Socialization ( Latin sociare , to connect) is in the handbook of socialization research by Klaus Hurrelmann u. a. defined as "the process through which, in mutual interdependence between the biopsychic basic structure of individual actors and their social and physical environment, relatively permanent dispositions of perception, evaluation and action arise". Socialization is accordingly the adaptation to social patterns of thought and feeling through internalization (internalization) of social norms . Socialization is a social science term. On the one hand, it denotes theDevelopment of the personality based on its interaction with a specific, material and social environment, on the other hand the social bonds of individuals that are formed in the course of socializing relationships . It includes both the deliberate and planned measures ( upbringing ) as well as the unintentional effects on the personality . It also includes schools, training, and sports and cultural activities.
According to this, socialization processes have the effect that relationships ( communalization ) and orientations for action ( social identity ) emerge in social coexistence , to which individuals refer in their social actions . This results in the tendency of individuals in accordance with the prevailing standards, values and value judgments of society to behave .
If the socialization is successful in the sense of the respective environment, the individual internalizes the social norms, values , representations , but also, for example, the social roles of his social and cultural environment. We see a high degree of symmetry between objective and subjective reality (and of course identity) as “successful socialization”. Conversely, “unsuccessful socialization” must be understood as an asymmetry between objective and subjective reality. ( Berger / Luckmann : The social construction of reality (1969), p. 175)
In the course of the 1970s, a thoroughly interdisciplinary theory of socialization that was consciously geared towards the integration of various disciplinary approaches developed. This concept was first presented to a larger specialist audience in Germany in 1980 in the Handbuch der Sozialisierungforschung (Hurrelmann and Ulich 1980). Sociologists, psychologists and educators were equally represented among the 34 scholars who contributed to the handbook.
Definition of socialization
Socialization refers to the totality of all those learning processes mediated by society (including behavior) in which the individual is able to act socially in a certain society (transmission of customs etc.) and its culture - that is, can participate in social life and contribute to its development . Socialization is therefore a lifelong process. Groups, persons and institutions that control and influence the social learning processes of the individual are called socialization bodies. This definition takes into account that socialization is constituted by people living together ( intergenerational relationships ) and expresses itself in specific skills of individual actors, but also in the way they shape relationships.
In the meantime, Klaus Hurrelmann and Ullrich Bauer have continued this discussion. As socialization, they describe “the personality development of a person, which results from the productive processing of inner and outer reality. The physical and psychological dispositions and properties form the inner reality for a person, the conditions of the social and physical environment the outer reality. The processing of reality is productive because a person always actively deals with his life and tries to cope with the associated developmental tasks. Whether it succeeds or not depends on the personal and social resources available. The requirement to bring personal individuation in line with social integration runs through all phases of life and development in order to secure the self-identity. "
Based on these considerations, Klaus Hurrelmann defined the term in such a way that it contains the assumption of the interplay between social environmental and innate individual factors as an integral part. In the introduction to socialization theory , the following definition is made: “Socialization refers to ... the process in which the biological endowment of the human organism develops into a socially capable personality that develops over the course of life in the course of dealing with the living conditions. Socialization is the lifelong acquisition of and dealing with the natural dispositions, in particular the physical and psychological foundations that form the 'inner' reality for humans, and the social and physical environment that form the 'outer' reality for humans. "
For Hurrelmann, the active role of every single person, understood as "lifelong appropriation and confrontation", is an important part of the definition, because it excludes the idea that socialization is an adaptation mechanism, the acquisition of a socially desirable repertoire of given behaviors and orientations. The personality development of a person is rather conceived as an active and process-like form of dealing with the internal demands of body and psyche and the external demands of the social and material environment. To express this character in one word, Hurrelmann called them “productive”. The word 'productive' is used as a descriptive rather than an evaluative term. The term is intended to express that the individually specific processing of inner and outer reality is an active and 'agentic' process in which an individual chooses an individual form that is appropriate to his own requirements and needs. The processing is 'productive' because it results from the flexible and individually creative adaptation of the internal and external conditions.
In summary, Klaus Hurrelmann describes socialization as “productive processing of reality”, namely processing both the inner reality of body and psyche and the external reality of the social and physical environment.
Socialization theories form the basis for understanding socialization. In the understanding of socialization, two traditions can be distinguished, which are still very popular and widespread today, but are rejected in science today mainly because of their one-sidedness.
The first tradition (psychological theories) “explains human development from within the human organism and attaches little importance to the environment” (Nestvogel). These include “ maturation-theoretical , organic, system- oriented , essentialist , biological - racist approaches”. (Nest bird)
The second tradition (sociological theories) sees socialization as a normative process primarily controlled by society “as a means of integration ”. These include “ social-deterministic , structural-functionalist , mechanical, and theoretical approaches” (Nestvogel). The basis here are the images of man , according to which the unformed “raw” human nature must adapt to the needs of the respective societies. Hobbes speaks of "taming" here, Spencer and Darwin meant adapting, and Durkheim speaks of "adding to the newly born egoistic and anti-social being another being able to lead a social and moral life". In his understanding of socialization, Parsons was concerned with “taking in the behavioral standards and ideals of the group” and developing “the willingness to fulfill a specific role type within the structure of society”.
On the other hand, more recent and currently scientifically relevant lines of tradition consider socialization “as ' development in context ' (systems- theoretical- ecological and reflexive- action-theoretical approaches)”.
Socialization theories differ in their function between affirmative or descriptive theories and critical theories and deconstructivist theories. Affirmative theories ask what type of socialization is needed. Descriptive theories ask and research what type of socialization an existing society creates and, in contrast to critical theories , do not include categories such as power , inequality , domination and violence . Deconstructivist theories reject the possibility of neutral or objective science and therefore critically include the perspective from which research is carried out.
The importance of a social environment for people
Plant and animal organisms are perfectly adapted to their respective natural surroundings. In contrast, humans appear highly inadequately prepared to assert themselves in a natural environment. Morphogenetically unfinished, organically unspecialized, largely without functional instincts and a life-serving movement architecture, it needs special framework conditions in order to be able to survive. One of the most important of these framework conditions is a special social environment from which he can develop and develop his viability.
For the newly born person, his social environment consists initially of a small group of people who take care of him and their living conditions. The people grouped around him - initially quite independently of him - already form a complex network of relationships with one another, made up of balanced outlooks on life and tried and tested manners. This network is in turn woven into other, sometimes more extensive, social networks. Each of the persons also began their own life from such a social environment as the newborn baby now.
These social networks cannot be separated from the respective living conditions in which they are embedded. As with all other living beings, they are based on natural conditions, but for the most part consist of techniques and facilities for coping with life that people have only worked out, handed down and further developed from these conditions and in continuous confrontation with them over many generations. On the one hand, they have a lasting impact on the life of individuals and their social relationships; on the other hand, they remain the subject of human creation and change.
Institutionalization of human ways of life
The constant confrontation of people with their environment stabilizes itself institutionally to species-specific ways of life and beliefs through habituation. Every action that is repeated often solidifies into a pattern that can be reproduced while saving special psychological tension and physical strength and is understood by the agent as a useful pattern of action. In this process, certain phenomena crystallize out of the inherently seamless continuum of the world and gain contour and meaning as objects and events towards which the action is directed. The advantage of selective perception and habitual action lies in the limitation of innumerable possible ways of seeing and reacting to a few - or even only one - generally proven, i.e. H. life-serving behaviors. Habituation ensures the direction and specialization to grasp life facts and to react to them in a targeted manner that are lacking in the human biological makeup. By relieving him of having to analyze each situation anew step by step and to determine it through decisions, and by creating something like a basis on which human action takes place, it saves the release of energies for opportunities that a direction-determining decision need.
The transition from individually solidified through habituation and relieved action to the institutionalization of human forms of life begins when people mutually adjust their behavior to one another. Understanding is based on agreements on allusions, signs that ultimately flow into language and that are used and understood in the same way by all those involved. “The individual action of one is no longer a source of surprise or imminent danger for the other. Instead, much of what is going on assumes for both the triviality of what will both be everyday life. [...] You save time and energy not only for any external tasks that you have separately or in common, but also for your entire mental economy. Their coexistence has now found its form in a constantly expanding world of routine certainty. ”This process takes place in a similar way when dealing with individuals and groups as well as between groups or larger groups of people. It is then characteristic that the respective groups of people share certain group-specific views and routines of behavior; the typifications on which these views and behaviors are based are common property of the respective group.
Common views and routines of action that have been established over a certain period of time have a self-affirming effect and tend to be permanent and lasting. In this way, you achieve more and more a supra-individual objectivity, which exists independently of the individual subject. This applies above all to the perceptions and routines that have already been taken for granted as being taken over from previous generations and have therefore long since had the character of historical and objective reality as institutions.
On the other hand, perspectives and routines that have been developed within a generation or even individually remain easier to change for those who have given them shape. However, this possibility also disappears when a new generation arrives that has no longer experienced and shaped its creation itself. For them, these routines, which at first cannot be considered as a convention, are part of a reality that objectively confronts them. This acts back as it were like a mirror reflex on the parents' generation: to the reality of the 'natural' conditions of the world - and this in place of the species-specific environments of other living beings - the perception and action routines of a 'social', a 'social', condensed into institutions Reality. The institutionalized viewing and action routines are also reflected in techniques for dealing with the circumstances of the natural environment of humans. They replace the instincts that are largely absent and that fit all other living beings into their respective environments. For him they are the instruments with which he makes the environment, which is in itself inhospitable, suitable for himself.
Socialization is a process that is never completed. The focus is on the development of the human personality and the social relationships of a person. On the one hand, personality belongs to the individuality that distinguishes the individual from all others, and on the other hand, the intersubjectivity that the members of a society or community share with one another (e.g. values, norms, social roles).
The unfinished person is fitted into a world in and out of which he can live via his social environment. It is a structure already worked out from the natural conditions of the respective surroundings of people from views, institutions and forms of life. They form the tools with which they have interpreted their respective surroundings and made them suitable for themselves. In order to become viable themselves, the newborn human must learn to deal with these tools, to use them. The unfinished human being fits into this world in a process of internalizing modes of perception and forms of coping with life that are offered to him by the people who immediately surround him - the initially quite helpless creature. To internalize means to grasp, interpret and increasingly handle one's surroundings step by step as it is perceived, interpreted and handled by the people in the immediate vicinity. Young people learn to see the world through the eyes of their fellow human beings, to order and structure them with their terms, to react to their appearances with their emotions and evaluations and to acquire their techniques for dealing with the realities of this world. In a word, he gradually takes over a world in which the other people around him already live. That this world is only one of countless other human worlds remains hidden from him at first. Born into a certain social environment, there is only this one for him for the time being. It is the place around which the rest of the world unfolds for him and from which it is opened up to him. For him it is the world par excellence. Only in a later phase of life does it become apparent to him that there are also completely different worlds, that his own is only the result of a bundle of coincidences and that there are even - albeit always from a non-reversible, fateful starting point - different options for the design of one's own living environment.
A distinction is made primarily between primary and secondary socialization.
With primary socialization the foundations are laid for the still outstanding adjustment of the human being into the world in and out of which he has to live. It provides a basic set of life and world knowledge that a person needs in order to gain a foothold in his environment. The gradual internalization of the ways of looking at things and ways of life of his social environment by the new earth citizen, which is to be achieved with the primary socialization, is tied to requirements that only very few people can meet at the beginning.
The first and most important condition is a trusting bond ( basic trust ) between the newborn and people who have already found their way into the world. According to the sensory development of the newborn, this bond is still based almost exclusively on emotional well-being. It is therefore most easily developed between him and his mother, the person who, in turn, is most closely connected to him emotionally through pregnancy. In and with it, it can feel most secure with its elementary vital needs for warmth, food, attention and care. The bond with other people then equally depends on the extent to which they can contribute to the well-being of the newborn.
Another important prerequisite for the internalization process are the duration and persistence of the bond. Since the new earth citizen does not initially have any abstract terminology with which he could order and structure the abundance of appearances that penetrate him, what should obviously have meaning for him must first emerge from the repeated contact of his reference persons with them Appearances gradually crystallize out. This understanding takes time and it only succeeds if the behavior of the caregiver towards the same phenomena remains more or less the same.
The inner willingness to internalize institutionalized ways of looking at things and ways of life grows out of the infant's identification with his closest caregivers. This enables him, but also encourages him to understand the world in a way, to interpret it, to face it and finally to handle it as his caregivers do.
This then leads to another very important step in the child's primary socialization. By adopting the forms of the views of its caregivers and their way of dealing with the world, it not only finds its access to the world in which it has to live, but also a new access to itself. So if it is the world with learns to see her eyes, she also becomes aware of herself as the object of her emotional and active attention. In addition to the impressions, sensations and needs that it feels directly in itself, it experiences itself as what the people around it see in it. And while it internalizes this too, it suddenly becomes what they put into it.
With these attributions, the child is finally assigned a very specific place and a specific role in the social environment from which he experiences the world from his caregivers as part of his primary socialization. He gets to know himself as a person who has different relationships with other people in his social environment and to whom role expectations are linked that he should fulfill (development of his own identity ).
Once the foundations have been laid with primary socialization for people to fit into their world, they are faced with the task of making something out of their life, of shaping it in concrete terms. He has to take on this task in dealing with a world that lies outside the framework of the primary socialization environment. The process that takes place in this conflict is called secondary socialization.
In complex societies that are based on the division of labor, the world that the individual has to deal with is fanned out into a multitude of interlinked and nested sub-worlds, each of which is characterized by very specific requirements as well as special knowledge and skills: teachers take care of education, doctors and Specialized nursing staff for health, farmers and their downstream industries for the production of food, traders for their distribution, craftsmen for building houses and repairing water pipes, soldiers for the defense of the country, judges for pacifying legal disputes, garbage collectors for the Daily trash removal - and so on. Secondary socialization is consequently the internalization of such institutional “sub-worlds” caused by division of labor or functions. It consists in the acquisition of role-specific knowledge and skills and “requires the adoption of a role-specific vocabulary. The 'subworlds' that are internalized with secondary socialization are partial realities in contrast to the 'basic world' that one grasps in primary socialization ”.
Through primary and secondary socialization, people who still need to fit in with the world are increasingly stabilized in routine certainties of the perception and evaluation of the world and of their behavior towards it. In contrast to the instinctively fixed adaptation mechanisms of other living beings, these routine certainties remain modifiable. This does not apply so much to the routine certainties acquired with primary socialization, which are particularly emotionally anchored and more difficult to access for intellectual reflection because they are usually internalized as without alternative. It is therefore very difficult for people to get out of this skin. This is all the more true, however, for the modes of perception, assessment and behavior incorporated with secondary socialization, which are often internalized with the realization that there are other possibilities for life, even if they are not necessarily attainable for the individual or otherwise come into consideration . So people can change their relationship to the world; they remain in a position to take on new roles and internalize in them different views, evaluations and behavioral patterns than those that guided them up to then. The longer the individual is involved in one of the sub-worlds, the more persistent the recurring experiences he has there, the more strongly these are deposited as uncontested certainties that determine his worldview. This sedimentation explains in large part why people of advanced age become more rigid in their beliefs, evaluations and behaviors and their sensitivity to other points of view decreases.
The Tertiary socialization occurs in adulthood and is the adaptation that constantly makes an individual in interaction with their social environment, d. H. man learns new behavior or he forgets behavior and thought patterns that he adopted in earlier years because they have now lost their meaning. At work and when starting a family, he assumes obligations and provides services that serve the functioning and survival of society.
The Quaternary socialization occurs in the elderly. Society has special expectations of the elderly. The individual has to find their way into new life situations and contexts that are typical for this phase of life, such as moving to a home or being in need of care.
Socialization as a relationship creation
Socialization in a relationship manifests itself in two modes of expression:
- in personality traits and
- in the processes of living together
Since the 1960s, the focus of socialization research has been the reference to the development potential and options for action of individual actors (cf. Klaus Hurrelmann et al. 1998). The strong focus on the subject, however, resulted in a narrowing that led to the fading out of social design processes that arise from living together .
As socialization research includes the processes of coexistence as a second dimension, its task is not only to concentrate on the central aspects of personality development, but also to focus on the analysis of specific interpersonal relationships. This is expressed in processes of the development of individual action knowledge and a general action orientation. The fact that socialization presupposes interaction and is based on anthropological, bio-psycho-social dispositions of humans for reflection, coordination and understanding is to be regarded as fundamental for the acceptance of this perspective of socialization.
In relation to the expansion described here through the dimension of common action practice and the genesis of knowledge arising here, socialization is to be defined as “a social practice that is established through the coexistence of people, whereby experiences, skills and knowledge are exchanged and cultivated between people “(Cf. Matthias Grundmann 2006).
The social anthropologist Dieter Claessens points out in the family and value system that a 'successful' "socialization" requires a previous successful humanization in which the newborn in the first year of life (post-uterine spring) gains a basic trust (or does not gain), social lessons to accept for oneself (see also: birth ).
In the meantime, current anthropological and developmental studies have shown that socialization is to be regarded as a species-specific form of coping with life. This, however, is not limited solely to the ability to "humanisation" but more fundamentally on the cognitive ability as for example in the perception and interpretation reciprocal is based action planning.
Socialization and education
In educational theory, socialization is a didactic principle that, in conjunction with its counterpart , individuation , should significantly determine what happens in the classroom as a long-term objective:
Based on the double understanding of the human being as an individual and a social being, education has to contribute to the development of an unmistakable personality of the adolescent on the one hand , who is to be put in a position to find his own purpose and accordingly a self-determined one in accordance with the capacities, needs and possibilities brought with him to lead an independent life. On the other hand, it is important that the individual grows up in and with a community of other individuals who meet him with partially contradicting interests and demands and with whom it is necessary to seek a balance of interests in order to be able to shape a peaceful life together. Both requirements must be didactically harmonize with one another.
In the 1970s a fierce dispute broke out about which style of upbringing could best guarantee socialization as an educational task. So emerged, now survived in scientific discourse, z. Sometimes ideologically tinted proposals and experimental forms such as the authoritarian and its opposite pole, the anti-authoritarian or the politically oriented so-called democratic leadership style , but also teaching methods that are alternative to teaching technology such as teacher-centered or student-centered lessons .
A form of communication that connects and is widely used in modern teaching, with which the didactic principle of socialization should be promoted ideology-free, is the socially integrative teaching style introduced into teaching by Reinhard and Anne-Marie Tausch in 1979 . With this leadership style, the learners are brought out of their isolation, the cooperation between the teachers and the learners, their communication and cooperation potentials are brought to the center of the learning processes.
Example traffic education
Today's traffic education is no longer an accident prevention subject. Rather, it understands itself in a broader sense as interdisciplinary personality and social education in accordance with its core concept ("getting around" as "dealing with one another", "taking care of one another", "communicating and cooperating with one another") . Therefore their remit of socialization is before the actual referral to the real road to Schonraum learning to. The declared educational goal is the mature, responsible, safety-related and cooperative thinking and acting person who proves himself in every form of human interaction. The main socio-pedagogical goal of traffic education is: " the development of appropriate self-competence, social competence, technical competence and competence to act " The educational task consists in combining the two components of self-realization and social competence with each other and to bring them into harmony: " Traffic education should promote both sides of the child's personality : The child must be enabled to move independently and confidently in traffic and consistently pursue their traffic intentions. But it also has to learn to pay attention to others and their intentions, to show consideration and to share responsibility for themselves and others. "
Example of sports education
The Physical Education , once under the names physical education ( BRD ) and physical education ( DDR ) to school sports particular, is no longer a pure "movement specialist" more, that as a balance to the "seat pockets" the lack of exercise counteracting, for emotional relaxation in the otherwise strict school life care, convey athletic techniques and generally serve to maintain physical and mental health . In addition, sports education has to serve a complex field of tasks in a multi-perspective lesson using sophisticated multi-dimensional methods , which in addition to the development of physical awareness, sporting techniques and health awareness, also includes cognitive learning goals and the task of socialization in the form of social learning.
Socialization is to be viewed critically in the educational science sense: The classics of pedagogy assume a non- affirmative upbringing, that is, not an upbringing in the sense of adaptation to social norms. (Compare with Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Friedrich Schleiermacher , Wilhelm von Humboldt , Johann Friedrich Herbart , Dietrich Benner ). Successful socialization enables the individual on the one hand to recognize and accept existing values and norms - on the other hand to question the norms and values in a reflective manner (see also: Internalization (social sciences) ).
Socialization often emphasizes the interdependence of different generations (e.g. parents and children). Sometimes it is forgotten that certain learning processes take place or decide within the same generation, the peer group : For example, according to recent studies, assuming the gender role is relatively early and clearly a learning product that develops from identification with one's own generation and probably not from dealing with the parent generation.
Use in biology
- Assimilation and Assimilation Policy
- Body socialization
- Musical socialization
- Political socialization
- Socialization through mass communication
- Socially inclusive teaching
- Self-determination theory
- Teaching principles
- Socialization (sociology)
- Peter L. Berger , Thomas Luckmann : The social construction of reality . Frankfurt / M. 1969.
- Dieter Claessens : Family and Value System. A study on the second socio-cultural birth of man . 4th edition 1979, ISBN 3-428-02699-3 .
- Dieter Geulen: The socialized subject. On the foundation of the socialization theory . Frankfurt / M. 1977, ISBN 3-518-07454-7 .
- Wilfried Gottschalch u. a .: Socialization research . Frankfurt / M. 1971.
- Matthias Grundmann: Socialization. Sketch of a general theory. UTB, Konstanz: UVK 2006, ISBN 978-3-8385-2783-3 .
- Jochen Grell : Techniques of Teacher Behavior . Beltz publishing house. Weinheim. 2nd edition 2001.
- Bruno Heilig: Perspectives in traffic education. Congress report 11. – 13. May 1988 Schwäbisch Gmünd.
- Klaus Hurrelmann , Ullrich Bauer : Introduction to the socialization theory. Beltz Verlag, 11th edition, Weinheim and Basel 2015, ISBN 978-3-407-25740-6 .
- Klaus Hurrelmann, Ullrich Bauer, Matthias Grundmann, Sabine Walper (eds.): Handbook of socialization research. Beltz Verlag, 8th edition, Weinheim 2015, ISBN 978-3-407-83183-5 .
- Klaus Hurrelmann, Dieter Ulich (Ed.): Handbook Socialization Research. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 1980.
- Edmund Kösel : Didactic principles and postulates. In: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume I: The theory of subjective didactics. 4th edition. Balingen 2002, ISBN 3-8311-3224-0 .
- Arnd Krüger : La pluridisciplinarité dans l'éducation physique et sportive: un chemin difficile - Multiperspectivity as a basis of current German physical education. in: Movement & Sport Sciences - Science & Motricité 78, 2012, 11–23.
- Manfred von Lewinski: How lonely do people stay? - Basics, characteristics and limits of human communication . 2006, Pro Business publishing house, Berlin, ISBN 3-939000-70-1 .
- Peter Neumann, Eckard Balz (Ed.): Multi-perspective sports instruction. Orientations and examples . Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 2004.
- Klaus-Jürgen Tillmann : Socialization Theories. An introduction to the relationship between society, institution and becoming a subject. 13th edition, Rowohlts Enzyklopädie, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-499-55476-3 .
- Siegbert A. Warwitz : Didactic principles. In: Ders .: Traffic education from the child. Perceiving - playing - thinking - acting. 6th edition. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2009, pp. 69-72. ISBN 978-3-8340-0563-2 .
- Hermann Veith: Socialization Theory (PDF; 242 kB) in: Familienhandbuch-online
- Erich H. Witte: Socialization Theories, Hamburg Research Reports on Social Psychology 56/2005
- Andreas Kreuziger: Socialization in today's society in: What is, is - what is not is possible! - Children and young people as participating subjects in our society.
- Renate Nestvogel: Socialization Theories: Lines of Tradition, Debates and Perspectives . In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendiek (Hrsg.): Handbook women and gender research. Theory, methods, empiricism. Wiesbaden 2004. page 154
- Renate Nestvogel: Socialization Theories: Lines of Tradition, Debates and Perspectives . In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendiek (Hrsg.): Handbook women and gender research. Theory, methods, empiricism. Wiesbaden 2004. page 155
- Renate Nestvogel: Socialization Theories: Lines of Tradition, Debates and Perspectives . In: Ruth Becker, Beate Kortendiek (Hrsg.): Handbook women and gender research. Theory, methods, empiricism. Wiesbaden 2004. Pages 160, 161
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 57 f.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 59.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 56.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 57.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 61.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 58.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 63.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 62.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 68 f.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 140.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 145.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 148 ff.
- See Berger and Luckmann 1980, pp. 139-204.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 69.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 69 f.
- Berger / Luckmann, The social construction of reality , p. 142.
- Norbert Kühne : Early development and upbringing - The critical period, in: Teaching materials Pedagogy - Psychology, No. 694, Stark Verlag, Hallbergmoos
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 71 f.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 72 f.
- v. Lewinski, How lonely man remains, p. 73 f.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Didactic principles. In: Ders .: Traffic education from the child. Perceiving - playing - thinking - acting. 6th edition. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2009, pp. 69-72.
- Edmund Kösel: Didactic principles and postulates. In: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume I: The theory of subjective didactics. 4th edition. Balingen 2002.
- Edmund Kösel: Didactic principles and postulates. . In: The modeling of learning worlds. Volume I: The theory of subjective didactics. 4th edition. Balingen 2002.
- Jochen Grell: Techniques of Teacher Behavior . Beltz publishing house. Weinheim. 2nd edition 2001.
- Reinhard Tausch, Anne-Marie Tausch: Educational Psychology. Psychological processes in education and teaching . Göttingen 1979.
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: Traffic education from the child. Perceive-play-think-act. 6th edition. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2009, pp. 22-24.
- Bruno Heilig: Perspectives of traffic education. Congress report 11. – 13. May 1988 Schwäbisch Gmünd.
- ibid p. 22
- Siegbert A. Warwitz: The principle of individuation and socialization. In: Ders .: Traffic education from the child. Perceiving - playing - thinking - acting. 6th edition. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2009, p. 72.
- Siegbert Warwitz: On the cognitive component in the socialization process. In: Committee of German physical educators (ed.): Socialization in sport . VI. Congress for physical education in Oldenburg 1973. Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 1974, pp. 366–371.
- Arnd Krüger: La pluridisciplinarité dans l'éducation physique et sportive: un chemin difficile - Multiperspectivity as a basis of current German physical education. in: Movement & Sport Sciences - Science & Motricité 78, 2012, 11–23.
- Peter Neumann, Eckard Balz (ed.): Mehrperspektivenischer Sportunterricht. Orientations and examples . Verlag Hofmann, Schorndorf 2004.