" Under education refers to the educational influence on the development and behavior of adolescents. The term includes both the process and the result of this influence . "
The educational scientist Wolfgang Brezinka defines education as " actions [...] through which people try to permanently improve the structure of the psychological dispositions of other people in some respect or to preserve its components judged as valuable or the emergence of dispositions that are considered bad are evaluated, to prevent . "
In common usage, the term "education" denotes both the entirety of all educational activities that control the personalization , socialization and enculturation of a person, as well as individual parts of this overall process, such as B. sex education , health education or traffic education .
The science that deals with education or education as doing as thinking about this doing is pedagogy .
Word origin and meaning field
The word educate goes back to ahd. Irziohan (pull out) and, based on the example of the word educare ( Latin for raise, nourish, educate), it soon takes on the loan meaning of forming one's spirit and character and promoting one's development .
From the original term, the language has subsequently created a differentiated vocabulary in order to grasp the nuances of the educational process more precisely: terms such as "raising", "supervising", "promoting", "teaching", "teaching", "socializing", " Training ”,“ educating ”or“ enculturating ”reflect the broad spectrum of ideas about upbringing, influencing and upbringing practices that“ educating ”has to do with. They are partly synonyms and partly sub-areas of the complex educational process with different demands on levels, which can be found in different definitions of education.
Education in the scientific disciplines
The scientific discipline that is primarily and primarily concerned with the theory and practice of education is pedagogy or educational science . The sociology of education deals with the social structures of the educational system , while educational psychology and school psychology focus on the psychological dimensions of education. Other sciences also make education the subject of consideration within the framework of their specialist area of responsibility, such as philosophy , religious studies , law , political science , sports science , psychology , sociology , social history or cultural history . They are each responsible for an essential contribution from their specialist areas to the lively reflection and further development of the educational needs.
Theoretical justification of the concept of education
From the side of education
The specialty within pedagogy that deals with the theoretical justification of the concept of education is general pedagogy .
The earliest attempt to theoretically justify the concept of education comes from Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841), for whom education is a deliberate, planned, organized event; it is not natural and just happens, it is not only socialization that happens naturally, but a rational act that proceeds according to conscious ends. It follows the will, but not any will, but that will that results from a certain perspective or circle of thoughts.
Siegfried Bernfeld wrote aphoristically in 1929: "Upbringing is [...] the sum of the reactions of a society to the development fact."
Eduard Spranger (1882–1963) formulated his attempt to theoretically justify upbringing in anthropological terms . In his famous parable of the arch carver, he initially described the origins of education in a meaningful way. The archer, who lived in prehistoric times, interrupts his work to show a boy how he can make a bow himself. Here Spranger aims above all to ensure that upbringing is only possible when the living conditions allow the person to put his core concern of ensuring survival aside for a moment.
Half a century later, Wolfgang Sünkel (1934–2011) also assumed an anthropological basis , for whom upbringing serves to pass on the collective culturality of man because it cannot be genetically passed on. Upbringing solves the problem of how the non-genetic activity dispositions - "that is knowledge, skills and wills (motives)" - "can be brought over the mortality threshold". The definition for Sünkel results from this: "Education is the mediated acquisition of non-genetic activity dispositions."
Klaus Prange (1996) understands upbringing as the synchronization and symmetrization of showing and learning.
On the part of psychology
On the part of psychology there are no prominent efforts to justify the concept of education theoretically; however, some authors have made a contribution to the theoretical justification of terms that can be used as components of a definition for “education”.
The authors Heinz Walter Krohne and Michael Hock differentiate between parenting concepts and parenting styles . While parenting concepts are bundles of attitudes, goals and beliefs, the expression parenting style describes the individual behavioral tendencies of parents and educators. Examples of educational concepts are a performance or education-oriented, emancipatory, anti-authoritarian or Christian education. Different parenting styles, on the other hand, are characterized by different levels of authority , responsiveness and empathy . The style of upbringing can vary greatly from person to person, depending on the individual's emotional and social competence and the temperament of the person bringing up the child, but it is usually quite stable for the individual.
From the side of sociology
As a representative of sociology , Émile Durkheim, for example, tried to provide a theoretical foundation for the concept of education. In his main pedagogical text, L'éducation morale (posthumously, 1923), he defined education as a methodical socialization . Upbringing is that subset of socialization processes that is supposed to eliminate the competence gap between adults and the younger generation. Education makes people a social creature and serves to safeguard the social system in which it takes place. As an activity that is guided by pedagogical norms, however, it is not a primordial human condition, but historically only begins at a point in time when education through religion and family alone was no longer sufficient.
Like Durkheim, Niklas Luhmann also understood education as “an intentional activity that seeks to develop people's abilities and promote their social connectivity.” Luhmann also expressly differentiates between upbringing and socialization; Because his ( system-theoretical ) interest in education is primarily focused on autopoietic characteristics, which are most obviously given in institutional, i.e. school-based education, the distinction between "upbringing" and "education" only plays a subordinate role for him.
Definition of terms
Upbringing vs. socialization
The educational scientist Peter Menck defines socialization: “Socialization” is the term used to describe the process in which a person develops into a personality, taking in and dealing with the social, cultural and material environment . With this global statement, it encompasses the entire educational process of humans including foreign and self-education, but avoids an internal differentiation of the terms upbringing, education and socialization. According to Menck, the terms upbringing and socialization interlock, but are not congruent. One could speak of "intersecting circles" . Didactician Siegbert Warwitz speaks of "growing rings" in which the lifelong educational process of upbringing and socialization takes place. It is not easy to clearly differentiate the individual terms for everyday parenting in a realistic manner. Contributions to this question come from sociology, e.g. B. by Émile Durkheim (see above ) or by Friedhelm Neidhardt , for whom education is a normative concept in which certain ideal educational ideas are implemented, while socialization as a collective term describes all the factual conditions of growing into a society. In 2009, the sociologist Matthias Grundmann defined that by education “the establishment of socially desirable characteristics of people by caregivers” and by socialization “the very general, anthropologically based fact of the social design of reliable social relationships and the intergenerational transmission of social action knowledge” is to be understood. The inventory that educational scientist Solvejg Jobst took in 2008 on the term socialization was primarily sociologically oriented.
Upbringing vs. education
The distinction between upbringing and education is still not a matter of course . As Philipp Eggers already showed in 1971, this distinction is mainly used in German-speaking countries. In the English-speaking world , the history of ideas strongly influenced by positivism is marked, education falls entirely along with education ( education ). However, the distinction is also known in the Slavic languages, for example in Russian (воспитание vs. образование) and in Polish , and with restrictions also in French . In the German-speaking area, the term has its origin in German idealism and relates more than education to cognition . The expressly normative components of education are absent, as are the affective ones, and the self-activity of the developing individual is in the foreground, which gives the term an element of emancipation . For Matthias Grundmann, education is “the cultivation of the practical knowledge of individual individuals”.
While Humboldt still had the education of all people in mind at the end of the 18th century , education actually developed into an instrument of social distinction for an educated middle class minority towards the 20th century . Max Horkheimer and the educationalist Wolfgang Klafki therefore tried to revise the concept of education in a contemporary way as early as the 1950s. To a large extent , the concept of education came under the pressure of legitimation when, in the late 1960s, pedagogy was rebuilt from its original humanities orientation to a modern, empirically oriented social science that was geared towards equal funding .
Although the concept of education had become obsolete and hollow in terms of content, it has also experienced inflationary use since the mid-1960s and has been massively overstretched again and again to issues that are, according to all definition criteria, education . On the issue of blurring the concepts of education and training associated with such inflationary word usage, has particularly strongly pointed Klaus Prange recently, the suspects the mainly misnomer: "With the quality seal, education 'loses education aura of paternalism and presented as an offer, what after all is education after all. "
Upbringing vs. pedagogy
The distinction between education and pedagogy is still not a matter of course. Yet Kant has both terms usually used interchangeably, and many writers follow him in today. The difficulty of distinguishing the two terms is due, in particular, therefore, that education not only to scientific knowledge sought discipline is, but is also understood as "pedagogy" as a guide for the educational practice to a considerable extent, so active education standards sets and even for Educational factor becomes.
The terms upbringing and pedagogy, on the other hand, can be clearly separated from the standpoint of empirical pedagogy , which describes educational norms but, unlike practical pedagogy, does not set it itself.
History of education
Up until the 20th century, upbringing in the western world was mainly shaped by Christianity , the ideal of Christian upbringing being the believer . It is thanks to medieval scholasticism that Aristotelian ideas also entered Christian pedagogy . The Enlightenment , the humanism and the German idealism led since the 17th century to the emergence of a secular bourgeois philosophy of education whose ideal was the educated man, enlightened, which is a useful member of society simultaneously. In a second line of tradition, starting from Jean-Jacques Rousseau , various currents of reform pedagogy emerged from the 19th century , which turned against alienation and authoritarianism and tried to develop their pedagogy from childhood . The conscious, reflective, later also by advisory literature influenced upbringing in the parental home continued with the emergence of civil society in the 17th and 18th centuries. Century, which made education the central purpose of the family institution .
The Nazis brought in the 20th century no independent philosophy of education indicate the systematic abuse that this regime with education, especially the political education drive, however, had in the German language after 1945 a lengthy discrediting of authority result. This was particularly evident in the educational discourses of the 1968 movement and the extra-parliamentary opposition , but it still shapes the social discourse on education in Germany and Austria today. In the United States, on the other hand, where the historical prerequisites for a comparable authority discourse were lacking, approaches arose in the 1990s for a modern character education that seeks to reconcile the ideals of civic upbringing with the insights of current psychological research and the social challenges of the 21st century .
Basic pedagogical perspectives
Anthropology of education
The human being is born as a helpless being, who needs the care of others and has to develop his physical, mental and spiritual capacities in his youth and in further life in order to become a full member of the human community. Pedagogy characterizes young people as educandus : a being who needs upbringing. Herbart already explicitly placed Educandus at the center of educational endeavors, wanted him to “find himself”, and assigned the educator merely to the role of supporter.
In this sense, education is understood by educational science as an aid to self-development of the personality, whereby the actual implementation ultimately lies with the person to be educated. According to the prevailing opinion, there is no guarantee for the success of the learning transfer, the desired success can only be hoped for on the part of the educator: The nature of the freedom of human decision-making determines, however, that all learning ultimately remains associated with transfer hope and does not program the effects of learning processes can be .
The philanthropist Christian Gotthilf Salzmann already dealt with the role model function in upbringing in his satirical educational guide Krebsbüchlein , which he published for the first time in 1780 with the subtitle “Instructions for an unreasonable upbringing of children”. In more than thirty examples he explains how a failed upbringing succeeds in instilling vices in children. The cover picture shows a pond with an old and three young crabs, which symbolize the teacher-student relationship.
Educators and those to be educated
Upbringing is a process that takes place between the parent on the one hand and the person to be educated on the other. Parents and teachers today form the most important and scientific literature in the most commonly treated education authorities . In addition, there are numerous other institutions that have educational responsibility and whose employees exercise education, such as B. Institutions for early education, religious communities or sports clubs. In the old craft, which was shaped by the guild rules , the master couple were also an educational authority, in that they raised the apprentices living in the house as well as their own children. Ultimately and as the objective of any upbringing by others, however, the individual is his or her own educational authority, in that, in the sense of lifelong learning in the form of self- education, he himself has to take responsibility for his own development when the "foreign upbringing" with moving out of the parental home or expires at the end of vocational training.
The teacher-student ratio
A decisive psychological component in the educational process is the relationship and the educational climate between pupil and educator. The adolescent's acceptance of the upbringing and the lasting effect on his / her development depend on the educator's powers of persuasion. This in turn results essentially from its trustworthiness, ability to engage in dialogue and positive role model effect. The demand for blind obedience, however, documents the helplessness of the educator, according to the guide author Walther Schmidt.
In cultures that have a scientific system, upbringing with its very complex challenges is often discussed scientifically and viewed as a social task that requires a formalized qualifying training of teachers and educators. Even in ancient times, a mature personality with good manners and a level of education corresponding to social norms was considered a desirable result of good training by renowned teachers.
Education takes place within the framework of the different value systems of the respective societies. In modern western cultures, the objectives are initially determined by virtues such as tolerance , non-violence , willingness to dialogue, the ability to compromise, courage , moral courage or willingness to perform . The principles of Christian and humanistic upbringing, from which modern Western upbringing arose, have survived to varying degrees in different parts of society.
Appropriate action must correspond to social norms on the one hand, and to the personality structure of the adolescent on the other. Unwanted behavior that contradicts the given educational standards is combated through educational sanctions and accompanying measures; Desired behavior promoted and rewarded by reinforcers . What seems appropriate is determined by the values and rules of conduct of the respective community.
Wrong upbringing can lead to undesirable developments (see also: Success in upbringing ). Thus, the depth psychologist and educator viewed Alfred Adler , the pampering as a form of false education, can have just as serious negative consequences for the development of personality as (especially physically) punitive upbringing or a carelessly-disinterested parenting style .
Upbringing is not limited to individual aspects of the human spectrum of characteristics such as physical, emotional , volitive , social , intellectual and practical dispositions, but takes into account the overall profile of the developing personality. The educational process is based on the one hand on the circumstances of the individual adolescent and on the other hand on the requirements of the social community into which the individual must integrate. Upbringing takes place in specific probationary situations. Special educational areas develop didactically and methodically specialized fields of tasks and procedures. As such, the modern sub-forms such as who in the highly differentiated societies, physical education , the personality education , the health education , the sex education , the social education , the media, education , the language education , the game Education , the environmental education , the traffic education or risk education established in education.
Problems of the concept of education
In the minds of some target groups, including parents, the German word “education” has negative connotations. As Werner Loch has shown, among others , she is ascribed an authoritarian aftertaste and a burden with tendencies of oppression, incapacitation, control or narrow-mindedness. Even within education, as Niklas Luhmann and Dieter Lenzen have shown, among others , upbringing is often perceived as an imposition.
In relation to adult educators, the term “upbringing” is now generally perceived as incapacitating or stigmatizing and largely avoided. In traffic, for example, instruction for children and adolescents is referred to as “ traffic education ”, while adult road users (e.g. learner drivers or traffic offenders ) refer to training, courses or traffic instruction . However, there is no theoretically founded statement on why education should only work and be reasonable in adolescence, and psychology and sociology assume that socialization is a lifelong process that - for example with the means of psychotherapy , the social therapy or Geragogik - can still be methodically influenced in adulthood.
The misuse of the word “education” for indoctrination or brainwashing has aroused the suspicion in some authors that the term could also be used in its ordinary context as a euphemism for abuse of power. The most radical form of this skepticism can be found in anti-educational concepts such as those used today. B. be represented by Hubertus von Schoenebeck .
One problem in German-language pedagogy is the lack of clarity in the concept of education, the definition of which has not yet been agreed and the connotations of which often have no equivalent outside of the German-speaking area. There is no such thing as an English-language "educational science", and the philosophy of education sub- discipline established in the English-speaking world cannot be equated linearly with German-language educational science and also differs between England , the USA and Australia . This sometimes results in communication difficulties for German-speaking pedagogy in the international professional exchange, although research problems and questions are often very similar across national borders.
Upbringing right and upbringing duty of parents in German-speaking countries
Upbringing at home and in school is regulated by law in many countries. With regard to the rights and obligations of parenting in Germany, Basic Law states : The care and upbringing of children is the natural right of the parents and their primary duty. The state community watches over their activities. In Switzerland there is a similar regulation with Civil Code (ZGB). In Austria one speaks of " custody ". Parents who do not fulfill their upbringing obligations for the well-being of the child can, in accordance with Article 6, Paragraph 2, Sentence 2 of the Basic Law, withdraw their right to bring up the child and transfer welfare institutions.Paragraph 2 of the
State educational mandate in Germany
The state educational mandate is based on Article 7 (1) GG . It puts the school system under the supervision of the state and is on an equal footing with parental rights. Compulsory schooling serves the goal of enforcing this state educational mandate, which not only aims to impart knowledge, but also to train the child to become a self-responsible member of society.
Education in other cultural areas
Education in the People's Republic of China and Taiwan is based on Confucianism ; in the People's Republic of China, neither the long socialist history of the country nor the reform and opening-up policy has changed much in this regard. In contrast to education in the Western world , whose primary goal today is to send young people to autonomy as early as possible - among other things, to detach them from their family of origin - on the contrary , education in China aims at consolidation and good Regulation of indissoluble family relationships. While in the Western world parents think that they can never do enough for their child, Chinese thinking is based on the assumption that, conversely, the child is in debt to his parents for life. The parents not only gave him life, but often also make great sacrifices in order to raise the child and offer him a good education. Among other things, the child is then expected to have a good career in order to be able to look after the parents in old age. Since the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), China had already had an educational merit civil service that nourished a considerable part of the population, and until today large parts of the Chinese population are very strongly performance and education-oriented in matters of education.
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