Karl Marx

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Karl Marx (1875), photograph by John Mayall jun.

Karl Marx (also Carl; born May 5, 1818 in Trier ; †  March 14, 1883 in London ) was a German philosopher , economist , social theorist , political journalist , protagonist of the labor movement and a critic of capitalism and religion .

He began his political life in 1842 as editor of the newly founded radical democratic Rheinische Zeitung , which had to cease publication the following year under the censorship regulations of the Prussian state. He then moved to Paris, where he was expelled in 1845. He was expelled from his new domicile in Belgium in 1848. After his return to Germany he founded the Neue Rheinische Zeitung and participated in the revolutionary-democratic currents in the Rhineland. After he was acquitted in a trial in 1849 for “inciting rebellion”, he was subsequently expelled as a stateless person . He spent his last exile with his family in London until his death.

Together with Friedrich Engels , he became one of the most influential theorists of socialism and communism , the main features of which the two laid down in the programmatic publication Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848). The main work of Marx is Das Kapital , the first volume of which appeared in 1867 while he was still alive; the following two volumes were edited posthumously by Engels. His political activities in the emerging international workers 'movement ( International Workers' Association ), in which he temporarily assumed an intellectual leadership role, were also influential .

The theoretical foundations of Marxism , named after Marx, influence the discourses of historical science and sociology as well as economics and political science to the present day.


Youth and Political Beginnings (1818–1843)

Family tree on paternal side
Chalk drawing by Hellmut Bach 1953 (Deutsches Historisches Museum, object 500772) based on a drawing by David Levy Elkan : allegedly Marx as a student
Karl Marx House in Trier - Birthplace and Museum, Brückenstraße 10 (2014)
House of the Marx family in Trier, Simeonstraße 8 (2011)

Karl, according to the birth certificate Carl Marx was the third of nine children of the lawyer Heinrich (Heschel) Marx (1777-1838) and his wife Henriette , née Presburg. Heinrich Marx came from important rabbi families on both his father's and mother's side . Under Napoleonic rule, he was a court interpreter and sworn translator in Osnabrück from 1811 to 1813, which at that time belonged to the Hanséatique Oberems department . In 1812 he joined the French Masonic Lodge "L'Etoile Hanséatique" (The Hanseatic Star). After the Congress of Vienna , his hometown Trier fell to the newly founded Prussian province of the Grand Duchy of Lower Rhine . As a Jew in Prussia , unlike in Napoleonic France, he could not have continued to work as Avoué (German: advocate, lawyer), he converted to Protestantism between 1816 and 1822 . On August 26, 1824, the children Sophia, Hermann, Henriette, Louise, Emilie, Caroline and Karl were baptized in their parents' apartment. Heinrich Marx's wife Henriette was only baptized on November 20, 1825, because she feared that her family would disapprove of this step, especially on the part of her father, who was also a rabbi. On his mother's side, Karl Marx was the third cousin of the German poet Heinrich Heine , who also came from a Jewish family and with whom he was in close contact during his time in Paris. A first cousin was Frederik Philips (1830–1900), who founded the Dutch electronics company Philips in 1891 with his son Gerard .

From 1830 to 1835 Karl Marx attended the Gymnasium in Trier , where he and his friend and later brother-in-law Edgar von Westphalen passed the Abitur with an average grade of 2.4 at the age of 17. Marx felt a particular affection for his director Johann Hugo Wyttenbach . Vitus Loers and Johann Abraham Küpper were among his teachers . Another of his teachers was Johannes Steininger , a scientist and geologist of international repute. Steininger was a supporter of Alexander von Humboldt . In 1836 Marx got engaged to Edgar's sister Jenny von Westphalen (1814–1881) in Trier .

In 1835 he went to Bonn to study law and camera studies . In the end, it cannot be proven whether he joined the “ Landsmannschaft der Treveraner ” ( Trier ). It is known, however, that he was convicted of "nocturnal noise and drunkenness" and that he was investigated for "carrying a saber". In Bonn he attended legal lectures with Ferdinand Walter , Eduard Puggé and lectures with Friedrich Gottlieb Welcker and August Wilhelm Schlegel . According to information from Moriz Carrière , Marx joined a poetic circle to which Carrière, Emanuel Geibel , Karl Grün , Karl Ludwig Bernays , Theodor Creizenach and Heinrich Bernhard Oppenheim are said to have belonged.

A year later he moved to the Friedrich Wilhelms University (today: Humboldt University) in Berlin and attended legal lectures by Eduard Gans (criminal law and Prussian land law), Friedrich Carl von Savigny ( pandects ), August Wilhelm Heffter ( church law , more common German civil process ), Adolf August Friedrich Rudorff ( inheritance law ), but let the law studies take a back seat to further interests, especially in topics of philosophy and history (attendance of the lectures of Henrich Steffens ( anthropology ), Georg Andreas Gabler ( logic ), Carl Ritter (general geography), Bruno Bauer ( Isaiah ) and Carl Eduard Geppert ( Euripides )). Here Marx joined the group of Young or Left Hegelians (“Doctor Club”), whose most important representatives were the brothers Bruno and Edgar Bauer . He made friends with Karl Friedrich Köppen and with Adolf Friedrich Rutenberg .

Georg WF Hegel , who died in 1831, had a strong influence on intellectual life in Germany at the time. The Hegelian establishment (known as "Old or Right Hegelians") saw the Prussian state as a progressive modern state in the sense of the conclusion of a series of dialectical developments: a functioning legal system, an efficient bureaucracy , good universities, industrialization and a high level of employment . The left Hegelians, to which Marx belonged, expected further fundamental changes in the course of historical processes, not least a further development of Prussian society, which deals with problems such as massive poverty , state censorship , a lack of political participation of the broad majority of the population and discrimination against people who do not confessed to the Christian faith.

After the death of his father Heinrich Marx on May 10, 1838, Marx was given Johann Heinrich Schlink as legal guardian , because he did not come of age until he was 25 .

He received the leaving certificate for his studies at the Berlin University on April 30, 1841. As an external he submitted his dissertation on April 6 of the same year at the University of Jena. On April 15, 1841, Marx received his doctorate in absentia at the University of Jena with a dissertation on the difference between the democratic and epicurean natural philosophy. Counting on a professorship, Marx then moved to Bonn; but the politics of the Prussian government denied him - like Ludwig Feuerbach , Bruno Bauer and others - an academic career, since Marx was regarded as a leading head of the opposition left Hegelians. Under his name he published two poems under the title Wilde Lieder in January 1841 in the Young Hegelian journal Athenaeum .

Karl Marx as Der gefesselte Prometheus , political caricature against the ban of the Rheinische Zeitung, 1843

Around this time, liberal citizens in Cologne founded the Rheinische Zeitung for politics, trade and industry as a joint organ of various oppositional currents from monarchist liberals to radical democrats . Marx became a major contributor to the paper, which first appeared on January 1, 1842. On October 15, 1842, Marx took over the editing of the newspaper, which from then on took an even more radical oppositional standpoint. At this time, Marx, Arnold Ruge and Georg Herwegh got into a political dissent with the group around their Berlin correspondent Bruno Bauer, whom Marx accused of using the paper “primarily [as] a vehicle for theological propaganda and atheism etc. instead of for political discussion and Action "to use. When Friedrich Engels , who was considered a friend and partisan of the Berlin Left Hegelians, visited the Cologne editorial office on November 16, 1842 and met Marx for the first time, the encounter was therefore relatively cool.

Due to the Karlsbad resolutions, the entire press system was subject to censorship , which was particularly strict with regard to the Rheinische Zeitung . The Prussian authorities first sent a special censor from Berlin. When this did not lead to the desired adjustment, every issue had to be submitted to the Cologne District President in a second instance . Because Marx's editorial staff regularly undermined this double censorship, the publication of the newspaper was finally prohibited on April 1, 1843. On March 17th, Marx resigned as a collaborator and editor because the owners hoped to avoid a ban by changing the line of the paper at the censorship authority.

Transition to Communism (1843–1849)

Karl Marx's wife Jenny (late 1864), photographer George P. Wright

In 1843 Marx married Jenny von Westphalen in Kreuznach , the daughter of an ennobled family of officials. The marriage resulted in seven children, of which only the three daughters Jenny , Laura and Eleanor survived childhood.

On October 11 or 12, 1843, Marx and his wife arrived in Paris . From mid-October to January 1844 her address was 31 rue Vanneau, and when he was expelled in February 1845, 39 rue Vanneau. Marx began there, together with Arnold Ruge , to publish the magazine Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher . In 1843 he met German Mäurer in Paris. Because of his work, he began contact by letter with Friedrich Engels , who had contributed two articles. However, only a double issue of the magazine appeared in German because Louis Blanc and Proudhon did not provide any articles. The sequel failed for various reasons: Julius Froebel no longer wanted to finance the magazine, a large part of the circulation was confiscated at the border, and fundamental differences soon emerged between the two editors. Ruge remained committed to Hegelian philosophy and bourgeois democracy ; Marx began to deal with political economy and to develop an independent point of view through criticism of the French socialists .

In December 1843 in Paris, Marx met the German poet Heinrich Heine , a distant relative. A phase of intensive friendly relations ended when Marx was forced to leave Paris on February 1, 1845 by the Prussian government. When they met again during Marx's Paris trips in March 1848 and in the summer of 1849, the old familiarity was not restored. Nonetheless, Marx frequently peppered his articles for the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (June 1848 to May 1849) with quotations from Heine, and in a footnote in his main work Das Kapital he later praised the “courage of my friend H. Heine”.

The economic-philosophical manuscripts from 1844 are Marx's first draft of an economic system, which at the same time makes the philosophical direction clear. It was there that Marx developed his theory of " alienated work " based on Hegel in detail for the first time .

However, Marx did not finish these so-called “Paris Manuscripts”, but wrote the work The Holy Family together with Friedrich Engels shortly afterwards, at the height of the contemporary discussion about Young Hegelianism . Working together on the Franco-German yearbooks , Engels - who also visited him for a few days in September 1844 - had developed a lively correspondence that ultimately led to a lifelong friendship and close political and journalistic collaboration. Their first result was the book The Holy Family , published in March 1845 , which saw itself as a pamphlet "against B. [runo] Bauer and Co.", to which Engels only contributed ten pages. Marx polemicizes here against the Berlin Young Hegelians around his former friend Bruno Bauer ; However, he does not initially mention one important member of this group: Max Stirner , whose book The Single and His Property was published in October 1844 and was initially rated largely positively by Engels in a letter to Marx (November 19) based on the proofs available to him . Marx read Stirner's book only later.

Marx saw Stirner's book more critically than Engels and convinced him of his view in an answer to the letter mentioned. Nonetheless, he seemed to partially adopt Stirner's criticism of Feuerbach and in the spring of 1845 wrote his famous, but only posthumously published, theses on Feuerbach . It was not until autumn 1845, after Marx had seen Feuerbach's defense against Stirner's criticism of him and Stirner's reply, that he decided to write a criticism of Stirner himself: the chapter Saint Max in the planned journal article jointly written in 1845–1846, known as the title Die deutsche Ideologie , which was published only after Marx's death.

In the first five fragments of the German ideology , dedicated to the criticism of the Young Hegelian religious critic Ludwig Feuerbach , Marx and Engels develop a model of the “practical development process” of human history, which, in contrast to the Hegelians, they do not primarily as a development of the spirit , but as a human history Understanding practice and social relationships: "The starting point is really active people and the development of the ideological reflexes and echoes of this life process are shown from their real life process" ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 3, p. 26). Particular attention is paid to the division of labor as a determining factor in historical development. They accuse Feuerbach, who also argues materialistically, of having understood human beings as something essential, but not as the subject of sensual and practical activity . The foundation of historical materialism that Marx and Engels proposed to distinguish it from contemporary socialist and Young Hegelian currents represents a direct forerunner of sociology by emphasizing the social and material driving forces of history .

The other chapters of the German Ideology contain a sharp criticism of the other Young Hegelians as representatives of what Marx and Engels said were essentially idealistic social criticism . One chapter is devoted to the representatives of so-called “true socialism” (especially Karl Grün ). During Marx's lifetime, however - after several unsuccessful attempts at publication - only the chapter on Karl Grün was printed (1847 in the magazine Das Westphälische Dampfboot ). The complete work did not appear until 1932; First, Siegfried Landshut and Jakob Mayer published the German Ideology in February 1932 under the title Karl Marx. Historical materialism . Volume 2, Leipzig 1932 and five months later, as part of the Marx-Engels Complete Edition (MEGA 1 ), Section I. Volume 5, Frankfurt am Main 1932, also a first edition.

Marx also took care of the editorial team of the German weekly Vorwärts! involved, which attacked the absolutism of the German states - especially Prussia  - under Marx's influence soon with a clearly socialist orientation. The Prussian government therefore pushed through his expulsion from France, so that Marx had to move to Brussels at the beginning of 1845, where Engels followed him. During a joint study trip to England in the summer of 1845, they made connections with the revolutionary wing of the Chartists . Marx gave up his Prussian citizenship in early December 1845 and became stateless after learning that the Prussian government wanted the Belgian state to expel him. Later requests to restore his citizenship (1848 and 1861) were unsuccessful.

In Brussels, in 1847, Marx published Misère de la philosophie. Réponse à la philosophie de la misère de M. Proudhon , a critique of the economic theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and beyond that of capitalist society itself. He also occasionally wrote articles for the Deutsche-Brusser-Zeitung .

Title page of the original edition of the Communist Party Manifesto. , in the subtitle "Workers of all countries unite!" (1848)

At the beginning of 1846, Marx and Engels founded the Communist Correspondence Committee in Brussels , the aim of which was the substantive agreement and the organizational unification of the revolutionary communists and workers in Germany and other countries; so they wanted to prepare the ground for the formation of a proletarian party. Finally, Marx and Engels came into contact with Wilhelm Weitling's Socialist League of the Just , of which they became members in 1847. In the same year Marx pushed through the reorganization of the League of Communists and was commissioned to write its manifesto . It was published in the revolutionary year of 1848 on 23 pages and went down in history as the Communist Manifesto (actually: Manifesto of the Communist Party ). On September 15, 1850, Marx applied for the central authority to be transferred to Cologne and for two federal circles to be formed in London. The resolution was passed against Karl Schapper's only vote against. On September 17, 1850, Marx, Engels, Liebknecht and others left the London Workers' Education Association.

Shortly afterwards, the French February Revolution of 1848 caused political upheavals across Europe; when they reached Brussels, Marx was arrested and expelled from Belgium. Since the newly installed Provisional Government of the French Republic had invited him back to Paris, he returned there; After the outbreak of the German March Revolution , Marx went to Cologne. There he was one of the leaders of the revolutionary movement in the Prussian Rhine Province and published the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. Organ of Democracy , in which, among other things, the unfinished text Lohnarbeit und Kapital was printed for the first time . The newspaper could appear for the last time on May 19, 1849, before the Prussian reaction stopped its publication.

London exile (1849–1864)

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (standing); in front of Marx's daughters Laura, Eleanor and Jenny (before June 1864)

Marx initially returned to Paris, but a month later he was given the choice of either interning in Brittany or leaving France. Marx then went into exile with his family in London, where he initially lived in meager circumstances as a journalist; he received financial support mainly from Engels, who followed Marx to England. Politically he devoted himself to international agitation for communism, theoretically he developed essential elements of an analysis and criticism of capitalism with a scientific claim.

In London, Marx's work class struggles in France 1848 to 1850 was first published (as a series of articles in the Neue Rheinische Zeitung in 1850. Political-economic review ); following on from this, the eighteenth Brumaire by Louis Bonaparte (1852) for the seizure of power by Napoleon III.

From September 1850 to 1853, Wilhelm Pieper assisted Marx as his private secretary with translations and articles for the Chartist press in England. Pieper was employed by the Rothschild family as a tutor for their son Alfred until 1853, when he lost his position because of his public appearance against the Cologne Communist Trial. On a trip to the continent, Pieper made contact with supporters of the federal government and, on behalf of Engels, looked for publications on military history in Frankfurt.

From 1852 onwards, Marx was the London correspondent of the New York Daily Tribune and its correspondent for Europe for over a decade. According to Jenny Marx, the regular income associated with this improved the family's material situation considerably. Marx delivered two articles a week. Senior Editor Charles Dana was impressed with the contributions and doubled the fee to £ 2 per article. In a letter of good repute, he certified Marx “not only one of the most highly valued, but also one of the best-paid employees of our paper”. In the 1850s, the Tribune printed around 200,000 copies a day, making it the world's largest newspaper. It is estimated that the Tribune published 487 articles under the name of Marx, 125 of which were by Engels. They were no ordinary reports, but comprehensive analyzes of the political and economic situation of individual European countries, often as a whole series of articles. In some years up to a third of his submitted articles were published as editorials. In 1853 Marx published "The Story of the Life of Lord Palmerston " in the Tribune and in England in the chartist organ The People's Paper edited by Ernest Charles Jones in several series of articles. In 1855/56 there was a reprint in the London Free Press of David Urquhart , a former British diplomat in Constantinople, who stood up for the Ottoman Empire and against the politics of Russia in England and who for years had led a tireless campaign against Lord Palmerstone's foreign policy because secretly pursuing Russian interests.

Participation in the Tribune ended when Charles Dana resigned from Marx and all foreign correspondents because of domestic American affairs in March 1862. The loss of tribune fees put the family in a desperate situation that lasted for several months. In 1859 Marx wrote numerous articles for the workers' newspaper Das Volk . Marx became a correspondent for the Vienna press and threw himself into the study of political economy. In 1861 he tried by judicial means and supported by Ferdinand Lassalle to regain his Prussian citizenship, but the Prussian government refused. During the January uprising in 1863, Marx made contact with Polish insurgents and induced the German Workers' Education Association in London to help support the Poles.

Work on Capital and the International

Karl Marx in Hanover (1867), photo by Friedrich Karl Wunder

As a result, Marx's major economic works emerged. The first systematic presentation of Marx's basic economic ideas was published in 1859, On Critique of Political Economy , which was originally intended as the first issue to be continued. But Marx was not yet satisfied with the detailed execution of the overall plan, and so he began his work again. It was not until 1867 that the first volume of his major work, Das Kapital, appeared . The following two volumes were published posthumously by Friedrich Engels in 1885 and 1894.

In the same year Marx stayed in Hanover from April to May as a guest of the doctor Louis Kugelmann ; here two portrait photographs were taken by Friedrich Karl Wunder .

While he was working out the capital , there was again the opportunity for practical activity in the labor movement : in 1864 he played a leading role in the founding of the International Workers' Association ("First International" for short), in whose general council he assumed an "intellectual leadership role". He headed it until the factual dissolution in 1872 (by relocating the headquarters to the USA, formal dissolution resolution in 1876). Marx drafted the statutes and the basic program, the “Inaugural Address of the International Workers' Association”, which brought together such disparate sections as German communists, English trade unionists , Swiss anarchists and French Proudhonists . From two lectures given at meetings of the General Council in 1865 , the work Lohn, Preis und Profit , published by his daughter Eleanor in 1898, emerged .

In the German states, Marx first promoted the creation of a revolutionary socialist party; this was done in contrast to the social reform-oriented General German Workers' Association of the former Marx “student” Ferdinand Lassalle , with whom he had fallen out over political goals. Wilhelm Liebknecht , with whom Marx already had regular contact in his exile in London in the 1850s, remained in contact with Marx and Engels since he moved to Berlin in 1862. Both supported him with articles in the newspapers Democratic Weekly and Der Volksstaat . In 1869 Liebknecht was a co-founder of the Social Democratic Workers 'Party , which in 1875 united with the Lassalleans to form the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany , later the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).

On June 30, 1869, Marx was elected a member of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures & Commerce .

London (1872-1883)

Karl Marx, photo by E. Dutertre, Algiers (1882)
Marx's housekeeper Helena ("Lenchen") Demuth (1870s)
The simple, original grave of the Marx family (1881 to 1954). After a photograph by Karl Pinkau (1896).
The original grave slab is set in the middle of the front of the grave monument.

In May 1872 Marx proposed to the General Council of the International that they prepare the Hague Congress. The general statutes and administrative ordinances should be revised. He wrote to Friedrich Adolph Sorge: “This congress is about life and death for the international”. From September 2 to 7, 1872, the congress took place in the “Café Schryver” in the “Lombardstraat 109” in The Hague . 65 delegates from 15 countries attended the congress. A majority decided to move the seat of the General Council to New York. It was decided to change article 6 of the statutes. The General Council was given the right to exclude sections and local federations. It was also decided: “The constitution of the proletariat as a political party is essential”. In addition, a special commission was decided to clarify the secret alliance of Bakunin. On September 8, most of the delegates went to Amsterdam for a rally. Here Marx declared that it cannot be denied "that there are countries like America, England, and if I knew your institutions better, I would perhaps add Holland, where the workers can reach their goal by peaceful means."

Marx worked from 1872 to 1875 on the French edition of “Le Capital”. In the afterword he wrote: "Whatever the literary shortcomings of this French edition, it has a scientific value independent of the original and should even be consulted by readers who are able to speak German." He continued his work on the second volume between 1876 and continued in 1881. and he continued his elaborations, which had been interrupted in 1866, for Volume 3 of Capital from 1871 to 1882.

Marx's growing sickness prevented Marx from completing his steadily driven economic work. From 1862 to 1874 he suffered from a skin disease that severely disabled him. In order to travel safely on the continent, Marx applied for British citizenship on August 1, 1874, but was rejected on August 17 on the grounds that he was a “notorious agitator, the head of the International Society, and employed advocate of communistic principles. This man has not been loyal to his own King and Country ”. In 1874, 1875 and 1876 Marx went to health resorts in Karlsbad and in 1877 in Neuenahr .

After the dissolution of the First International in 1876, Marx remained in constant contact with almost all important figures in the European and American labor movement, who often conferred with him personally.

From March to November 1877 Karl Marx dealt with the work of Eugen Dühring , in particular with his critical history of economics. He did this for Friedrich Engels, who used Marx's elaborations in Herr Eugen Dühring's Upholstery of Science .

Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff sought contact with Karl Marx in early 1879 on behalf of Victoria , the Queen's eldest daughter . He reported about this to his client on February 1, 1879.

On December 2, 1881, his wife Jenny Marx died. From February 28 to May 4, 1882, Marx stayed in Algiers to cure his illnesses. On the return journey he stopped in Nice (May 5th and 6th, 1882) and in Monte Carlo until June 2nd, after which he stayed in Cannes to relax.

During a cure on the Isle of Wight , he learned of the death of his "daughter most loved by the Mohr" Jenny Longuet, who had died on January 11, 1883. His doctor here was James Mann Williamson .

Marx died in London on March 14, 1883 at the age of 64. Dr. WD Seyman (MRCS), who identified laryngitis as the cause of death . Eleanor Marx reported her father's death on March 16. Marx was buried in Highgate Cemetery on March 17, 1883 . Friedrich Engels gave a funeral speech. In his eulogy, Engels divided the scientific achievements of Karl Marx into two main discoveries:

“As Darwin discovered the law of the development of organic nature, so Marx discovered the law of development of human history : [...]; That is, that the production of immediate material means of subsistence, and with it the economic stage of development of a people or a period of time, forms the basis from which the state institutions, legal views, art and even the religious ideas of the people concerned have developed, and from which they therefore have developed must also be explained - not the other way around, as has been the case up to now.

On top of that. Marx also discovered the special law of motion of today's capitalist mode of production and the bourgeois society it creates. With the discovery of added value, light was suddenly created here [...]. "

- Friedrich Engels, The Burial of Karl Marx , MEW, Volume 19, pp. 335–339.

Eleanor Marx , Carl Schorlemmer , Ray Lankester , Horatio Bryan Donkin , Wilhelm Liebknecht , Charles Longuet , Paul Lafargue , Friedrich Leßner , Georg Lochner , Edward Aveling , Helena Demuth and Gottfried Lembke stood at the grave of Karl Marx . Marx himself had wanted “participation in the funeral to be limited to family and most intimate friends”, which his daughters Laura and Eleanor and Friedrich Engels followed.

On November 23, 1954, the remains of Karl Marx, Jenny von Westphalen, Harry Longuet and Helena Demuth were exhumed and reburied around a hundred yards from the old grave - next to the site of a memorial that was still to be erected. The British sculptor Laurence Bradshaw was commissioned to create this funerary monument after the Communist Party of Great Britain founded the Marx Memorial Fund.

The grave monument was unveiled on March 14, 1956 by Harry Pollitt , then General Secretary of the British Communist Party. The monument consists of a larger than life, bronze portrait bust of Karl Marx on a cuboid base. The front of the plinth bears the inscription "WORKERS OF ALL LANDS UNITE" from the Communist Manifesto at the top and that of the 11th thesis on Feuerbach at the bottom: "THE PHILOSOPHERS HAVE ONLY INTERPRETED THE WORLD IN VARIOUS WAYS - THE POINT HOWEVER IS TO CHANGE IT ”(“ The philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways; it depends on changing it ”). The original grave slab of the original grave of the Marx family is embedded in the center of the base front.


Karl Marx had seven children with his wife Jenny:

Marx with his daughter Jenny (1869). Photography by German Fehrenbach
  • Jenny Caroline (1844-1883)
  • Jenny Laura (1845-1911)
  • Charles Louis Henri Edgar , called "Cornel Musch" (February 3, 1847 - April 6, 1855)
  • Heinrich Edward Guy, called Guido or "Föxchen" (November 5, 1849 to November 19, 1850)
  • Jenny Eveline Francis, called Franziska (March 28, 1851 to April 14, 1852)
  • Jenny Julia Eleanor , called "Tussy" (1855–1898)
  • NN (1857-1857)

On June 23, 1851, Henry Frederick Demuth was born as the illegitimate son of Helena Demuth in the apartment "28 Dean Street Soho". While a number of historians consider him an illegitimate son of Karl Marx, Terrell Carver lists a number of arguments that cast this into doubt. In October 1851 Jenny Marx tried to find a wet nurse for Henry Frederick Demuth from the Devalek family in Brussels, who had also looked after their son Edgar in 1847.

Four of Marx's children died in childhood; Jenny Caroline died in 1883 at the age of 38, just two months before her father. The two daughters who survived him ended their lives by suicide.

The three daughters Jenny, Laura and Eleanor were active in the socialist movement like their parents. Laura married Paul Lafargue in 1868 , Jenny married Charles Longuet in 1872 , Eleanor lived with Edward Aveling from 1884 ; all three of Marx's sons-in-law were socialist agitators , the first two in France, the third in Great Britain.

Entry in his daughter Jenny's Confession book

In March 1865 Karl Marx filled out his questionnaire in English in the confessional album of his daughter Jenny Caroline (the original texts in parentheses).

Marx's Confessions in Jenny Marx (Daughter) album
question answer
Your favorite virtue (Your favorite virtue) Simplicity (simplicity)
* in man (in man) Force (strength)
* in woman Weakness (weakness)
Main Feature (chief characteristic) Determination (singleness of purpose)
Conception of happiness (Idea of happiness)
* from misery
The vice that excuse (The vice you excuse) Credulity (gullibility)
* loathe (deteste) Flattery (servility)
Aversion (aversion) Martin Farquhar Tupper , violet powder (Martin Tupper, Violet powder)
Favorite activity (Favorite occupation) rummage through books (bookworming)
* Poet (poet) Dante Alighieri , Aeschylus , William Shakespeare , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (Dante, Aeschylus, Shakespeare, Göthe)
* Prose writer Denis Diderot , Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Honoré de Balzac ( Diderot, Lessing, Hegel, Bal [zac])
* Hero (Hero) Spartacus , Johannes Kepler (Spartacus, Keppler)
* Heroine Gretchen (Gretchen.)
* Flower (Flower) Daphne (Daphne).
* Color Red (red.)
Favorite eye and hair color (Color of eyes & hair) Black .
Name (names) Jenny, Laura (Jenny, Laura)
Court (dish) Fish (fish)
The historic persons like you least on (The characters in history you most dislike) [the original remained free]
- Maxim (Maxim) Nothing human is alien to me.
( Nihil humani a me alienum puto )
- motto (motto) Everything is to be doubted. (De omnibus dubitandum.)

Overview of the Marxian theory


Karl Marx is considered to be the most influential theorist of communism , whose writings were decisive for the labor movements of the 19th and 20th centuries worldwide, from the socialist-communist movements of Russia and Germany ( SPD , KPD ) to those of Latin America and East Asia, albeit in very different ways have shaped. In modern economics it is assigned to the economists . The philosophy and other humanities and social sciences has been influenced by Marx, and the followers of his theory in various disciplines often summarized as Marxists are called.

Like many philosophers of the 19th century , Marx was shaped by Hegel's philosophy . Hegel, who is regarded as one of the most important philosophers of the modern age , represented an idealistic , teleological philosophy of history. Hegel's students split into Left Hegelians and Right Hegelians , the latter regarding the historical process with civil society as having come to an end and concluded, while the Left Hegelians regarded the final fulfillment of the historical goal as still pending. Marx's philosophical position emerged in particular from the heated disputes within left Hegelianism.

Marx took over from Hegel the figure of thought of dialectics and the assumption of a lawfulness of history . Unlike Hegel, however, he did not attribute this to the development of a " world spirit ", but to material, social conditions and conflicts within society. Here Marx's second significant philosophical influence becomes visible: materialism , especially that of Feuerbach. Thus Marx tried to turn the Hegelian dialectic “from head to toe” through a connection with materialism in the form of a “ dialectical materialism ”:

“My dialectical method is fundamentally not only different from Hegel's, but its direct opposite. For Hegel the thought process, which he even transforms under the name of Idea into an independent subject, is the demiurge of the real, which only forms its external appearance. Conversely, for me the ideal is nothing else than the material which is implemented and translated in the human mind. "

- Epilogue to the 2nd edition of the capital of January 24, 1873, Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe, Department II. Volume 6, p. 709 ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 27).

In addition to the creative engagement with nature and society, Marx saw the central driving force in the historical development process of human society so far in the class struggle :

"The history of all previous society is the history of class struggles."

- Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 4, p. 462.

Revolutionary upheavals play a special role: "The revolutions are the locomotives of history." (Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe. Department I. Volume 10, p. 187; Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 7, p. 85.) By thus reducing history to its material conditions, Marx replaced Hegelian idealism with a “ historical materialism ”.

A well-known theory in this context is the basic-superstructure scheme , according to which the social institutions ( state , justice , culture , values ) are a "superstructure" of a deeper "basis" of economic production relations (and at the same time class and power relations) and productive forces and with all independence are bound to their peculiarity. The capitalist mode of production, for example, needs a certain legal framework so that free owners of goods can exchange their products on the market, regardless of other legal regulations. This legal framework must in turn be secured by a power over the goods owners in the form of the state. In particular, the development of that economic basis, alongside class struggles, is the driving force behind the development of all social conditions in the history of mankind up to now.

The basic superstructure scheme was often misunderstood as a rigid model for reducing all political and ideological phenomena to economic categories. Marx's famous formulation that social being determines consciousness (cf. Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 13, p. 9), encourages this misunderstanding. In fact, however, Marx explicitly emphasized the dialectic of the interaction between being and consciousness. Consciousness can also change being - precisely the possibility of revolutions is based on this freedom of human beings to consciously reshape relationships instead of being dominated by them. Although it is not free from corresponding tendencies, Marx's philosophy of history does not see itself as mechanistic determinism , but as an attempt to realize human freedom . But this freedom is always tied to its material and social environment.

Critique of Political Economy

Title page of the first edition On the Critique of Political Economy (1859)
Title page of the original edition of the first volume Das Kapital (1867)

In order to grasp the conditions for a communist movement, but also to be able to adequately criticize and thus combat the existing conditions, Marx endeavored throughout his life to conduct a fundamental economic analysis of capitalist society. In his three-volume main work Das Kapital (Volume 1: 1867, Volume 2 and 3 posthumously), which comprises a total of 2200 pages , Marx undertakes a fundamental “ criticism of political economy ”. On the one hand, this includes the analysis of the form of commodities , of value , of capital and of the capitalist production and distribution relationships in which the production of social wealth is embedded in bourgeois capitalist society. On the other hand, the criticism of bourgeois economy also includes the criticism of the classical bourgeois theorists of the economy such as Adam Smith or David Ricardo , which Marx attacks with sometimes sharp polemics. One of the central theses of the Marxian theory of capitalism is the irreconcilable class antagonism between proletariat and bourgeoisie , on which the insurmountable antagonism of capitalist society rests within the existing conditions . This division of society into capitalists and workers is on the one hand, according to Marx, a prerequisite for the capitalist mode of production - there must be a “free” labor force that is forced to sell its labor to the owners of the means of production. On the other hand, the class division is an inevitable result of the mode of production based on general commodity production and the sale of labor as a commodity. In sharp contrast z. For example, on Proudhon, Marx therefore emphasizes that a revolutionary overcoming of exploitation and class rule is only possible if the basic economic categories of capitalism are overcome, which - regardless of the will of the actors (capitalists, workers) "behind their backs" - lead to exploitation and lead class rule. “One could just as well abolish the Pope and let Catholicism exist.” ( Marx, Das Kapital, Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 102 fn. 40. )

Marx and Engels decisively coined the term “capitalist mode of production ” or capitalism , which was presented most systematically in Marx's main work, Das Kapital . By capitalism they understand an economic order that is characterized by private ownership of the means of production , by production for a market that determines the price , constant profit maximization and the contradiction between wage labor and capital. According to Marx, in the transition from feudalism to capitalism the social mode of production changes significantly, but it retains its class character . Marx describes capitalist society as a society of misery, exploitation and alienation .

Building on the theories of the representatives of Classical Economics , above all Adam Smith and David Ricardo , Marx reinterprets the labor theory of values ​​and reformulates it into his labor theory , with the help of which he tries to describe the exploitation of the proletariat by capital.

Capitalism as a class society

Marx defines two main classes of society:

  • On the one hand, the bourgeoisie and the class of capitalists that the necessary production means of production have (land, factories, machines, etc.) and today generally " employers " are called. Marx equates this class with the “ruling class”, according to whose interests society is structured and whose thoughts determine public opinion and ideology : “The ruling ideas of a time were always only the ideas of the ruling class” ( Marx-Engels- Works Volume 4, p. 480).
  • On the other hand, the proletariat , i. H. the class of workers who have no means of production of their own and are therefore forced to do wage labor in order to satisfy their needs. In this sense, white-collar workers also belong to the wage class. This wage is roughly calculated in such a way that the wage worker can “reproduce” his labor (food, housing, recreation), but on the other hand cannot buy means of production himself, whereby he remains dependent on wage labor. Marx therefore describes wage labor as a disguised form of “forced labor”.
  • A third class is the petty bourgeoisie , i. H. the classes of small business owners and self-employed. This class, however, is increasingly being ousted by the upper class and ultimately pushed down into the proletariat. In addition, there is a sub- or rag proletariat made up of homeless people , beggars and day laborers , to which he, like the petty bourgeoisie, does not attach any social or even revolutionary importance.

Formally, all members of civil society are free and equal in law . De facto, however, for Marx the proletarians can only choose to whom they sell their labor power, i. H. what chains they let themselves be bound by. As long as the civil right to ownership of the means of production prevails, legal equality inevitably means social inequality , which is reproduced and maintained by the recognition of the civil order and the civil state.

Social contradiction and crisis

The accumulation ( accumulation ) of social wealth successes in capitalism thus always only about the exploitation of foreign labor as wage labor . The capitalist only pays the worker a part of the actual value he has created in the production process as wages - the real surplus product of the socially performed labor does not benefit society as a whole, but is privately appropriated as surplus value . Marx therefore denounces this private appropriation of the surplus product, the creative labor power of individuals in general, as exploitation.

According to Marx, however , the rate of profit gained by the capitalist continues to decline, as he shows in his law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall . On the one hand, this fall in the rate of profit is due to the increasing use of machines, since, according to the theory of labor value, the sole source of value lies in human labor, which continuously decreases through the use of machines ( fixed capital vs. variable capital ). On the other hand, the rate of profit falls because of the competition among capitalists, who always have to undercut each other in order to survive on the market. In order to compensate for these costs arising from steadily falling income, the capitalist must, on the other hand, save expenses - primarily by lowering production costs, i. H. by lowering workers' wages or by extending working hours and increasing labor productivity.

According to Marx, the inevitable contradiction between the exploitation interest of capital and the needs of the proletariat determines the fundamentally antagonistic character of the capitalist mode of production and is ultimately the cause of the regularly occurring crises of capitalism, which ultimately must also lead to revolutionary uprisings of the workers. With the inevitability of revolutionary uprisings caused by the economic contradictions of capitalism, the world-historical hour of the communist revolution finally struck. Capital produces its own "gravedigger". Cf. Christoph Henning: Marx and the consequences, Stuttgart: Metzler 2017, 73ff.

Alienation of work

For Marx, the problem of capitalism does not only consist in the exploitation of the worker and in the irreconcilable contradiction of class interests. He sees the whole existence of man, his humanity itself, as alienated and enslaved by capitalist relations . He localized the “essence” of human existence, following Hegel and Feuerbach's concept of the “generic being”, in the ability of humans to shape their environment creatively and freely. The central category of Marxian philosophy is therefore the concept of work , which Marx defines as “metabolism with nature”. For him, as it was for Hegel, work is the universal category of human existence:

"As a creator of use values, as useful work, work is therefore a human condition of existence that is independent of all forms of society , an eternal natural necessity in order to mediate the metabolism between human beings and nature, that is, human life."

- Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 57

In capitalism, however, work is fundamentally alienated and perverted. Because work in capitalism is not done in the interest of creating use values and even less for the realization of creative creativity, but only for the achievement of exchange values . The worker cannot freely dispose of his labor, but must use it according to the specifications of the capitalist for whom he works. The workers no longer experience the goods he produces as his own, but as foreign ones; he could not recognize himself in the results of his own work. Marx describes this process, also following Hegel, as " alienation " or " alienation ".

“What does the alienation of work consist in? First, that the work is external to the worker; H. does not belong to his being that he therefore does not affirm but deny himself in his work, does not feel good but rather unhappy, does not develop free physical and spiritual energy, but casts off his physique and ruins his spirit. The worker therefore feels himself outside of himself only outside of work and in work. He's at home when he's not working, and away from home when he's working. His work is therefore not voluntary, but forced labor. It is therefore not the satisfaction of a need, but is only a means to satisfy needs outside of them. "

- Economic-philosophical manuscripts from 1844 , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 40, p. 514

Whether the category of “alienation” still plays a role in Marx's later work, especially for his writings critical of economics, or whether he later abandoned his original concept of “alienation” is very controversial among Marxists. It can be stated that after 1845 Marx no longer spoke of the “essence” of man, but rather the idea of ​​a timeless genus “man” in the book Die deutsche Ideologie , published in 1845 , and expressly rejected the terms he used earlier as “traditionally undermining philosophical expressions such as' human being ',' genus' pp. ”(Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels: Die deutsche Ideologie. In: Marx-Engels-Werke. Volume 3, p. 218).

Fetish character of the goods

In his later work, the philosophically presupposing concept of alienation (which implicitly presupposes the idea of ​​a non-alienated work) is replaced by the concept of “ commodity fetishism ”, as it is in the first volume of Capital in the famous chapter on the “fetish character of commodities and theirs Secret "is developed. This means the concealment of human labor that is no longer seen in a finished product that is in circulation as a commodity . This, too, is essentially a form of alienation, but in the context of capital it no longer serves so much to determine the misery of the workers, but rather to understand the ideological structure of capitalist society. The Marxist theorist of reification , Georg Lukács , sees the importance of the chapter on the fetish character of the commodity in the fact that it hides all of historical materialism . In his much-cited essay The Reification and Consciousness of the Proletariat of 1923 , he undertakes to work out the hidden content of the fetish chapter as a knowledge of capitalist society .

The less people recognize themselves in the products of their labor and can understand them as products they have made themselves, the more independent these products themselves appear to them. Especially in the form of money and capital - both nothing more than accumulated , accumulated commodities in the abstract Form - the products of human labor appear as independent, “ automatic subjects ” ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 169). The transformation of money into more money, on the principle of which capitalism is based, appears as an independent movement of money (for example in the form of seemingly automatic interest ), not as the result of human labor. As a result, according to Marx, real objects become subjects and, conversely, human subjects become powerless objects. The commodity producers are ruled by their products: "For them, their own social movement takes the form of a movement of things under whose control they are instead of controlling them" ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 89). Capitalist society is based on a fundamental reversal , it is, as it were, upside down.

In this way the products become fetishes , apparently magical objects. Nevertheless, this appearance is just a mere appearance . Even if the work is no longer perceived, it remains the value-adding authority and the cause of all movement. The fetish character of the commodity is a deception, although this deception is not a mere error but has a practical cause: the division of society into those who work and those who let work, i.e. H. into those who make products and others who own those products.

Marx analyzes the commodity fetish, which is derived from the commodity form, as a mode of socialization that runs behind the backs of people, transforms concrete private work into abstract social monetary values ​​and thus enables social commodity production in the first place.

Criticism of religion

He sees the task of the philosophers , whom Marx describes as the producers of ideas , in the abolition of philosophy , that is, in its practical realization. Marx criticizes all forms of an idealistic philosophy and in particular religion , which, according to Marx, serves to make the existence of man bearable in the afterlife through dreams and consolation and thus legitimize the factual misery. In a famous saying, Marx therefore describes religion as the “ opium of the people ”. At the same time, religion is unable to state what the misery is about, of which it is the expression - on the contrary, according to Marx, it disguises it with fantasies and otherworldly consolation. To that extent it is a false consciousness, i.e. pure ideology of people who are alienated from themselves.

" Man makes religion , religion does not make man."

- On the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right , Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department I. Volume 2, p. 170.

For Marx, the reversal of practical conditions corresponds to the false consciousness of religion, which is nothing more than the “correct” (i.e., appropriate) expression of a false society. Religion is the “mystification” ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 838) of a world that itself has quasi-mystical traits. In religion “the products of the human head seem to be endowed with life of their own, independent figures related to one another and to human beings. So in the world of goods the products of the human hand ”( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 23, p. 86). So religion is not only a deception, but also has an inner truth:

Religious misery is in one the expression of real misery and in one the protest against real misery. Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the mind of a heartless world, as it is the mind of spiritless conditions. It is the opium of the people. "

- Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right , Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department I. Volume 2, p. 171.

Overcoming the religious pipe dream, however, requires not only theoretical criticism, but also the material change in that life which religion, as the "sigh of the oppressed creature", makes necessary:

"The demand to give up the illusions about one's state is the demand to give up a state that needs the illusions ."

- Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department I. Volume 2, p. 171.

Thus, since religion and society related essentially taking criticism of religion a central role in Marx, "is the criticism of religion is the prerequisite of all criticism" (ibid. Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 1. p 378). However, the criticism of false consciousness can only serve to recognize the cause of the error and thereby raise awareness of the possibility of its practical abolition. In this sense, class consciousness means for Marx to perceive the social conditions "objectively" and to recognize and criticize the participation of humans in the reproduction of capitalist rule. You must take the place of mystification and religious "fog veil" ( Marx-Engels-Werke band Marx-Engels-Werke make Volume 23, p 94) the needs of the people themselves, for their satisfaction, they have to fight, rather than order to be put off to the afterlife. Philosophy must become “revolutionary practice” ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume, Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 3, p. 7).

“The weapon of criticism cannot, however, replace the criticism of weapons, material violence must be overthrown by material violence , but theory too becomes material violence as soon as it grips the masses. The theory is capable of gripping the masses as soon as they ad hominem demonstrated and demonstrirt ad hominem as soon as it becomes radical. To be radical is to get to the root of the matter. But the root for man is man himself. "

- Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department I. Volume 2, p. 177.

Marx's criticism of religion was influenced by Ludwig Feuerbach.

Together with Friedrich Engels, Marx was the godfather of Karl Friedrich Koettgen (son of Gustav Adolf Koettgen ) in 1850 and of Karl Liebknecht in 1871 .

Philosophy of history

The Marxian philosophy of history came to be known as historical materialism . It is not the ideas that are seen as the fundamental driving force of history, but the material conditions that fundamentally determine the generation of the ideas.

"It is not people's consciousness that determines their being, but, conversely, their social being that determines their consciousness."

- Foreword to the Critique of Political Economy , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 13, p. 9

Philosophical ideas are therefore not always valid, but have historical-material origins. If these origins change, so do the ideas. The prevailing philosophical ideas would reflect the thoughts of the ruling class in every epoch, which Marx defines as the class that has the power of disposal over the material means of labor.

Just as the material conditions affect the forms of rule, so do the forms of rule have an effect on the material conditions. Historical materialism therefore does not describe a determinism of the material, but a dialectical interrelation between being and consciousness , necessity and freedom :

"People make their own story, but they do not make it of their own free will, not under conditions of their own choosing, but under circumstances immediately found, given and handed down."

- The eighteenth Brumaire by Louis Bonaparte, Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 8, p. 115

Marx defines different phases of human history on the basis of the material and the power relations. The socio-economic development would have led from the “free” primitive society via (in Europe) slave-holding and feudal society to the bourgeois (industrial capitalist) society and should lead via the socialism to be achieved through revolution to communism. This revolution is promoted by the inherent laws of capitalist production in the form of increasing concentration of power and capital (accumulation). As a mirror image of the increasing self-alienation of the exploited through the division of labor, capital is organized in monopolies and repressive superstructures (state), which are overcome by class struggle and revolution in industrial society.

With the social revolution, the “prehistory” of humanity would end, people would from now on consciously, collectively and rationally shape the production of their social life and their further history and would not be ruled by social laws unknown to them.

“In broad terms, Asian, ancient, feudal and modern bourgeois modes of production can be described as progressive epochs of economic social formation. The bourgeois production relations are the last antagonistic form of the social production process, antagonistic not in the sense of individual antagonism, but an antagonism that grows out of the social living conditions of individuals, but the productive forces developing in bourgeois society at the same time create the material conditions for resolving this antagonism . With this social formation the prehistory of human society closes. "

- Foreword to the Critique of Political Economy , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 13, p. 9

Class struggle and revolution

Marx sees the driving force, the subject of social transformation, in the social class of the proletariat , which, as the class of society that also produces its goods, is the only one with the power to successfully bring about a communist upheaval. The proletariat is also the class with the greatest interest in a revolution, since it is structurally and practically oppressed, exploited and alienated by capitalist conditions. Thus the programmatic manifesto of the Communist Party of 1848 ends with the words:

“The communists disdain to hide their views and intentions. They openly declare that their purposes can only be achieved through the violent overthrow of all previous social order. May the ruling classes tremble before a communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose in it but their chains. You have a world to win. "

- Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 4, p. 493

In 1872, in his speech at the Hague Congress , Marx admitted that the proletariat could, under certain circumstances, achieve its goals peacefully:

“We know that one has to take into account the institutions, customs and traditions of different countries, and we do not deny that there are countries like America, England, and if I knew your institutions better I might add Holland where workers can get to their destination in a peaceful way. If this is true, we must also recognize that in most countries on the continent the lever of our revolutions must be violence; it is violence that one day must appeal to in order to establish the rule of work. "

- Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 18, p. 160

With regard to the Chartist suffrage movement, Marx stated:

“Universal suffrage, however, is synonymous with political power for the working class in England; for the proletariat there forms the great majority of the population and has managed to achieve a clear consciousness of its class position in a long, if covert civil war. [...] The enforcement of universal suffrage in England would be far more an achievement of socialist content than any measure that has been honored with this designation on the continent. Here its inevitable result would be the political rule of the working class. "

- New-York Daily Tribune No. 3543, August 25, 1852

According to Marx, the struggle of the proletariat against the bourgeoisie takes place as the “ dictatorship of the proletariat ”, as the rule of the oppressed majority over the former oppressors, as the “ expropriation of the expropriators”; H. as "expropriation of the expropriators". Marx equates the transition phase of the dictatorship of the proletariat with socialism ; The term communism is above all the designation for the more advanced stage of the classless society, in which the state and with it all oppressive violence would have become unnecessary and would have died and which had written “on their flag”:

"Everyone according to their abilities, everyone according to their needs!"

- Critique of the Gotha program , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 19, p. 21

Communism and classless society

Together with his lifelong friend and colleague Friedrich Engels , Marx endeavored to develop a " scientific socialism " which he above all differentiates from the idealistic utopias of early socialism . Marx does not try to sketch a finished utopia of communism , but understands the goal of communism as something that develops from the material and historical conditions. Marx understands the communist movement as “the independent movement of the immense majority in the interests of the immense majority” ( Manifesto of the Communist Party , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 4, p. 472). The carrier of a necessary revolutionary upheaval is the proletariat organized in a workers' party - the working class - which has the duty to conquer political power and expropriate the capitalist class . This abolition of private ownership of the means of production (land, factories, machines, etc.) is the main condition for a development towards communism. Gradually, the class antagonisms and the classes themselves would disappear. The exact contours of a communist, classless society were often only vaguely outlined; a famous formula is:

"Instead of the old bourgeois society with its classes and class antagonisms, there is an association in which the free development of everyone is the condition for the free development of all."

- Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 4, p. 482

Overview of the plant

The eighteenth Brumaire by Louis Bonaparte , published in The Revolution , New York 1852
Commemorative plaque for the printing of the German first edition Das Kapital at Otto Wigand in Leipzig (2009)

Marx's work is often divided into two phases: "early writings" (until 1848) and "mature Marx", although it is disputed to what extent these two phases represent a real break in thinking. The best-known division of Marx's work comes from Louis Althusser. He distinguishes four phases: (1) 1840–44: youth works; (2) 1845: works of incision; (3) 1845–57: Works of Maturation; (4) 1857–83: works of maturity.

In contrast to this smooth subdivision, but based on Althusser, Urs Lindner differentiates between six creative phases: (1) 1841–44: Young Hegelian social philosophy; (2) 1845/46: Philosophical incision and emergence of a realistic social philosophy; (3) 1846–59: high phase of historical materialism; (4) 1850–58: transition to social science; (5) 1859–83: Critique of Political Economy; (6) 1868–83: dismantling of the philosophy of history. Lindner emphasizes that the division serves the purpose of facilitating the philosophical confrontation with Marx. Different perspectives would lead to different accents in the classification.

While for a long time only the later, predominantly economically oriented writings were received by both social democracy and Marxism-Leninism , the New Left in particular rediscovered the philosophically oriented early writings around 1968, some of which had not been published until 1932.

At the center of the early writings are questions related to the discussion of Hegel's philosophy , in particular the question of the alienation of humans and the possibility of their abolition in favor of political emancipation . Important works by early Marx - some written together with Friedrich Engels - are:

Occasionally, the Communist Party's manifesto ( Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 4) written with Engels in the year of the revolution of 1848 is also counted among the early writings , but due to its programmatic character it occupies a special position in Marx's work.

Important works by the later Marx, in which more and more economic questions came to the fore, are:

  • Wage labor and capital (1849, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 6)
  • Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy (in short: Outlines , also: Economic Manuscripts , 1857/58, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 42)
  • On the Critique of Political Economy (1859, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 13)
  • the lecture wages, prices and profit (1865, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 16)
  • as well as the main work the three volumes of Das Kapital , of which only the first was published during Marx's lifetime:
    • Volume 1: The Production Process of Capital (1867, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 23)
    • Volume 2: The Circulation Process of Capital (edited by von Engels, 1885, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 24)
    • Volume 3: The Entire Process of Capitalist Production (Ed. Von Engels, 1894, Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 25)

Furthermore, there are some writings in which Marx commented on contemporary historical events:

There are two complete editions of the writings of Marx and Engels. The first, unfinished Marx-Engels Complete Edition (MEGA 1 ) was published by David Ryazanov . The Marx-Engels Complete Edition (MEGA 2 ), which has been published since 1975, is designed for a total of 107 volumes (115 sub-volumes). This historical-critical complete edition includes correspondence between Marx and Engels as well as letters from third parties to them. Around half of all volumes have appeared so far.

There is also the study and reading edition Marx-Engels-Werke (MEW), published in German and distributed in sub-volumes , published by the Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED (1956–1990) in 43 volumes (44 volumes; 46 sub-volumes ) was issued.


Pro and con

Painting "Karl Marx" by P. Nasarow and N. Gereljuk (1920)

Marx's theory was interpreted in completely opposite ways by later Marxist currents: This ranges from the social reform policy of social democracy to the dogmatic interpretations of the " real socialism " of the former Soviet Union or the People's Republic of China, etc. a. m. (Compare also article Communist Party ) to undogmatic interpretations by representatives of critical theory and the New Left . The template-like, unchecked adoption of isolated Marxian terms and concepts is often referred to as " vulgar Marxism ".

Marx critic

Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk , one of the founders of the Austrian School , already criticized the contradicting capital theories in Volume 1 and Volume 3 of Das Kapital in To the End of the Marxian System (1896) . While Marx assumed in the first volume that goods were exchanged according to their labor values, and only briefly noted that this did not reflect the real economic movement and that countless intermediate steps were still required to understand the situation, it was not until the third volume that it was explained why it became one General rate of profit . Böhm-Bawerk assumed that the publication of the 2nd and 3rd volumes was delayed for so long because Marx could not find a solution compatible with his theories for the problem raised. In fact, the manuscript on which the third volume is based was written before the first volume of Capital was written. Marx's way of presenting the interrelationships of capitalist production, the constitution of values ​​and prices, did not result from necessity, but was deliberately intended. According to Böhm-Bawerk, the general rate of profit and the theory of production prices contradict the law of value in the first volume. In this sense he deals critically with those statements in Capital in which Marx tries to justify why the prices of production would move within the framework of the law of value. The criticism of Marx's law of value raised by Böhm-Bawerk was later continued in a modified form in the context of the transformation problem .

One of the best-known Marx critics is Karl Popper , the philosophical and v. a. epistemological aspects criticized. This includes in particular immunization against criticism .

Marx's work on the Jewish question from 1843 and passages against Ferdinand Lassalle from his private letters from 1862 were sometimes interpreted as anti-Semitism . Helmut Hirsch takes a completely different view .

In the text On the Jewish Question , Marx argues with classic anti-Semitic prejudices and clichés . So he writes there:

“What is the secular basis of Judaism? The practical need, the selfishness.

What is the secular cult of the Jew? The haggler. Who is his worldly god? The money.

Well! The emancipation from haggling and money, that is, from practical, real Judaism, would be the self-emancipation of our time.

(...) Money is the zealous God of Israel, before whom no other god may exist. The money humiliates all gods of man - and transforms them into a commodity.

(...) Money is the essence of his work and existence that is alien to man and this alien being dominates him and he worships it. "

Hannah Arendt calls Zur Judenfrage in her work Elements and Origins of Total Rule , published in German in 1955, a “classic work” of the “anti-Semitism of the left”.

Marx himself had Jewish ancestors and was a Christian and Protestant at a young age . As a representative of a materialistic philosophy, he criticized all religions for representing a form of ideology and self-deception (cf. the introduction to the criticism of Hegel's philosophy of right , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 1, p. 378 ff.).

Micha Brumlik writes, referring to Marx's letters: "Marx was - at least personally - an ardent anti-Semite throughout his life." This opinion contradicts Marx's relationship with z. B. Simon Deutsch , Heinrich Graetz , Wilhelm Alexander Freund , Hermann Friedberg , Louis Kugelmann , Bernhard Kraus , Sigmund Schott , Leó Frankel and others. However, there are also anti-Semitic theses in his theoretical work, especially in On the Jewish Question . Kurt Flasch writes: "Brumlik's book is not a reliable philosophical historical investigation."

The sociologist Detlev Claussen criticizes the text on the Jewish question as "unmaterialistic and unscientific" because he does not know how to indicate the difference between pre-bourgeois and bourgeois society and persists in an analysis of the circulation of goods and money. On the other hand, in the opinion of many social scientists , Marx in Capital opened a perspective on dealing with anti-Semitism with a critique of the historical economic conditions, which was only taken up by successors such as Theodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheimer ( Dialectic of Enlightenment , 1944).

Discussions within Marxism

Within today's Marxism, which is divided into numerous, partly completely contradicting directions, almost all elements of Marx's theory are controversially discussed. Particularly controversial points are, for example:

Contemporary graffito refers to the Marx controversy: Read Marx Understand Marx! (2018)
  • the role of the working class and its relationship to other social movements
  • the definition (and organization) of "socialist democracy"
  • the prerequisites for a socialist transformation of a society
  • various questions of value creation
  • Relationship between base and superstructure .

Many of Marx's works are incomplete (he died too early for that), and Marxism is not a closed system either. This enables different interpretations of the works of Marx and Engels as well as a different degree of classification of the theory or individual elements in a historical context.

Marx and Engels also changed some of their views over time. For example, there are contradicting statements about whether a socialist revolution has to take place in a highly developed capitalist country or whether the phase of capitalism cannot even be skipped under special circumstances, as Marx writes in his letter to Wera Sassulitsch .


German Democratic Republic

In the GDR , Karl Marx was assigned the role of a political and ideological leading figure.

From May 10, 1953 to May 31, 1990, Chemnitz was called Karl-Marx-Stadt , where the famous Karl-Marx-Monument is located .

From May 1, 1949 to December 31, 1990, the municipality of Neuhardenberg was called Marxwalde .

Monuments were erected to him in many places. A statue of Marx and Engels is located in the Chemnitz Park of the Victims of Fascism in front of the Georgius-Agricola-Gymnasium , which was erected by the city council in 1923 on what was then Karl-Marx-Platz. In Berlin there is a Karl Marx statue on the Marx-Engels-Forum, which was built in 1986 .

The GDR 100- Mark note bore the portrait of Marx. The German post office was from 1948 to 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupation or in the GDR from 1949 to 1983, about a dozen postage stamps with images of Karl Marx out. The Leipzig University Alma mater lipsiensis was called Karl Marx University Leipzig from 1953 to 1991 . In GDR times, the bronze relief "Aufbruch" , dedicated to Marx and his ideas, was attached to the main building of the university and is now located on the Jahnallee university campus .

The party college "Karl Marx" of the SED bore his name like a number of extended high schools . Numerous streets and squares were named after Marx (see Karl-Marx-Straße , Karl-Marx-Allee or Karl-Marx-Platz ). The Karl Marx Order was the highest distinction in the GDR.

The years 1953 (70th year of death) and 1983 (100th year of death) were celebrated as the "Karl Marx Year".

Federal Republic of Germany

In 1932 the Karl Marx settlement , which still exists today, was built in Worms .

In the French occupation zone , a 15 pfennig postage stamp with the image of Marx was issued on May 5, 1947. In 1983, the Federal Republic of Germany honored Marx as a philosopher on the 100th year of his death with a commemorative coin with the edge embossing "TRUTH AS REALITY AND POWER", a quote from the second thesis about Feuerbach . In numerous cities and communities there were and are streets named after Karl Marx.

On April 29, 1968, a commemorative stamp for the 150th birthday of Karl Marx was issued by the Deutsche Bundespost . On May 3, 2018, Deutsche Post AG issued a postage stamp with a face value of 70 euro cents on its 200th birthday . The design comes from the Munich graphic artist Thomas Mayfried.

In his hometown of Trier, the Karl Marx House can be visited with its extensive exhibition on the life and work of Marx, which also attracts numerous tourists from China in summer. This birthplace, now a museum, was at Brückergasse 664 (now Brückenstrasse  10); As early as October 1819, the family moved into a small house on Simeongasse (today Simeonstrasse 8), where today a plaque commemorates the famous resident. On the occasion of Karl Marx's 200th birthday, the five-meter-fifty-high - an allusion to his date of birth on May 5th - Karl Marx statue was unveiled on Simeonstiftplatz on May 5, 2018 , which the artist Wu Weishan as a gift from the People's Republic China designed.

Since the end of the Second World War , a street in Elmshorn has been called "Karl-Marx-Platz". In August 2005, the majority of the CDU and FDP decided to change the name so that the square is now called "Buttermarkt".

In the Berlin district of Neukölln , Berliner Strasse and Bergstrasse were renamed Karl-Marx-Strasse in 1946. Since parts of the Stalinallee in Berlin-Mitte and Friedrichshain were renamed Karl-Marx-Allee as a result of the de-Stalinization in 1961 , Berlin has two important streets that are dedicated to Karl Marx.

Since 1989 a memorial plaque by HP Schall has been on Stockenstrasse in Bonn to commemorate Marx's studies in Bonn in 1835/36. A sculpture of his person is attached to the Cologne town hall .

On April 12, 2017, a memorial plaque was put up at the Otto Meissner publishing house at Hamburg's Bergstrasse 26 / corner Ballindamm to mark the 150th anniversary of the first publication of Marx's Capital .

In 2003, Marx was ranked third behind Konrad Adenauer and Martin Luther in the program Our Best in the ranking of the greatest Germans .

In February 2017 the feature film The Young Karl Marx premiered. Raoul Peck took over the direction, August Diehl can be seen in the role of Marx .

One of the first new Intercity Express trains ( ICE 4 ) was named after Karl Marx in 2017 .

In total, there are still over 500 Karl-Marx-Strasse, 52 Karl-Marx-Platz and two squares in Germany that actually officially lost their names, but are still popularly called that way ( Ennepetal and Perleberg ).


Memorial plaque in Maastricht (2010), Marx visited his sister Sophia Schmalhausen here several times

In the Soviet Union, the second largest city in the Volga German Republic was called Marxstadt since 1920 .

The Karl-Marx-Hof with 1,382 apartments for around 5,000 residents was built in Vienna from 1926 to 1930 .

In London, at 28 Dean Street in Soho, a plaque commemorates Marx, who lived there with his family for a while. The Marx Memorial Library , which was inaugurated on the 50th anniversary of his death in 1933, is also one of the London attractions. In Margate there is a plaque on the house ( 5 Lansell's Place ) that Marx frequented in 1866. In Harrogate , a plaque is attached to the Old Swan Hotel , where Marx stayed in 1873. At 41 Maitland Park Road, where Marx lived from 1875 to 1883, the Camden London Borough Council placed a commemorative plaque.

In the pilgrimage church of St. Vitus in Sankt Veit am Vogau ( Austria ), Marx is depicted in a ceiling painting (1921) by Felix Barazutti giving an address to workers. In Karlsbad there is a monument to Karl Marx, who stayed here for a cure in 1874, 1875 and 1876. The monument is not far from the Russian Orthodox Church of St. Peter and Paul , on Zamecky vrch street .

In Argenteuil there is a boulevard Karl Marx . A memorial plaque reminds of his stays with his daughter Jenny Longuet in 1881/82.

In Tajikistan the mountain Pik Karl Marx , in Russia the city Marx , in the Ukraine the village Karlo-Marxowe and several places Karla Marxa , a giant sequoia tree known today as General Sherman Tree in the USA and an asteroid discovered in 1969 ( 2807 Karl Marx ).

In 1984, on the occasion of Erich Honecker's state visit, a Marx stone monument by Jo Jastram was erected in Addis Ababa .

On Kim Il-sung Square in North Korea's capital Pyongyang there were portraits of Marx and Lenin on the facade of one floor. These pictures were taken down in April 2012 following the election of Kim Jong-uns as Labor Party's First Secretary and First Chairman of the National Defense Committee.

Marxism as a state ideology of legitimation

With the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the political reorganization after the Second World War , a bloc of states emerged under Soviet influence in Eastern Europe and Western Asia, whose social systems were flagged out with the state ideology of Marxism-Leninism . Critics of the Soviet system such as Herbert Marcuse viewed the claims against Marx as a mere ideology of legitimation that falsified the Marxian legacy. The ruling Communist Party of the People's Republic of China still invokes the teachings of Marx and Mao Zedong today . The Marx biographer Gareth Stedman Jones closes his voluminous biography with the words that "Marx, as he created the 20th century, connects only a coincidental similarity with Marx, who lived in the 19th century".

See also

Portal: Marxism  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Marxism


Catalog raisonné

See catalog raisonné and letter editions


  • Ernst Drahn : Marx Bibliography. A picture of Karl Marx's life in biographical-bibliographical data . German publishing company for politics and history, Charlottenburg 1920. (Second, improved and enlarged edition 1923).
  • Central Institute for Libraries (Ed.): Karl Marx. A recommended bibliography . Edited by Werner Rittner. Publishing house for books and libraries, Leipzig 1954.
  • The first prints of the works of Marx and Engels. Bibliography of the individual editions . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1955.
  • Maximilien Rubel : Bibliography des oeuvres de Karl Marx. Avec en app. Un repertoire des oeuvres de Friedrich Engels. Rivière, Paris 1956.
  • Maximilien Rubel: Supplement à la bibliographie des oeuvres de Karl Marx. Rivière, Paris 1959.
  • The work of Marx and Engels in the literature of German social democracy (1869–1895). Bibliography. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1979.
  • Franz Neubauer : Marx-Engels-Bibliography . Boldt, Boppard am Rhein 1979, ISBN 3-7646-1751-9 .
  • Bert Andréas : Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels. The end of classical German philosophy. Bibliography (= writings from the Karl-Marx-Haus Trier. Issue 28). Trier 1983, pp. 155–196 (references to prints, quotations and translations).
  • Hal Draper : The Marx-Engels register. A complete bibliography of Marx and Engels' individual writings (= The Marx-Engels cyclopedia. 2). Schocken Books, New York 1985.
  • Gernot Gabel: Karl Marx. Directory of doctoral theses from Western European and North American countries 1890–2000 (= bibliographies on philosophy. 19). Ed. Gemini, Hürth 2009, ISBN 978-3-922331-49-0 .


  • Karl Marx. Chronicle of his life in detail. Ring Verlag, Zurich 1934 (Reprint: makol, Frankfurt am Main 1971).
  • Maximilien Rubel : Marx Chronicle. Data on life and work. Hanser, Munich 1968 (=  series Hanser 3) (4th revised edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-423-03250-2 (= dtv 3250)).
  • Hal Draper: The Marx – Engels chronicle. A day-by-day chronology of Marx and Engels' life and activity . Schocken Books, New York 1985.


  • Gustav Groß : Karl Marx. A study. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1885 (digitized version) .
  • John Spargo: K arl Marx. His life and works . BW Huebsch, New York 1912 archive org .
    • John Spargo: Karl Marx. Life and work. With many portraits from the history of socialism. Authorized German edition. Felix Meiner, Leipzig 1912.
  • Klara Zetkin : Karl Marx and his life's work! Molkenbuhr & Co., Elberfeld 1913.
  • Robert Danneberg : Karl Marx. The man and his work . Publishing house of the Association of Young Workers (Anton Jenschik), Vienna 1913.
  • Franz Mehring : Karl Marx - history of his life. Berlin 1918 ( In: ML-Werke ).
  • Gustav Mayer : Karl Marx's life path. In: Socialist monthly books. 24, issue 8, issue of May 1, 1918, pp. 416-422.
  • R. Wilbrandt : An attempt at an introduction. B. G. Teubner, Leipzig / Berlin 1918.
  • Otto Rühle : Karl Marx. Life and work. Avalun-Verlag, Hellerau near Dresden 1928.
  • Karl Vorländer : Karl Marx. His life and his work. With 15 picture plates . Felix Meiner Verlag, Leipzig 1929.
  • Siegfried Landshut : Karl Marx. Charles Coleman, Lübeck 1932.
  • Siegfried Landshut: Karl Marx. One life for one idea! On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of his death. Publishing house of the Education Committee of the Social Democratic Party, Hamburg State Organization, Hamburg 1933.
  • Ernst Böse : Karl Marx. His life and his work. Friedrich Oetinger, Hamburg 1948.
  • Karl Marx today. A memory book for the 70th anniversary of death. Publishing bookstore J. H. W. Dietz, Hanover 1953.
  • Leopold Schwarzschild : The Red Prussian. Life and legend of Karl Marx. Scherz & Goverts, Stuttgart 1954.
  • JA Stepanowa: Karl Marx (= Great Soviet Encyclopedia ). Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1956.
  • Isaiah Berlin : Karl Marx. His life and his work. R. Piper & Co, Munich 1959.
  • Werner Blumenberg : Karl Marx in self-testimonies and image documents (= Rowohlt's monographs. 62). Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg 1962.
  • B. Nicolaevsky , O. Maenchen-Helfen: Karl Marx. A biography. Verlag J. H. W. Dietz Nachf., Berlin / Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1975, ISBN 3-8012-1086-3 .
  • Heinz Monz : Karl Marx and Trier. Relationships relationships influences. New publishing house, Trier 1964.
  • Peter Stadler : Karl Marx. Ideology and politics. Musterschmidt-Verlag, Göttingen / Frankfurt am Main / Zurich 1966.
  • Arnold Künzli : Karl Marx. A psychography. Europa Verlag, Vienna / Frankfurt am Main / Zurich 1966.
  • Willem Banning: Karl Marx. Life, Teaching and Meaning. Siebenstern, Munich / Hamburg 1966.
  • Karl Korsch : Karl Marx. European Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main / Vienna 1967.
  • John Lewis: Karl Marx. Life and teaching. German Science Publishers, Berlin 1968.
  • Heinrich Gemkow u. a .: Karl Marx. A biography. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1968.
  • Manfred Kliem : Karl Marx. Documents of his life. 1818-1883. Philipp Reclam jun., Leipzig 1970.
  • Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Basics of life and work. NCO-Verlag, Trier 1973.
  • David McLellan: Karl Marx. Life and work. Edition Praeger, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-7796-4006-6 .
  • Fritz J. Raddatz : Karl Marx. A political biography. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 1975, ISBN 3-455-06010-2 .
  • Heinrich Gemkow: Karl Marx and Edgar von Westphalen - fellow students in Berlin. In: Contributions to Marx-Engels research. Book 1 and Book 3, Marx-Engels-Department in the Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the SED , Berlin 1977 and 1978.
  • Erich Fromm : The image of man in Karl Marx - Marx as a person. European Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main 1963, ISBN 3-434-00421-1 .
  • Richard Friedenthal : Karl Marx. His life and his time. Piper Verlag, Munich 1981, ISBN 3-492-02713-X .
  • Heinrich Gemkow: Our life. A biography about Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1981.
  • Francis Wheen: Karl Marx. Bertelsmann, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-570-00495-3 .
  • Klaus Körner : Karl Marx. Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-423-31089-5 .
  • Rolf Hosfeld : The ghosts he called. A new Karl Marx biography. Piper, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-492-05221-4 .
  • Rolf Hosfeld: Karl Marx in self-testimonies and image documents. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-50718-2 (=  Rowohlt's monographs 50718).
  • Jonathan Sperber : Karl Marx. His life and his century. CH Beck, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-406-64096-4 .
  • Gareth Stedman Jones : Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, ISBN 978-3-10-036610-8 .
  • Jürgen Neffe : Marx. The unfinished . C. Bertelsmann, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-570-10273-2 .
  • Wilfried Nippel : Karl Marx. CH Beck, Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-406-71418-4 .
  • Michael Heinrich : Karl Marx and the birth of modern society. Biography and work development. Volume 1: 1818–1841 , Schmetterling Verlag, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-89657-085-7 .
  • Jürgen Herres : Marx and Engels. Portrait of an intellectual friendship . Philipp Reclam jun., Ditzingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-15-011151-2 .
  • Dietmar Dath : Karl Marx. 100 pages . Philipp Reclam jun., Ditzingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-15-020454-2 .
  • Marcello Musto : The late Marx. An intellectual biography from 1881 to 1883 . VSA, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-899-65796-8 .

See also biographical literature on individual stages of life and whereabouts .

Biography and dictionary entries

Memories from contemporaries

  • D. Rjazanov (ed.): Karl Marx as a thinker, man and revolutionary. A scrapbook. With 4 panels. Publishing house for literature and politics, Vienna / Berlin 1928.
  • Memories of Karl Marx. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1947 (2nd edition 1953).
  • Mohr and General. Memories of Marx and Engels. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1964 (2nd, reviewed edition 1965).
  • Marian Comyn: My memories of Karl Marx. Translated and annotated by Frank T. Walker (= writings from the Karl-Marx-Haus . Issue 5). Trier 1970.
  • Marx and Engels through the eyes of their contemporaries. Foreign Languages ​​Publishing House, Moscow 1972.
  • Hans Magnus Enzensberger (ed.): Conversations with Marx and Engels. With a register of persons, eulogies and injuries as well as a list of sources (= Insel Taschenbuch. Volume 19/20). Two volumes. Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1973.

Illustrated books

  • Karl Marx album. Edited by the Marx-Engels-Lenin-Stalin Institute at the Central Committee of the SED. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1953.
  • Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Your life and your time . Edited by the Museum for German History , Berlin. Marx / Engels editing. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1978.
  • Marx / Engels. Documentary photos . Publishing house for agitation and visual media, Berlin 1978.
  • Κарл Μаркс Фридрих Энгельс. Собрание фотографий. Moscow 1976 (translation by HST: Karl Marx Friedrich Engels. Collection of photographs ) (2nd edition. Moscow 1983).
  • Boris Rudjak : The photographs of Karl Marx in the central party archive of the Institute for Marxism-Leninism at the Central Committee of the CPSU. In: Marx-Engels-Jahrbuch. Volume 6, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1983, pp. 293-310 ( digitized version ).
  • NN Ivanov, TD Belyakova, YP Krasavina (eds.): Karl Marx. His life and work. Documents and photographs . Collet's, London 1988, ISBN 0-569-09095-4 .
  • Family Marx private. The photo and questionnaire albums of Marx's daughters Laura and Jenny. An annotated facsimile edition . Edited by Izumi Omura, Valerij Fomičev, Rolf Hecker and Shun-ichi Kubo. With an essay by Iring Fetscher , Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-05-004118-8 .

Exhibition catalogs


Other literature (selection)


Web links

Wikisource: Karl Marx  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Karl Marx  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikibooks: Sociological Classics / Marx, Karl  - learning and teaching materials



References and comments

  1. Budd J. LaRue: John Mayall Jr. and WH Dallinger. Nineteenth century microscope collectors and critical microscopists. In: Microscopy. The journal of the Quekett Microscopical Club. Vol. 36, 1992, pt. 9 (Autumn), pp. 675-691.
  2. a b The name form "Karl Heinrich Marx" used in various encyclopedias is based on an error. In the summons and the marriage certificate "Karl Marx", only in his poetry collections and the transcript of his dissertation "KH Marx". Because Marx wanted to honor his father, who died in 1838, he called himself "Karl Heinrich" in three documents. The article by Friedrich Engels "Marx, Heinrich Karl" in the Concise Dictionary of Political Science (Jena 1892, Sp. 1130–1133, see MEW Volume 22, pp. 337–345) does not justify assigning a middle name to Marx. See Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Basics of life and work. NCO-Verlag, Trier 1973, pp. 214 and 354.
  3. This information comes from Johann Joseph Friedrich Schneider (d. 1902), who made this information in 1890. He couldn't know Marx because he only studied in Bonn when Marx was in Berlin! (Manfred Schöncke: “A happy year in Bonn”? What we know about Karl Marx's first year of study. In: Contributions to Marx-Engels research. New series. Hamburg 1994, pp. 243–246).
  4. The birth certificate was signed by Emmerich Grach , the great-great-great-great-grandfather of Günther Jauch as the second mayor of Trier.
  5. Heinz Monz: Karl Marx: Basics of the development to life and work. NCO-Verlag Neu, Trier 1973, pp. 217 and 221.
  6. Der Orden Brie Briss , Communications from the Grand Lodge for Germany, VIII UCBB (= United Order B'nai B'rith ). Scrapbook jew. Wiss., P. 167.
  7. See the entry Gravestones of the ancestors of Karl Marx .
  8. ^ Nikolaus Sandmann: Heinrich Marx, Jew, Freemason and father of Karl Marx. In: Humanity, magazine for society, culture and intellectual life. Hamburg; Issue 5/1992, pp. 13-15.
  9. The military pastor Mühlenhoff had only incompletely kept the baptismal register and was transferred to Berlin in 1821. This is the latest date. In 1819 Heinrich Marx had his son Mauritz David Marx buried in the Jewish cemetery. At the same time, as a lawyer, he dealt with issues relating to the repayment of the Jewish repayment commission.
  10. Heinz Monz: Karl Marx: Basics of the development to life and work. NCO-Verlag Neu, Trier 1973, p. 229.
  11. Marx wrote to Heine from the end of January to February 1, 1845: “Dear friend! I hope to have time to see you tomorrow. [...] Of all that I leave behind here in terms of people, the Heinesche legacy is the most unpleasant for me. I would like to pack you with me. ” Heine Portal . Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department III. Volume 1, Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1975, p. 264.
  12. ^ Later (1896) renamed Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium .
  13. Heinz Monz: Karl Marx. Basics of the development of life and work. Trier 1973, p. 315.
  14. Manfred Schöncke: "A happy year in Bonn"? What we know about Karl Marx's first year at university. In: Contributions to Marx-Engels research. New series 1994. Hamburg 1994, pp. 239-255.
  15. Ingrid Bodsch (Ed.): Dr. Karl Marx. From studies to doctorate - Bonn, Berlin, Jena . With contributions by Joachim Bauer, Ingrid Bodsch, Klaus Dicke, Margit Hartleb, Thomas Pester and Rita Seifert. Verlag des StadtMuseum Bonn, Bonn 2013, ISBN 978-3-931878-36-8 , pp. 9–28.
  16. Abgangszeugnis Karl Marx; University records; Manfred Schöncke, p. 245 ff.
  17. ^ Moriz Carrière: Memoirs . Edited by W. Diehl. In: Archive for Hessian History and Archeology. New episode. Volume X (1914), p. 165.
  18. Critically, see Ingrid Bodsch (Ed.): Dr. Karl Marx. From studies to doctorate - Bonn, Berlin, Jena . P. 21 ff.
  19. Collection of Heinrich Marx's estate (Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz Dept. 587.40 No. 533; Manfred Schöncke: Karl and Heinrich Marx and their siblings . Pahl-Rugenstein, Bonn 1993, p. 287 f.)
  20. Printing date of the doctoral certificate.
  21. The dissertation is printed in MEW supplementary volume I, pp. 257–373.
  22. Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Department I. Volume 1, Berlin 1975, pp. 768-770.
  23. ^ Friedrich Engels to Franz Mehring . End of April 1895 (Marx-Engels-Werke, Volume 39, p. 475).
  24. ^ Gustav Mayer : Friedrich Engels. A biography. Julius Springer, Berlin 1920, p. 123.
  25. MEGA 2 , Volume 1, 1975, p. 1124.
  26. Since the Pauluskirche in Kreuznach was being renovated at that time (cf. Albert Rosenkranz: Geschichte der Evangelischen Gemeinde Kreuznach. Bad Kreuznach 1951, p. 166), the wedding probably took place in the Wilhelmskirche .
  27. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 65.
  28. Jacques Grandjonc: On Marx's stay in Paris: October 12, 1843 to February 1, 1845. In: Studies on Marx's first stay in Paris and on the emergence of the German ideology . Trier 1990 ( writings from the Karl-Marx-Haus Trier issue 43), pp. 163-212.
  29. ^ Friedrich Engels: Marx, Heinrich Karl. In: Concise Dictionary of Political Science , Volume 4, Sp. 1130–1133, Jena 1892, after: Marx-Engels-Werke , Volume 22, pp. 337–345. Dietz, Berlin 1972.
  30. Marx-Engels Complete Edition . Department I. Volume 2, Berlin 1982, pp. 541-553.
  31. ^ Edda Ziegler: Heinrich Heine. Life - work - effect. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich ²1997, ISBN 3-7608-1081-0 , p. 192.
  32. Jost Hermand counted thirty-three times: Heinrich Heine. Critical. Solidaric. Controversial. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne 2007, p. 98
  33. ^ Karl Marx: The capital. Critique of Political Economy . First volume. [= Karl Marx / Friedrich Engels: Works , Volume 23]. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1962, p. 637.
  34. Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Section I. Volume 5. Karl Marx. Friedrich Engels. German ideology. Manuscripts and fragments. De Gruyter Academy Research, Berlin / Boston 2017, pp. 3, 4 ff., 8 ff., 12 ff., 124 ff.
  35. "The term 'materialistic conception of history' does not appear in the manuscripts of the 'German Ideology'." ( Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe. Department I. Volume 5. Karl Marx. Friedrich Engels. German Ideology. Manuscripts and fragments. De Gruyter Academy Research, Berlin / Boston 2017, p. 755.)
  36. The 18 fragments appeared in full for the first time in the Marx-Engels Complete Edition. Section I. Volume 5. Karl Marx. Friedrich Engels. German ideology. Manuscripts and fragments. De Gruyter Academy Research, Berlin / Boston 2017, p. 789 f. In addition to Marx and Engels, the texts come from Moses Hess, Joseph Weydemeyer and Roland Daniels.
  37. ^ Marx to Franz Damian Görtz on October 17, 1845; Marx to the same on November 10, 1845; Emigration consensus of December 1, 1845 ( Hubert Schiel : Die Umwelt des Junge Karl Marx. An unknown application for emigration from Karl Marx . Trier 1954, p. 29 ff., And Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe , Department III, Volume 1, p. 279– 280).
  38. ^ Karl Marx to the police headquarters in Cologne, April 13, 1848; Approval of the Cologne City Council, June 2, 1848; Friedrich von Kühlwetter to the municipal council in Cologne, September 12, 1848 (facsimiles in: Heinrich Billstein, Karl Obermann: Marx in Cologne. Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-7609-0766-0 , pp. 130-132) and Marx to Constantin von Zedlitz-Neukirch , March 19, 1861 ( Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 15, p. 623); Constantin von Zedlitz-Neukirch to Marx, March 21, 1861 (Marx-Engels Complete Edition, Section III, Volume 11, Letter 259).
  39. German: The misery of philosophy . Answer to Proudhon's Philosophy of Misery , 1885.
  40. The League of Communists . Volume 2, Berlin 1982, p. 266 ff.
  41. The League of Communists . Volume 2, Berlin 1982, p. 271.
  42. Marx-Engels-Yearbook 2011 , 210.
  43. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 394.
  44. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 394.
  45. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 416.
  46. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 415.
  47. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 414.
  48. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 415.
  49. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 534 f.
  50. “The amnesty has so far only induced very few to return home. In addition to the only Berlin celebrities, actuary Stein and 'Lindenmüller', only one refugee of a more well-known name has arrived here up to now, and indeed, as one hears, with the intention of permanent residence: Carl Marx, known for his literary work in the field of economics ". In: Königlich Privilegirte Berlinische Zeitung of state and learned things . No. 69 of March 22, 1861.
  51. ^ Klaus Mlynek , Waldemar R. Röhrbein (ed.): Hannover Chronik . P. 130, limited preview in Google Book search
  52. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 567.
  53. Karl Marx to Peter Le Neve Foster May 28, 1869. ( Writings from the Karl-Marx-Haus . 33, Trier 1986, p. 102 f. Here p. 103.)
  54. With the original gravestone: "Jenny von Westphalen The beloved wife of Karl Marx Born February 12. 1814 Died December 2. 1881 And Karl Marx Born May 5. 1818, died March 14, 1883 And Harry Longuet Their grandson Born July 4. 1878 , died March 20, 1883. And Helena Demuth Born January 1. 1823 (sic!), died November 14. 1890 “(Wilhelm Liebknecht in: Mohr und General . Berlin 1965, p. 175.)
  55. And added in 1956: And Eleanor Marx, Daughter of Karl Marx Born January 16. 1856 (sic!), Died March 31. 1898. (Chushichi Tsuzuki: Eleonor Marx. History of her life. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1981, ISBN 3-7678 -0437-9 , p. 297.)
  56. June 21, 1872. Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 33, p. 391.
  57. PN Fedosejew et al. a .: Karl Marx. Biography . Berlin 1973, p. 650.
  58. ^ The Hague Congress of the First International. September 2-7, 1872. Minutes and Documents . Translated by Richard Dixon and Alex Miller. Designed by Vladimir Yeryomin. Progress Publishers, Moscow 1976.
  59. ^ Marx-Engels works . Volume 18, p. 160.
  60. Marx-Engels Complete Edition . Department II. Volume 7, Berlin 1989.
  61. ^ Marx-Engels works . Volume 23, p. 31. Digitized version ( Memento from August 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  62. Marx-Engels Complete Edition . Section II. Volume 11. Manuscripts for the second book of “Capital” 1868 to 1881 . Berlin 2008.
  63. Marx-Engels Complete Edition . Department II. Volume 14, Berlin 2003, pp. 3–164.
  64. ^ Helmut Elsner: museum 66. Karl-Marx-Haus Trier . Westermann, Braunschweig 1983 ISSN  0341-8634 , p. 37. Translation: “… notorious agitator, leader of the international society and advocate of communist principles. This man was not even loyal to his own king and country. "
  65. ^ Egon Erwin Kisch : Karl Marx in Karlsbad. 3. Edition. Aufbau-Verlag, Berlin / Weimar 1983.
  66. More detailed Manfred Schöncke: Karl Marx and his spa stays in Karlsbad in the years 1874, 1875 and 1876. Biographical notes on the letters that have come down to us . In: Contributions to Marx-Engels research. New episode 2014/15. Argument, Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-86754-682-9 , pp. 259-283.
  67. ^ Heinrich Gemkow : Karl Marx 'last stay in Germany. As a spa guest in Bad Neuenahr in 1877 . Ed .: Marx-Engels-Foundation, Wuppertal. Plambeck, Neuss 1986, ISBN 3-88501-063-1 .
  68. Eugen Dühring: Critical History of National Economy and Socialism . 2nd partially revised edition. Greaves, Berlin 1875.
  69. Marx-Engels Complete Edition . Department I. Volume 27, Berlin 1988, pp. 131-216.
  70. Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 20, pp. 210-238. Digitized version ( Memento from August 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  71. A prominent English liberal on Marx. In: Memories of Karl Marx. Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1953, pp. 106-108.
  72. ^ Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant Duff to Victoria February 1, 1879 (English) Digitized
  73. ^ Marx to Engels May 8, 1882. (MEW 35, p. 61.)
  74. ^ Marlene Vesper: Marx in Algiers . Pahl-Rugenstein successor, Cologne 1995, ISBN 3-89144-200-9 .
  75. MEW Volume 35, p. 61.
  76. Harald Wessel : With Marx in mind to Monte Carlo. Visiting Professor Emile Bottigelli on the Côte d'Azur . In: Neues Deutschland , October 18, 1975.
  77. ^ Karl Marx Friedrich Engels June 5, 1882 (MEW Volume 35, p. 68 ff.)
  78. ^ Wilhelm Liebknecht. In: Karl Marx in memory. (Mohr and General.) Berlin 1965, p. 155.
  79. ^ Alfred E. Laurence: About three unpublished letters from Karl Marx to his doctor on the Isle of Wight from January 1883 . In: Yearbook of the Institute for Marxist Studies and Research , 8/1985. Frankfurt am Main 1985, pp. 375-382. DEA archive digitized
  80. ^ Member of the Royal College of Surgeons of England .
  81. death certificate. ( Marx & Engels. Catalog for the historical study exhibition on life and work . Trier 1977, fig. 39.).
  82. Their names live on through the centuries . Berlin 1983, p. 9 f.
  83. The Social Democrat . No. 14 of March 29, 1883. ( Their names live on through the centuries. Berlin 1983, p. 114.)
  84. ^ Inscription on the grave slab of the original grave of the Marx family ("[…] Their remains were removed and re-interred on 23rd November 1954 at the place nearby where a monument was erected on 14th March 1956").
    Tomb of Karl Marx and Family in Highgate (Eastern) Cemetry. In: www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  85. Christine Lindey: Laurence Bradshaw. Morning Star, April 3, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  86. ^ Asa Briggs: Marx in London. An illustrated guide. British Broadcasting Corporation, London 1982, ISBN 0-563-20076-6 , p. 80.
  87. ^ Marx monument unveiled in Highgate cemetery. The Guardian, March 15, 1956. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
    Tomb of Karl Marx and Family at Highgate (Eastern) Cemetry. In: www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  88. Christine Lindey: Laurence Bradshaw. Morning Star, April 3, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  89. Michael Knieriem : known and unknown personal historical data on Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, during the Brussels period 1845–1848 . In: Protocol of the international colloquium of the Marx-Engels-Stiftung eV on November 28, 1980 in Wuppertal-Elberfeld . Wuppertal 1981, p. 81.
  90. ^ Yvonne Kapp : Eleanor Marx. Vol I. Family life (1855-1883). London 1972, p. 21.
  91. ibid.
  92. Name not known as it was born on July 6, 1857 and died on the same day.
  93. Izumi Omura, Shunichi Kubo, Rolf Hecker, Valerij Fomičev (eds.): Karl Marx is my father. The documentation of Frederick Demuth's parentage. Karl Marx is my father. A documentation on the origins of Frederick Demuth. Far Eastern Booksellers, Tokyo 2011, ISBN 978-4-87394-004-5 .
  94. ^ Marx Myths and Legends , accessed August 26, 2013.
  95. François Devalek to Jenny Marx, October 15, 1851. (Rolf Hecker, Angelika Limmroth (ed). Jenny Marx's letters.. S. 111-112.)
  96. "It can be assumed that the child to be cared for was the ten-week-old Frederick Demuth [...]" Angelika Limmroth: Jenny Marx. The biography. Pp. 152–153, here p. 153.
  97. ^ Family Marx private . Akademie Verlag, Berlin 2005, Fig. 1 and pp. 234–235.
  98. ^ Family Marx private. The photo and questionnaire albums of Marx's daughters Laura and Jenny. An annotated facsimile edition . Edited by Izumi Omura, Valerij Fomičev, Rolf Hecker and Shun-ichi Kubo. With an essay by Iring Fetscher , Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-05-004118-8 , p. 234.
  99. According to a precise terminology, one speaks of capitalist production relations , but of an industrial mode of production . Both formulations occur in Marx.
  100. Georg Lukács: History and Class Consciousness. Studies on Marxist Dialectics. Malik, Berlin 1923, p. 186.
  101. Karl Marx: Digression on Productive Labor. Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 26.1: "A philosopher produces ideas, a poet produces poems, a pastor sermons, a professor produces compendia and so on"
  102. Theses on Feuerbach , MEGA Abt. IV. Volume 3, p. 21: "The philosophers have only interpreted the world in different ways , it depends on changing it "
  103. Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 1, p. 378.
  104. Introduction to the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 1, p. 379.
  105. ^ New-York Daily Tribune No. 3543, August 25, 1852
  106. Thus it is written: “For us communism is not a state that is to be established, an ideal according to which reality [will] have to orient itself. We call communism the real movement that abolishes the current situation. ”In: Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels: Die deutsche Ideologie. Marx-Engels Works. Volume 3, p. 35, 1846/1932.
  107. See for example: Karl Marx, General Statutes of the International Workers' Association. As decided by the London Congress in 1871 (Resolution IX); Art. 7a decided by the Hague Congress in 1872 : “In its struggle against the collective power of the possessing classes, the proletariat can only act as a class if it sees itself as a special political party in contrast to all the old parties formed by the possessing classes constituted. This constitution of the proletariat as a political party is indispensable in order to secure the triumph of the social revolution and its highest aim, the abolition of the classes. The unification of the forces of the working class already achieved through the economic struggle must also serve in the hands of this class as a lever in its struggle against the political power of its exploiters. Since the masters of the land and of capital always use their political privileges to defend and perpetuate their economic monopolies and to subjugate labor, the conquest of political power becomes the great duty of the proletariat. "London Conference of the International Workers' Association , Marx-Engels-Werke Volume 17, p. 422.
  108. ^ Lindner, Urs .: Marx and philosophy: scientific realism, ethical perfectionism and critical social theory . 1st edition. Butterfly Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart 2013, OCLC 848768262 , p. 18-19 .
  109. See also First Draft on the Civil War in France ( Memento from November 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) and Second Draft on the Civil War in France ( Memento from November 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  110. ^ Berlin Brandenburg Academy of Sciences. MEGA working group ( Memento from July 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  111. "I can not help myself, I see nothing here of an explanation and reconciliation of a conflict, but the bare contradiction itself." In: Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk: To the conclusion of the Marx system . In: Horst Meixner, Manfred Turban (ed.): Stages of civil Marx criticism . tape 1 . Andreas Achenbach, Giessen, p. 65 ( online ).
  112. a b Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk: At the end of the Marx system . In: Horst Meixner, Manfred Turban (ed.): Stages of civil Marx criticism . tape 1 . Andreas Achenbach, Giessen, p. 48 ff . ( online ).
  113. Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk: At the end of the Marx system . In: Horst Meixner, Manfred Turban (ed.): Stages of civil Marx criticism . tape 1 . Andreas Achenbach, Giessen, p. 66 ff . ( online ).
  114. Edmund Silberner : Socialists on the Jewish question. A contribution to the history of socialism from the beginning of the 19th century to 1914. Translated from English by Arthur Mandel. Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1962.
  115. Marx and Moses. Karl Marx on the “Jewish question” and the Jews . Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1980, ISBN 3-8204-6041-1 .
  116. ^ Karl Marx: On the Jewish question . In: Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe . Department I. Volume 2. Berlin 1982, pp. 164 and 166.
  117. ^ Hannah Arendt: Elements and origins of total domination . Piper, Munich 1986, p. 96 .
  118. Micha Brumlik: Deutscher Geist and Judenhass - The relationship of philosophical idealism to Judaism . Luchterhand, Munich 2000, p. 285 . See also Kurt Flasch: The euthanasia of Judaism. (Review). In: Berliner Zeitung . December 16, 2000.
  119. ^ Wolfgang Frindte: Staged anti-Semitism . VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, p. 85 .
  120. ^ Wolfgang Frindte: Staged anti-Semitism . VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2006, p. 84-85 .
  121. ^ Gotthard Feustel: Karl Marx on the world's postage stamps . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1990.
  122. ^ Call of the Central Committee of the SED to the Karl Marx Year 1953. In: Museum for German History: Marx-Engels exhibition in the former armory on Unter den Linden . Berlin 1953.
  123. Theses of the Central Committee of the SED on the Karl Marx Year 1983 . Dietz Verlag, Berlin 1982.
  124. Festschrift for the 20th year. Foundation celebration on October 18 and 19, 1952. Worms, Siedlergemeinschaft, 1952; Festschrift for the 50th anniversary. Foundation celebration on October 2nd, 1982 . Settler community, Worms 1982.
  125. Karl-Marx-Siedlung -Hierzuland -Landesschau Rheinland-Pfalz - SWR.de
  126. Gotthard Feustel, p. 96 f.
  127. Public Art Trier Retrieved on May 5, 2018.
  128. "Karl Marx - politician and philosopher - lived during his studies in Bonn in the years 1835/36 in Josefstrasse 29/31 and in Stockenstrasse 12."
  129. ^ Eberhard Gockel: Karl Marx in Bonn. Old addresses rediscovered. A contribution to the 2000 year Bonn anniversary as well as to the bicentenaire of the French Revolution . University Press, Bonn 1989, ISBN 3-924953-06-6 .
  130. The memorial plaque for Karl Marx and Otto Meissners Verlag will be inaugurated on April 12, 2017 at 11.00 a.m. In: Website Otto Meissner Verlag. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
  131. ^ Bahn baptizes new trains: An ICE4 named Einstein
  132. ^ Che Seibert: Karl Marx Project
  133. ^ "Greater London Council. Karl Marx 1818–1883 ​​lived here 1851–1856 ”.
  134. ^ Asea Briggs: Marx in London. An illustrated guide . British Broadcasting Corporation, London 1982, ISBN 0-563-20076-6 .
  135. Karlovy Vary
  136. DY 30/18725 Karl Marx Monument in Addis Ababa
  137. ^ Arno Maierbrugger: North Korea Handbook. On the move in a mysterious land . 2nd, updated and expanded edition. Trescher, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-89794-114-4 , pp. 45 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  138. Choe Sang-Hun: North Korean Leader Stresses Need for Strong Military. In: New York Times. April 15, 2012.
  139. Herbert Marcuse: The social theory of Soviet Marxism . Luchterhand Verlag, Neuwied 1964. Original edition: Soviet-Marxism: A Critical Analysis Columbia University Press, New York 1958.
  140. ^ Gareth Stedman Jones: Karl Marx. The biography . S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2017, p. 719.
  141. Opened on May 2, 1953.
  142. Website for the film with trailer, table of contents, etc. a. (www.der-junge-karl-marx.de).
  143. Tom Strohschneider : The great frown ; Review of the film from April 28, 2018 for the weekly newspaper Die Zeit (online at zeit.de, accessed on April 28, 2018).
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on November 19, 2006 .