Max Horkheimer (born February 14, 1895 in Stuttgart ; died July 7, 1973 in Nuremberg ) was a German social philosopher and leading head of the Frankfurt School . As director of the Institute for Social Research and editor of the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung , he sought to implement an interdisciplinary materialistic research program with scientists from different disciplines and an unorthodox understanding of Marx's social theory , which he flagged as critical theory in a programmatic article in 1937 while he was emigrating to the United States. Later, together with Theodor W. Adorno , he wrote the collection of philosophical essays Dialectic of the Enlightenment , which is considered the fundamental work of critical theory .
Youth, friendship with Pollock
Max Horkheimer grew up at Schwieberdinger Strasse 58 in Zuffenhausen as the son of a Jewish factory owner family. His father was the synthetic wool manufacturer Moritz Horkheimer, his mother Babette, geb. Lauchheimer, came from Esslingen am Neckar . Max did not attend a humanistic grammar school, but a secondary school that was supposed to prepare the students for practical careers. At the request of his father, he left the Dillmann-Gymnasium in Stuttgart at the age of 15 as an undergraduate . Determined by his father to be the company's successor, he started out as an apprentice in his father's factory. During this time he got to know Friedrich Pollock , also the son of a Stuttgart manufacturer, but with a very different family upbringing. While Horkheimer was raised in a conservative Jewish family, Pollock's parents' house had rigorously turned away from Judaism. Pollock opened up a new world for his friend beyond religious and conservative traditions and helped him to assert himself against the "omnipresent father". A lifelong friendship emerged from this acquaintance until Pollock's death in 1970. At the beginning of their childhood friendship, they drew up a formal “friendship contract”, which was to be renewed again and again in the course of their lives and supplemented by joint resolutions and memoranda. After an apprenticeship and an internship in Brussels, Horkheimer became junior manager in his father's company in 1914. As operations manager and authorized signatory, he was initially spared military service in the First World War ; he was not called up until 1917, but after a short time he was retired as unfit for military service .
With Pollock in Munich he experienced the establishment of the Soviet republic and its brutal suppression by the Freikorps . He never returned to his father's factory after the war. In 1919, together with Pollock in Munich , he completed his Abitur as an external student in a few months.
In 1919 he began his studies at the University of Munich with a major in psychology and minor subjects in philosophy and economics . After a semester, he moved to the University of Frankfurt am Main , and from 1920/21 he studied at the University of Freiburg . In Freiburg he heard the phenomenologist Edmund Husserl and attended a seminar by Martin Heidegger together with Friedrich Pollock . In 1922 he received his doctorate in Frankfurt with summa cum laude from Hans Cornelius , whose assistant he was then for three years. In 1925 he completed his habilitation there. As a private lecturer in 1926, he legalized the long-term relationship with Rose Christine Riekher (1887–1969), his father's former private secretary, whom he had nicknamed "Maidon". Together with her and Friedrich Pollock, he had lived together since 1921 in a house in Kronberg im Taunus , near Frankfurt, which their parents had bought themselves. After the parents had opposed their son's liaison with the eight-year-old gentile woman for many years , they gave up their resistance after the marriage and took the daughter-in-law into their family.
In 1930 the University of Frankfurt appointed him full professor of social philosophy at the Philosophical Faculty. In the same year he became director of the Institute for Social Research founded in 1924 under Carl Grünberg until it was closed after the Nazis came to power in 1933.
Emigration and return to Germany
Horkheimer emigrated via Geneva , where the Institute for Social Research had opened a branch in cooperation with the International Labor Organization , in 1934 to New York , where he was able to continue the Institute for Social Research at Columbia University with the help of American colleagues. In 1941 he moved to the west coast of Pacific Palisades (Los Angeles) and became Thomas Mann's direct neighbor . His closest colleague and friend Theodor W. Adorno followed him a little later. In 1947 he published in the US Eclipse of Reason (dt output. For a critique of instrumental reason , 1967) and - in Amsterdam - together with Adorno, Dialectic of Enlightenment , two of his major works. In 1949 Horkheimer returned to the University of Frankfurt, following her call to the dual chair for philosophy and sociology. “He wanted to use opportunities to exert practical influence on historical developments, and in Germany he saw an arena for important decisions.” In 1950 the Institute for Social Research was reopened under his leadership (with Adorno as deputy director). In 1951 and 1952 he was rector of the university.
Horkheimer was the founder and editor of the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung (1932–1939), continued as Studies in Philosophy and Social Science (1940–1942), and the initiator of the Studies on Authority and Family (published in Paris in 1936). As the spiritus rector of both projects, he worked closely with a group of socially critical, Marxist and Freudian -minded scholars who were labeled as the “Horkheimer Circle” in secondary literature and later also as the Frankfurt School . Towards the end of the Second World War and in the first post-war years, Horkheimer inspired and organized important studies on anti-Semitism and prejudice research. He also wrote the foreword to the most important single volume of the five-volume Studies in Prejudice , the Authoritarian Personality (1950) , largely responsible for Theodor W. Adorno .
His pupil and later successor at the Frankfurt chair, Alfred Schmidt , together with Gunzelin Schmid Noerr published Horkheimer's collected writings in 19 volumes. The correspondence between Horkheimer and Adorno has now also been fully published.
Retreat to Ticino
As early as 1957, Horkheimer had settled in Montagnola in Switzerland with Friedrich Pollock . In a letter "to the President of the Cemetery Commission of the Israelite Cultural Community in Bern " he expressed "the wish to be buried with his wife in the Jewish cemetery where the graves of his parents who died in Swiss exile were already." Indeed, he was buried next to his wife in the Jewish cemetery in Bern .
Work and meaning
Horkheimer is considered to be the founder and, together with Adorno, the protagonist of the Frankfurt School and the main proponent of critical theory , a social theory inspired by Hegel , Marx and Freud . In the years before emigration, Friedrich Pollock , Erich Fromm , Leo Löwenthal belonged to the inner circle . Adorno had an intellectual exchange with Walter Benjamin , although he was not a direct employee of the institute. Herbert Marcuse , Franz Neumann (political scientist) , Otto Kirchheimer and Arkardij Gurland were also temporary employees of the institute during the emigration .
Criticism of civil society
In his works, Horkheimer formulates a fundamental critique of bourgeois society , which he characterizes as a social formation torn by political and economic contradictions, ideological contradictions and social injustices. With a consequence that is understandable from historical circumstances and personal experiences, Horkheimer states a connection between capitalism (the economic order of bourgeois society) and the emergence of fascism : As a reaction to the crisis of capitalism, fascism tries to maintain capitalism by despotic means. "But if you don't want to talk about capitalism, you should also keep silent about fascism," he said pointedly on the eve of the Second World War.
According to Jürgen Habermas , between 1932 and 1941, Horkheimer invested his theoretical impulses and intellectual energies in an "interdisciplinary materialism", in a "supersession of philosophy in social theory". He cites Hauke Brunkhorst in agreement , who saw Horkheimer in his most productive phase as an “anti-philosopher”. In a sociological study of the early Frankfurt School, Helmut Dubiel worked out Horkheimer's “cognitive leadership role” in the interdisciplinary research program of the Institute for Social Research. Accordingly, Horkheimer understood social research as a "major social science discipline" aimed at integrating philosophy and specialist science and encompassing all disciplines that "were personally represented in the Frankfurt district: sociology, social philosophy, psychology, economics, jurisprudence, literary studies, cultural studies, Political science". Their stated goal was a "theory of contemporary society as a whole".
Critique of Instrumental Reason
In his work On the Critique of Instrumental Reason (English 1947; German 1967), Horkheimer opposed the restriction of science to instrumental, technical knowledge suggested by Max Weber , which tells us what to do in order to achieve assumed purposes, while the choice of the goals of action itself is not a question of science. Now Max Weber's very narrow and strictly defined concept of science cannot be equated with any use of reason. In any case, Horkheimer warned against giving up reason itself so that technology does not become an end in itself and we become slaves to our instruments. He also warned against an image of man who in the industrial age threatens to become a discerning user and at the same time a prisoner of instrumental reason, an idiot where it comes to the choice of goals and purposes - an image of the "specialist idiot".
In view of the growth of bureaucracies , too, the proliferation of the instrumental must be countered. The larger and more complicated the bureaucratic apparatuses become, the greater the risk that they become an end in themselves and that instrumental questions, such as questions of jurisdiction and procedures, distract from the ultimate purpose of the regulations and cloud the view of the relative importance or unimportance of the interests to be perceived.
The critique of instrumental reason is also a critique of the domination of nature , that is to say of the instrumental relationship between (Western) culture and nature. Horkheimer criticizes that nature, including animals, is seen today as “a mere tool of man” and is “an object of total exploitation”. He establishes a connection between the suppression of nature (both internal and external) and intra-human forms of domination and oppression; Since the history of man's efforts to subjugate nature is also the history of man's subjugation and mastery of nature includes mastery of mankind, the reverse is valid: "In the process of his emancipation, man shares the fate of the rest of the world."
Criticism of human-animal relationships
Already in an aphorism from 1934, in which the "present day society" is metaphorically represented as a skyscraper, Horkheimer writes that in the basement there would be "the indescribable, inconceivable suffering of animals, the animal hell to represent in human society". In later work it becomes more concrete, he writes, for example, that just as the mastery of nature includes the mastery of people, the solidarity of people is “a part of the solidarity of life in general”, and further: “The progress in the realization of that also becomes the sense of these strengths. Animals need people. ”In 1945, Horkheimer wrote in a letter to a US politician in which he spoke out against vivisection that, due to the connection between the suppression of internal and external nature,“ the fight for animals is also a fight for them People". Criticism of the human-animal relationship, including animal studies , circus , zoo and slaughter house is also in conjunction with Theodor W. Adorno wrote Dialectic of Enlightenment .
In Horkheimer's late work, a metaphysically founded pessimism , influenced by Schopenhauer , emerged. Horkheimer understood human existence - in addition to material suffering - as painful through and through, which is based on the nature of being itself, even if, with Karl Marx , he understood material suffering to be surmountable or in principle mitigable. In contrast to Marx, however, he did not understand socialism as a future society based on historical law, but as a possible political-social constellation in historical development that could offer a way out of the social contradictions and problems of the present. In his old age, however, he no longer wanted to know anything about socialism and revolution. In an unusually detailed letter to Adorno, he confesses his "hard to overcome aversion" to the institute assistant Jürgen Habermas and warned strongly against his philosophy, in which "Revolution [...] a kind of affirmative idea, a finite absolute, an idol [forms] , which thoroughly falsifies criticism and critical theory as we mean it ”.
Compared to Theodor W. Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas , Horkheimer only exerted influence on the 68 generation of students with his essays from the period of emigration (namely “The Jews and Europe” and “Authoritarian State”). It is thanks to the Horkheimer and Adorno student Alfred Schmidt , who identifies Horkheimer as the founder of critical theory, that Horkheimer's program writings from the 1930s, written in exile, were reissued in 1970. Alfred Schmidt, together with Gunzelin Schmid Noerr, published Horkheimer's Gesammelte Schriften in 19 volumes with Fischer Verlag.
The city of Frankfurt am Main honored Max Horkheimer with the Goethe plaque in 1953 and made him an honorary citizen in 1960 . In 2014 a street was named after him on the Westend campus of the JW Goethe University . The Max Horkheimer Cabinet on the Leben level on the 3rd floor of the Stuttgart City Library on Mailänder Platz was also named after him.
- Collected Writings. Volumes 1-19. Edited by Alfred Schmidt and Gunzelin Schmid Noerr. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1985–1996.
- About Kant's Critique of Judgment as the Link Between Theoretical and Practical Philosophy. Habilitation. Frankfurt am Main 1925.
- Beginnings of the bourgeois philosophy of history. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1930.
- The current situation of social philosophy and the tasks of an institute for social research. Public inaugural lecture when he took over the chair for social philosophy and headed the Institute for Social Research on January 24, 1931 / given by Max Horkheimer. Englert & Schlosser, Frankfurt am Main 1931.
- Dusk. Notes in Germany. (under the pseud .: Heinrich Regius). Oprecht and Helbling, Zurich 1934.
- with Erich Fromm, Herbert Marcuse: Studies on Authority and Family: Research Reports from the Institute for Social Research. Paris 1936. (Reprint: zu Klampen, Lüneburg 2005, ISBN 3-934920-49-7 )
- with Theodor W. Adorno: Philosophical Fragments. (hectographed typescript). Institute of Social Research, New York / Los Angeles 1944.
- with Theodor W. Adorno: Dialectic of Enlightenment . Philosophical Fragments. Querido Verlag, Amsterdam 1947. (Reprint: Fischer 1988, ISBN 3-596-27404-4 )
- Eclipse of Reason , 1947. German edition under the title: To the critique of instrumental reason. Translated by Alfred Schmidt. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1967.
- On the concept of reason. Ceremonial speech at the handover of the rectorate of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University on November 20, 1951 . Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1952.
- Survey of the social sciences in Western Germany: a report on recent developments. Libr. Of Congress, Reference Dep., European Affairs Div., Washington 1952.
- Academic studies; Concept of education; Issues related to higher education. In: Current Problems of the University. Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1953.
- About the German Jews. Lecture. DuMont, Cologne 1961.
- About freedom . European Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main 1962.
- About the prejudice. West German Verl., Cologne a. a. 1963.
- Authoritarian state. The Jews and Europe. u. a. Articles 1939–1941. de Munter, Amsterdam 1967.
- The longing for the completely different - an interview with commentary by Helmut Gumnior (books of hours) . Furche, Hamburg 1970, ISBN 3-7730-0023-5 .
- Traditional and Critical Theory: Five Essays. 7th edition. Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-596-11328-6 .
- Reason and self-preservation . Fischer, Frankfurt a. M. 1970.
- Social-philosophical studies: essays, speeches and lectures 1930–1972; with an appendix about university and studies. Athenäum Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972.
- Werner Brede (Ed.): Society in transition: essays, speeches and lectures 1942-1970. Athenäum-Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1972, ISBN 3-596-26545-2 .
- From puberty: short stories and diary sheets. Kösel, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-466-10016-X .
- The social function of philosophy. Selected essays . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1988, ISBN 3-518-01391-2 .
- Th. W. Adorno / M. Horkheimer: Correspondence 1927–1969, 5 volumes, ed. by Ch. Gödde and H. Lonitz, Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2003 ff.
- Helmut Gumnior, Rudolf Ringguth: Max Horkheimer. rowohlt's monographs, Reinbek near Hamburg 1973, ISBN 3-499-50208-9 .
- Zvi Rosen : Max Horkheimer. Beck'sche Reihe, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-34640-5 .
- Rolf Wiggershaus : Max Horkheimer for an introduction. Junius, Hamburg 1998, ISBN 3-88506-977-6 .
- Rolf Wiggershaus: Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneur in matters of "critical theory". Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-596-19574-9 .
- Monika Boll and Rafael Gross (eds.): The Frankfurt School and Frankfurt. A return to Germany. Accompanying publication to the exhibition in the Jewish Museum Frankfurt from September 17, 2009 to January 10, 2010. Wallstein, Göttingen 2009. ISBN 978-3-8353-0566-3 .
- Gerhard Bolte: From Marx to Horkheimer. Aspects of critical theory in the 19th and 20th centuries. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt, 1995, ISBN 3-534-12798-6 .
- Helmut Dubiel (Hrsg.): Economy, Law and State in National Socialism. Analyzes by the Institute for Social Research 1939–1942. European Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-434-00469-6 .
- Jürgen Habermas : Comments on the history of the development of Horkheimer's work. In: Alfred Schmidt, Norbert Altwicker (eds.): Max Horkheimer today: work and effect. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1986, pp. 163–179.
- Gerd van de Moetter (Ed.): Horkheimer and Italy. Documents, texts, interviews. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1990, ISBN 3-631-42643-7 .
- Philipp Lenhard: Friedrich Pollock. The gray eminence of the Frankfurt School. Suhrkamp, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-633-54299-4 .
- Alfred Schmidt : Three Studies on Materialism. Schopenhauer, Horkheimer, luck problem. Hanser, Munich 1977. ISBN 3-446-12460-8 .
- Alfred Schmidt, Norbert Altwicker (Hrsg.): Max Horkheimer today: work and effect. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1986, ISBN 3-596-26559-2 .
- Alfred Schmidt: The original conception of critical theory in the early and middle work of Max Horkheimer . In: Axel Honneth , Albrecht Wellmer (ed.): The Frankfurt School and the Consequences . Lectures at a symposium of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation from 10. – 15. December 1984 in Ludwigsburg. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1986, pp. 89-112.
- Hugo Staudinger : Humanity and Religion: Correspondence and Conversation. In: Hugo Staudinger: Max Horkheimer. Naumann, Würzburg 1974.
- Literature by and about Max Horkheimer in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Max Horkheimer in the German Digital Library
- Literature on Max Horkheimer in the Hessian Bibliography
- JC Berendzen: Max Horkheimer. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- Max Horkheimer Archive on marxists.org
- Horkheimer estate archive at the University of Frankfurt
- What we call "meaning" will disappear. Spiegel talk with the philosopher Max Horkheimer. In: Der Spiegel . 5th January 1970.
- Horkheimer, Max. Hessian biography. (As of February 5, 2020). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Horkheimer, Max in the Frankfurt personal dictionary
- Porsche and Zuffenhausen: Two worlds that do not come together. ( Memento from February 1, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) on: stuttgarter-zeitung.de , January 26, 2009.
- Eberhard Kögel: Have you done well? Memories of the Jewish cattle trade in Esslingen. Esslingen 2006, ISBN 3-933231-37-X , p. 8.
- Stuart Jeffries: Grand Hotel Abyss. The Frankfurt School and its time. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2019, p. 53.
- Max Horkheimer. on: stuttgart.de
- Rolf Wiggershaus: Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneur in terms of "critical theory". Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 2013, p. 11.
- Rolf Wiggershaus: Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneur in terms of "critical theory". Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 2013, p. 12.
- Zvi Rosen : Max Horkheimer. Beck'sche Reihe, Munich 1995, p. 15.
- Philipp Lenhard. Friedrich Pollock. The gray eminence of the Frankfurt School . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2019, p. 33.
- Philipp Lenhard. Friedrich Pollock. The gray eminence of the Frankfurt School . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2019, p. 51.
- Philipp Lenhard. Friedrich Pollock. The gray eminence of the Frankfurt School . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2019, p. 56 ff.
- Stuart Jeffries: Grand Hotel Abyss. The Frankfurt School and its time. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2019, p. 59.
- Expect the bad and yet try the good . A conversation with Professor Dr. Max Horkheimer. In: Gerhard Rein (ed.): Tuesday talks with contemporaries . Kreuz, Stuttgart 1976, pp. 149-188, here p. 155.
- Expect the bad and yet try the good . A conversation with Professor Dr. Max Horkheimer. In: Gerhard Rein (ed.): Tuesday talks with contemporaries . Kreuz, Stuttgart 1976, pp. 149–188, here p. 156.
- Philipp Lenhard: Friedrich Pollock. The gray eminence of the Frankfurt School . Suhrkamp Verlag, Berlin 2019, p. 65.
- Stuart Jeffries: Grand Hotel Abyss. The Frankfurt School and its time. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2019, p. 59.
- Rolf Wiggershaus : Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneurs in matters of "Critical Theory" , Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 2013, p. 168
- On Horkheimer's return to Frankfurt and his work there cf. the essays of the anthology: Monika Boll and Rafael Gross (eds.): Die Frankfurter Schule and Frankfurt. A return to Germany. Accompanying publication to the exhibition in the Jewish Museum Frankfurt from September 17, 2009 to January 10, 2010. Wallstein, Göttingen 2009. ISBN 978-3-8353-0566-3 .
- Cf. Wiggershaus: Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneurs in Matters “Critical Theory” , 2013, pp. 161–182.
- Jürgen Habermas was the immediate successor to Horkheimer's chair from 1964 to 1971.
- Th. W. Adorno, M. Horkheimer: Correspondence 1927–1969. 5 volumes, ed. by Ch.Gödde and H. Lonitz, Frankfurt 2003.
- Wiggershaus: Max Horkheimer: Entrepreneurs in Matters "Critical Theory" , 2013, p. 199
- Dan Diner: At the grave of Max Horkheimer , in: René Bloch , Jacques Picard (ed.): How about clouds. Jewish worlds of life and thought in the city and region of Bern, 1200–2000 , articles on the history and culture of Jews in Switzerland. Series of publications of the Swiss Association of Israelites, Volume 16, Chronos, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-0340-1219-5 , pp. 413-418
- Markus Dütschler: Bern's Jews: Tolerated - persecuted - recognized. In: derbund.ch . Tamedia , May 13, 2014, p. 1 , accessed on July 10, 2017 : "... but is not buried in Frankfurt, but in the Jewish cemetery in Bern"
- See Max Horkheimer: Traditional and Critical Theory. In: Collected Writings. Volume 4, Frankfurt am Main 1988, p. 208.
- Max Horkheimer: The Jews and Europe. In: Collected Works. Volume 4, Frankfurt am Main 1988, p. 308 f. First publication, In: Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung. Volume VIII / 1939.
- Jürgen Habermas: Comments on the history of the development of Horkheimer's work . In: Alfred Schmidt, Norbert Altwicker (Hrsg.): Max Horkheimer today. Work and effect . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1986, p. 163 f.
- Helmut Dubiel: Scientific organization and political experience. Studies on Early Critical Theory . Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1978, p. 150.
- Foreword to the first issue of the Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung . 1, vol., DH. 1/2, 1932, SI
- Max Weber : Collected essays on the science of science. 3rd ed. 1968, pp. 593, 598 f.
- Horkheimer 1967, p. 17 ff.
- Horkheimer 1967, p. 97
- Reinhold Zippelius : Basic concepts of legal and state sociology. 3rd edition, 2012, §§ 1 III; 2 I.
- bureaucracy ; Reinhold Zippelius: Basic concepts of legal and state sociology. 3rd edition, 2012, § 16 V
- Max Horkheimer: On the Critique of Instrumental Reason. In: Collected Writings. Volume 6: On the Critique of Instrumental Reason and Notes 1949–1969 , Frankfurt a. M. 1991, pp. 19-186, p. 119.
- Max Horkheimer: On the Critique of Instrumental Reason. In: Collected Writings. Volume 6: On the Critique of Instrumental Reason and Notes 1949–1969 , Frankfurt a. M. 1991, p. 106.
- Max Horkheimer: Notes 1950 to 1969 and Twilight. Notes in Germany, Frankfurt a. M. 1974, pp. 287f; online: The skyscraper
- Max Horkheimer: Materialism and Moral (1933), in: Collected writings Volume 3: Writings 1931-1936, Frankfurt a. M. 1988, pp. 111-149, p. 136.
- Max Horkheimer: Correspondence 1941-1948 (Collected Writings, Volume 17). Frankfurt a. M. 1996, p. 629.
- Letter from Max Horkheimer to Theodor W. Adorno dated September 27, 1958. In: Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer: Briefwechsel , Volume IV: 1950–1969. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2006, pp. 516 and 519.
- Alfred Schmidt: The original conception of the critical theory in the early and middle work of Max Horkheimer . In: Axel Honneth, Albrecht Wellmer (ed.): The Frankfurt School and the Consequences . Lectures at a symposium of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation from 10. – 15. December 1984 in Ludwigsburg. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1986, pp. 89–112, here p. 89 f.
- Traditional and Critical Theory: Five Essays. Frankfurt am Main 1970, 7th edition 1992, ISBN 978-3596113286
- University of Frankfurt ( Memento of the original from February 19, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Stuttgart City Library
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Heinrich Regius (pseudonym)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German philosopher and sociologist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||February 14, 1895|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Stuttgart|
|DATE OF DEATH||7th July 1973|
|Place of death||Nuremberg|