Ludwig von Friedeburg

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Ludwig-Ferdinand von Friedeburg (born May 21, 1924 in Wilhelmshaven ; † May 17, 2010 in Frankfurt am Main ) was a German sociologist at the Institute for Social Research and Politicians ( SPD ). His efforts to dissolve the tripartite school system in comprehensive schools met with great opposition.

The grave of Ludwig von Friedeburg in the Niederursel cemetery in Frankfurt am Main.


Ludwig-Ferdinand von Friedeburg attended the Kiel School of Academics , which was founded in 1320 . A school friend in those years was Werner Creutzfeldt , whose father Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt , professor and chief physician of the Kiel psychiatric clinic, was one of the discoverers of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease . Another school friend was Hardwin Jungclaussen , a close relative of the physicists Heinrich Hertz and Gustav Hertz .

His father Hans-Georg von Friedeburg was Admiral General , from 1943 commanding admiral of the German submarines. Ludwig-Ferdinand von Friedeburg also became a naval officer after graduating from high school . He joined the Navy in 1941 and finished his officer training in June 1943. He then became second officer on watch (II WO) and later first officer on watch (I WO) on U 548 , a submarine of the type IX C / 40 , with a first lieutenant See Eberhard Zimmermann as commanding officer. As a lieutenant at sea, he was assigned the transfer of U 155 , also a large type IX boat, from Lorient to Flensburg . The next 43 days at sea from September 9 to October 21, 1944 made him the youngest German submarine commander in World War II . At this point in time, von Friedeburg was only 20 years and 111 days old. In the period between November 1944 and February 1945 he attended the commanders course and received the building instruction for the new submarine class XXIII . On May 1, 1945 he put his new boat U 4710 into service in Kiel, which, however, was no longer used in the war. Ludwig von Friedeburg is said to have been in the Mürwik internment camp from May 5, 1945 . In the Flensburg suburb of Mürwik , the special area Mürwik was set up at the beginning of May 1945 , which housed the provisional seat of government of the last Reich government under Karl Dönitz (at the marine sports school ) . On behalf of Karl Dönitz, his father Hans-Georg von Friedeburg was involved in the surrender negotiations in May 1945. As a result, on May 7, 1945, he became one of the signatories of the total surrender of the German Wehrmacht . A few days later, Hans-Georg von Friedeburg committed suicide.

After Ludwig von Friedeburg was taken prisoner by the Allies, he was released on September 12, 1947. From 1947 to 1951 he studied at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel and the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg , where he graduated in 1951 as a psychologist . In 1952 he also did his doctorate in Freiburg on The survey as an instrument of the social sciences . From 1951 to 1954 he worked at the Allensbach Institute for Demoscopy . In 1955 he moved to the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research as head of department . In 1960 he completed his habilitation with Theodor W. Adorno with a thesis on the sociology of the working atmosphere. He then became Minister of Culture (SPD) in Hesse and tried, against broad resistance, to fundamentally reform the school system, which did not succeed.

From 1962 to 1966 Friedeburg was Professor of Sociology and Director of the Institute for Sociology at the Free University of Berlin . In 1966 he was appointed to the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main and again as director of the Institute for Social Research. He served as its managing director from 1975 to 2001.

In 1999 Friedeburg spoke at the opening of the Wehrmacht exhibition in the state house in Kiel , which was accompanied by considerable protests.


On April 8, 1960, Ludwig von Friedeburg married Ellen Schölch, born in 1936, daughter of Heinrich Schölch , factory owner, and Hulda Landgraf. She studied with Adorno and graduated with a degree in sociology. His brother was the journalist Friedrich von Friedeburg (1926–1991).

Educational policy

From 1969 to 1974 he was the Hessian Minister of Culture under Prime Minister Albert Osswald . The educational reforms he sought were extremely controversial. Von Friedeburg's school policy was so polarized that the later Prime Minister Roland Koch ( CDU ) said: "Ludwig von Friedeburg probably added more new members to the CDU in Hesse than anyone else."

The main points of his school policy were:

The introduction of all-day schools was also called for, but not pursued intensively .

In 1972/73, von Friedeburg presented the Hessian framework guidelines for elementary and middle school and high schools, triggering a storm of indignation, but also enthusiasm among some of his supporters. At that time they were considered the most profound changes in relation to all federal states.

The main points of discussion were:

  • the radical break with the goal of learning German as a standard language in German lessons
  • the abolition of history lessons in favor of a new subject of social studies
  • the content requirements for German and social studies, which were based on emancipatory, socially critical socialization and communication theories.

In mathematics lessons, the introduction of set theory in primary school lessons was discussed at the same time .

The discussions that took place also relax on the person of Friedeburgs and only ebbed after Friedeburg's successor Hans Krollmann (SPD) made changes.

Von Friedeburg pushed for the establishment of new support levels and comprehensive schools, often against the bitter resistance of the schools and parents concerned. The declared aim was to abolish the structured school system. This policy was continued by his social democratic successors and did not end until 1987 when the CDU won the state elections with the promise of “free school elections”.


Ludwig von Friedeburg received the Cross of Merit 1st Class of the Federal Republic of Germany. The city of Frankfurt honored him in 1994 with the Goethe plaque for outstanding academic and educational achievements. On June 23, 2006, the Faculty of Human and Social Sciences at the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg awarded him an honorary doctorate as "one of the key figures in the educational reform of the 1960s and 1970s".

Publications (selection)

  • (With Jürgen Habermas , Christoph Oehler and Friedrich Weltz ) Student and politics. A sociological investigation into the political consciousness of Frankfurt students . Luchterhand, Neuwied 1961.
  • Sociology of the Work Environment. Studies on the interpretation of empirical studies in large industrial companies . European Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main 1963, 2nd edition 1966.
  • Youth in modern society . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 1965.
  • (Ed. With Jürgen Habermas): Adorno Conference 1983 . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-518-28060-0 .
  • Education reform in Germany. History and social contradiction , Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1989 (paperback edition 2002), ISBN 3-518-28615-3 .


  • Jochen Lengemann : The Hessen Parliament 1946–1986 . Biographical handbook of the advisory state committee, the state assembly advising the constitution and the Hessian state parliament (1st – 11th electoral period). Ed .: President of the Hessian State Parliament. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1986, ISBN 3-458-14330-0 , p. 256 ( [PDF; 12.4 MB ]).
  • Jochen Lengemann : MdL Hessen. 1808-1996. Biographical index (= political and parliamentary history of the state of Hesse. Vol. 14 = publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse. Vol. 48, 7). Elwert, Marburg 1996, ISBN 3-7708-1071-6 , p. 134.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. "Father of the Comprehensive School". Died Ludwig von Friedeburg ( Memento of 28 May 2010 at the Internet Archive ), hr 20 May, 2010.
  2. Hardwin Jungclaussen : Free in three dictatorships - How I experienced my life and how I found my happiness. Autobiography. trafo publishing group Dr. Wolfgang Weist, trafo Literaturverlag, Autobiographies Volume 48 series, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86465-050-5 .
  3. ^ Rainer Busch, Hans-Joachim Röll: The U-Boat War 1939-1945. The German submarine commanders , Verlag ES Mittler & Sohn, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3 8132 0490 1 , pages 72-73
  4. ↑ The Nazi past of a former member of the Hessian state parliament Documentation of the specialist conference March 14 and 15, 2013 in the Hessian state parliament , Wiesbaden 2014, page 48; accessed on: March 2, 2018; The term “internment camp Mürwik” is not known in the current specialist literature. This may mean the special area mentioned below or an internal location near Flensburg.
  5. ^ Die Zeit : Die 21 Tage der Dönitz Government , page 2, of: November 8, 1951; accessed on: March 2, 2018
  6. Gerhard Spörl: Contemporary history: "There it lies, this beast" . In: Der Spiegel . No. 18 , 2015, p. 46-58 ( Online - Apr. 25, 2015 ).
  7. "Being able to deal with it" , article in the taz , accessed on January 8, 2020
  8. ^ "Friedeburg, Ludwig-Ferdinand von". Hessian biography. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
  9. ^ Friedeburg, Friedrich-Ferdinand von. Hessian biography. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
  10. quoted in: Hugo Müller-Vogg , Beim Wortnahm , (Roland Koch in conversation with Hugo Müller-Vogg), Societäts-Verlag Frankfurt, 2002, ISBN 3-7973-0829-9 , page 132.