|flag||coat of arms|
|Situation in Prussia|
|surface||26,239 km² (1822)
24,477 km² (1939)
|Population density||323 inhabitants / km²|
|administration||5 administrative districts|
|License Plate||IY and IZ|
Province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg
Province of the Grand Duchy of Lower Rhine
|Incorporated into||North Rhine-Westphalia ; Rhineland-Palatinate|
|Today part of||
Belgium ( Eupen-Malmedy )
The Rhine Province (Rhineland, Rhenish Prussia, the Rhineland ) was one of the Prussian provinces that formed the Prussian state from June 22, 1822 until it was dissolved after the Second World War . It covered the Rhineland from Saarbrücken to Kleve . The seat of the President and the other state administrative authorities for the province was Koblenz . The legislative and administrative headquarters for the provincial federation of the Rhine Province , a self-governing body for over municipal duties with the main organs governor and county council , was Dusseldorf . The northern part of this province is now in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia , the southern part in Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland . Smaller parts today belong to Hesse (former Wetzlar district ) and Belgium (former Eupen and Malmedy districts ).
Historically, the Rhineland has been shaped primarily by the Roman Empire , the Franconian Empire , the development of territorial states under the umbrella of the Holy Roman Empire , the conflicts described by the term “ Franco-German hereditary enmity ” and industrialization .
Before 1792, the later area of the Rhine Province was divided into four imperial districts , the Burgundian , Kurrheinische , Niederrheinisch-Westfälische and Upper Rhine districts, with over 50 territories that belonged to about as many sovereigns . In the Duchy of Kleve , parts of the Duchy of Geldern and in the Principality of Moers , this was the King of Prussia . In addition, there were around 30 lordships that were not included in a district association and were designated as imperial directors , as well as the imperial knighthood in two cantons of the Rhenish knightly circle with 75 owners of lordships or closed estates.
In the course of the Wars of Liberation , the areas along the Rhine came under Prussian administration and were fundamentally reorganized. The temporarily created General Governments of Middle Rhine , Lower Rhine and Berg formed the basis for the Rhine Province .
"I step among you with confidence, give yourselves back to your German fatherland, an old German prince tribe, and call you Prussia."
Meanwhile, the inhabitants of the Rhine Province often felt that they were Must Prussians . In particular, many feared the loss of “ Rhenish law ”, which manifested itself in the Cologne-Düsseldorf fraternization festival of 1843. Since the Rhenish bourgeoisie valued many of the achievements of the French Revolution , the Rhine Province was a stronghold of anti-Russian particularism and the democratic movement , especially the idea of popular sovereignty in the German Revolution of 1848/1849 .
The assignment of the Rhineland to Prussia was sealed under international law with the signing of the Vienna Congress Act on June 9, 1815. The historian Thomas Nipperdey assessed this as fundamental to the history of Germany :
“The relocation of Prussia to the Rhine is one of the fundamental facts of German history, one of the foundations for the founding of the empire in 1866/1871. With the Rhine Province, the artificial existence of Prussia, the division into an eastern and western half, was newly reinforced and more pronounced than ever before. That became the main driving force behind Prussian power politics; in the end, it was a matter of overcoming this split. Prussia's role as the protective power of Germany on the western border - in connection with the dichotomy - meant that his own security was inseparably linked to his position in Germany; his striving for a hegemonic position, at least in the north, was therefore almost a necessity. If the small Germans later spoke of a 'mission from Prussia' for the protection and therefore the unification of Germany, one must say that Prussia was strategically and geopolitically forced into this 'mission'. Finally - the defense task has newly stabilized and legitimized Prussian militarism; at the same time, the Rhine Province has made Prussia the strongest German economic power and further developed its peculiar modernity: the internal structure was also fundamentally shaped by this decision of 1815. "
Even during the Congress of Vienna, the ordinance on the improved establishment of the provincial authorities of April 30, 1815 planned and ordered a division into ten provinces for the foreseeable, substantially growing extent of the Prussian state. The details of the new border with the Netherlands were laid down in a border treaty in Aachen on June 26, 1816. The two provinces initially formed, Jülich-Kleve-Berg , based in Cologne, and the Grand Duchy of Lower Rhine , based in Koblenz , were united into one province by cabinet order of June 22, 1822, which after the unification of the two consistories and medical colleges became the Rhine provinces and from May 1830 at the latest the Rhine province was called. The integration always remained problematic, as both the Rhineland and Westphalia adhered to the civil and commercial law , the chambers of commerce and the municipal constitution that had been introduced by the Napoleonic French.
The seat of the Upper President of the Rhine Province, i.e. the provincial government, was Koblenz. The high presidium initially had its seat there in the former electoral palace and from 1911 in a neo-baroque building on today's Stresemannstrasse (now the North Structure and Approval Directorate ). The Rhine Province was divided into the five administrative districts of Aachen , Düsseldorf (including Kleve , which was dissolved in 1822 ), Koblenz , Cologne and Trier . The administrative districts were in turn divided into districts with around 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants each.
The area of the Rhine Province was almost closed. The principality of Birkenfeld , later the district of Birkenfeld , belonged to the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg or the Free State of Oldenburg as an exclave until 1937 , before Birkenfeld was incorporated into the Rhine Province under the Greater Hamburg Act . Another enclave formed from 1816 to 1834 an exclave of the Duchy of Saxony-Coburg , which was elevated to the Principality of Lichtenberg in 1819 . Lichtenberg was sold to Prussia in 1834, with whom it had been linked in a customs union since 1830, and incorporated into the Rhine Province. In 1866 the Hessian Oberamt Meisenheim was incorporated . The district of Wetzlar was the only exclave in the Rhine Province until 1932 .
When the two principalities of Sigmaringen and Hechingen came to Prussia in 1850, they were combined as the Hohenzollern Lands and given the status of a Prussian province. They formed the Sigmaringen administrative district , for which various administrative relationships with the Rhine province existed.
The political and cultural integration of the Rhine Province into the State of Prussia was a great challenge. After all, the Rhineland was more advanced in terms of industry and trade than the other, largely agrarian provinces, and the Rhenish bourgeoisie was correspondingly self-confident, while in the rest of Prussia the primacy of the nobility was still undisputed. In addition, the majority of the Rhine Province was Catholic, which also led to reservations about the new authorities.
After the First World War , the western Rhineland was occupied by French, Belgian, British and American troops in 1918 (see: Allied occupation of the Rhineland ); the last occupation troops evacuated the Rhineland in 1930, five years before the date stipulated in the Versailles Peace Treaty . In the Versailles Treaty of 1919, the spatial division was also reorganized. The southern part of the Rhineland province (for the individual districts and cities see overview below) was spun off in 1920 and forms the Saar area with the former Bavarian-Palatinate area of the Saar -Palatinate district . The demarcation was based on the places of residence of the miners who worked in the coal mines in the region. In 1920 it was placed under French administration for 15 years with a mandate from the League of Nations .
With the Prussian strike of 1932, the governing authority of the Upper President was also effectively abolished in the Rhine Province, which facilitated the harmonization , which had been vigorously pursued after the Nazi takeover . When, after the Saar referendum on January 13, 1935, the Saar area came back to the German Reich , it was not re-annexed to the Rhine Province, but retained a special political position in which it was in fact more and more intertwined with the Bavarian Palatinate, as stated in the proclamation of the Reichsgau Westmark culminated. In March 1936, Hitler pushed through remilitarization with the German occupation of the Rhineland .
Even before the end of World War II , the United States of America established a provincial government in the Rhine Province with its seat in Bonn . On April 30, 1945, they appointed the former chief president Hans Fuchs as its head. With the division of Germany into zones of occupation agreed upon by the Allies at the Yalta Conference, the northern part of the Rhine Province - the administrative districts of Aachen , Düsseldorf and Cologne - was initially classified as a ` ` Zones of Occupation '' in accordance with the Berlin Declaration of June 5, 1945 and the statement on the same day North Rhine Province was partly part of the British zone of occupation , while the administrative districts of Koblenz and Trier to the south were assigned to the French zone of occupation . After this step, the British relocated the Upper Presidium of the Province of North Rhine-Westphalia from Bonn to Düsseldorf , dismissed Fuchs and appointed the former Lord Mayor Robert Lehr as Chief President. By regulation No. 46 of the military government of August 23, 1946 "Dissolution of the provinces of the former state of Prussia in the British zone and their new formation as independent states", the British merged the area of the administrative districts of Aachen, Düsseldorf and Cologne ( province of North Rhine ) with the former Prussian province of Westphalia to the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in order to create territorial facts, since France claimed the entire left bank of the Rhine after the war (see History of North Rhine-Westphalia - Immediate Post-War Period and Foundation of North Rhine-Westphalia ) . On October 11, 1946, William Asbury , the British civil governor for North Rhine-Westphalia, finally instructed the North Rhine-Westphalian state government to abolish the still existing high presidencies of the provinces of North Rhine and Westphalia in Düsseldorf and Münster and to take over their powers, which then also happened on October 20, 1946 and ended the Provincial history.
The southern area of the Rhine province, which had become part of the French occupation zone with the administrative districts of Koblenz and Trier, together with the western Nassau areas ( Montabaur ) formed the province of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau , since August 1946 the largest part of the state of Rhineland - Palatinate . In July over 100 parishes - v. a. the area on both sides of the lower Saar river - was annexed to the Saar area, which was only partially reversed when the area was exchanged between Rhineland-Palatinate and the Saar area on June 8, 1947, so that today's Saarland remained Prussian from 1920 to 1935, especially in the area Wadern and Perl .
In later referendums, the southern Rhinelander and the former Bavarian Palatinate decided to maintain the status quo and thus for the state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The current state border between North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate happens to correspond to a relatively sharp dialect border . The Ripuarian dialect , also known as " Cologne dialect ", is spoken up to a few kilometers south of the state border, more precisely up to the Vinxtbach line (Dorp / Dorf-Isoglosse) , while south of this line it is Moselle-Franconian dialects .
Area and population development
Before the First World War , the province covered an area of 27,000 km². After Eupen-Malmedy and the Saar area were ceded in 1920 and the borders with the province of Westphalia in the Ruhr area and the province of Hesse-Nassau in the Wetzlar area changed, the area decreased to 24,477 km² by 1939.
Administrative division of the Rhine Province
Districts that still exist today are shown in bold .
- District of Aachen
- Düren district
- Erkelenz district
- District of Eupen ( until October 31, 1922, called "Restkreis" from September 20, 1920, initially in the Eupen-Malmedy governorate , part of Belgium from 1925 , re-established on May 18, 1940, 1945 finally part of Belgium)
- District of Geilenkirchen ( until August 9, 1933, then District of Geilenkirchen-Heinsberg )
- District of Geilenkirchen-Heinsberg (from August 10, 1933)
- County Heinsberg ( until 30 September 1932 followed by the district Geilenkirchen , in the August 10, 1933 County Geilenkirchen Heinsberg was renamed )
- Jülich district
- District of Malmedy ( until October 31, 1922, from September 20, 1920 called "Remaining District", initially in the Gouvernement Eupen-Malmedy, from 1925 part of the state of Belgium , re-established on May 18, 1940, 1945 finally part of Belgium)
- County Montjoie ( until 31 May 1920 and then in the district Monschau renamed )
- Schleiden district
- District of Dinslaken (from April 1, 1909)
- District of Duisburg ( until January 23, 1874, then several communities in the city of Duisburg )
- District of Düsseldorf ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Düsseldorf-Mettmann )
- District of Düsseldorf-Mettmann (from August 1, 1929)
- Elberfeld district
- District of Essen ( until July 31, 1929, then most of the communities in the city of Essen )
- District of Geldern
- District of Gladbach ( until July 31, 1929 , now mainly the city of Mönchengladbach )
- District of Grevenbroich ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Grevenbroich-Neuss )
- District of Grevenbroich-Neuss (from August 1, 1929)
- District of Kempen ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Kempen-Krefeld )
- Kempen-Krefeld district (from August 1, 1929)
- District of Kleve (meanwhile notation Cleve)
- District of Krefeld ( now spelled Crefeld, until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Kempen-Krefeld )
- District of Lennep ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Solingen-Lennep , which was renamed Rhein-Wupper-Kreis in 1931 )
- District of Mettmann ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Düsseldorf-Mettmann )
- District of Moers
- District of Mülheim an der Ruhr (from January 24, 1874 to March 31, 1910)
- District of Neuss ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Grevenbroich-Neuss )
- Rees district ( since May 20, 1842 Rees district with seat in Wesel )
- Rhein-Wupper district (from 1931)
- District of Ruhrort (from July 1, 1887 to March 31, 1909)
- District of Solingen ( until July 31, 1929, then in the district of Solingen-Lennep , which was renamed Rhein-Wupper-Kreis in 1931 )
- District of Solingen-Lennep ( from August 1, 1929 until it was renamed Rhein-Wupper-Kreis in 1931 )
- City Barmen ( from 1 June 1861 to 31 July 1929 then district of the city Barmen-Elberfeld , in the Jan. 25, 1930 City of Wuppertal has been renamed )
- City of Barmen-Elberfeld ( from August 1, 1929 to January 24, 1930, then renamed the City of Wuppertal )
- City of Duisburg ( from January 24, 1874 to July 31, 1929, then city of Duisburg-Hamborn , renamed again to City of Duisburg from April 1, 1935 )
- City of Duisburg-Hamborn ( from August 1, 1929 to March 31, 1935, then renamed City of Duisburg )
- City of Düsseldorf (from April 20, 1872)
- City Elberfeld ( from 1 June 1861 to 31 July 1929 then district of the city Barmen-Elberfeld , in the January 25, 1930 City of Wuppertal has been renamed )
- City of Essen (from February 28, 1873)
- City of Gladbach-Rheydt ( from August 1, 1929, re-establishment of the cities of Munich-Gladbach and Rheydt on August 1, 1933 )
- City of Hamborn ( from May 1, 1911 to July 31, 1929, then City of Duisburg-Hamborn , then until now part of the city of Duisburg )
- Krefeld ( as of October 14, 1872 [first in the spelling Crefeld until 25 November 1925], on August 1, 1929 in Krefeld-Uerdingen a. Rh. Renamed )
- City of Krefeld-Uerdingen a. Rh. ( From August 1, 1929, renamed the city of Krefeld on April 1, 1940 )
- City of Mülheim an der Ruhr (from January 1, 1904)
- City of Munich-Gladbach ( from January 1, 1888 to July 31, 1929, then City of Gladbach-Rheydt, from August 1, 1933 back to Munich-Gladbach [without the city of Rheydt ], now Mönchengladbach )
- City of Neuss (from April 1, 1913)
- City of Oberhausen (from April 1, 1901)
- City of Remscheid (from January 1, 1888)
- City of Rheydt ( from August 1, 1929 to July 31, 1933, part of the city of Gladbach-Rheydt)
- City of Solingen (from April 1, 1896)
- City of Sterkrade ( from July 1, 1917 to July 31, 1929, then incorporated into the city of Oberhausen )
- City of Viersen (from August 1, 1929)
- City of Wuppertal (from January 25, 1930)
(Administrative headquarters: Prussian government building in Koblenz)
- Adenau district ( until September 30, 1932, divided between the Ahrweiler and Mayen districts )
- Ahrweiler district
- Altenkirchen district (Westerwald)
- Birkenfeld district (from April 1, 1937)
- Braunfels district (until 1822)
- District of Cochem
- District of Koblenz (spelling until 1926 Coblenz)
- Kreuznach district
- Linz district (until 1822)
- Mayen County
- District of Meisenheim ( until September 30, 1932, then in the district of Kreuznach )
- Neuwied district
- District of Sankt Goar
- District of Siegen (on June 1, 1817 to the administrative district of Arnsberg )
- Simmern district
- Wetzlar district (until September 30, 1932 [exclave])
- District of Zell (Mosel)
- City of Koblenz (from October 1, 1887, spelling until 1926 Coblenz)
- District of Bergheim (Erft)
- District of Bonn
- District of Euskirchen
- Gummersbach district ( until September 30, 1932, then to Oberbergischer Kreis )
- District of Cologne (original spelling Cöln)
- District of Mülheim am Rhein ( until September 30, 1932, then to the Rheinisch-Bergisches Kreis )
- Oberbergischer Kreis
- District of Rheinbach ( until September 30, 1932, then to the district of Euskirchen )
- Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis
- Waldbröl district ( until September 30, 1932, then to the Oberbergischer Kreis )
- Wipperfürth district ( until September 30, 1932, then to the Rheinisch-Bergisches Kreis )
- City of Bonn (from October 1, 1887)
- City of Cologne (original spelling Cöln)
- City of Mülheim am Rhein (from May 1, 1901 to March 31, 1914, then part of Cologne)
- Bernkastel district
- Bitburg district
- District of Daun ( until December 31, 2006, then renamed the District of Vulkaneifel )
- District Merzig ( until 30 September 1920 and then divided into a southern part of the Saar region and the northern part of the rest of Merzig-Wadern , 1946 reunion of ordinary county Merzig and rest Merzig to district Merzig-Wadern as part of the Saarland )
- Remaining district of Merzig-Wadern (from October 1, 1920 to 1946)
- District of Ottweiler ( until September 30, 1920, then in the Saar area)
- County of Prüm
- District of Saarbrücken ( until September 30, 1920, then in the Saar area)
- Saarburg district
- District of Saarlouis ( until September 30, 1920, then in the Saar area)
- District of Sankt Wendel ( until September 30, 1920, then partly in the Saar area and in the remaining district of Sankt Wendel-Baumholder)
- Remaining district of Sankt Wendel-Baumholder ( from October 1, 1920 to March 31, 1937, then in the Birkenfeld district )
- District of Trier
- Wittlich district
- City of Saarbrücken ( from September 7, 1909 to September 30, 1920, then in the Saar area)
- City of Trier
Other important cities in North Rhine-Westphalia
Other important cities in the southern Rhineland
- Then after
- Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler
- Linz on the Rhine
(Office: Upper Presidium of the Rhine Province in Koblenz)
- 1815–1822 Friedrich zu Solms-Laubach (Province of Jülich-Kleve-Berg; Office: Cologne)
- 1815–1816 Johann August Sack (Lower Rhine Province; Office: Koblenz)
- 1816–1822 Karl von Ingersleben (Lower Rhine Province; Office: Koblenz)
- 1822–1831 Karl von Ingersleben
- 1831–1834 Philipp von Pestel
- 1834–1842 Ernst von Bodelschwingh the Elder
- 1842–1845 Eduard von Schaper
- 1845–1848 Franz August Eichmann
- 1848 Eduard von Moeller
- 1848–1850 Franz August Eichmann
- 1850–1851 Rudolf von Auerswald
- 1851–1858 Hans Hugo von Kleist-Retzow
- 1858–1871 Adolf von Pommer Esche
- 1872–1889 Moritz von Bardeleben
- 1889–1890 Hans Hermann von Berlepsch
- 1890–1905 Berthold von Nasse
- 1905–1910 Clemens Freiherr von Schorlemer-Lieser
- 1910–1918 Georg von Rheinbaben
- 1918–1922 Rudolf von Groote
- 1922 – March 1933 Johannes Fuchs , center
- 1933–1935 Hermann von Lüninck
- 1935–1945 Josef Terboven , NSDAP
- April – June 1945 Johannes Fuchs , Center ( High President of the Rhine Province, Office: Bonn)
- June – October 1945 Johannes Fuchs, Center (President of the Province of North Rhine-Westphalia , Office: Bonn)
- October 1945 to August 1946 Robert Lehr , CDU (Upper President of the Province of North Rhine, Office: Düsseldorf)
- December 1945 to December 1946 Wilhelm Boden , CDP (Upper President of the Province of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau , Office: Koblenz)
In the province, the governor (until 1897: "Landesdirektor") was an official elected by the Rhenish Prussian provincial parliament since 1875. He headed the provincial self-government and was elected for a minimum of six and a maximum of twelve years. The regional council and technical officials, especially for the construction industry, stood by his side as auxiliary bodies. The provincial self-government had its seat in Düsseldorf since July 1, 1873. There, located directly on the knee of the Rhine , the official residence of the Rhenish governor from 1911 was Villa Horion next to the state house , in which the central administration of the Rhenish provincial association was housed. The governors were:
- 1875–1883: Hugo von Landsberg-Steinfurt
- 1883–1903: Friedrich Wilhelm Klein (1834–1908)
- 1903–1921: Ludwig von Renvers
- 1922–1933: Johannes Horion , center
- 1933–1945: Heinrich Haake , NSDAP
The first Provincial Diets in the Kingdom of Prussia were initially ordered under the name of "Provincial Estates" by the General Law due to the arrangement of the Provincial Estates of June 5, 1823. More detailed provisions on the Rhine Province contained the Act for an order of the provincial levels for the Rhine provinces of 27 March 1824. The County Council of the Rhine Province was held from 1826 to 1933 and was based in Dusseldorf.
Only landowners had the right of representation there. In addition to five so-called noblemen, former imperial estates who owned viril votes , the provincial estates of the Rhine Province consisted of 25 representatives each from the knighthood (owners of manors ), the cities and the rural landowners.
From 1826 to 1843 his conference venues were the old chancellery on the market square , today part of the Düsseldorf town hall , from 1843 to 1851 the former governor's palace on Mühlenstrasse, from 1851 to 1872 the former electoral Düsseldorf palace on Burgplatz, and between 1872 and 1879 the auditorium of the city hall Secondary school on Klosterstrasse and finally, between 1880 and 1933, the specially built Ständehaus on Schwanenspiegel .
On December 15, 1933, the "Law to Dissolve the Provincial Diets" was promulgated. The provincial administration was attached to the Oberpräsident von Lüninck in Koblenz, who from then on took over the tasks and responsibilities of the dissolved provincial parliament and appointed the governor to be his permanent representative at the provincial administration. The office remained in Düsseldorf.
100% missing seats = nominations not represented in the provincial assembly
Elections to the Reichstag
The Rhine province was for elections to the Reichstag of the Weimar Republic following constituencies assigned
- Constituency 20 Cologne-Aachen
- Constituency 21 Koblenz-Trier
- Constituency 22 Düsseldorf-Ost
- Constituency 23 Düsseldorf-West
- Wetzlar exclave to constituency 19 Hessen-Nassau
After the Rhine province was added as a Prussian area, the Prussian state launched a major road construction program to improve infrastructure and economy. For example, a new continuous embankment road was built along the Rhine. A section between Bingen and Koblenz had already been completed by the French. Prussian milestones were set up to display the distance, most of which are still preserved today.
In 1828 there were 17 grammar schools in the Rhine Province (the year of Prussian recognition in brackets): Königliches Gymnasium zu Aachen (1814/16), Königlich-Prussisches Gymnasium Bonn (1814/16), Stiftisches Gymnasium Duisburg (1821), Stiftisches Gymnasium Düren ( 1826), Königliches Katholisches Gymnasium Düsseldorf (1815), Evangelisches Gymnasium Elberfeld (1824), Königliches Gymnasium zu Essen (1819/24), Königliches Gymnasium zu Cleve (1782/1817), Königliches Gymnasium Coblenz (1814/20), Königliches Katholisches Gymnasium at Marzellen (1815) and the Royal Friedrich Wilhelm High School in Cologne (1825; name since 1830, previously the Carmelite College), the Royal High School in Kreuznach (1819), the Royal High School in Münstereifel (1825/31), the Royal High School in Saarbrücken (1818 / 22), grammar school in Trier (1815), scholarly school and higher school in Wesel (1613 and 1823/25) and royal grammar school in Wetzlar (1817). Teacher seminars were held in Brühl, Neuwied, Moers and Trier, and later in Kempen and Bacharach .
In 1843 , 3727 pupils were taught at 19 grammar schools, to which the Royal High School in Emmerich was added in 1830/32 and the Rhenish Knight Academy in Bedburg in 1842 , of which 163 passed the Abitur.
1861 there was in the Rhine Province
- 22 high schools; in the meantime the following had been added: Royal High School in Kempen (1855/57), Royal Catholic High School at the Apostle Church in Cologne (1860), High School in Neuss (1852); From 1852 the Royal Catholic High School in Hedingen near Sigmaringen was also subordinate to the Provincial School College ,
- 13 Progymnasien : Andernach (1815/63), Erkelenz (1856), Jülich (1862), Linz (1846/55), M. Gladbach (1846), Moers (1824), Neuwied (1819/25 Progymnasium secondary classes at the higher citizen school ), Prüm (1852), Saarlouis (1816), Siegburg (1855), St. Wendel (1856), Trarbach (1855), Wipperfürth (1855),
- eleven secondary schools : Aachen (1859/61), Barmen (1834), secondary school at the Stiftisches Gymnasium Duisburg (1831/59/62), Düsseldorf (1838/59), Elberfeld (1846/59), 2 in Cologne (1829/58) including the real department of the Friedrich-Wilhelm-Gymnasium (1862), Krefeld (1819/60), Mülheim an der Ruhr (1859), Ruhrort (1857/62), Trier (1859),
- Ten Higher Civil Schools : Crefeld (1859/62), Kerpen (1860), Lennep (1849/55), Mayen (1862), M. Gladbach (1829/60) Mülheim am Rhein (1830), Neuwied (1825), Rheydt (1827), Solingen (1841), Trier (1846/47); In addition, there are higher city schools in some cities
- eight provincial trade schools : Aachen (1856), Barmen (1863), Elberfeld (1825), Koblenz (1855), Cologne (1833), Crefeld (1851), Saarbrücken (1856), Trier (1830),
- three higher weaving schools : Elberfeld (1845), Krefeld (1855), Mülheim am Rhein (1852),
- 3895 elementary schools (2856 Catholic, 1009 Protestant, 30 Jewish) and 275 licensed private schools,
- five deaf-mute institutions : Aachen (1832/86), Brühl (1854), Kempen (1841), Cologne (1828/31) and Neuwied (1854) and
- an institution for the blind : Düren (1842/45).
At the public schools, in which 520,940 children were educated, 2512 teachers and 840 teachers were employed. 12,312 children attended private schools. School supervision was carried out by school and church councils in the district governments.
From the early days on, the number of secondary schools in the Rhine Province grew considerably. Around 1900 there were 45 grammar schools, 15 grammar schools, 10 upper grammar schools, 17 grammar schools, 20 grammar schools, three grammar schools and crafts and arts and crafts schools or technical schools. There was a university in Bonn (1818), a technical college in Aachen (1870), a commercial college in Cologne (1901), an agricultural academy in Bonn - Poppelsdorf (1847), a cadet institute in Bensberg (1840), and a war school in Engers (1863), an art academy in Düsseldorf (1819) and 10 teachers' seminars.
The " Provinzial Rheinland Holding - A company of the savings banks " has been running since 2002 as a competitor company in the form of a legally competent public law institution in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia in the area of the Rhineland Regional Association and in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in the area of the former administrative districts of Koblenz and Trier in the borders of December 31, 1966 (now: regional area of responsibility of the Structure and Approval Directorate North ) the activities of the "Provinzial-Feuerversicherungsanstalt der Rheinprovinz" and the "Provinzial-Lebensversicherungsanstalt der Rheinprovinz" continue. Until September 2005, the Deutsche Rentenversicherung Rheinland called itself "LVA (Landesversicherungsanstalt) Rheinprovinz", which goes back to the old Prussian province.
In numerous places in the Rhineland and Saarland, the street name " Provinzialstrasse " still exists today for current state or federal roads , the road construction load of which was borne by the provincial administration of the Rhine Province.
- Rhenish place names
- Rhenish Court of Auditors and Cassation (Supreme Court from 1819 to 1852)
- 20th Century: History of the Ruhr Area
- Rhenish Republic
- People's Mill of Europe
- Landscape Assembly Rhineland (Rhenish Council)
- Wilhelm Hackmann: Description of the Rhine province in sketches and pictures. Essen 1903 ( Dilibri ).
- Victor Steinecke: Regional studies of the Rhine province. Leipzig 1907 ( dilibri )
- Gustav Croon: The Rhenish Provincial Parliament until 1874. Cologne / Bonn 1974 (reprint from 1918).
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