist organizations in a polemical manner or equated with the National Socialists . Bild only reported that there had been a death and directed the allegation of violence on the demonstrators. In her comment of June 3, 1967, it said: “Students threaten: We shoot back” and “This is where fun and compromise and democratic tolerance end. We have something against SA methods. "
In 1967 Axel Springer formulated four guidelines for the publisher, which were adapted after the reunification of Germany and expanded after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the USA . To this day, every employee has to sign this supplementary agreement to the employment contract. The regional edition of Bild München appeared for the first time on April 1, 1968 . After the moon landing , the first color photograph appeared on 21 July 1969 in image . On this occasion, the newspaper printed the words “Mond-Zeitung” under the logo.
On April 11, 1968, the student leader Rudi Dutschke was shot by Josef Bachmann in Berlin. Many blamed the Bild newspaper and its reporting on Dutschke and the student movement for the attack. "Picture shot with!" It said. Serious unrest followed in West Berlin and other cities. Demonstrators tried to storm the Springer house in Berlin and set fire to Bild delivery trucks. The Hamburg print shop was besieged to prevent the delivery of "Bild", the Bild editorial office in Munich was devastated by students.
Many well-known left-wing German intellectuals publicly turned against the newspapers of the Axel-Springer-Verlag in 1967 and thus especially against the Bild . Significant former members of Group 47 around Günter Grass , Peter Rühmkorf and Klaus Staeck founded the anti- image campaign with the signature campaign “We do not work for Springer newspapers”. The writer feared a "restriction and violation of freedom of expression " and a "threat to the foundations of parliamentary democracy in Germany" by the market power of the company . Other signatories were Heinrich Böll , Jürgen Habermas as well as trade unionists and politicians.
After the Dutschke assassination, intellectuals like Theodor Adorno , Heinrich Böll , Ludwig von Friedeburg , Eugen Kogon , Golo Mann and Alexander Mitscherlich signed a "statement on the assassination attempt" in which they demand a public discussion about Springer's market power.
In 2006 Günter Grass indicated after decades that he wanted to move away from the boycott if the Springer Group apologized for the hurtful way with which the Group's newspapers followed Heinrich Böll's work. In 2006, Springer CEO Mathias Döpfner met Günter Grass several times and announced that “with a view to 1968, Axel Springer Verlag would conduct a self-critical review.” Excerpts of the discussion moderated by the publicist Manfred Bissinger were published in June 2006 in Mirror printed. The conversation was published as a paperback by Steidl-Verlag under the title The Springer Controversy .
Due to the escalated confrontation with the student movement in 1968 and many intellectuals, Bild found itself at the center of criticism in the 1970s. The public disputes led to a decrease in circulation of 1 million copies. On August 6, 1971, Günter Prinz took over the editor-in-chief of the Bild newspaper. With his style, a “mix of sex, facts and fiction, politics, crime and consumer tips”, he managed to increase the circulation to over 4 million in a relatively short time.
Prinz is the inventor of Ein Herz für Kinder , a donation and aid campaign with which Bild raised over 25 million euros by 2006. At times at the end of the 1970s, every second West German car had a sticker with the red heart on it. According to its own information, 80 million pieces were distributed.
Prince also developed the action picture fights for you . Within two years, the editorial team received 2 million letters asking for support. In the 1970s, 15 additional regional editions were created in the metropolitan areas . In 1961, 80% of all readers had received the centrally produced federal edition. In 1977 it was only 10%.
On May 19, 1972, Ulrike Meinhof and other terrorists from the Red Army Faction carried out a bomb attack on the Axel Springer AG publishing house in Hamburg. There were 38 injured. In the same year, there were arson attacks in two of Axel Springer's private houses. As a result, the security precautions in all Bild editorial offices were strengthened.
In 1974 the sociologist Horst Holzer analyzed the image readership. The readers are composed as follows:
- 34% skilled workers
- 23% other workers
- 23% other civil servants and employees
- 10% owners and managers of companies, members of the liberal professions, self-employed traders
- 4% senior civil servants and employees
- 3% members of the agricultural professions
- 3% others
Heinrich Böll alluded to picture in his story Die Lost Ehre der Katharina Blum , published in 1974 , in which he denounced the mercilessness of tabloid journalism . In his foreword he wrote: “The characters and plot of this story are fictitious. If the description of certain journalistic practices shows similarities with the practices of the 'Bild' newspaper, these similarities are neither intended nor accidental, but inevitable. "
In May 1977 Rowohlt Taschenbuch-Verlag published "Headline - A" picture reporter "reports" by the former picture employee Hans Schultes-Willekes, in which he uses case studies to describe in detail the day-to-day work in the editorial office of the tabloid.
Also in the spring of 1977, the writer and investigative journalist Günter Wallraff worked for three and a half months under the pseudonym Hans Esser as a local reporter for the Bild newspaper in Hanover. He then published the anti- image - Trilogy The lead story , prosecution witnesses and the "image" manual in which he is the image demonstrated serious journalistic failings. The Wallraff revelations became one of the biggest press scandals in Germany. The WDR produced a report on this in 1980, which, however, was blocked by the WDR. This film was only released in August 2010.
After Wallraff's research at Bild , the German Press Council issued six reprimands against Bild in 1977 , based on Wallraff's book. Wallraff himself was reprimanded "for his inadmissible undercover research ". The negotiations on the complaints in the Wallraff case plunged the German Press Council into a deep crisis in 1977, which in fact led to the committee being unable to act for seven years. Only at the end of 1985 could the crisis be resolved with a series of joint voluntary commitments by all publishers. This includes the obligation to publish complaints and statements of the press council in its own newspaper.
Even before Wallraff published his book, the publisher went on the offensive and attacked him sharply. In the series "Wallraff log ..." alleged incidents from his work in the picture editorial office were reported. For example, as a result of his false reporting, a woman's children were taken away, and he was also portrayed as a habitual drinker who had already consumed glasses of whiskey in the morning. According to his statement, neighbors regularly addressed his mother with sympathy about what kind of a failed son she had. In the 1977 edition of Der Aufmacher , Wallraff presented the newspaper's allegations about his alleged errors as well as the counterstatement of the persons affected.
Springer-Verlag initiated several lawsuits against Wallraff, so that Wallraff had to omit some passages from his book in the next editions. This mainly concerned the quoted dialogues with individual Bild employees who invoked their personal rights . The trials lasted until 1984. The Federal Court of Justice ruled in Wallraff's favor. On the other hand, the Springer Group lodged a constitutional complaint with the Federal Constitutional Court . In its landmark judgment of January 25, 1984, the latter merely criticized the sometimes literal description of an editorial conference and otherwise decided in favor of Wallraff.
In 1979 the print run of the Bild newspaper increased to 5,792,400 copies.
In 1982, the daily circulation of Bild passed the five million mark, but was unable to stabilize it. Axel Springer died in 1985. Before his death, two men had directed Bild for 24 years : Boenisch and Prinz. Now the editors-in-chief changed more frequently. Between 1989 and 1991 there was even a duo of two equal editors-in-chief.
The founder of Bild obliged his heirs not to sell his estate until 2015. Today, his inheritance is largely managed by his fifth wife, Friede Springer . By 1990, nine further regional editorial offices had been set up in West Germany.
Springer's advisor and security chief, the former press spokesman in the Nazi Foreign Ministry Paul Karl Schmidt alias Paul Carell wrote on December 13, 1981 about the Russia campaign “as it really was” and six years after the publisher's death on February 5, 1991 for the 20th Day of the ground offensive in the Gulf War in picture .
At the beginning of 1990, Bild founded new local editorial offices in Dresden , Leipzig , Chemnitz , Magdeburg , Halle and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The print run was 4.5 million copies in 1990 and remained constant until 1998. Despite the new market in the five new countries of the former GDR , Bild was unable to increase its circulation.
From 1994 to 2009, was picture Osgar annually by the Leipziger image awarded. The award goes to people who have rendered outstanding services to peace, freedom and German unity. The prize is a porcelain figure from the Königliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Berlin . Up to and including 2006, 74 winners had been chosen.
The spelling reform of 1996 was temporarily rejected by Bild . After the reform was initially adopted in 1999, a decision was made in 2004 to use a so-called “house orthography” based on traditional spelling . This was expanded again in August 2005. At the same time, a high-profile campaign was launched against the reform criticized by Bild as a “bad-writing reform”. In 2006, however, like Spiegel and Stern , Bild gave up its resistance to the reform. On March 7, 2006, the Springer Group announced that it would adopt the resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of March 2 for the reformed spelling in accordance with the proposals of the Council for German Spelling for all products, but to largely use the classic form in cases of several permitted spellings .
After 1998, Bild was caught by the general economic decline in the newspaper industry in the late 1990s. Image lost 1 million readers between 1998 and 2006 due to the emerging Internet as a new journalistic competitor and the generally decreasing demand for print advertisements . To this day, this trend has not broken. An additional burden was the extensive expansion of the new Springer headquarters in Berlin after reunification , which cost around 400 million euros, and the relocation of the editorial offices of Bild und Bild am Sonntag from Hamburg to Berlin, which should finally be completed in March 2008. On January 1, 2001, with a circulation of 4.36 million copies, Kai Diekmann was appointed editor-in-chief and publisher of Bild und Bild am Sonntag . In 2005 it was the sixth largest daily newspaper in the world.
In 2003, the Berlin district court denied Kai Diekmann's claim for damages after he had sued the daily newspaper (taz) when taz author Gerhard Henschel claimed on May 8, 2002 on the satire page Die Truth as a parody of the reporting by Bild , Diekmann wanted to have his penis surgically lengthened with body parts in Miami , but in vain. The reason given by the court was that Diekmann, as editor-in-chief of Bild, “consciously seeks his economic advantage from violating the personal rights of others” and is therefore “less burdened by the violation of his own personal rights”. He must "assume that the standards that he applies to others are also of concern to himself." An appeal, on the other hand, was given no prospect of success by the Court of Appeal , so both sides withdrew their appeal.
In August 2003, Bild reported that a man called " Florida-Rolf " financed an apartment close to the beach in Miami Beach with the monthly welfare payments from Germany . After he became ill and unable to work, and an expert attested an increased risk of suicide on return to Germany, the social welfare office agreed to his residence in Florida and transferred him 1900 euros per month, including the cost of accommodation. As a result of the public attention that had been aroused by the reporting by Bild , the Federal Government, at the instigation of the Federal Social Minister Ulla Schmidt, passed a tightening of the guidelines for the payment of social assistance abroad and withdrew the benefits from the man, who then returned to Germany and Applied for old-age pension.
In March 2004 the then German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder (SPD) boycotted the Bild newspaper with an interview boycott because, in his opinion, it portrayed the work of his government in a one-sidedly negative way.
In 2006 the newspaper asked its readers to send in “snapshots” of current events under the project name “BILD Reader Reporter 1414”. Der Spiegel suspected that the senders were “hobby clippers, pseudo-journalists, accident gawkers and after-work spanners”, while the FAZ feared “nationwide paparazzi society”. By 2010, the editorial staff received 685,595 images, of which 13,514 (approx. 2%) were included in the paper and paid for with 50 (regional) or 250 (nationwide) euros each. The newspaper paid a total of 2.3 million euros for the photos. In particular, the awarding of contributions repeatedly leads to severe criticism. The newspaper was accused of not having referred to legal issues or inadequately. In the case of traffic accidents and other emergency operations, there were disruptions by self-appointed reader reporters. In December 2008, Lidl and Bild launched a joint campaign to advertise video cameras for Bild reader reporters. This action led to controversial discussions in the media.
On June 11, 2006, Bild introduced a correction column at a fixed location, on page 2, in which false reports should be corrected and previous representations should be put into perspective. This represents a voluntary editorial revocation and is not to be confused with a counter-statement, which the newspaper can be sentenced to in individual cases. An incorrect information under a nude photo of the weather presenter Andrea Kempter on the picture title page from June 10, 2006 was taken as an opportunity to introduce this correction column. In the text, the lady described as a “classy beauty” was referred to as a Sat.1 weather fairy. In fact, she was not working for Sat.1, but weather announcer for the news channel N24 . Such columns have been established in US newspapers for decades.
On May 16, 2007, the board of directors of the Axel Springer publishing house passed the resolution that the editorial team of the Bild newspaper and Bild am Sonntag should be relocated to Berlin. Only a local editorial office remains in Hamburg. On May 24, 2007, the board of directors restricted the resolution to the effect that from March 2008 about 500 employees from the editorial offices should move to Berlin and the areas of sales, logistics and parts of the production should remain in Hamburg. A five-year location guarantee that expires on June 30, 2013 was agreed with the works council for the Hamburg location.
In the middle of 2008 the Bild newspaper caused a scandal in the United Kingdom . The Bild newspaper printed a guide on how to avoid contact with British tourists for German holidaymakers, and based its reporting on stereotypes, for example with the address "Dear Tommies" in one of the articles or with a showcase in which the British tourist was described as having a "bright red face, wobbly-soft beer belly, short, raspy hair". This was reported in several UK media including the BBC and the Independent .
In January 2012, the British The Sun overtook the continued declining circulation of Bild for the first time and replaced it as the highest-circulation newspaper in Europe.
On March 9, 2012, the picture announced that it would remove the "Seite-1-Kieze" after almost 28 years and around 5000 nude models from the front page and in future only show it on the inside.
On June 23, 2012, the Bild newspaper distributed a special edition to all German households on the occasion of its 60th anniversary. In its advertising price list, Bild named an advertising price of 4 million euros for a full page. From April 11, 2012, resistance had arisen against the free distribution. The campaign alliance All against Image enabled a legally effective online objection to the distribution in one's own mailbox. Within twelve days, over 200,000 citizens made use of it. Bild announced that it would take these contradictions into account when distributing it to 41 million households. This was achieved by sending a large red Infopost envelope from Springer-Verlag to every household that objected. The postmen were instructed not to deliver a Bild newspaper to these households .
Since October 13, 2015, bild.de has been preventing usage with an activated ad blocker . Image took legal action against instructions on how to bypass the barriers.
On November 5, 2015, Springer-Verlag announced that Kai Diekmann would be giving up the editor-in-chief of the print edition of Bild at the end of 2015. However, he remained editor of the newspaper. His successor was the previous deputy editor-in-chief and head of entertainment, Tanit Koch . She became the tabloid's first female editor-in-chief on January 1, 2016. After Diekmann left the publisher in February 2017, the post of editor was abolished and the editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt became the chief editor-in-chief. On the occasion of the 65th anniversary, on June 22, 2017, Deutsche Post distributed a free special edition to 41 million German households on behalf of Bild.
In February 2018 Tanit Koch announced that she would be giving up her position as editor-in-chief of the Bild newspaper after two years. According to media reports, the cause was conflicts with the chief editor-in-chief and editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt, who also took over Koch's position from March 2018 and thus holds three important management positions at the same time.
In September 2019, the media magazine Horizont reported that the Axel Springer Verlag is ending the independence of Bild und Bild am Sonntag and that both brands will merge under the leadership of general editor Julian Reichelt .
During the COVID-19 pandemic , Bild sharply attacked virologist Christian Drosten , head of virology at the Berlin Charité . On May 25, 2020, the paper appeared with the page 1 headline “Questionable methods: Drosten study on infectious children grossly wrong - how long has the star virologist known about it?”. The criticism of the "Bild" newspaper, drawn by Filipp Piatov , referred to a preprint ( i.e. a preliminary publication) by the virologist, which was published in April. This study compared the viral loads in patients with their respective age and found no statistically significant difference in children or adolescents from adults: " Children may be as infectious as adults ", in German "Children could be as infectious as adults", by the "Bild" newspaper, however, translated as "can". The study was one of the first of its kind with regard to the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 . Based on their preliminary results, the authors warned against an unlimited reopening of schools and daycare centers. The scientists themselves named certain limitations to the informative value of their analysis and their data set in general: primarily the small number of samples from children and the lack of a consistent breakdown of findings that might have prompted a sample to be taken in advance (see conditional probability ). The newspaper based its sharp criticism of the study on short quotations from scientists, mainly statisticians, who, however, publicly distanced themselves from the reporting and sometimes from certain methods of the newspaper on the day of publication. Several of them said they had not been interviewed directly; Economics professor Jörg Stoye said that Bild translated his quotes from an essay in English "quite freehand". Politicians also protectively presented themselves to Drosten.
Drosten had anticipated the publication of the newspaper article on Twitter. Including the screenshot of an e-mail he had received from Piatov, he wrote to his more than 360,000 Twitter followers about the preparations: “Interesting: #Bild is planning a tendentious reporting on our pre-publication on virus loads and tries to do this with bits of quotation from Scientists out of context. I'm supposed to comment within an hour. I have better things to do. "The author and Tagesspiegel columnist Hatice Akyün wrote about the reactions that followed:" What Spiegel cover stories and press council complaints have not been able to do for years, Dr. Drosten with a tweet. Chapeau! ”Drosten and the Charité also accused“ Bild ”of having falsified the telephone information provided by an English-speaking employee: The employee said“ that they were working on an update of the study ”. The “Bild” newspaper, on the other hand, had written that other scientists had accused the Charité researchers of improper work and that, according to their information, this criticism also “met with approval from Drosten's research team. The errors have already been admitted internally. ”The media expert Johanna Haberer spoke of a“ boiling point ”between a scientific conflict and a“ personal guerrilla war ”, which was“ negligent ”on the subject of health. In a situation like this, politicians and scientists should be “allowed to say 'I don't know' without being twisted off the hook”. Dividing the world into “black and white” as shown in the picture will not get you any further in such an epidemic. Drosten is also "just a pawn ", because the newspaper is not about him, but about "damaging" Chancellor Angela Merkel and "definitely preventing" another term of office of Merkel. Bild had "finally knocked itself out of the discourse," said Haberer. Editor-in-chief Reichelt called the publication “legitimate reporting” and argued, among other things, that the study had an impact on the resolutions for school and daycare closings. With the procedure of giving Drosten only one hour to comment on the picture story, however, they have "made themselves vulnerable," said Reichelt. The CEO of Axel Springer SE Mathias Döpfner also called this a “stupid mistake”. Regarding the accusation that the scientists quoted by Bild did not describe the study as a whole as “grossly wrong”, but criticized individual statistical procedures and conclusions, Reichelt said that from his point of view this was “a completely permissible injection for journalism”.
On June 3, 2020, Drosten's working group published a further developed version of their study (still a preprint). Here, too, no significant differences in viral load between children and adults were found.
Structure and sale
Bild is sold at over 100,000 stalls in 44 countries. It was originally a paid newspaper , but can now also be subscribed to. Nevertheless, like the first representatives of the genre tabloid newspaper , it is still offered on the street ( boulevard ) today . The previously common mobile newspaper vendors have been supplemented and partially replaced by machines.
According to its website (as of March 2020), the Bild-Zeitung has 21 editorial offices:
one for the federal edition and regional editorial offices in:
- Cologne or Cologne / Aachen
- Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- Ruhr area
On the page "Circulation, editors, journalists All facts about BILD" , Springer-Verlag states in March 2020 that the Bild newspaper has 883 editors and reporters and more than 200 photographers.
One focus of the Bild newspaper is the sports section, which is more extensive than other German daily newspapers and makes up a quarter of the newspaper. About a quarter of the permanent picture editors are sports reporters. For each local editorial office there is an independent, local sports editorial office. Over 50% of readers say that they buy the newspaper also or only because of the sports section.
Circulation and readership
The picture is the daily newspaper with the highest circulation in Germany . It currently has a circulation of 1,241,142 copies. The paper is one of the German newspapers with the greatest loss of circulation in recent years. The circulation sold has fallen by an average of 7.5% per year over the past 10 years. Last year it decreased by 6.5%. The practically continuous downward trend was stronger than with almost all other tabloids , national daily newspapers as well as Sunday and weekly newspapers . The share of subscriptions in the circulation sold is 9.36 percent.
Development of the number of copies sold
According to its own information, Bild reached around 17.9% of the total German population aged 14 and over, i.e. around 11.63 million people. Of these, about 4.30 million were women and 7.33 million were men. In 2006, 63% of the readers were men, 43% of the readers had a secondary school leaving certificate with an apprenticeship, 35% the middle school leaving certificate and 4% the higher education certificate. 7% of the readers were self-employed, 34% were employees or civil servants and 37% were skilled workers. 65% had an income of less than 2,000 euros.
According to an analysis by the journal Journalist , published by the German Association of Journalists , in 2018, Bild predominantly reached older men without a high school diploma. The group of people with good and very good educational qualifications, which is growing rapidly in Germany, is clearly underrepresented in the readership. Image can therefore no longer claim to be representative.
According to information provided by Axel Springer Verlag in 2006, it took an average of 38 minutes to read a picture edition.
In 2019, as it had been for decades, Bild was the most cited daily newspaper in Germany.
In addition to the printed edition, according to the IVW , Bild had around 458,000 paying digital subscribers in January 2020 and was therefore in first place in Europe.
Format, layout and marketing
Bild has used the Nordic format (400 × 570 mm) since the beginning . The headline of Aufmachers is always above the bend in the middle. The layout of Bild is determined by the harshly cut colors black, white, yellow and red. Since the introduction of DTP programs, the Bild newspaper has been created with Atex in the first few years , that in the 1990s with QuarkXPress and temporarily with InDesign was replaced (as of 2013). The basic fonts are Neuzeit Grotesk for the running text and Helvetica Advertisement, Block and Escrow as fonts for the headings. The picture brand was briefly redesigned for special events , such as the construction of the Wall in 1961 and the fall of the Wall in 1989, the football world championships , after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 or the flight ban due to volcanic ash .
The sheet is printed in Ahrensburg , Hanover , Berlin , Leipzig , Essen-Kettwig , Esslingen am Neckar , Munich , Kassel and Syke . Special foreign copies are printed in Kiel , Madrid , Palma , Las Palmas , Vitrolles , Milan , Izmir , Warna and Antalya .
The publication advertises itself simply as "BILD", a product without an article or the term "newspaper". Image advertises itself to advertisers as a publication that “turns facts into feelings” and uses high-quality images and a language that “creates images”. It highlights the paramount importance of the people being reported and the relevance of the stories to the readers. A full-page advertisement in the picture cost exactly 505,000 euros in April 2017.
Internally, all publications bearing the name Bild are referred to as the Bild group , which is managed “from a single source” by an editor-in-chief. In addition to the Bild newspaper, this group also includes the Sunday newspaper Bild am Sonntag , the website bild.de and the Bild mobil app .
Through contests such as Super Bingo and targeted advertising with so-called People's products is an attempt to bind reader closer to the newspaper. Bild.de, the website of the newspaper, advertises Volks-products in campaigns and places advertisements for this in Bild und Bild am Sonntag . Occasionally there is no distinction between editorial content and an advertisement, which often gives rise to criticism. In the "Bild" newspaper, there are often special, ad special and publishing special editions with little journalistic character.
Content and style
When non-human issues are the subject, abstract events are personified and sharply exaggerated. Among other things, it is typical to address the reader directly, for example through the community-building “we”. In 2005, for example, Bild announced the election of the German Catholic head of the church, Benedict XVI. on the front page with the headline “ We are Pope! "
In police and court reports , readers are addressed directly by generating emotions (e.g. horror, disgust). Serious criminals are z. B. called "Beast"; Crime "hideous". The German Press Council ruled in 2005 that this could lead to a prejudice and thus a violation of the principle of In dubio pro reo . Because of the right to one's own picture , individual participants are often made unrecognizable in pictures by bars, but other photos with the same, recognizable people are still printed.
Keywords come from composing with a hyphen , among other things , often without adjectives as in “Shameless Prince” instead of “Shameless Prince”. Unusual combinations such as “sunburn heat”, “free parking spaces”, “muzzle judgment” or “brutal bat” are formed. Other keywords are neologisms such as " lightning ice " or "Ramba-Zamba". Some of them have entered common usage. Derived and inflected forms are dispensed with in favor of buzzword effects, as is the case with “ Krabbe doping?” Instead of “Krabbe doped?” The use of superlatives makes reports more interesting; Examples are "Hamburg's stupidest ...", "Berlin's laziest ...", "Germany's most mendacious ...". Often people are linked textually to an action or a subject, such as "knife grandpa", "ax man" or "rape girl", although this style often appears in articles that represent a continuation.
The editors also often work with the means of corrupting the names of well-known personalities. The British singer Amy Winehouse has already been referred to as "Amy Weinhouse" and "Amy Müllhouse" in different contexts. In other cases, Bild gives nicknames to celebrities (e.g. “Dr. Tod” for the controversial Hamburg ex-Senator Roger Kusch and the anatomist Gunther von Hagens ). Headlines are connected with emotions in order to evoke a certain feeling in the reader such as "petrol / electricity / price / Grand Prix rage", a feeling of horror is created in capital letters as in "CANCER FEAR because of cell phone radiation" or Questions like “Does our poor earth have to die?” Or “Are the Germans dying?” There are sensational headlines like “Comet is racing towards the earth!”, Which is then put into perspective again in the article.
Public opinion and criticism
At first glance, the Bild newspaper contains light entertainment, gossip and scandal reports. It conveys a worldview that is dramatized and focused on sensation. At the same time, the Bild newspaper is often subject to criticism because of its polemical nature, its penchant for simplification and its lust for sensation. Criticism of the paper, which has existed since the 1960s, has not yet been taken by the Bild newspaper as an opportunity to change the way it reports.
Bild are accused of numerous interventions in the private and intimate sphere in order to force people with these often dubious findings to interview. A prominent example is Charlotte Roche , who successfully defended her private life against Bild in court. In this, as in many cases, private life is researched even if the person concerned expressly does not want this or if they try to protect their private life. Springer boss Matthias Döpfner explained in 2006: “The following principle applies to the Bild newspaper: if you take it up in the elevator, you also take it down in the elevator. Everyone has to make this decision for themselves. "
The Bild newspaper is afflicted with a considerable negative image. Max Goldt, who in 2001 described the picture as an "organ of wickedness", was quoted many times . It is "wrong to read them". Bild employees are "absolutely socially unacceptable. It would be a mistake to be friendly or even polite to one of their editors. "
Former Bild editor Kai Diekmann flirted with Bild's negative image . So he joined the publishing cooperative that the image critical taz out there, and spoke in 2009 on the General Assembly. In addition, he maintained a regular correspondence with the NDR media magazine Zapp , in which he suggested "sins" of the picture as topics for the program.
At the end of September 2018, the former deputy Bild editor-in-chief and editor-in-chief of Bild am Sonntag, Michael Spreng, described the newspaper in an interview with Tagesspiegel as the “advance organization of the AfD ”. Bild tries to "make the institutions and representatives of the state contemptible". An act of violence by a refugee against a German becomes “a screaming headline”, but if “a German stabs a Syrian, this is dismissed with a few lines on page 5”. There are often articles "against the supposedly too lax judiciary, against the supposedly inactive state and the supposedly incompetent politicians". In this way, the paper “decomposes” “systematically respect for the institutions and representatives of the state and delegitimizes liberal German democracy” and thereby “voluntarily or involuntarily” conducts the AfD's business. According to Spreng, editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt has apparently "gathered a troop of self-proclaimed warriors who believe they are lying in the trenches and must not only shoot the Chancellor, but also the liberal rule of law ."
The author and journalist Patrick Gensing has also accused the newspaper of “pursuing a political agenda”, “namely the discrediting of Angela Merkel's refugee policy”. As an example, he cited the report in Bild from March 7, 2019, according to which, according to the Federal Ministry of the Interior, "thousands of indications of possible war criminals remained unprocessed among the asylum seekers". However, the ministry had responded to an FDP request that there had been around 5,000 indications of war crimes when refugees were interviewed. Armin Schuster , Union chairman in the Interior Committee, made it clear that there were "indications of war criminals by asylum seekers - not among asylum seekers". Gensing stated that the “grossly misleading” interpretation of the picture matched the legend of the alleged “state failure”, according to which the German state is unable or unwilling to take action against breaches of the law, or that these breaches are even politically wanted.
According to the media expert Jürn Kruse , since the inauguration of editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt , Bild has been focusing more on regular table topics and moods. Reichelt's course is "much tougher - and also more populist ". It is "the method that, for example, Donald Trump's favorite station Fox News in the US is pursuing."
The image - editors are often the hasty condemnation of suspects, the disregard of personal rights and lack of compliance with the journalistic duty of care established. Reporting in this form violates the press code of the German Press Council , which the publisher and editorial team undertake to adhere to . Springer-Verlag formulated its own journalistic guidelines in August 2003, which are intended to concretize the understanding of the journalistic principles of the press code.
Up until 1986 there were no binding guidelines for the printing of complaints by the press council. Between 1977 and 1986 the Bild newspaper refused to reprint reprimands and statements of the German Press Council in some cases. When the Express refused to print a complaint in 1981 , the press council ceased its work until 1985 when the publishers made a voluntary commitment to print the complaints, which the Bild newspaper also joined.
Since the beginning of the statistics in 1986, the Bild -Zeitung has been the most criticized newspaper with 109 complaints up to 2008.
Violations of the press code
In 1979 the Bild newspaper was sentenced to 25,000 DM in compensation after it had defamed the student Eleonore Poensgen, among other things, as a "terrorist girl" in its reporting on the murder of the head of the Dresdner Bank, Jürgen Ponto , although there was nothing against her under criminal law Template. However, another lawsuit against the then editor-in-chief Prinz was dismissed and Poensgen had to bear three quarters of the legal costs, which made up a large part of the compensation. The verdict caused a sensation because the case was very similar to the fictional story The lost honor of Katharina Blum by Heinrich Böll from 1974.
In 1998 the actor Raimund Harmstorf hanged himself after a largely untrue report by Bild . The police investigations showed: "There are findings to the effect that a co-trigger for the suicide can be seen in the media coverage of last Saturday." Günter Wallraff commented: "The actor Raimund Harmstorf has a picture on his conscience." Article was "applicable and admissible under press law".
In 1999 Bild referred to Günter Wallraff as a “Stasi spy” and “ unofficial employee of the State Security of the GDR ”, whereupon the latter complained for an omission. In the following process, the Bild editorial team presented Stasi files, which revealed that Wallraff was listed as an unofficial employee there, but without his knowledge. After three years, the Federal Court of Justice decided in the last instance that Bild Wallraff should not be called a “Stasi spy” or “IM”. Bild has not reported on Günter Wallraff since 1999 . The investigative journalist Wallraff had worked undercover as an editor at Bild in 1977 to report on the state of the reporting there.
In November 2000, Bild reported on the alleged murder of a young boy by neo-Nazis in Sebnitz, Saxony . A man was reported in Bild , mentioning his name, that he was "arrested on suspicion of murder". Five days after this headline it became clear that the alleged perpetrator was innocent. Bild did not apologize, but the town of Sebnitz was allowed to place free advertisements in various Springer newspapers.
In January 2001, Bild asked in a headline “What was Minister Trittin doing at this violence demonstration?” A photo of Jürgen Trittin at a demonstration in Göttingen was published. However, Bild printed the photo in black and white, badly rasterized and severely cut off at the edges, and with built-in references to a bolt cutter , which was actually a glove, and a baton, which was actually a rope. Editor-in-chief Diekmann only apologized after heated discussions with Trittin.
In 2002, the “ bonus miles affair ” occurred , in which Bild found out together with the taxpayers' association that some politicians were using the bonus miles they had accumulated on private trips. This led, among other things, to the resignations of Gregor Gysi and Cem Özdemir . It was criticized that Bild published the information bit by bit and that a striking number of politicians from the parliamentary groups of the SPD and Greens were affected by the reporting.
According to a KNA report, the Bild was the only newspaper to ignore the embargo on the letter on cooperation between men and women of the Vatican's Catholic Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith of July 31, 2004.
In 2004, a ruling by the Berlin Higher Regional Court that prohibited Bild from distributing nude photos of actress Sibel Kekilli caused a particular stir . Kekilli was honored with the German Film Prize in gold at the Berlinale , the jury's reasoning was her “haunting representation in the film Gegen die Wand ”. Image then printed a photo from one of their earlier porn films with the caption "Haunting Depiction". The reasoning for the judgment states that Bild had carried out a “ campaign ” in which Kekilli was “derisively belittled and scornful”. Such an encroachment on human dignity is no longer covered by the freedom of the press. Bild published the reprimand of the press council on page 4 in a quatrain only after 15 months.
On May 19, 2007, the newspaper named the German-Lebanese Khaled al-Masri under the headline “Why are we being terrorized by such a person?” As “Islamists”, “crazy thugs”, “troublemakers”, “arsonists” and possibly “ Liar ”as well as“ lunatic ”. For this purpose, Bild was reprimanded by the German Press Council for “violation of personal rights”, since al-Masri had not yet been convicted of any criminal offense at this time and the presumption of innocence was therefore valid. In response, the paper wrote in November “Crazy! Press Council reprimands Bild because of this arsonist ”. The managing director of the German Press Council, Lutz Tillmanns, was amazed at the form in which the newspaper had presented the publicly voiced complaint that the newspaper was obliged to make according to Section 16 of the Press Code. The newspaper also wrote: “We stand by our account. We will not soften our reporting - any more than we do with hate preachers, Nazis or other crazy rabble ”. Al-Masri's lawyer Manfred R. Gnjdic then announced criminal charges for insult and defamation .
In 2008, the Osnabrück District Court issued a penalty order against two picture reporters, because in November 2007 they pursued a driver out of sensational greed, slowed him down and forced him to stop to take photos of him without permission. They suspected that the driver was behind a man who was sentenced to community hours for the sexual abuse of children and who was serving his sentence in a kindergarten.
On June 11, 2008, Axel-Springer-Verlag was sentenced by the Munich District Court I to pay damages of 50,000 euros plus medical expenses because the wife of a person arrested for murder was reported in the picture in an inadmissible and insulting manner .
In June 2008, the press council again disapproved of reports by Bild . In one case, the entire reporting was presented “inappropriately sensational”, the victim was degraded by the spelling “to an object, to a mere means” and it was about a “physically or mentally suffering person in a public interest and that Readers' interest in information in a far-reaching manner ”. The Press Council disapproved of the violations of Section 11 (sensational reporting) of the Press Code.
Furthermore, the press council disapproved of the interview in the case of Marco Weiss and recognized a violation of guideline 13.3. (Criminal offenses by young people) and a violation of Section 4 (Research Limits) of the Press Code. A disapproval by the press council has no consequences for the disapproved newspaper.
As a violation of human dignity and inappropriately sensational, the press council reprimanded the newspaper in 2009 for reporting on the death of Michael Jackson . A complaint said the Press Council also against the online portal Bild.de out.
On July 28, 2009, Axel Springer Verlag was sentenced to 25,000 euros in damages by the Cologne Higher Regional Court in an appeal procedure initiated by the book author and former “Tagesschau” presenter Eva Herman . The media company had claimed that Herman had "partially approved of National Socialism". In addition, a report in the Springer newspaper Hamburger Abendblatt violated her personal rights. The judges also found that Axel-Springer-Verlag cannot be held solely responsible for the further professional and private effects of Hermans. The Cologne Higher Regional Court no longer had to pass a judgment in three further appeal proceedings by the Axel Springer Verlag or Hermans, as the appeals had been withdrawn prior to the negotiations. Accordingly, Bild and Bild.de are no longer allowed to call Herman a “stupid cow”. The picture columnist Franz Josef Wagner had used this statement from the Johannes B. Kerner Show in his column "Post von Wagner" and used it to insult Herman. For this, Herman was awarded 10,000 euros in compensation.
In October 2010 a former photo journalist was sentenced to a fine by the Munich District Court for coercion and violation of privacy. He is said to have urged cabaret artist Ottfried Fischer to do a detailed interview about his Parkinson's disease with the help of secretly shot sex videos .
In April 2012, Ulrich Schneider, managing director of the Paritätischer Wohlfahrtsverband , criticized Bild's reporting on the supposedly increasing number of “trickery” by Hartz IV recipients as “irresponsible public opinion”.
In the course of reporting the accident on Germanwings flight 9525 in March 2015, the Bild-Zeitung was criticized for frequently irrelevant and incorrect news reports. The taz criticized the sensational showmanship of some journalists, the flood of irrelevant information in the live blogs of the major news sites and the handling of information about the victims and their relatives, mainly referring to the Bild newspaper. When various dealers took the pictures out of sale in response to this , they were put under pressure by the Presseservice Nordwest and the Süddeutsche Zeitungszentrale either to take the picture back into their range or not to receive newspapers at all.
In September 2015 Springerverlag was sentenced by the Cologne Regional Court to pay Jörg Kachelmann 635,000 euros in compensation for pain and suffering. According to the court, Bild and Bild-Online had violated personal rights and reported untruthfully while reporting on the rape trial against the moderator. In 2016, the Cologne Higher Regional Court reduced the compensation claim to 395,000 euros.
After the violent riots at the G20 summit in Hamburg 2017 , the Bild-Zeitung published unpixeled photos of alleged violent criminals on its front page on July 10, 2017 with the appeal “Wanted! Who knows these G20 criminals? ”The police said they had never asked the newspaper for help. The media lawyer Ralf Höcker spoke of the tabloid's “vigilante justice”. Klaus Hempel from the ARD legal editorship stated that the photos and their titles had the character of a search call, which is exclusively open to the police, and were therefore illegal. The German Association of Journalists also criticized the reporting. The German Press Council said it would investigate the complaints.
The press council criticized the misrepresentation of Russian military operations in Syria by Bild-Online in February 2016. There the headline was: “Putin and Assad continue bombing”. The reference was an agreement on a ceasefire within a week. The article gives the untruthful impression that the ceasefire that has just been agreed upon has been broken by Russia. In terms of press ethics, the committee assessed the violation of the journalistic principles as so serious that it expressed disapproval in accordance with Section 12 of the Complaints Regulations.
In June 2019, the Frankfurt Regional Court awarded the Eschborn Magistrate Director compensation of 110,000 euros after the Frankfurt edition of the newspaper and Bild.de had reported on him several times in autumn 2016. On four consecutive days, the newspaper had unchecked serious accusations with the headlines "Sex bullying allegations", "Suff excesses in the town hall?", "Nazi allegations" and "disgust allegations", which later turned out to be implausible. The plaintiff's full name and several, in some cases large-format, photos were printed without obscuring them. An appeal can still be made against the judgment.
The press council issued a public reprimand against the newspaper in June 2020 for showing a photo of the dead child with open eyes while fleeing from the war for the death of an 18-month-old Syrian girl in a report with the headline Laila (1) would have. He assessed this as a violation of human dignity and a violation of Section 1 of the Press Code ("Truthfulness and respect for human dignity").
From 2004 the media-critical watch blog Bildblog , operated by media journalists, established itself on the Internet , which until the beginning of 2009 reported almost exclusively on photo journalism. With around 50,000 page views a day, it is the most widely read weblog in Germany and has won several awards.
Implicit canvassing for the Union parties
A study by the communication scientist Frank Brettschneider and the political scientist Bettina Wagner on reporting on the federal election of 2002 shows an implicit campaign for the Union parties and Edmund Stoiber , although the Bild newspaper describes itself as "non-partisan" and condemned an explicit election recommendation by the Financial Times Deutschland . The newspaper reported more frequently and more negatively about the SPD and Gerhard Schröder, had Union politicians comment more frequently and put the issues of the Union parties at the center of its reporting. According to an analysis by political scientist Oskar Niedermayer , the newspaper also made implicit campaigns for the Union parties and Angela Merkel in the 2005 general election . A 2008 study by the University of Hamburg , which examined the coverage of the Hamburg state election in 2008 , came to a similar conclusion .
Studies by the Otto Brenner Foundation
In 2011, on behalf of the Otto Brenner Foundation, the journalists and communication scientists Hans-Jürgen Arlt and Wolfgang Storz examined the depiction of the Bild-Zeitung on the Greek and Euro crisis in 2010 and came to the conclusion that the Bild was only based on a line of content (e.g. the representation of the allegedly lazy Greeks) sends messages to the readers and, however, hardly informs about the facts. The picture makes use of the journalistic trade, "but never to pursue the goals of journalism." The study received attention in national German media.
In 2012, the two publicists in the study “Bild” and Wulff examined the “Bild” reporting on Christian Wulff, who was supported until he was of the opinion that Islam belonged to Germany. After that he was "written in the ground".
In the study Abusive Politics , published in 2013, the authors examine the influence of the "image" on political decisions, methods of attempted influence and their effectiveness.
Study of Society Public Relations Agencies
With the participation of TNS Emnid , the Public Relations Agencies (GPRA) company examined the respondents' trust in print media . According to the study published in April 2012, 30% of those surveyed put their trust in the Bild newspaper. The President of the GPRA commented on the result with a view to the Wulff affair : “The self-perception of the BILD newspaper differs significantly from reality. It by no means has a trust-based legitimation to judge morality and justice in our country. "
The occasional cliché of the picture reader is also alluded to in two taz commercials that are temporarily prohibited by injunction . The Axel Springer AG had the charisma of the two cinema spots prohibit. The publisher argued that this was "reputation exploitation" at the expense of the Bild newspaper.
The Hanseatic Higher Regional Court in Hamburg declared in 2007 that the taz spot portrayed image readers as "stupid and dumb". From the judges' point of view, the spot aroused the impression that the readers were not able to understand the demanding taz. Although the spot was "funny" and "artistically demanding", despite a "not inconsiderable core of truth" they still considered the spot to be "inappropriate".
In the appeal hearing before the Federal Court of Justice , the Federal Court of Justice overturned the decisions of the lower courts in its judgment of October 1, 2009 and dismissed the complaint of the Bild-Zeitung . The taz was allowed to use the two award-winning commercials again.
In order to make commercial use of the high level of awareness of the Bild brand , the publisher publishes other publications bearing the Bild name. These are each created by an independent editorial team and are intended to reach other groups of readers .
Bild am Sonntag
( BamS for short )
|Picture of woman *||since 1983||553,403||6.44|
|Picture week *||since 1983||62,990||1.05|
|Car picture||since 1986||262.189||2.72|
|Sports picture||since 1988||179,039||4.32|
|Computer picture||since 1996||153,543||3.12|
|Computer picture games ******||1999-2019||2.15|
|Auto Bild Motorsport **||2001-2009||1.03|
(formerly Auto Bild Test & Tuning )
|since 2002||31,469||k. A.|
|Car picture all-wheel||since 2002||29,129||k. A.|
|Audio video photo picture||since 2003||16,718||0.8|
|Health picture **||2003-2007||280,000||k. A.|
|BIKE picture||since 2016||200,000||k. A.|
|Travel picture ***||2003-2006||200,000||k. A.|
|Animal picture ****||2002-2006||300,000||k. A.|
(from 2001 to 2007 Bild.T-Online.de )
|Soccer picture ****||Jan. 20, 2017
to the end of 2018
|Picture policy ******||since Feb. 8, 2019||20,000|
** Auto Bild Motorsport was originally published as an independent magazine. Since May 2009 it has been attached to Auto Bild as a “booklet in a booklet” and appears with 35 issues per year, especially during the German motorsport season (April to October).
*** The health picture was discontinued in 2007. It should only appear four times a year as a rotogravure supplement to Bild am Sonntag .
**** Tier Bild and Reise Bild were discontinued in 2006, Football Bild at the end of 2018 due to unsuccessfulness.
***** Bild Politik is currently being sold on a trial basis in Hamburg and its surrounding areas as well as Lüneburg and Lübeck on Fridays with a circulation of 20,000. It is still unclear whether the offer will be expanded nationwide or discontinued.
****** Computer Bild Spiele was discontinued in August 2019. The editorial team was merged with Computer Bild .
There is also the picture bestseller library (2004-2005), the picture comics library (2005) and the picture nature library. These are joint projects with Weltbild-Verlag , in which best- sellers of fiction , a bible , and well-known comic series such as Asterix or Donald Duck have been newly published. The Bild-Erotik-Bibliothek , a joint project between Axel Springer AG and the Random House publishing group , has existed since 2006 . With the story of O , a single work was published that had been indexed for decades.
Furthermore, Bild has been running a sports betting site since August 2016.
In the Web was image represented initially in 1996 under the brand "image online." Since the early years, this online platform has been the largest German newspaper presence on the web - according to its own account, Bild.de is “Germany's largest news and entertainment portal” and has “the editorial online offering with the greatest reach”. The publishing house Axel Springer SE brought in the image online content in partnerships with AOL and in 1997 with the WAZ Group under the “Go On” brand. Under Udo Röbel launched in 1999 to work on restarting the "Project Z." It was the new brand "Bild.de". In 2001, Bild entered into a joint venture with Deutsche Telekom with the online address “Bild.T-Online.de” - after initial concerns from the Federal Cartel Office . Before that, ZDF had already entered into a similar partnership with T-online.de . The website has been marketed as "BILD.de" since the Deutsche Telekom shares (37%) were bought back by Axel Springer SE in 2008.
In addition to the “traditional” web presence, Bild for mobile devices offers special mobile apps for smartphones and tablets . This supports devices of the categories iPad , iPhone , Android - mobile phones and Android tablets . The mobile portal "m.bild.de" is offered for use on mobile devices without apps. Mobile phone contracts are marketed on the “Bild mobil” website .
At the beginning of 2020, Bild started the online talk show “ Here speaks the people ”. While, according to editor-in-chief Julian Reichelt, viewers in other formats are “largely staffage” or “pure key words”, here, according to Reichelt, “normal people have their say as the actual talk guests”. They stand “with their opinions for the cross section of society”. In the opinion of media expert Jörn Kruse, however, Reichelt tries “to give the impression that the picture is the only place where you can still express your opinion”. The picture “throw oneself at a feeling” - however, “in Bavarian broadcasting, for example, [...] the program ' Jetzt red i ' has been around for decades ”.
The number of page visits has increased continuously since data collection began. A payment model was introduced in June 2013, so that some content is only accessible after taking out a subscription. In January 2020, 508.1 million visits to the website were counted, with an average of 3.14 pages .
In other countries
- Jürgen Alberts : The mass press as an ideology factory. Using the example of "image". Athenäum-Fischer-Taschenbuch 4059, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-8072-4059-4 (At the same time dissertation at the University of Bremen , Department of Communication and Aesthetics, Study Area 5, 1973).
- Frank Berger, Peter Nied, S.-M. Veit (Ed.): If the picture lies - fight against it. New studies, case studies and counter-actions (foreword by Günter Wallraff). 3. Edition. Klartext, Essen 1984, ISBN 3-88474-401-1 .
- Heinrich Böll : Image - Bonn - Boenisch. Lamuv, Bornheim-Merten 1984, ISBN 3-88977-008-8 .
- Hartmut Büscher: Emotionality in the headlines of the tabloid press. Theoretical and empirical studies on the emotional impact potential of headlines in the Bild newspaper in the area of association “death”. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-631-50039-4 .
- Karl Christian Führer: Success and Power of Axel Springer's “Bild” newspaper in the 1950s . In: Zeithistorische Forschungen / Studies in Contemporary History. Volume 4, 2007, pp. 311-336.
- Gerhard Henschel : Gossenreport - trade secrets of the Bild newspaper . Edition Tiamat, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-89320-101-7 .
- Tina Heppenstiel: Text design in the "Bild" newspaper. Text structure, vocabulary, sentence structure and forms of presentation. Akademikerverlag AV, Saarbrücken 2012, ISBN 978-3-639-40494-4 .
- Urs Jaeggi : Power and rule in the FRG , revised version under Capital and Labor in the Federal Republic. Frankfurt am Main 1973, ISBN 3-436-01685-3 .
- Bernd Jansen, Arno Klönne: Imperium Springer. Power and manipulation. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1968, ; Jörg Huffschmid: Political Economy of the Springer Group , Sociological Institute of the University of Munich 1980, .
- Gudrun Kruip: The "world" - "picture" of the Axel Springer Verlag: Journalism between Western values and German thought traditions. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 1999, ISBN 978-3-486-56343-6 .
- Martina Minzberg: Bild-Zeitung and privacy protection . Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 1999, ISBN 3-7890-5949-8 .
- Ekkehart Mittelberg : Vocabulary and syntax of the Bild newspaper. Elwert, Marburg 1967, (also dissertation at the University of Marburg , Phil. F., July 6, 1966).
- Barbara Sandig: Bildzeitungstexte - On linguistic design. In: Annamaria Rucktäschel (Ed.): Language and Society. Munich 1987, ISBN 3-7705-0639-1 .
- Hans Schulte-Willekes: Headline - A "picture" reporter reports. Rowohlt Taschenbuch-Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1977, ISBN 3-499-20146-1 .
- Günter Wallraff : The lead story. The man who was with Bild Hans Esser. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1977, ISBN 3-462-02663-1 .
- Günter Wallraff: Witnesses for the prosecution: The description of the “picture” continues. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1977, 1982, ISBN 3-462-01540-0 .
- Günter Wallraff: The BILD manual up to the picture failure . Konkret Literatur Verlag, Hamburg 1981, ISBN 3-462-01676-8 . . New edition: Image disturbance. The picture manual up to the picture failure. Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 1985,
- Günter Wallraff: Revelations. Steidl, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-88243-219-5 .
- The price of truth . A reporter fighting the media mafia. Based on a book by Günter Wallraff. Written and directed by Bobby Roth. 1989. The American-French co-production ran under the title The Man Inside - Tödliche Nachrichten with Jürgen Prochnow in the leading role as Günter Wallraff and Peter Coyote as Henry Tobel.
- Günter Wallraff - The man who was Hans Esser at "Bild" . Film by Jörg Gfröner, Atlas-Film, Duisburg 1982.
- Website of the picture
- Angela Stirken: Fifty Years of the Bild-Zeitung - Of Large Letters and Pictures ( Memento from June 7, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), Museum Magazine, 2002
- Günter Wallraff : Europe's largest newspaper turns fifty - a reason to celebrate? Süddeutsche Zeitung Magazin , 2002
- Photo study by the Otto Brenner Foundation
Notes and individual references
- according to IVW ( details on ivw.eu )
- Advertising & Selling: Paid content runs at Bild und Welt | W&V. Retrieved December 13, 2018 .
- 22 picture editorial offices (as of March 2020)
- Change of regional titles: Springer expands picture Hamburg, merges Frankfurt and Mainz-Wiesbaden On: www.meedia.de , January 2, 2019. ( online )
- "Springer's concentration of power has become a central problem in the republic," said the historian Golo Mann . Rudolf Augstein wrote in the Spiegel: “No single man in Germany accumulated so much power before and after Hitler, except for Bismarck and the two chancellors.” Quoted from: Claus Jacobi : Springer turns 50. (No longer available online.) In: Springer -Internet presence. Archived from the original on February 2, 2007 ; accessed in 2002 .
- Florian Kain: The private television, the Axel Springer publishing house and the German press: the media-political debate in the sixties . Münster / Hamburg 2003.
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- For example, on the occasion of the publisher's 55th birthday, the SPD acknowledged his “publishing work” in a public telegram to the world and thanked him for taking “initiatives to promote the reputation and interests of the German people at home and abroad”. have developed. In June 1967, Axel Springer also received publicly attested recognition from the highest national and local levels, when he awarded the then Federal President Heinrich Lübke, in the presence of the Governing Mayor of Berlin Albertz , the 'Great Cross of Merit with Star' for 'special services to the state and the people' has been. From: Bernd Jansen, Arno Klönne (Ed.): Imperium Springer: Power and Manipulation. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1968.
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Press Council Rügen for "Bild" between 2002 and 2007, listing of the Bildblog
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see also: Dieckmanns Irrfahrten. Search result (with tear-out). In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . Archived from the original on April 10, 2014 ; Retrieved January 17, 2012 .
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