History of the Ruhr area
The history of the Ruhr area describes the development of a region that was already an important traffic junction in the Middle Ages and gained great importance in the age of industrialization due to its coal deposits .
In the Middle Ages, counties developed in the region , the most important of which were those of the Counts of Berg , the Counts of Mark and the Counts of Cleves . With the Hellweg there was a continuous economic traffic axis in the region. Important cities in the region developed along the road. Since the end of the 14th century, the Counts of the Mark were counts, later dukes of Cleves. From 1521 onwards, all of the count's territories in the area of the United Duchies were brought together under one rule.
As early as 1609, Kleve and Mark fell to the Electorate of Brandenburg , which marked the beginning of a development towards Prussian rule in the region. By the beginning of the 19th century Prussia also took control of some smaller territories in the Ruhr region, such as the spiritual territories of Werden and Essen. Finally, the area of the county of Dortmund was also brought under Prussian rule. This meant that the large number of territories inherited from the Middle Ages had finally fallen to one ruler, and the development of the industrial region in a uniform legal system had become possible. Only the Prussian provincial borders ran within the Ruhr area. As administrative district boundaries, they have been preserved to the present day. In 1946, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia was formed around the Ruhr area.
The Ruhr area was considered crucial for the control of the German economy during the reconstruction period and should be protected from French or Soviet access. The planned creation of a regional council for the Ruhr area will take into account the uniform economic development of the region in a reformed administrative system in the state.
Prehistory and early history
465 million years ago the Ruhr area lay on the small continent Avalonia , to which the cores of northern Germany, Belgium, central England, central Ireland Newfoundland and Nova Scotia belonged. In the Lower Devonian, the small continent collided with Laurussia .
In carbon , a geological section of the Paleozoic Era , which began 360 million years ago and ended 300 million years ago, formed layers with shale , coal and sandstone . 400 to 300 million years ago, new mountains formed in the Variscan Orogeny .
The layers that became coal seams over millions of years were deposited in the Westfalium . During this period of the earth's history, the swampy landscape and the floods of the sea alternated, so that the deposits of plant materials and sediments of the sea are passed down today as a series of layers of coal and rocks lying in between.
The dominant representatives of the flora in the coal swamps were the genera Lepidodendrales and Sigillaria , tree-like plants that belong to the plant division of the bear moss plants (Lycopodiophyta). The representatives of both genera reached sizes of up to 40 meters with a trunk diameter of over one meter.
In the Cretaceous Period 135 million years ago to about 65 million years ago, a tropical ocean covered the country. Ammonites lived in its water . A thick layer of marl formed at the bottom of the sea . The sediments were deposited over the layers of carbon and also preserved the shells of giant ammonites.
The ice age brought a change between warm and cold periods. During the Drenthe stages of the Saale Ice Age , the glaciation of northern Germany reached as far as the Ruhr , which lies in front of the northern edge of the low mountain range . The morphology of the middle and lower Ruhr valley was shaped by the flowing melt water and the force of the ice. The meltwater flowed west through the Ruhr valley. Where Essen is located today , the outflow was temporarily blocked by a barrier made of ice masses and rubble, so that a huge ice age lake was dammed up that filled the valley near Schwerte .
80,000 BC BC - The region of today's Ruhr area was settled in the Middle Paleolithic at the time of the Neanderthals around 80,000 years ago. During the construction of the Rhine-Herne Canal in Herne in 1911, stone tools and storage marks with bones of woolly rhinoceros , bison and mammoth were found. People camped in other places in the Emschertal as well . Further finds from the 1960s prove this for the Boyetal (pronounced Beu) between Bottrop and Gladbeck .
8700 BC Chr. - The finds made in November 1978 of Stone Age flint tools from Duisburg Kaiserberg belong in the late phase of the last ice age and can v to about 9,000 to 8,000 years. To be dated. The oldest remains of anatomically modern people in the area of today's metropolitan area come from the early Mesolithic . They were discovered in the spring of 2004 in the leaf cave near Hagen-Hohenlimburg .
Middle and New Stone Age 6000–4500 BC Chr. - From the La Hoguette group finds of pottery are known which cause the lip seen as the northern distribution line. Several settlements in the vicinity of Bochum , Hagen and Dortmund are known from the band ceramics and the Rössen culture . In spring 2004 the skeletons of several people of the Michelsberg culture were discovered in the leaf cave near Hagen-Hohenlimburg . Among them was the skeleton of a 17 to 22 year old woman. These finds are the only closed evidence of burials from this period in the conurbation on the Rhine and Ruhr.
The history of the Ruhr area in the ancient era can be roughly divided into two phases:
Conquest of the Germanic peoples
Finds on a burial ground in Oespel near the Oespeler Bach indicate a settlement in the early Bronze Age . Large amounts of charred grain and acorns were found in cylinder pits on the edge of the burial ground, which were dated back to the 17th to 18th centuries BC using the radiocarbon method . With the few circular ditches in relation to the number of graves, the grave field of Gladbeck sets itself apart from the well-known Young Bronze Age (1700 to 1200 BC) grave fields in northern and north-eastern Westphalia, where it was customary to keep the majority of burials.
From around 1100 BC Population groups belonging to the Urnfield Culture immigrated to the Ruhr area, which became a peripheral area of the cultural area. This immigration was associated with a considerable increase in the population, which is proven by numerous grave finds. In the Duisburg area, cemeteries of the Urnfield people were found in Wedau , Beeck , Obermeiderich , Hamborn , Marxloh , Bruckhausen , Wittfeld and Neumühl .
The Proto-Celtic population that immigrated from the south came from around 800 BC. Chr. Increasingly under the pressure of populations immigrating from the north-west into the Ruhr area, who can be identified as Proto-Germanic due to the pottery . Between 600 and 400 BC The process of conquering the Germanic peoples in the Ruhr area should have been completed.
The Germanic groups crossed to the left bank of the Rhine and displaced the Celtic population from what is now the Netherlands and parts of what is now Belgium . This process is largely in the dark historically, there are no written sources, only archaeological evidence provides information about it.
Confrontation between the Germans and the Romans
Until 13 BC Chr.
During the conquest of Gaul by Gaius Iulius Caesar , we received for the first time more detailed information about the Germanic tribes who settled in the Ruhr area. The Sugambres settled east of the Rhine, south of the Lippe as far as the Bergisches Land, the Usipeters to the north of the Lippe on the Rhine , the Brukterer to the east, the Martians villages to the east of Dortmund and the Ubier and Tenkerians to the south in the Cologne area .
For the first time the Germanic tribes settling in the Ruhr area came with the Romans in the year 55 BC. When the Tenkerer and Usipeter invaded Gaul, were defeated there by Caesar and after the defeat fled to the Sugambrians and asked for asylum there. The Sugambres opposed Caesar's demand to hand over the asylum seekers.
From around the year 50 BC. The area on the left bank of the Rhine was under Roman control and belonged to the Roman province of "Gallia comata". In the year 16. BC The tribes of the Sugambrer, Usipeter and Tenkerer invaded the Roman province. The army of the Roman provincial governor Marcus Lollius Paulinus was defeated by the Germanic peoples, who managed to capture the legionary eagle of the 5th Legion. The defeat went down in Roman history as the “ Clades Lolliana ”. Under the impression of defeat, Augustus went to Gaul and stayed there until 13 BC. The defeat of Lollius is often used in literature as a trigger for the beginning of 12 BC. Roman attempt to conquer Germania.
Roman attempt to conquer Germania 12 BC Chr. To 16 AD
Between 12. BC and AD 16, the Romans tried by numerous campaigns in the interior of Germania to subdue the free Germanic tribes and to move the imperial border from the Rhine to the Elbe .
At the same time, the Rhine border was secured by the establishment of Roman military camps. The most important Roman military camp Vetera near Xanten was built in 13 and 12 BC. Built in BC. In the year 12 BC The construction of the Roman Asciburgium fort on the border between today's Moers and Duisburg and the Werthhausen fort in today's Duisburg-Rheinhausen also fell . From this time on, the Romans began to expand the Lower Germanic Limes .
During the second campaign in 11 BC BC, the Roman troops under Drusus pushed along the Lippe eastward and reached the Weser . To control the Sugambrians who were settling in the Ruhr area, Drusus had an army camp set up near Oberaden .
A large part of the Sugrambrer was born in 8 BC. Relocated to the left Lower Rhine to bring the tribe under the control of the Roman legionary camp Vetera. The army camp in Oberaden was then abandoned. The Sugambrers who remained on the right bank of the Rhine were absorbed by the neighboring tribes, the Sugambrers who had moved to the left bank of the Rhine were later referred to as Cugernians .
At the turn of the times, Roman military bases were set up along the Lippe. Well known are the Roman camp Holsterhausen, the Roman camp Haltern , both in the Recklinghausen district and the most easterly discovered camp in Anreppen in the Paderborn district . The best-researched fort is Haltern am See, where there is now a Roman museum .
Even after the Varus Battle in autumn 9 AD, the Romans invaded the Germania on the right bank of the Rhine in several campaigns. The campaign affecting the Ruhr area took place in the spring of 14, when an army under Germanicus moved up the lip to the east of Lünen and marched back to the Rhine via the Hellweg . From 17 onwards no more important campaigns took place here and the Romans withdrew to the left bank of the Rhine.
Romanization and border security
In the first century AD, after the expansionist efforts were abandoned with the establishment of the Lower Germanic Limes, the border security phase began. The process of Romanization , which had begun under Augustus , gained increasing momentum in the first two centuries, as numerous former soldiers, who came from all parts of the Roman Empire, settled in the border belt on the Rhine and thus helped shape the population of Lower Germany. In addition, there were the soldiers of the Germanic auxiliary troops who, after 25 years of service, started their own business as merchants or farmed with their release money. But the economic life of the local Germanic population also flourished, as the troops stationed on the Rhine had to be supplied and equipped.
Against the background of the civil war fought in the Roman Empire and the withdrawal of Roman troops from the Rhine border, the Batavians were supposed to provide further troop contingents, which in the summer of 69 AD led to the Batavian revolt under Iulius Civilis . Asciburgium and Vetera were destroyed. At Vetera there was a battle in the year 70, in which the Roman troops were victorious. The legion camps were rebuilt.
Around 90 there was a reorganization of the Roman administration by separating the Upper and Lower Germanic military district from the province of Belgium and forming the provinces of Upper and Lower Germany. The area on the left bank of the Rhine north of Andernach belonged to the province of Germania inferior from then on .
Crisis and collapse of Roman rule on the Rhine
At the beginning of the 3rd century several Germanic tribes on the right bank of the Rhine joined together to form the Franconian tribal association , which is divided into two groups: the Upper Franconians and the Lower Franconians, who had their domicile on the right Lower Rhine and into which the tribes of the Sugambrer, Salian Franks , Chamavers and Chattuarians opened. The tribal name was common among the Romans from the middle of the 3rd century.
After there had been raids by smaller Germanic groups into Roman territory since the beginning of the 3rd century, a larger group of Frankish warriors broke through the Lower Germanic Limes in the winter of 256/257 and penetrated deep into the Roman province of Gaul. Since the Roman troops were concentrated on the Limes, the Franks encountered little resistance in the interior of the Roman province. Part of this Frankish warband even advanced into Spain and conquered Tarraco, today's Tarragona , on the Spanish east coast. In the following years there were frequent raids by Franconian warbands into Roman territory.
The most serious attack by Germanic groups to date into Roman territory took place in the spring of 276, when not only the Alamanni in southern Germany invaded the Roman province, but at the same time Franconian war bands broke through the Lower Germanic Limes. For the first time, Elbe Germanic tribes such as the Vandals , Lugians and Burgundians were involved in the invasion. The Teutons sacked the Roman province of Gaul for about a year before the Roman Emperor Probus was able to fight them effectively. The fighting against the Germanic looters in Gaul lasted until 281.
After the Roman Emperor Maximian won a victory against the Lower Franconians in 291 after heavy fighting, he settled parts of the tribe on the left bank of the Rhine, i.e. Roman territory.
For the 4th century, wars between Roman emperors against the Lower Franconia have been handed down, for example the campaign of Emperor Constans in 341 and 342. In 355 the Franks conquered the Roman fortress Tricensimae near today's Xanten and destroyed the cities on the left bank of the Rhine and settlements. In 356 Iulian succeeded in regaining Cologne, which had been conquered by Franks. In the following year there was fighting in the area of Jülich, in 358 he won a victory over the Salian Franks, had the Tricensimae fortress rebuilt and in 360 led a campaign against the Franks on the right bank of the Rhine. In the winter of 391 to 392 a Roman army crossed the Rhine to fight the Brukterer . However, the Romans did not succeed in defending themselves permanently against the recurring raids by the Franks, which also lasted in the 5th century.
These numerous Frankish attacks on Roman territory and the withdrawal of Roman troops in 405 led to the loss of the Roman border province of Germania Inferior, which was settled by Franks, at the beginning of the 5th century. When at the turn of the year 406 on 407 the Vandals , Quads and Alans crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul, Roman rule on the Rhine collapsed and the Romans had to give up the Rhine as a border. In the course of the first half of the 5th century, the Franks expanded westward, although Aetius' victory over the Franks has been handed down again for the year 428 , and around 450 ruled an area that is roughly today's Belgium, the Moselle region and included the Middle and Lower Rhine.
Early middle ages
At the beginning of the 5th century, the western Ruhr area was already relatively densely populated. Ten Franconian burial grounds have so far been identified in Duisburg. In Dortmund, too, a warrior grave from the 6th century was found in a burial ground on the Asselner Feld.
Around 428 Chlodio took over the rule of the Salfranken ; he is their first historically tangible king. According to the tradition of Gregory of Tours , he is said to have resided in a place called "Dispargum", which in older literature was often equated with Duisburg.
The beginning of the fighting between Franconia and Saxony can be dated to the year 556.
At the end of the 7th century Christian missionaries from the Franconian Empire were active in the area of the Franconian Brukterer . With the advance of Saxon settlers, however, the conversion was stopped. The failed mission is reflected in the saintly legend of the black and white Ewald , whose missionary work at Aplerbeck 695 is said to have come to a violent end.
The royal court in Duisburg was probably created in 740. 775 the army conquered Franks under the leadership of Charlemagne the Sigiburg , a year later the Eresburg at Niedermarsberg . Imperial courts were laid out.
In 796, the missionary Liudger from Friesland began building a church on a property in Essen-Werden . H. Flood-free terrace piece on the Ruhr. A Benedictine monastery, the Werden monastery, was later attached to this church, and the city of Werden developed in the vicinity.
Regino von Prüm reported from the year 883 that Normans wintered in Duisburg, the oppidum diusburh , after they had conquered it. Probably in response to the repeated Viking raids was the castle Broich in an der Ruhr Muelheim built. It also secured the ford of the Hellweg through the Ruhr .
High Middle Ages
Royal stays in the Ruhr area
In the Middle Ages, the East Franconian or German Empire was an “empire without a capital”; H. the kings traveled with retinues in their kingdom. The Hellweg was an important road connecting the Ottonian travel kingdom . Dortmund and other old cities in the Ruhr area, such as Duisburg and Essen, lie along this travel and trade route . The royal court in Duisburg was also expanded into a royal palace.
King Heinrich I spent Easter in Dortmund in 928. The first Christian imperial synod took place in Duisburg the following year. 18 royal stays in Duisburg are documented between 922 and 1016.
In May 938, the German King Otto I held a court day in Steele . Three years later, in 941, Otto I (the great) stayed in Dortmund for the first time . A few years later he also celebrated Easter in the Palatinate . The frequent use as a festival hall underlines its importance.
An imperial assembly of Otto III. took place in Dortmund in 993. Among other things, a dispute between Bishop Dodo von Münster and the Mettelen Monastery was decided in favor of the monastery.
In 1011 King Heinrich II handed over the Duisburg royal court to his relative, the Lorraine Count Palatine Ezzo . In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Ezzone created an area of power between the Maas and the Ruhrgau that was no longer subject to ducal power. When the sphere of influence of the Ezzone shifted more to the Middle Rhine and Duisburg became its northernmost outpost, the city lost its political relevance, which was reflected in the fact that no German king visited Duisburg between 1016 and 1125.
Duisburg - During his stay in Duisburg in 1129, the German King Lothar decided a dispute between the Duisburg citizens and their imperial bailiff Duke Walram III. of Limburg, concerning the quarry in the Duisburg Forest, in the interests of the Duisburg citizens and against the Duke of Limburg, whose successors held the bailiwick of the imperial city of Duisburg until 1279 . From 1129 the Duisburgers used the coal sandstone quarried to build a city wall . The higher and therefore later parts of the city wall were built from tuff that was brought from the Eifel . Later renovations of the city wall consist of bricks that were burned on site.
A few months after his election as king, Friedrich I von Staufen held a court day in Dortmund in 1152. Two years later, the king was again in the Palatinate with a large retinue. Heinrich the Lion , mighty Duke of Saxony , was also present on both occasions .
The pens Eat and Become
The Essen monastery was exempted by Pope Agapitus II in 947 , that is, it was removed from the Archdiocese of Cologne and placed directly under the Pope. The monastery was thus removed from the influence of the Archbishop of Cologne . In the document of King Otto I from January 947, which is controversial in terms of authenticity , the monastery received immunity rights, the right to elect the abbess by the convention and the assurance of the property.
At the age of 22, Mathilde II , Otto I's granddaughter, became abbess in Essen in 971 after joining the monastery at the age of seventeen. Mathilde was abbess for forty years, from 971 to 1011.
The Reichshof Hatneggen (Hattingen) and its chapel are mentioned for the first time in a document from Essen Monastery in 990.
On the occasion of his stay in Essen , King Heinrich III. 1041 the Essen monastery had a restricted market right , according to which a fair could be held three days before and after September 27, the feast of the patron saints Cosmas and Damian.
Church buildings and foundations of monasteries
In 1122, Count Gottfried von Cappenberg founded the first Premonstratensian foundation in the German-speaking area, the Cappenberg Monastery in Selm . He handed over his castle and his property to the still young religious community. Gottfried was the last of the powerful Counts of Cappenberg . His younger brother Otto von Cappenberg was Friedrich I von Staufen's godfather . Around 1155 Otto received the famous Cappenberg head reliquary with the portrait of Friedrich as a gift from the newly crowned king.
In 1136, Gerhard von Hochstaden gave his Hamborner property away to the Archbishop of Cologne on the condition that a Premonstratensian monastery should be built on the site of the parish church. In 1139, Archbishop Arnold I of Cologne decreed that the Hamborn Abbey did not have to pay any taxes and placed it directly under the Archbishop of Cologne. On November 11, 1157, Pope Hadrian IV took the monastery under his protection. After the reconstruction of the parish church into a monastery church and the construction of the cloister and the actual monastery, the monastery complex was consecrated in 1170 and before 1200 became an abbey.
The first Cistercian convent of the Ruhr area was founded in Saarn in 1214, until today it is not clear who the founder of the monastery was.
In 1234 a Cistercian nunnery was founded in Duissern from the Kamp monastery, which was taken under his protection by the Archbishop of Cologne in November 1234. Donations made it a wealthy monastery with income from property on the right and left of the Rhine.
The former abbess of the Duissern Regenwidis monastery obtained permission from the Archbishop of Cologne in 1240 to build a Cistercian convent on her property in Bottrop-Grafenwald. In 1255 the nuns moved to the then newly built Sterkrade Monastery .
The County of Altena was created in 1160 by dividing the territory of the Counts of Berg .
Around 1180, through the division of the Berg-Altena estate, the line of the Counts of Altena-Isenberg - also called Isenberg or de Novus Ponte, or Nienbrügge - and the line of the Counts of Altena-Mark - later the line is called just Mark, after their possession Mark in today's Hamm. See Burg Mark .
The Isenburg in Hattingen was completed in 1199 as a new power center of the county Isenberg an der Ruhr.
In 1225, the Archbishop of Cologne Engelbert I of Cologne was murdered by Friedrich von Isenberg . Friedrich was executed; most of the county of Isenberg an der Ruhr fell to his relatives, the Counts of the Mark. The Isenburg and Burg and city of Nienbrügge were razed. The lineage of the old Berg family became extinct in the male line, only the Isenberg and Märkische side lines continued to exist. Berg fell to Heinrich von Limburg, Irmgard von Berg's husband.
In the ham between Ahse and Lippe , the citizens of the destroyed Nienbrügge were settled by Count Adolf von der Mark from 1225 and received city rights from him in 1226 . The old Saxon field name Ham - it means angle, or describes the space between the arms that form the angle - stands in Hamm for the headland between the rivers Lippe and Ahse. Ham, which can still be found on many old maps, eventually changed over time to today's city name Hamm . From the beginning, the city was the seat of a count's court for the county of Mark , its residence and later also the main town of the county.
The Archbishops of Cologne took over rule in Vest Recklinghausen in 1228 .
During the Isenberg turmoil , from 1233 to 1243 Dietrich von Altena-Isenberg and relatives, especially the Counts von Berg from the House of Limburg and the Dukes of Limburg, fought against Count Adolf I von der Mark, Altena and Krieckenbeck, and his sons and co-regents.
In connection with a feud between Cologne and Kleve , the moated castle Strünkede in Herne was mentioned for the first time in 1243 . Since the 12th century, the knights resident there, as Ministeriale of the Counts of Kleve, were guarantors of the Klevian influence on the middle Emscher . The rule area of the Strünkeder temporarily extended from Buer in the west via Herne and Castrop to Mengede in the east.
In the same year, Adolf I. Graf von der Mark, Altena and Krickenbeck sold Krieckenbeck to his brother-in-law and ally Otto II. Graf von Geldern . In the peace treaty between Adolf I. Graf von der Mark and Altena and his opponents Dietrich von Isenberg, his relatives and others. a. The Count of Berg and the Dukes of Limburg, the son of Friedrichs von Isenberg , was granted ownership of the County of Limburg and the Krummen Grafschaft , and the Isenberg turmoil came to an end after 10 years of war. Count Adolf was able to keep his positions in the former Isenberg possession as far as possible and, in the long term, limit Dietrich von Isenberg and his descendants to a very small county.
The development of cities
Mülheim an der Ruhr was first mentioned in a document in 1093.
Duisburg - Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa granted Duisburg in 1173 the right to hold two fortnightly fairs a year at which goods could be sold free of duty. These markets were mainly used by the Flemish cloth merchants.
In Dortmund, a large wall was built around the city in 1200 . Its course is preserved in the form of the “ramparts” in the inner city area.
Recklinghausen received full city rights in 1236.
In 1240 the Dortmund council acquired a house on the market from the Count of Dortmund. For centuries it will be the city hall of the imperial city . Badly damaged by air raids in World War II in 1944 and 1945, the town hall was demolished in 1955.
Wesel was elevated to a city in September 1241. This was connected with privileges for the citizens of Wesel, including free inheritance and duty-free at all sovereign customs posts. Dietrich von Kleve also determined that the citizens of Wesel should present their disputes, which could not be decided there, to the town hall in Dortmund for a final settlement.
The expansion of the territories in the late Middle Ages
Strengthening the cities
The cities of Dortmund , Soest , Ahlen, Beckum, Münster and Lippstadt founded the Werner Bund on July 17, 1253 on a Lippe bridge in Werne , which the city of Osnabrück also joined on September 12, 1268. This association of cities was a forerunner of the Städtehanse. Dortmund soon assumed a leading role as a suburb of all Westphalian cities in the Hanseatic League .
Dinslaken was granted city rights by Dietrich VII. Count von Kleve in 1273 . Five years later, in 1278, Unna was granted city rights by the Count von der Mark, and in 1279 Lünen was referred to as " oppidum " (city).
The town seal of Kamen first appeared on a document in 1284. It had received municipal rights from Count Engelbert I von der Mark (1247–1277). The rights of the Kameners were based on the city rights of Dortmund and Hamm.
King Rudolf v. Habsburg pledged the city of Duisburg to the Count of Kleve in 1290. Since the pledge was no longer redeemed, Duisburg was no longer an imperial city.
In September 1438, about half of the city of Essen burned down in a conflagration; the hospital was destroyed, the market church and minster damaged.
Johann II. , Duke of Kleve and Count von der Mark , issued a letter of freedom to the citizens of Castrop in 1484 . It included u. a. Civil rights, self-government and the holding of fairs. The place was fortified with a wall, a moat and three gates.
Influences of cure Cologne on the Ruhr area
The Archbishop of Cologne, Konrad von Hochstaden , proclaimed a country peace in 1259, which the counties of Kleve, Jülich and Berg, among others, had to join.
The troops of the Archbishop of Cologne, Dietrich II. Von Moers, and his allies, the Duke of Jülich-Berg and the Count of Sayn, began the siege of Broich Castle in Mülheim-Broich on September 2, 1443 , which capitulated after eighteen days had to.
Limburg succession dispute 1283–1289
After the death of Duke Walrams V of Limburg , a brother of Adolf IV. Von Berg , in 1280 he left no male descendants and since his daughter Irmgard von Limburg died in 1283, who had received the fief from King Rudolf the previous year, grew up from this the Limburg succession dispute over the Duchy of Limburg . Candidates for the inheritance were the rulers of Berg and von Geldern. However, the Count von Berg sold his claims to the Duchy of Limburg to the Duke of Brabant, who now began to enforce them by force against the Gelders.
Involved in the dispute were on the side of Rainald I, Count von Geldern : Siegfried von Westerburg Archbishop of Cologne , Heinrich VI. Count of Luxembourg and John IV of Flanders, Bishop of Liège and their faithful. On the opposite side stood Johann I Duke of Brabant with his allies Engelbert I Graf von der Mark , Walram Graf von Jülich , Adolf V von Limburg Graf von Berg and Otto IV Graf von Tecklenburg , as well as the citizens of Cologne .
In 1288 the Battle of Worringen took place. The Battle of Worringen was the military final in the six-year-old Limburg succession dispute. The main opponents of the conflict were Siegfried von Westerburg , Archbishop of Cologne, and Duke Johann I von Brabant . The outcome of the battle changed the power structure in the entire north-west of Central Europe.
After the defeat of Geldern and his allies in the Battle of Worringen in 1288 north of Cologne , the Duchy of Limburg fell to the Duke of Brabant. The defeat of his ally Kurköln resulted in a weakening of the power of the Archdiocese of Cologne and the associated ducal power in Westphalia, while at the same time strengthening the power position of the counts territorial lords. In the Ruhr region this was particularly true for the Counts von Berg and von der Mark directly involved in the conflict, but indirectly also for Count von Kleve, who fought on the opposite side in the feud .
Plague and pogrom against the Jews
The medieval plague wave reached the Ruhr region in 1350. In the same year there was a pogrom against the Jewish population. In Dortmund this was expelled from the city and the property was confiscated from the city; in other cities the Jewish population was burned.
Start of hard coal mining
It must be assumed that coal was mined in the Ruhr area before, the first documentary evidence of coal mining in Dortmund dates from 1296, while the first documentary mention of coal mining in Schüren dates back to 1302.
On November 24, 1374, Duke Wilhelm von Jülich demanded a tithe on the coal mined in the Werden area.
After the Rhine changed its course around 1200, Duisburg was only connected to the main river via an old branch of the Rhine, which increasingly silted up in the course of the following century. Although this change in the course of the Rhine in the 13th century does not seem to have caused any major impairment of Duisburg trade, even in 1306 over 400 Duisburg Rhine ships were counted at a Rhenish customs post, but the city accounts according to the Rhine trade towards the end of the 14th century came to a standstill.
On April 29, 1248, Wilhelm of Holland pledged the imperial city of Duisburg to Walram V of Limburg , but on May 1, he confirmed the city's privileges in a document. Under the rule of Walram, the city experienced a phase of extensive independence, and in 1277 and 1278 Walram gave the city areas in the vicinity of the city, which led to an expansion of the city area.
A document dated April 6, 1280 proves the existence of a high school in Duisburg. The Landfermann-Gymnasium , which follows the tradition of this school, is one of the oldest high schools in the Ruhr area.
In 1290 Duisburg was pledged to Count Diedrich von Kleve by the German King Rudolf von Habsburg . Since the pledge was never redeemed, Duisburg became the property of the Counts of Kleve and thus de facto lost its imperial immediacy as a free imperial city.
In 1351 the city of Duisburg took part in the dispute between Duke Reinald III. von Geldern and his rebellious brother Eduard party for the rebels and received important privileges for shipping and trade in the duchy of Geldern after Edward's victory over his brother.
In order to avoid trouble with the surrounding landlords, the rule "City air makes free" did not apply in Duisburg, because the city only accepted citizens who were free. Only those in the city who were too poor to pay the membership fee (e.g. day laborers) and privileged individuals such as the Klevian Chancellor Oligschleger, who owned several houses in the city, were tolerated as free non-citizens. Non-citizens who were also unable to acquire citizenship were clergy and Jews, although from 1350 Jews were no longer tolerated in Duisburg.
Although Emperor Karl IV had made the declaration in 1362 that he wanted to keep Duisburg "forever" as a free imperial city for the rich, Count Johann von Kleve was already in possession of all imperial rights over the city of Duisburg at the beginning of 1363, which led to a dispute between the city of Duisburg and Johann von Kleve, as the city initially did not recognize the rights of Johann. This then moved the Rhine toll to Orsoy to damage the city economically. At the end of 1366 an agreement was reached between the city and the count: Johann retained nominal sovereignty over Duisburg, the judiciary and customs sovereignty.
The approval for the establishment of a customs office by Emperor Charles IV on the Homberger Werth on April 28, 1371 is considered to be the foundation of the future city of Ruhrort . In autumn 1373 the customs office was established. In a document dated February 28, 1379 by the German King Wenzel, the name "Ruhrort" appeared for the first time for the customs office at Homberger Werth.
The imperial city of Dortmund, whose territory was almost completely surrounded by Brandenburg property, was in a particularly difficult position, so that the Counts of Mark dominated all the roads leading to Dortmund and, since 1328, collected an annual toll from the city to transport merchants into and into Dortmund to let it out again. With the founding of the cities of Hörde (1340) and Lünen (1341), the Counts of Mark increased the pressure on Dortmund, which had to fend off repeated attacks by the Counts of Mark in the second half of the 14th century. In 1352 Dortmund survived a siege by troops from the Brandenburg region and an attempt at a surprise attack at night. In 1377 Count Wilhelm von Berg's attempt to conquer the city by bombardment and siege failed. In 1378 the attempt at a night attack on Dortmund failed, in which sympathizers of Count von Mark, who were in the city, should have opened the city gates. In the same year, Emperor Karl IV and his wife Elisabeth of Pomerania moved into the imperial city of Dortmund.
The Archdiocese of Cologne, to which Dortmund had been pledged by the respective German king in 1346 and 1376, was also interested in the possession of Dortmund, without Cologne being able to enforce the acquired rights against the city. When Count Engelbert III. von Mark with the Archbishop of Cologne Friedrich III. Allied by Saar Werden against Dortmund, the city's independence was threatened. With the arrival of the feud letter from the Archbishop of Cologne on February 21, 1388 - one day later the feud letter from Count von Mark followed - the great Dortmund feud began . In the period that followed, 47 imperial princes joined the Electoral Cologne-Mark alliance, but most of them did not intervene actively in the fighting.
Troops from the Electorate of Cologne and Brandenburg began to siege the city immediately after the letters of feud had arrived, but Dortmund had prepared for a longer siege and built up large stocks of grain. A bombardment of the city from April 17 to July 10, 1388 had to be canceled because Dortmund had meanwhile built modern powder cannons and thus fired at the opposing positions, so that the siege ring had to withdraw from the range of the guns. According to contemporary sources, it is assumed that between May 29, 1388 and November 8, 1389 about 110 troops from Dortmund took place, during which mainly the villages and farms in the Mark region were plundered. At the mediation of the city of Soest, peace was concluded on November 22, 1389. In exchange for a so-called “voluntary gift” of 7,000 guilders each to Kurköln and the Count of the Mark, they gave up all claims and demands on Dortmund.
Dortmund was able to recover relatively quickly from the high costs of warfare - a total of 60,000 guilders - as can be seen from the construction of the council choir at the Reinoldi Church in 1421 as well as from the fact that Dortmund was able to manage its own as early as 1422 To contribute as an imperial city to the financing of the Hussite campaign.
In 1403, the Wildungen Altar was the first surviving retable by the Dortmund painter Conrad von Soest to be completed.
Hamm lost the residence to the city of Kleve in 1391 after the county of Mark was united with the county of Kleve. The town castle in Hamm and the ancestral seat of the count's house Burg Mark were now only the seat of the count's castle men, drosten and bailiffs. The rulers from the House of Mark ruled both countries from Kleve.
The oldest written evidence of wild horses in the Emschern lowlands is available in 1396 . The use of the stocks occurring in the Emscherbruch between Waltrop and Bottrop was a coveted privilege of the nobility.
Märkischer brother dispute 1409-1430
In 1409 Gerhard von der Mark claimed part of the paternal inheritance for the first time from his brother Adolf, Count von der Mark and Kleve . He initially received the rule of Liemers , in 1413 parts of the Sauerland in the Mark region .
In 1417, Adolf IV. Count of the Mark and, as Adolf II. Count of Kleve, was made the first Duke of Kleve by Emperor Sigismund. As a duke he is also called Adolf I. von Kleve or von Kleve-Mark.
In the following year, 1418, Adolf von der Mark, Duke of Kleve and Count von der Mark, declared that his lands Kleve and Mark were indivisible. In 1419 a feud broke out between him and his brother Gerhard von der Mark, who had been provost of Xanten's Viktorstift until 1417. The city of Duisburg refused to recognize Adolf's inheritance regulation and formed an alliance with Gerhard. Thereupon Duke Adolf and over a hundred other nobles announced the feud to the city of Duisburg. The military conflicts in 1419 and 1420 were largely limited to mutual robbery and looting, for example the Duisburg troops against Orsoy and Saarn. The feud was ended by a settlement in the autumn of 1420.
In the course of the armed conflict in the feud between the two brothers Adolf and Gerhard von der Mark, Hattingen was completely burned down in 1424, except for two houses when it was captured by Bergische troops. The city had to be rebuilt. In 1429 the Brandenburg estates recognized Gerhard as the legal lord of the county of Mark.
In 1430 Gerhard von der Mark made peace with his brother Adolf von der Mark, Duke of Kleve and Count of the Mark. He received rule over the northern part of County Mark; some important regional castles such as Blankenstein , Fredeburg , Bilstein and Volmarstein remained in the hands of Duke Adolf. Gerhard was allowed to carry the title of Count to the Mark , his brother reserved the title of von der Mark . Hamm became residence again until Gerhard von der Mark's death, Graf zur Mark.
The county of Mark under Gerhard von der Mark until 1461
On March 5, 1455, Gerhard von der Mark, Graf zur Mark, donated the Franciscan monastery in Hamm .
From 1456, Gerhard and his nephew Johann von Kleve shared control of the county of Mark.
Gerhard von der Mark, Graf zur Mark, died in 1461 and was buried in the chapel of the St. Agnes monastery when he was founded in Hamm . The magnificent brass grave plates were lost between 1939 and 1945; only a drawing of it has survived. Since Gerhard died childless, the County of Mark and the Duchy of Kleve were finally united under the reign of his nephew Johann von Kleve.
Soest feud 1444–1449
As early as 1440, the Archbishop of Cologne, Dietrich II von Moers, tried to consolidate his rule over the city of Soest. In 1441, the city then entered into an alliance with Kleve-Mark. When Soest paid homage to Duke Johann I von Kleve-Mark on June 25, 1444 and thus rejected the electoral sovereignty of the Electorate of Cologne, war broke out between the Electorate of Cologne and the Duchy of Kleve-Mark. This war was less about the city of Soest than about the dispute between Kurköln and Kleve-Mark about supremacy in Westphalia. Kurköln was supported by the diocese of Münster, the Paderborn monastery and the free imperial city of Dortmund. The vestic cities of Dorsten and Recklinghausen were the bases of the Cologne armed forces.
On the night of March 11th to March 12th, 1445, the Archbishop of Cologne advanced with an army against the city of Duisburg and hoped to be able to conquer the city in a surprise attack at night. The approaching troops were noticed and the Electoral Cologne army had to withdraw.
In the same year, the stone tower was besieged and damaged during disputes on Dortmund's territory, and numerous Dortmunders were taken prisoner in the Brandenburg region.
In July 1447 the Archbishop of Cologne besieged the city of Soest unsuccessfully with his army of 8,000 Hussite mercenaries. After a fortnight bombardment of the city, the electoral Cologne army tried to storm the city walls of Soest on July 19, 1447; However, the mercenaries broke off the attack before serious fighting broke out, as there were 50 dead on the Electoral Cologne side; the city of Soest mourned 10 deaths. When the pay for the Hussite mercenaries - the archbishop was now in arrears with 200,000 guilders - was not paid even after the assault, the mercenaries withdrew on July 21st and left the archbishop with a remaining army of 4,000 men, who then started the siege had to cancel. After this failure, Archbishop Dietrich von Moers was ready to negotiate peace.
On April 27, 1449, the Soest feud was ended on the basis of the status quo with the Maastricht arbitration award, mediated by the Duke of Burgundy. Soest and Xanten came to Kleve-Mark; Kurköln received the Kaiserswerth customs post and the dominions of Fredeburg and Bilstein in the Sauerland , conquered by the troops of the Electorate of Cologne in 1444 and 1445 . This result of the Soest feud prevented a supremacy of the Electorate of Cologne in Westphalia.
Two state parliaments in Wickede decided in the spring of 1486 an extraordinary tax in the county of Mark for the sovereign Johann, Graf von der Mark and Duke von Kleve. The treasure book created for this, the Schatboick in Mark , contained a list of all taxpayers and thus listed many details on individual locations.
Dispute between the city of Essen and the Essen monastery
In October 1495 the abbess Meyna von Daun-Oberstein had to ask her canon Johann II, Duke von Kleve and Graf von Mark for help, because she had lost control of food. Although the Counts of Mark had held the bailiwick of Essen Abbey for decades, the bailiff was only elected for a certain period of time. John II took advantage of the situation and forced Abbess Meyna and her chapter to appoint him and his heirs as bailiffs. In the contract of October 21, 1495, Essen was effectively incorporated into the domain of Kleve-Mark: the abbess retained the rights of jurisdiction and administration, while military and political power passed into the hands of Kleve-Mark.
Early modern age
Schwelm received city rights in 1496.
Fire disasters in Recklinghausen and Bochum
On April 4, 1500, a conflagration in Recklinghausen destroyed around 350 residential buildings, around half of the city, in addition to the Petruskirche, school and town hall.
The city of Bochum burned down completely on April 25, 1517. A fire that had broken out in Johann Schrivers's house spread to the surrounding thatched half-timbered houses and destroyed all the buildings in the city within one night. Schriver's assets, which had been confiscated, were nowhere near enough to rebuild the destroyed church and town hall. The reconstruction of the town hall took seven years. Although the church could be used temporarily again from 1521, its reconstruction took decades until the end of the century.
Since the middle of the 13th century, the city of Dortmund had increasingly bought legal titles from the Count of Dortmund. In 1320 the city acquired half of the county of Dortmund from Count Konrad Stecke . After the death of Johann Stecke, the last count of Dortmund, in 1504, the small county became the property of the city of Dortmund. On October 12, 1504, the Roman-German king and later Emperor Maximilian I enfeoffed the city of Dortmund with the county of Dortmund, which covered about 6000 hectares and to which u. a. the villages of Brechte, Körne, Eving, Holthausen and Altenmengede belonged. Since the city thus became sovereign over the county of Dortmund, the inhabitants of the county did not receive Dortmund citizenship, but remained subjects.
In 1508 the " French disease", syphilis, appeared for the first time in Dortmund, from which the entire population, including children, was severely affected. The venereal disease owes its ancient name to the fact that it has been widely spread in Europe by French mercenaries since 1498.
Territorial development in the 16th century
The period from 1500 to 1618 was characterized by considerable population growth, which benefited less the cities than the rural areas. Since the existing farms were inherited undivided to the eldest son, the number of farms remained constant. Due to the growing population, there was a high phase of Kotten formation in the Ruhr area, i. H. Kötter had to cultivate and cultivate a piece of land in the uncultivated Mark. Since the established farmers had no interest in reclaiming the Mark, they tried to keep the individual Kotten areas as small as possible, which meant that a large part of the Kotten was not viable and the Kötter also had to work as day laborers on the large farms. In the course of the sixteenth century the Dutch movement came up, i. H. In the summer Kötter worked in the economically emerging Netherlands in the field of agriculture and shipbuilding in order to support their families with the money they earned there.
Establishment of the United Duchies 1511/1521
After the death of the last Duke of Jülich, Wilhelm IV. In 1511, his son-in-law, the Hereditary Prince of Kleve-Mark Johann von der Mark , who had married Wilhelm's heir, succeeded him in the Duchies of Jülich and Berg and the County of Ravensberg . When Johann's father died in 1521, he inherited the Duchy of Kleve and the County of Mark , which resulted in the United Duchy of Jülich-Kleve-Berg .
The pledge ownership of the Counts of Holstein-Schaumburg-Gemen at Vest Recklinghausen ended in 1576 after 130 years.
Era of upheaval: Humanism and Reformation
The Reformation in the United Duchies
Although Johann III. Jülich-Kleve-Berg did not have the Worms Edict of 1521, which outlawed Luther and prohibited his writings, published in his territory; However, he stipulated on March 26, 1525 that the pastors in his countries were not allowed to spread Luther's teachings, but had to proclaim in their sermons that these teachings were heretical. He ordered that all followers of Lutheran doctrine be arrested and punished. Nevertheless, he was critical of the grievances in the Catholic Church; because on July 3, 1525 he issued a decree u. a. that the pastors of his countries had to fulfill their duties, were not allowed to take any money for church official acts, had to live in the responsible community; In order to prevent the emergence of superstitions, he banned the carrying of images of saints in processions, banned any form of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, banned monks from buying real estate and banned monks from begging in his countries.
Compared to the general development in the Reich and especially on the Reichstag on which Johann III. each from Count Wirich VI. was represented by Daun-Falkenstein , the duke tried to maintain a neutral religious policy. Under the influence of Erasmus of Rotterdam , John III. on July 18 and October 24, 1530 two ordinances on religious policy in the United Duchies, which turned against the grievances in the Catholic Church, but rejected a comprehensive Reformation. In the October version, which underlined this position again, the low level of education of the clergy was cited as the reason for the grievances.
On January 11, 1532, Duke Johann III. a church order for the duchies that reflected this neutral stance on religious issues. However, this church order was criticized by both denominations, the reforms did not go far enough for the Protestants, the Catholics criticized the “watering down” of the Catholic teaching “in the new believing sense”.
Exactly one year later, on January 11, 1533, Johann III. a "Declaratio" as a supplement to the church ordinance, which was published on April 18, 1533. In doing so, he continued to accommodate the Protestants, but fundamentally maintained religious neutrality. The Duke tried to achieve a mutual tolerance of both denominations in his countries and to prevent threatening denominational disputes.
In Mülheim an der Ruhr, the entire congregation is said to have converted to the Reformed faith three days after Easter in 1555, after - according to a list of preachers from 1744 - Johann Kremer became the first Reformed preacher in Mülheim in 1554. The first - historically proven - evangelical preacher was Johann Schöltgen, who died in 1599. The rule of Styrum remained Catholic.
The Reformation in Dortmund
In 1518/19 there was a conflict in Dortmund between the citizens and the city clergy over the privileges of the clergy . In Dortmund there were repeated disputes between traders and traders and the clergy, whose trading activities were to be restricted. As early as 1487, the city council of Dortmund allowed the clergy to import malt and grain only for their own use. In December 1518 the council banned the sale of letters of indulgence in Dortmund. In the course of the dispute that arose between the council and the clergy, the council forbade the churches to engage in trade and commerce. In return, the churches excluded all Dortmund citizens from participating in the sacraments. Easter 1519 the ban of the citizens was lifted by Cardinal Thomas Cajetan .
The disputes between the citizens of Dortmund and the city clergy continued from 1523, when citizens demanded that clergymen should be prohibited from participating in wedding celebrations and child baptisms. A compromise by the council of 1525 was short-lived, as in 1527 the guilds required the city to recruit Lutheran preachers; however, the council succeeded in preventing the guilds from converting to Protestantism.
In 1538 the small Anabaptist congregation was broken up at the instigation of the council. Two citizens of Dortmund were arrested. When one of the two preachers, Peter von Rulsem, refused to revoke the doctrine of the so-called Anabaptists, he was beheaded on January 21, 1538.
As a complement to the ecclesiastical Latin schools founded advice and citizens in Dortmund in 1543 humanistic embossed school , the Archigymnasium than higher education. The teaching facility was influenced by the models of the grammar school in Emmerich and the Paulinum in Münster. The teaching content was humanistically oriented. The first principal of the school, Johannes Lambach, shaped the intellectual and cultural life of Dortmund for over thirty years. Hermann Hamelmann and Johann Heitfeld were among the early students at the Dortmund School .
In 1556 the chaplain of St. Marien, Johann Heitfeld, began to publicly spread the Lutheran doctrine. When he ignored the advice of the council to stop this, he was expelled from Dortmund in 1557.
The "Reformer of Westphalia", Hermann Hamelmann, publicly confessed to the Reformed faith for the first time in 1553 at the Trinity Festival in Kamen; then he had to leave the city.
In 1529 the English sweat was rampant . The disease leads to death within hours of the outbreak. In Dortmund, 497 of 500 people died in the first four days of the epidemic.
Development of printing in the 16th and 17th centuries
Book printing was introduced in Wesel in 1541 and the first book was printed in Dortmund in 1544. Both cities developed into important centers of printing in the 16th and 17th centuries. From 1552 books were also printed in Unna, from 1553 also in Büderich ; however, both printing locations lost their importance in the 17th century. In 1607 the first books printed in Duisburg appeared; from 1613 books were also printed in Essen, albeit to a lesser extent. The first permanent book printing company was established in Hamm in 1650.
The "learned Duisburg" - "Duisburgum doctum"
The cartographer Gerhard Mercator , born in Flanders in 1512 , settled in Duisburg in 1552 at the invitation of Duke Wilhelm the Rich , who had offered him a chair at the newly founded university. Previously persecuted by the Catholic Church, Mercator was able to continue his important work in the religiously more tolerant Duchy of Kleve.
On February 11, 1555, the city council of Duisburg decided with only one vote against to remove the statue of Salvator from the Salvatorkirche and to introduce the evangelical catechism for religious instruction. In 1558, Petrus von Benden, the first Protestant pastor, was appointed to the Salvatorkirche.
The Schola Duisburgensis became an Academic Gymnasium in Duisburg in 1559 . One of the teachers there was from 1559 to 1562 Gerhard Mercator; he taught mathematics and cosmography . The Jesuits were very critical of the planned establishment of a university in Duisburg, as they feared a university that was strongly Protestant. They initially succeeded in preventing papal approval for the establishment. Only when Duke Wilhelm V agreed to fill the chairs with Catholic professors only and to withdraw the teaching permit from Johannes Monheim, who taught in Düsseldorf , was the papal founding document issued on July 20, 1564. Two years later, Wilhelm V received the privilege of establishing the university from the Kaiser. The beginning of the Spanish-Dutch War prevented the establishment of the university, which was only founded in 1655 under Prussian rule.
Effects of the Eighty Years War on the Ruhr Area
With the revolt of the Dutch provinces against Spanish rule in 1568, the Netherlands began their struggle for independence, known as the " Eighty Years War " (1568–1648). The fighting repeatedly spread to the Ruhr area, with the western Ruhr area being particularly affected. Parts of the region were occupied by Spanish troops in the winter of 1598/99 . Viewed from the Lower Rhine perspective, the armed conflicts that took place during this period, such as the Truchsessian War or the Thirty Years' War, were only phases within a series of battles in the Lower Rhine and Ruhr area that stretched over almost eighty years.
Truchsessian War 1583–1589
Through the Cologne War, more precisely the Truchsessian War, the Ruhr area was drawn into the military conflicts of the Eighty Years War. On December 5, 1577, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg was elected Archbishop of Cologne and thus elector against the resistance of the emperor and the Spanish king. His marriage to Countess Agnes von Mansfeld in 1582 and his conversion to Protestantism prompted him - not least due to pressure from the Calvinist Counts of the Rhineland - to attempt to convert the Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne into a hereditary Protestant duchy, which would have led to a two-thirds majority in the Kurkolleg and Influence on the choice of the German king. In edicts of December 19, 1582, January 16 and February 2, 1583, he left the residents of Kurköln free to choose their religion themselves. On March 22, 1583, Gebhard was removed from his office as archbishop by a papal bull, and on May 23, 1583 Ernst von Bayern was elected as his successor. After defeats by the Bavarian and Spanish troops, Gebhard had to flee to the Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia, where he resided in Werl.
In 1583 the Spanish general Francisco de Mendoza advanced with 21,000 foot soldiers and 2,500 riders to Orsoy and set up a camp with entrenchments in Walsum . At the beginning of 1584, the advance of Spanish troops into the right bank of the Rhine began; here in 1584 the villages of Meiderich and Lakum were looted. As they continued to advance, the Spanish troops occupied Essen and the surrounding villages, pillaged and pillaged the Essen area.
Further defeats of his troops prompted Gebhard to flee to the territory of the Netherlands in the spring of 1584 with a few remaining riders, where he found acceptance and support. At the national level, the Truchsessian War was over, but not from the point of view of the Ruhr area; for now this region was drawn into the military conflicts of the Eighty Years War.
The mercenary leader Martin Schenk von Nideggen , who was in the service of the Netherlands at the time, occupied the Rheinberg in 1586 with his mercenary troops, placed a strong garrison in the city and supplied the troops stationed there with ample provisions so that the city against the advancing ones Spanish troops under Alessandro Farnese , Prince of Parma and Spanish governor in the Netherlands, could be defended. Although Ruhrort belonged to the Duchy of Kleve, Nideggen succeeded in smuggling mercenaries into the city of Ruhrort on the night of January 26, 1587 and seizing the city. Afterwards the nunnery in Duisburg-Duissern and the Premonstratensian monastery in Hamborn were burned down by Nideggen's mercenaries.
The Eighty Years War from 1598 to 1609
After a few years of relative peace, during which it was possible to keep the Ruhr area on the right bank of the Rhine largely out of the fighting of the Eighty Years' War, the war spread to the Ruhr area again from 1598.
In today's Mülheim an der Ruhr, Broich Castle was captured on October 9, 1598 after a siege by Spanish mercenary troops with a strength of 5,000 on the orders of Francisco de Mendoza; the entire castle crew - including the women and children - was massacred, the lord of the castle von Broich, Count Wirich VI , who was captured in Spanish captivity . von Daun-Falkenstein , murdered on October 11th.
Essen was occupied by Spanish troops on December 20, 1598, who sacked the area of the Essen monastery and the Werden Abbey. Spanish troops were quartered in the city of Essen and wintered in the city. In April 1599 the troops withdrew in exchange for payment of “Zehrgeld”. As a result of the occupation of Essen by the Spanish garrison, the plague broke out in the city.
Spanish troops were quartered in the city of Dortmund in 1598 and 1599; the surrounding area was looted. Castrop , for example, suffered badly from the looting. Because of the Spanish troop accommodation, there was a food shortage.
In the course of a state-Dutch campaign on the Lower Rhine led by Moritz von Orange, Moers and Rheinberg were captured in 1601; the Dutch mercenaries also judged in the Ruhr area on the right bank of the Rhine. B. in Walsum , damage.
In the course of the Eighty Years' War, a Spanish army of 20,000 mercenaries under Ambrosio Spinola camped at the mouth of the Ruhr near Ruhrort in 1605 . From there Spinola had the town of Mülheim and Broich Castle occupied by troops. The state troops camped at Wesel under Moritz von Oranien attacked the Spanish troops and defeated them in the battle of Mülheim . At the news that the main Spanish army was approaching, the state troops withdrew, and Mülheim remained under Spanish occupation until 1609, when state troops drove the occupation out in the second battle .
On April 12, 1609, the Netherlands and Spain agreed in Antwerp on an armistice that lasted twelve years, until the Eighty Years War flared up again in connection with the Thirty Years War.
Jülich-Klevian succession dispute 1609–1614
After Duke Johann Wilhelm died on March 25, 1609, the Jülich-Klevische inheritance dispute began , the dispute over his inheritance, which consisted of the duchies of Kleve, Jülich, Berg and the counties of Mark and Ravensburg. On June 10 , after their troops had occupied the states , Brandenburg and Pfalz-Neuburg jointly took over the administration of the areas in accordance with the Dortmund Treaty . With the interference of Emperor Rudolf II, who did not recognize the annexation of the countries, and the resulting interference by France, Spain and the Netherlands, the regional conflict threatened to escalate into a European war at times. The conflict was defused by the conversion of Wolfgang-Wilhelm von Pfalz-Neuburg to Catholicism and his marriage to the sister of the Bavarian elector. In the Treaty of Xanten on November 12, 1614, an agreement was reached on a division of the inheritance: the Duchies of Jülich and Berg came to the Palatinate-Neuburg family, the Duchy of Kleve and the Counties of Mark and Ravensberg became Brandenburg-Prussian .
Thirty Years War 1618–1648
From the point of view of the western Ruhr area and the Lower Rhine, the Thirty Years War was only a new phase of the Eighty Years War, which had been fought for decades in the western Ruhr area. In the course of the Thirty Years' War, the central and eastern Ruhr areas became theaters of war. So the rich Dortmund was taken repeatedly and forced to pay large amounts of money to the Catholic and Protestant armies. The city will no longer reach its old size until industrialization. On the Lower Rhine, Duisburg and Wesel were alternately occupied by Dutch and Spanish troops. Essen was no different . Hamm was first occupied by Spanish troops of the Catholic League in 1622, replaced by Protestant Hessians and Swedes in 1633 and finally again conquered by imperial troops in 1636 .
Even before the Thirty Years War were in Essen muskets made. While 2700 muskets were produced in 1608, rifle production, the most important branch of industry in Essen at that time, flourished during the war, production rose to 14,800 in 1620 and even in the decade 1632 to 1642 the annual production was always between 5000 and 7000 pieces.
In 1621 the armistice, which had interrupted the Eighty Years War between Spain and the States General, expired and in the spring of 1622 Spanish troops began their attack down the Rhine. The first war taxes began. General Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and his 10,000 soldiers moved into winter quarters in the northern county of Mark. Christian von Braunschweig appeared with 10,000 men. After Tilly's victory on July 27, 1623 at Stadtlohn over Christian von Braunschweig's troops, the state troops withdrew from the County of Mark and only occupied Lünen, Unna and Kamen.
Dortmund was in a particularly difficult situation because it was a Protestant city, but as an imperial city it was directly subordinate to the Catholic German king. The city tried to pursue a neutral policy between the denominational camps, which went so far that in 1625 the city council threatened all citizens with the loss of their civil rights if they were to be recruited as mercenaries.
In the years 1621 to 1624 Duisburg was occupied one after the other by Spanish or Spanish service Italian and various German mercenary troops as well as by Palatinate-Neuburg troops, who had to be fed by the city and tried to enrich themselves at the expense of the city and the citizens .
After Maria Clara von Spaur, Pflaum and Valör , the abbess of Essen, who fled the Protestant troops to Cologne in 1627, obtained an edict from Emperor Ferdinand II that the city of Essen should come under ecclesiastical sovereignty again April 5 Italian mercenaries deployed by Spain entered the city to assert the interests of the abbess. The citizens of Essen were disarmed on May 1st, and on May 6th the abbess symbolically took possession of the market church, which had been Protestant until then. After the citizens of Essen had received an edict from the emperor on August 27th that the foreign troops were to be withdrawn and the damage caused to the city to be compensated, the abbess deposed the council of Essen on September 9 and appointed catholic ones instead Council members who officially declared on November 13th that Essen would renounce the status of an imperial-free city. The Italian troops withdrew in April 1629.
In October 1628 state troops under the command of the Count of Styrum conquered Ratingen and sacked the city. In June 1629 the Spanish troops massed in the Duchy of Berg, 30 companies alone were billeted in Mülheim. After the Dutch troops had succeeded in conquering Wesel on August 19, 1629, the Spaniards withdrew and state troops occupied the Duchy of Berg.
In 1632 the fighting again spread to the Ruhr area. Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim occupied Dortmund with Catholic troops and waived the burning down of the imperial city in return for a ransom. 70 noble houses were looted on his way through the county of Mark. The troops of the league were stationed in Dortmund until January 17, 1633, when the city bought itself free from the occupation in return for payment of 20,000 Reichstalers. No sooner had the troops of the Catholic League left the city than the citizens opened the city to troops from the Protestant Landgrave Wilhelm von Hessen. During the more than three years of occupation of the city by Hessian troops, the population suffered from constant attacks by soldiers. After a week-long siege, imperial troops captured the city in 1636. The citizens were disarmed, all grain stores were confiscated and the city had to pay high contributions, which caused many residents to leave Dortmund.
From Dortmund, the Hessian troops advanced westward in 1633 and occupied Dorsten, which was their main base of operations until 1641, and Ruhrort. The city of Duisburg was able to buy itself free from an occupation through deliveries in kind and cash payments. In the meantime, Dutch troops, who had already controlled the Lower Rhine from Wesel onwards, occupied Orsoy in 1632 and Rheinberg in 1633. In order to better control the Lower Rhine, the Dutch occupied Duisburg in February 1636, whose neutrality had previously been accepted by the warring parties. When the Dutch occupation had not yet withdrawn in 1638, Spain canceled the neutrality agreement, which meant that the years 1638 to 1645 were the most difficult for the Duisburg area during the war. Since the Dutch occupation was too weak to repel a surprise attack, let alone to control the area around the city, only one city gate was kept open. Since the Spaniards controlled the area around Duisburg, agricultural activities in the immediate vicinity of the city could only take place under the protection of larger military units. When the Dutch troops withdrew in June 1644 and Brandenburg troops occupied Duisburg, the Spaniards declared Duisburg a neutral area again in early 1645.
The Peace of Westphalia was signed in 1648. This formally ended both the Thirty and the Eighty Years War.
In order to secure the payment of a total of 5 million thalers across the empire to Sweden, the imperial city of Dortmund, which had signed the peace treaty, remained for two more years until large sums of money were paid by Swedish troops who were quartered in the county of Dortmund and imperial troops who were based in the City of Dortmund had occupied. After the demands were met, the Swedish troops withdrew on April 4, 1650 and the imperial troops on July 27, 1650. In Duisburg, which was occupied by Brandenburg troops, Swedish troops were also billeted from April 1649 to November 1650 through the enforcement of the fixed payments to Sweden.
Dutch troops were also present on the Lower Rhine for a long time.
In Dortmund in 1451 a woman was buried alive under the gallows as an alleged sorceress . In 1513, eight people were burned as magicians near Walsum . In 1514 a woman accused of witchcraft was executed on the Segensberg in Hochlar . Drost Graf von Schaumburg had the defendant accused of causing a cold winter.
In Duisburg a witch trial in 1536 took a fair course. When a woman Wetzel was accused of milk magic , she was a Molketoeversche , the denouncer, Mrs. Angerhausen, was condemned as a slanderer. She therefore had to carry 3,000 stones to the market. In Duisburg in October 1561 Agnes Muiseltz was suspected of witchcraft, tortured and subjected to a water test in the Ruhr .
The witch trials in Vest Recklinghausen reached a high point in 1580 and 1581. Places of execution were on the Segensberg in Hochlar and on the Stimberg in the Haard near Oer . 44 people, mostly women, were burned at the stake. In 1650 Trine Plump resisted torture.
At the same time, six women and one man fell victim to the witch craze in Märkisches Witten . In 1647, the farmer Arndt Bottermann from Witten was found guilty and executed in a sorcery trial . The case of Arndt Bottermann is one of the few trials that took place in Grafschaft Mark .
Anna Coesters from Dortmund was subjected to the water test at the Kuckelkenmühlenteich in 1581. Because she was floating on the water, she was charged with sorcery, tortured, and eventually burned. In the same year four other people in the county of Dortmund were beheaded for alleged magic.
In 1593, for the first time since 1581, there was another chain of charges and executions for sorcery and witchcraft in Dortmund, which killed 15 people in the course of the year. From the end of 1593, no further witch trials took place in Dortmund.
In the freedom Horst an der Emscher - today a district of Gelsenkirchen - there was a witch trial in 1609, which would have killed almost an entire family. The daughter of the farmer Johann Notthoff and his wife Hille reported to the responsible judge at Schloss Horst that her father was accused of sorcery in rumors circulating in the village. Johann Notthoff volunteered, along with some other accused, a short time later for a water test in the mill pond. Two residents who had spread the rumors also had to undergo this test. Despite being tied up, all swam on the surface of the water, which was taken as evidence of witchcraft. As a control, a bystander was also thrown into the water, which sank but was rescued. In order to free themselves from the accusation of witchcraft, Johann Notthoff's wife and children immediately reported for a water test; everyone swam upstairs and was taken to the cellar dungeons of Schloss Horst for further interrogation. This interrogation was initially amicable, then “embarrassing”, that is, with torture. The parents as well as the 13- and 14-year-old children confessed to witchcraft, dance and fornication with the devil. They also named a number of accomplices. Hille Notthoff's attempt to escape failed; it was picked up again a day later. She and the other accused were sentenced to death. Johann and Hille Notthoff were first strangled, then their bodies were burned. The underage children were pardoned by the lord of the castle Dietrich von der Recke and entrusted to a Christian family for care and re-education. Four years later, Röttger Schniering, a farmer from neighboring Brauck , whose name had been mentioned during the interrogations in 1609 and who has therefore also been exposed to numerous rumors since then, volunteered to take a water test at Horster Richter. He also swam upstairs and was arrested and interrogated under torture. He too confessed and was executed.
In the Thirty Years' War, which began a little later, the witch hunt in Central Europe reached a climax. Many witch trials took place in Westphalia too. In 1629, 30 people were victims of the witch hunt in the Werne office .
The last of a total of 130 witch trials since 1514 took place in 1706 in Vest Recklinghausen in Cologne . Trine Plumpe resisted torture in a witch trial in 1650 and thus contributed to the end of the witch hunt in the immediate jurisdiction of the Vests Recklinghausen.
Beginnings of mining
The earliest regulation of mining in the Ruhr area is the Jülich-Clevische Bergordnung, which was issued on April 24, 1542 and remained in force until around 1750. Since the sovereign had the mountain shelf, it was stipulated that this right could be granted for certain mine fields against payment of the mountain tithe.
The oldest mention of mining in Witten comes from the year 1578, when the landlords of Haus Berge and Burg Steinhausen agreed that coal mining should be restricted because of the devastation that had been caused and that no more coal should be extracted than the city of Witten consumed.
Epoch of absolutism
Wars and Territorial Development
The “cow war” of 1651
Elector Friedrich Wilhelm of Brandenburg accused the Duke of Jülich-Berg, Wolfgang Wilhelm , of failing to comply with the rights of the individual denominations in the duchies agreed in the Duisburg settlement of 1648. This accusation served the Brandenburgers as an excuse to start a war against Jülich-Berg, where Friedrich Wilhelm hoped to seize the duchies of Jülich-Berg. In Duisburg-Kaßlerfeld he pulled together an army of just 4,000 men and moved with them to a camp near Angerort , from where he attempted to conquer the city of Düsseldorf in a coup, but failed. The Klevisch-Märkische estates took sides against their own sovereign, the representative of the city of Duisburg even suggested that the Dutch government should be asked to occupy the city of Duisburg with troops. At the mediation of the Kaiser, Friedrich Wilhelm made the effort to end the “cow war” and withdraw the Brandenburg troops.
End of the dispute over the duchies in 1666
After Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg had not succeeded in conquering the duchies of Jülich and Berg, the settlement with Dorsten of February 4, 1665 paved the way for a peaceful solution to the inheritance dispute. On September 9, 1666, the final estate settlement between the warring princes was reached in Duisburg. Pfalz-Neuburg remained in the possession of the duchies of Jülich and Berg, as well as the dominions of Winnenthal and Breskesand. The Duchy of Kleve and the County of Mark remained in Brandenburg. In religious matters, it was agreed to make the status of 1624 the basis of religious affiliation, but the free practice of religion by the evangelical residents in Kleve and Berg had to be ensured. As early as 1609, the Brandenburg, Klevian and Jülich-Bergische estates had agreed on a common approach to the inheritance dispute, and in 1627 they even concluded an "Eternal Hereditary Alliance", so that the estates only paid homage to the new ruler Friedrich Wilhelm after considerable concessions. After numerous attempts on the part of Pfalz-Neuburg to undermine this scheme succeeded, after numerous and difficult negotiations until May 6, 1672 Cölln to conclude a contract between religion Brandenburg and Neuburg the duchies of Jülich and Berg on.
Effects of the "Dutch War" 1672 to 1679
In 1672 French soldiers under Marshal Turenne invaded the Ruhr area during the Franco-Dutch War . After Elector Friedrich Wilhelm entered the war on the side of the Dutch, French troops occupied the city of Duisburg in autumn 1672, whereupon almost all students and a large part of the population left the city. During their advance to Westphalia, for example, the French burned down Steinhausen's house near Dortmund in February 1672 . The village of Meiderich was burned down in June 1672 when French troops were passing through.
At the beginning of June 1673, Friedrich Wilhelm made peace with France, whereupon the French garrison was withdrawn from Duisburg on June 15, 1673, but Wesel and Rees remained occupied by French troops.
Brandenburg entered the war against France again in 1674, but in the following years the theater of war shifted to southwest Germany. From 1677 onwards French troop units made further advances to the Lower Rhine, which in early 1679 succeeded in conquering the city of Neuss.
Effects of the "War of the Palatinate Succession" 1688–1697
After the death of Elector Charles II in 1685, the Palatinate-Simmern family died out and Philipp von Pfalz-Neuburg took over the inheritance, but Louis XIV demanded part of the inheritance for his sister-in-law Elisabeth Charlotte von Orleans. On the Palatine question, Ludwig signaled accommodating if Wilhelm von Fürstenberg, whom he liked, would be elected Archbishop of Cologne. When the emperor did not accept the proposal, war broke out. From Wesel, Brandenburg troops crossed the Rhine and defeated the Electoral Cologne and French units in a battle near Neuss in March 1689. The French then destroyed numerous castles and burned down some places, including Andernach and Ahrweiler. In May 1689, the Cologne troops who had occupied the Rheinberg fortress surrendered to the Brandenburg troops.
Land expansion and the beginning of industrialization
Schools and universities
On October 14, 1655, after the provisional takeover of the Duchy of Kleve and the County of Mark by Friedrich Wilhelm , Elector of Brandenburg , a university was established in Duisburg . The university, which was shaped by Protestant Reforms, had four faculties, the theological, legal, medical and philosophical faculties. The core of the university building was the former Katharinenkloster, the cemetery chapel on the Salvatorkirchhof served as a second auditorium from 1659. The first rector of the university was Johannes Clauberg , who taught at the theological faculty from 1655 to 1665. The old Duisburg University was dissolved on November 7, 1818, because the University of Bonn was founded as the successor university to the Rhine Province. The library holdings, the scepter and all other insignia of the University of Duisburg had to be handed over to the University of Bonn.
The Academic Gymnasium Hamm began teaching on May 28, 1657 after Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg had allowed the establishment of another Reformed university in his western territories in 1655.
In 1781 the academic grammar school Hamm and the older Latin school Hamm were merged to form the first humanistic grammar school in Westphalia, the Royal grammar school Hamm - today grammar school Hammonense . The faculties were dissolved and the new grammar school became the model for all Protestant grammar schools in County Mark and the Duchy of Kleve.
Beginnings of the newspaper industry
From 1732 to 1757 the newspaper “Adress- und Intelligentz-Zettel” appeared in Duisburg with the cumbersome, here also only abbreviated name “Weekly Duisburgische on the interest of the Commercien, the clever, Geldrischen, Moers- and Märckischen, also surrounding country places , established address and intelligence notes: from which to see: what movable and immovable goods to buy and sell, also what kind of things to lend, to reject, to gamble [...] " .
The first newspaper appeared in Essen in 1736. It was published by the printer Johann Heinrich Wißmann under the title “Latest Essendische Nachrichten von Staats- und Schehrten Dinge”. In 1775, Zacharias Gerhard Diederich Baedeker took over the printing and publishing house.
In 1769, the "Dortmund mixed newspapers" appeared for the first time , edited by Gottschalk Dietrich Baedeker, a member of the Baedeker family of printers in Essen . The newspaper appeared twice a week and was the first newspaper in town.
In 1798 the liberal Arnold Mallinckrodt founded the “Westfälischer Anzeiger” in Dortmund , the leading press organ of the time in Westphalia. Carl Arnold Kortum was one of the employees . The forerunner of the Westfälischer Anzeiger was the "Magazin von und für Dortmund" published quarterly from spring 1796, which was renamed "Magazin für Westfalen" a year later. From 1798 to 1809 the magazine was now published twice a week under the title "Westfälischer Anzeiger".
Expansion of the traffic routes
Although there was already a boatmen's guild in Ruhrort in 1661, the targeted expansion of a port did not begin until the beginning of the 18th century. After the first slipway, i.e. a shipbuilding site, had been created in 1712, the construction of a 5000 square meter harbor basin began in 1715, in which the Rhine and Ruhr ships could spend the winter. In 1716, the Ruhrort magistrate decided to build a port that became the nucleus of today's Duisburg-Ruhrorter ports . Because of the chronic financial shortage in Ruhrort, the work dragged on for decades, so the magistrate was only able to report to the government on December 5, 1752 that the port was ready. A first coal store was built in 1748 to optimize the transfer of coal from Ruhr to Rhine ships.
After negotiations between the city of Duisburg and the Wesel shipowner Gisbert Koch, permanent freight and passenger traffic between Duisburg and Nijmegen was set up, known as the Börtschifffahrt . Börtschifffahrt experienced its climax in the 18th century, when Duisburg became a central trading point.
Making the Ruhr navigable
16 locks were built between 1773 and 1780, making the Ruhr navigable for 74 kilometers and becoming the main transport route for the coal mined in the Ruhr Valley. There were 86 coal depots along this route because of the low water level in the Ruhr. The port of Mülheim became the main hub for coal from the Ruhr, and in 1849 Mülheim was the most populous city in the Ruhr area with 10,700 inhabitants.
In 1784, some of the Hattingen collieries had laid out a common sliding path to the Ruhr and built a coal loading station on the banks of the Ruhr. In 1787 this Rauendahler sliding path was expanded with iron rails, creating the first "railway line" in Germany. It was the first of several horse-drawn railways based on the English model in the Ruhr Valley. Bergrat Eversmann and Oberbergrat Freiherr vom Stein were involved in the planning. In 1828 the sliding path was converted into one of the first horse-drawn trams in the Ruhr area.
In the middle of the 18th century there were only a few and poorly developed roads in the Ruhr area, there was only a rudimentary road network to the south of the Hellweg zone and served to transport the coal to the Bergisch industrial area. The roads were in such bad shape that the coal was transported on pack horses . The planned construction of highways only began in the last quarter of the 18th century. From 1776 to 1778 the Gahlener Kohlenweg was built from the Ruhr via Bochum, Eickel and Buer to Gahlen an der Lippe. In 1788, construction of the highway began along the old Hellweg in the Prussian county of Mark von Unna via Hörde to the coal mines there and on to Crengeldanz . Here too, Freiherr vom Stein pushed the planning ahead. Two years later, an agreement was reached with the abbess of Essen to extend the building over the monastery territory as a connection to the Prussian area of Kleves.
Mining before 1800
Dietrich von Diest, who held office until 1661, was installed in the county of Mark in 1632 as miner Dietrich von Diest as state supervision of mining. From 1681, Oberbergvögte were regularly appointed as supervisors, from 1681 to 1716 Dr. Peter König, followed in office by his son Dr. Simeon King from 1716 to 1721.
The oldest evidence of a colliery in Hattingen dates from March 23, 1677, with which the farmer Heinrich Köllermann was granted the right to mine a seam. The second oldest colliery in Hatting was also founded in 1698 by Köllermann.
An investigation by August Heinrich Decker, commissioned by the Prussian state, of the state of the Brandenburg coal mining industry showed in 1737 that the mines were too small and mostly only operated by the farmers who owned the land as a sideline. On July 18, 1737, a new mountain order came into force "for the Clevian and neighboring countries, especially the County of Mark". In this context, the Märkisches Bergamt was founded in Bochum in 1738 , which took over the re-measurement and reallocation of the mine fields, the control of the technical equipment and the control of the production and sales quantities. The mining regulations put the mines under the complete control of the mining authority. It was the beginning of the phase of state dirigism in the coal mining industry; the strong state influence was only dismantled during industrialization.
In 1738, the "Glückauf" colliery in Gennebreck, with 17 employees, was one of the largest mine in the county of Mark .
In 1754, a survey for the county of Mark showed that there were currently 110 mining collieries with 688 miners. While there were only two mines with nine workers in Witten, the focus of coal production was in the former offices of Wetter (20 mines with 169 miners) and Blankenstein (24 mines with 149 miners).
On April 29, 1766, Frederick II issued the "Revised Mountain Regulations for the Duchy of Cleve, the Principality of Meurs and the County of Mark" . The prospecting for minerals was thus free, you needed a state prospecting license and, after you found what you were looking for, you had to make a guess. Mountain fields were awarded subject to the rights of third parties, e.g. B. the landowner, so litigation was a frequent occurrence. The principle of direction laid down in Chapter 29 of the Mining Regulations made mining subject to massive state controls and regulations, including the setting of wages, coal prices and the economic management of the mines.
A decree of September 17, 1766 decreed that no “foreign”, i.e. H. Coal not mined in the area of the Bergordnung could be sold. The same applied to salt, which could only be obtained from the Königsborn saltworks. Violators were punished with imprisonment. In 1769 this decree was reaffirmed.
An order from the Mining Authority in 1783 stipulated that “no new coal mines will be put into operation until there is a coal shortage”.
Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr vom und zum Stein became director of the mining office in Wetter an der Ruhr in 1784 . He drove the development of mining and metallurgy in the western regions of Prussia.
In 1784, some of the Hattingen collieries had laid out a common sliding path to the Ruhr and built a coal loading station on the banks of the Ruhr. In 1787 this sliding route was expanded with iron rails, creating the first "railway line" in Germany. In 1828 this sliding route was converted into one of the first horse-drawn trams in the Ruhr area.
Iron smelting began before 1800
With the privilege of July 13, 1753, the Archbishop of Cologne, Clemens August, granted Baron Franz Ferdinand von der Wenge permission to build a blast furnace and a hammer mill on the Sterkrader Bach. The history of the iron and steel industry in the Ruhr area begins with this privilege. On October 18, 1758, a nine meter high furnace was blown at the St. Antony hut in Osterfeld . The first ore processing production facility in this region had started operations. Lawn iron ore that was found in the area was smelted with the help of charcoal that was extracted from the surrounding forests.
In 1779, the smelter Eberhard Pfandhöfer, who came from Siegerland, leased the St. Anthony hut. In 1781 he received a license from the Prussian king to build an iron smelter near the village of Sterkrade. He borrowed the necessary capital to set up the plant from Helene Amalie Krupp, and in 1782 the hut named "Gute Hope" started production.
With the privilege of the Essen prince abbess Maria Cunegunda, Gottlob Jacobi built the “Neu-Essen” hut on the Emscher near Oberhausen Castle in 1791 .
In 1793, after Wenges' death, the abbess offered the heirs to buy the St. Anthony hut. However, since pawn shops already had a purchase agreement, soldiers from the abbess occupied the St. Anthony hut and drove out pawn shops. In return, Prussian police arrested Jacobi when he was on Prussian territory. Through the intervention of Baron von Stein, Pfandhöfer came into possession of the St-Anthony-Hütte, but had to sell it to the abbess in 1795 because of his high debts. In 1800 his good hope hut was foreclosed on auction, the main creditor Helene Amalie Krupp bought the hut.
Koenigsborn salt works
In 1734 the Königsborn salt works in Unna was founded by the Prussian state. Two years later, the Caroliner Erbstollen began mining coal in Holzwickede and supplied the Königsborn saltworks. 1747 was the Unnaer salt plant in newly drilled wells Friedrichsborn as technical innovation a wind Arts , a windmill, used for brine production.
In Unna-Afferde, a steam engine was first used in the operation of the Königsborn salt works in 1799 . The new type of brine extraction brought such an increase in yield with it that the saltworks already ranked third among all salt-producing companies in Prussia in terms of productivity in the following year.
The Napoleonic Era 1799–1815
Territorial reorganization through the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803
The annexation of the left bank of the Rhine, which had been under French occupation since 1794, was also recognized under constitutional law in the Peace of Lunéville on February 9, 1801. The secular rulers who had to cede areas on the left bank of the Rhine to France should be compensated with areas on the right bank of the Rhine. Although the redistribution of areas was officially determined at the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, in a treaty with France dated May 23, 1802, Prussia had the future possession of spiritual territories confirmed and was given the right to occupy these territories in advance. As a result, the Essen Abbey and the Werden Abbey were annexed in June and August 1802, respectively. In 1803, with the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss in the course of secularization, the spiritual territories of the Reichsabtei Werden and Stift Essen were dissolved. The areas went to Prussia . Duke Ludwig-Engelbert von Arenberg received, among other things, Vest Recklinghausen as compensation land for his principality on the left bank of the Rhine .
Grand Duchy of Berg 1806–1813
Shortly after the Battle of Austerlitz , Napoleon succeeded in the Treaty of Schönbrunn on December 15, 1805 , persuading Bavaria and Prussia to swap territory: the French-occupied Ansbach was to fall to Bavaria, whereas Bavaria ceded the Duchy of Berg to France. An agreement was reached with the Prussian negotiators to swap the French-occupied Hanover for the part of the Duchy of Kleve on the right bank of the Rhine. The Franco-Prussian treaty was ratified on January 4, 1806.
On March 15, 1806, Napoleon appointed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat as Duke von Berg, who arrived in his residence city of Düsseldorf on March 23, 1806, and three days later the estates and state authorities swore the oath on the new regent.
From October 1806 to November 18, 1813, the Napoleonic Grand Duchy of Berg existed with the Ruhr Department , whose prefecture was in Dortmund. Baron Gisbert von Romberg zu Brünninghausen was appointed prefect of the Ruhr Department . The western part of the Ruhr area belonged to the Departement du Rhin, the capital of which was Düsseldorf. The Arrondissement of Essen included the current cities of Essen, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen, Duisburg, Dinslaken, Dorsten and Recklinghausen.
In the years from 1806 onwards, the economic situation in Berg deteriorated due to Napoleon's protectionist measures to promote the French economy and his decrees to block the continents against Great Britain. By Napoleon's decree of April 30, 1806, which banned all imports of fabrics, cloths and fine iron goods into France, trade with France practically came to a standstill. Trade with the British Isles was prohibited in the decree of November 21, 1806, and after the Turin decree of December 28, 1807, only cotton goods of French origin could be imported into Italy. The loss of sales of the Bergisch entrepreneurs connected with the Napoleonic measures and the rising unemployment led to strong anti-French sentiments among the people.
On December 12, 1808, Napoleon issued a decree from Madrid that abolished serfdom and bondage. The following year Napoleon introduced freedom of trade . The guilds have been disbanded. The feudal and estate subordination of the peasants was abolished by imperial decrees of January 11, 1809 and September 13, 1811.
On December 17, 1811, the cultivation, import and processing of tobacco were banned in the Grand Duchy of Berg in order to strengthen the French tobacco industry. All stocks and machines of the tobacco processing companies were confiscated and transported to France. The thriving tobacco industry in the Ruhr area suffered quite a setback. B. This ban made 15% of the population unemployed.
The bitterness of the population against French rule associated with the management of tobacco and salt in the Grand Duchy of Berg, combined with new conscriptions at the beginning of 1813, led to an uprising of workers and farmers in the Grand Duchy. The uprising was suppressed by troops drawn from Wesel and Elberfeld, and 17 leaders were executed.
According to the Senate Consultation on December 12, 1810, the areas north of a Wesel - Haltern line became part of the French Empire, with the result that the Principality of Salm and the Duchy of Arenberg-Meppen lost their independence. The Arenberg possessions south of the Lippe, for example Recklinghausen, became part of the Grand Duchy of Berg in 1811.
Effects of the "War of Liberation" 1813/14
After the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , October 16-19, 1813, the French troops withdrew to the area on the left bank of the Rhine, only the Wesel fortress on the right bank of the Rhine remained under French occupation. On November 9th, the first Prussian troops reached Hamm, from where on the same day all residents of Berg und Mark were called to take up arms to fight the French. On November 13th a scouting group of 18 Russian Cossacks arrived in Duisburg and was welcomed with jubilation by the population, on November 15th a Russian infantry regiment followed. From mid-December 1813, Duisburg was occupied by Russian troops, Kirghiz and Bashkirs from the Russian General Chernyshev , who were stationed there for the winter. The Russian troops knew how to enforce their demands and needs against the Duisburg population with sometimes considerable brutality, so that the winter of 1813 to 1814 was referred to as the "Cossack winter".
Territorial reorganization by the Congress of Vienna in 1815
According to the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna , Prussia got its possessions in Westphalia and on the Rhine back, as well as the former Duchy of Berg and the areas of the former imperial city and county of Dortmund . This united all territories around the Ruhr, Emscher and Lower Rhine in one hand. They now belonged to Prussia.
Industrialization from 1800 to 1918
Early industrialization 1800 to 1835
The first still imported steam engine from the Ruhr mining industry was put into operation in 1802 at the Vollmond colliery in Werne near Bochum for drainage purposes. The technician commissioned with this, Franz Dinnendahl , founded a factory shortly afterwards in Essen and had steam engines that he had designed himself manufactured. The first steam engine built by Dinnendahl was put into operation in 1804 at the Wohlgemuth colliery.
In 1804 the Ruhr area had 229 mines with a production of 380,000 tons.
In 1805, Franz Haniel , his brother Gerhard Haniel, and Gottlob Jacobi, who was related by marriage to them, bought the two ironworks, St.-Antony-Hütte in Oberhausen-Osterfeld and “Neu-Essen” in the imperial monastery in Essen . Through the mediation of Heinrich Arnold Huyssen , the "Gutehoffnung" hut in Oberhausen-Sterkrade , which was owned by Helene Amalie Krupp, was acquired in 1808 . In the same year, the company "Hüttengewerkschaft und Handlung Jacobi, Haniel & Huyssen (JHH)" was founded as the operator of the three neighboring huts from which the Gutehoffnungshütte developed.
Wilhelm Hobrecker built a rolling mill in Hamm in 1810. One year later, in 1811, Friedrich Krupp founded the Krupp cast steel factory in Essen and Johann Dinnendahl founded a steam engine workshop in Mülheim , the nucleus of the later Friedrich Wilhelms-Hütte .
The year without a summer , the year 1816 (even snow falls on June 25th) brought hunger across Europe and North America. In the same year the Bochum mountain school was founded. The management personnel for mining were trained on it.
On October 18, 1818, based on a cabinet order from Friedrich Wilhelm III. the university in Duisburg closed. In the same year the University of Bonn was re-established. Large parts of the Duisburg university library and the university scepter went to Bonn.
The father of the Ruhr area, Friedrich Harkort , founded his mechanical workshops in the castle in Wetter an der Ruhr in 1819 and had steam engines produced. In 1826 he added a puddle furnace to his factory , bringing the steelmaking process invented in England in 1784 to the Ruhr area for the first time. As early as 1828, Eduard Schmidt founded another puddling plant in Nachrodt , and shortly afterwards Theodor Freiherr von Dücker founded another plant in Rödinghausen .
The Royal Prussian Higher Regional Court in Kleve was relocated to Hamm on July 1, 1820 - today it is the Higher Regional Court of Hamm .
Witten received city rights in 1823. With the population increase, which was connected with the advancing industrialization, a new series of town charter awards began in the region. In contrast to the numerous medieval awards of town charter, the "elevation" to town now took place according to the Prussian town order.
Friedrich Harkort opened the first railways over a Prussian mile with the Schlebusch-Harkorter coal railway in 1828 and the Deilthaler railway in 1831 . The railways were initially built as a horse-drawn tram and later converted to steam operation. They connected the mines in the southern Ruhr area with the coal routes in the southern Ruhr valley and the industry on Enneperstraße .
First phase of industrialization from 1835 to 1873
According to the Prussian regulation on the employment of young workers in factories of 1839, the minimum age for child labor was nine years, the working hours were limited to ten hours a day. Children were not allowed to work on Sundays, public holidays and at night.
Beginnings of heavy industry
In the area of today's city of Dortmund , industrialization began in Hörde in 1839 with the founding of the Hermannshütte by Hermann Diedrich Piepenstock , who bought Hörde Castle and parts of the surrounding area and had a puddling plant for the production of wrought iron, a hammer mill and a rolling mill built there. In 1841 the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. Visited the plant, which he inaugurated a year later. Commissioning of the plant was delayed, however, and Piepenstock, who died in 1843, did not see the start of production in the following year. In 1852, his heirs converted Hermannshütte into the Hörder Bergwerks- und Hütten-Verein , which was the first joint stock company in the Ruhr area's metallurgical industry. In 1854 a first coke oven was blown. He should process the local deposits of coal iron stone, a mixture of iron stone with clay and coal. In 1855 four blast furnaces were already in operation, and the smelter was connected to the railway network in the same year.
The discovery of rich iron stone deposits in Hörde, Schüren and Aplerbeck gave Dortmund a considerable location advantage in terms of heavy industry due to the regional coexistence of hard coal and iron ore.
The first modern collieries were financed in 1850 with the money from Essen mine owners as well as Cologne and Berlin banks. When, in the summer of 1855, three more banks opened branches in Dortmund in addition to the royal bank, “the citizens of Dortmund were seized by an almost American founding frenzy”. In the years 1855 and 1856, 23 stock companies with a share capital of 53 million were founded in Dortmund, which invested in the mining and heavy industry. The number of puddle ovens increased from 5 in 1855 to 45 in 1858. The number of workers in heavy industry rose to 1201 by 1858.
In Bochum , Jacob Mayer and Eduard Kühne founded the cast steel factory Mayer & Kühne in 1842 , the forerunner of the Bochumer Verein mining group . In 1852 Mayer & Kühne presented the first cast steel bells made from cast steel to the public at the Düsseldorf trade exhibition.
In 1844, Ernst Berkmann founded the “Borussia Hut” in Hochfeld on the Rhine Canal in Duisburg , which around 1850 employed around 50 workers. The Niederrheinische Hütte was built on the banks of the Rhine. The cloth manufacturer Peter Göring from Düsseldorf and the merchant Wilhelm Stein from Lintorf had the smelter built from 1851 to 1853, and a second blast furnace was put into operation as early as 1854. Several iron stone pits in Hesse and a coking plant on the Duisburg factory site belonged to the hut. As the investment costs could not be raised by the two founders alone, the company was converted into a stock corporation in 1855: Rheinische Bergbau- und Hüttenwesen-AG . In 1857 the smelter employed around 150 workers. The third Duisburg hut "Vulkan" was also built in Hochfeld on the Rhine Canal and financed with Dutch capital. Two blast furnaces were built; the first went into operation in 1856. In 1859 the plant was shut down because the owners wanted to invest the remaining capital in the expansion of the “Java” mine belonging to the group. Before the colliery started mining, the group went bankrupt.
In 1867 August Thyssen and several relatives founded the “Thyssen-Foussol & Co” ironworks in Duisburg.
The iron wire factory Cosack & Co., which later became the Westphalian Union - today Böhler Welding and Drahtwerke Hobrecker-Witte-Herbers - was founded in Hamm in 1855. In 1872 it changed its name to the stock company Westfälischer Draht-Industrie-Verein , and in 1890 the name was changed again to Westphalian Wire industry .
The first Malakoff towers were built in 1850 .
The mining legislation was reformed and liberalized in several laws between 1851 and 1865. In 1851, the first change to the mining law, the so-called "Co-Owners Act", reduced the influence of the state and the owners were given extended rights over the mines. In 1854 the coffers of the Knappschaftsvereine became compulsory funds, which led to considerable social security for the miners, whereby the Minerships allowed the miners to benefit from free cures and free medicines, continued wages in the event of illness, disability and widow benefits. The model was financed by the entrepreneurs, who paid 1/20 of the coal production, and the miners, who contributed 1/20 of their wages. The mining law amendment of 1860 introduced the "freedom of movement" of the employment relationship between the mine owner and worker. H. the last state influence on the contract conditions of the miners abolished, which in 1861 consequently led to the dissolution of the state mining offices. Between 1851 and 1863 the mining law was liberalized by 14 changes in mining law and the state's influence withdrawn. On June 24, 1865, the state of mining law in the "General Mining Act for the Prussian States" (ABG) was passed. The law came into force on October 1, 1865.
In 1855, under the direction of William Thomas Mulvany , the sinking of the first shaft of the Hibernia colliery in Gelsenkirchen began. As a technical innovation, tubbings were used as a basin layer for the shaft lining. Over the next few years, the Shamrock collieries in Herne and Erin in Castrop followed along the Emscher valley under the direction of the Irish engineer . The funds came from Irish and Belgian investors. The coal was transported via the Cologne-Mindener Railway.
The economic crisis of 1857 led to sales difficulties for coal and steel, with social consequences for the employees. In 1857 the mining industry in the Ruhr area fell into a crisis due to falling coal prices, and the simultaneous falling iron prices in England forced blast furnaces to close, which impaired coking coal production. In this economic crisis situation, on December 17, 1858, mine owners in Essen founded the Association for Mining Interests in the Dortmund Upper Mining District , or mining association for short. 89 mining companies with 16,000 workers were represented at the founding meeting of the association. The mines represented were only a minority of 202 mines in the Dortmund Oberbergamts district, but they represented around half of the district's coal production. Friedrich Hammacher was elected as the first chairman of the association , who remained in this office until 1890. a. Hugo Haniel , Friedrich Wilhelm Waldthausen , Gustav Stinnes , William Thomas Mulvany . In the course of the following years, almost all mines in the Oberbergamts district joined the association. The goals of the association were above all to increase coal sales, expand the transport network, lower tariffs for rail transport and dismantle state regulations in mining.
The period from 1871 to 1873 is known as the founding years . The French contribution led to a building boom and a surge in investment. In the Ruhr area, numerous mining companies were founded with the capital flowing in from France .
Expansion of the transport system
After Friedrich Harkort had already proposed the construction of a railway line from Cologne to Minden in 1825 and Friedrich List had planned this route connection in 1833 as the westernmost section of his "Concept of a Railway Network for Germany", the Cologne-Minden Railway Company received the license to build the line in 1843. The line was supposed to connect the Rhineland with the network of the Royal Hanover State Railways . The first section from Cologne-Deutz to Düsseldorf was opened on December 20, 1845, the line to Duisburg on February 9, 1846. In order to keep the cost of building the railway line as low as possible, a route north of the centers of the Hellweg zone selected. On May 15, 1847, when we reached Hamm, the section through the Ruhr area was completed. By October 15, 1847, the construction of the entire line to Minden - initially single-track - was completed.
Even during the construction of the railway in the northern Ruhr area, the Cologne-based banks Camphausen and Schaafhausen were interested in the resulting growth potential in the Emscherland . The Cologne Mining Association was founded as an early joint stock company for the Ruhr mining industry and had mines in northern Essen sunk , including the Carl colliery . The transport route of the future was the new railway line.
In 1847 the first steam train drove through the Ruhr Valley on the Steele-Vohwinkler Railway .
Immediately after completion, the Cologne-Minden railway line was expanded to include numerous branch lines. In 1848, the Hamm (Westphalia) station became the first German railway junction , as the Hamm-Münster railway line was opened and in 1850 the Hamm – Warburg railway line was attached to the Hamm junction as the third line. Starting from Oberhausen train station, a branch line was built via Meiderich to Ruhrort, which was completed on November 12, 1852. This connected the mines in the northern Hellweg zone and the Emscher zone to the Ruhrort harbor. In 1856 a railway line on the right bank of the Rhine was put into operation, connecting Oberhausen and Arnhem in the Netherlands .
Other important railway lines followed, such as B. 1862 the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft with the railway line Witten / Dortmund – Oberhausen / Duisburg , which established the second important east-west connection in the south of the Ruhr area. In 1866 the Hamm-Hagen railway line was opened by the Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft .
Shipping and ports
After the coal handling in the Ruhrort port had exceeded 600,000 tons in 1831 and the existing capacities were no longer sufficient, further ports were built in the following period: the lock port from 1837 to 1842 and the north and south ports from 1860 to 1868.
The importance of the Ruhr as a shipping route increased further in the 1830s and 1840s, but with annual results that fluctuated strongly in some cases. In 1830 275,000 tons of goods were transported on the Ruhr, the number rose to 514,000 tons by 1849. From 1850, data are also available on the proportion of coal in the total amount of goods. The share of coal in the total amount of goods was over 90% in all years. The peak in the amount of coal transported on the Ruhr was 868,000 tons in 1860. In the 1860s and early 1870s, the amount of coal transported fell to 78,000 tons in 1874. In the years that followed, the Ruhr was no longer used as a coal transport route, and the amount transported fell to 10,000 tons in 1884 and 3,000 tons in 1889. In 1890 a total of 12 shiploads of coal were transported on the Ruhr. The Ruhr had lost its role as a coal transport route.
In 1838 the steamship "Graf von Paris" was launched in the Jacobi, Haniel & Huyssen shipyard. It was the first ship made entirely of iron in Germany.
On September 4, 1846, Mülheim an der Ruhr was granted city rights, and the rural communities previously associated with Mülheim formed their own association of mayors.
The mayor's office in Oberhausen was founded on February 1, 1862 in accordance with a royal decree of November 18, 1861. It comprised the Lipper Heide , which previously belonged to Borbeck's mayor , with the farmers Lippern and Lirich and Heidegebieten, which previously belonged to the communities of Meiderich , Alstaden , Styrum and Dümpten .
As the population grew and new settlements began to be built, the municipalities were forced to draw up plans for urban expansion. The plans developed in Duisburg, Mülheim, Essen and Dortmund in the 1850s and 1860s, which provided for a grid-like expansion of the inner cities, could not be implemented due to new industrial settlements, newly built factory settlements and the rapid growth of the villages surrounding the cities, so that In the Ruhr area the development of the settlement structure was largely uncoordinated and uncontrolled. At that time, the Ruhr area was known as “Prussia's wild west”.
The construction of the Eisenheim factory estate in Osterfeld , which had been planned since 1836 , began in 1844 with the construction of the first twenty houses. The settlement was expanded in several construction phases in 1865, 1866, 1872, 1898, 1901 and 1910/1911.
In 1869 the industrialist Alfred Krupp had the castle-like Villa Hügel built in the south of Essen . In the city's land register, he had the property registered as a single-family house with a garden . The building was completed four years later.
Due to the considerable increase in population, the cities in the Ruhr area were forced to invest heavily in inner-city development. B. in road construction: Whereas between 1863 and 1865 a total of 5,868 thalers were invested in road construction in the city of Dortmund, the expenditure in 1870 was 27,333 thalers; a calculation from 1872 showed that paving all existing streets in Dortmund would cost 170,000 thalers. There were also numerous other municipal tasks: building hospitals and orphanages, cemeteries, slaughterhouses, etc. But above all, paving the streets, drainage and street lighting were key investment areas. This meant that the cities could no longer balance their municipal budgets and had to borrow, for example. B. Dortmund alone in 1873 a sum of 200,000 thalers. On the other hand, major structural measures such as the almost complete removal of the ramparts from 1871 to 1874 in order to be able to connect the growing suburbs to the city center.
Beginnings of the labor movement
In the context of the establishment of the General German Workers' Association (ADAV) , the Düsseldorf businessman Gustav Levy, who was Ferdinand Lassalle's representative in the Rhineland, tried to organize the workers and to get them excited about Lassalle's teachings, but with little success. The eleven cities represented at the ADAV's founding meeting on May 23, 1863 included Cologne, Düsseldorf, Elberfeld, Barmen and Solingen from the Rhineland, and five of the ADAV's 17-strong board members came from the Rhineland. In June 1863 the first five ADAV parishes in the Rhineland were founded, but the number of members fell short of expectations. The first establishment of an ADAV community in the Ruhr area took place in Duisburg at the beginning of 1864, the machine attendant Caspar Bergrath was appointed as the authorized representative for Duisburg, and in May 1864 the organization had around 50 members. In the early years, the ADAV did not recruit its members from the industrial workers, but small master craftsmen, journeymen and home workers formed the supporting group of the organization.
In Duisburg, Friedrich Albert Lange had campaigned for the founding of workers' and consumer associations from the beginning of the 1860s, and in 1863 he became chairman of the first Duisburg consumer association. From September 1865 he published the newspaper “Der Bote vom Niederrhein”, in which he campaigned for workers' associations, consumer cooperatives and the abolition of the three-class suffrage. In January 1865 his work The Workers' Question and its Significance for the Present and Future was published in Duisburg , in which he called for an improvement in the living and working conditions of workers. Although Lange kept a critical distance from the ADAV, his representation of workers' interests and his demands for the right to vote contributed to the politicization of the lower and middle classes in the Ruhr area.
Only in the western Ruhr area did the ADAV initially succeed in founding associations, for example in Mülheim ad Ruhr in 1864 and in Oberhausen in 1865, although some of them were short-lived. Attempts to found associations in Essen, Bochum and Dortmund failed before 1866. In reports from the district administrators in September 1865, only the ADAV communities in Duisburg with 309 members and Ruhrort with 64 members are mentioned.
In a by-election to the Reichstag of the North German Confederation on February 25, 1869, the ADAV and its candidate Wilhelm Hasenclever managed to win the Reichstag mandate in the constituency of Duisburg-Mülheim-Ruhrort with an absolute majority. Hasenclever was the first social democrat to be elected to the Reichstag in the Ruhr area. As the next Social Democrat, Franz Lütgenau was elected to the Reichstag in the Dortmund constituency in 1895 . In the Duisburg constituency, before the First World War , the Social Democrats only achieved a majority in the 1907 Reichstag election , when Klemens Hengsbach was elected. Due to Hasenclever's vote in the Reichstag in the war credit debate and against the background of the national enthusiasm of the population during the Franco-German War , the ADAV's votes fell from 6,792 in the 1869 election to 2,392 in the 1871 election lost support among the workers, and the constituency of Duisburg was consistently won over by candidates of the National Liberals from 1871 to 1907 . The further development of social democracy in the Ruhr area will show that the SPD before 1914 was relatively weak compared to other industrial areas.
From June 17 to July 28, 1872 the first major miners' strike took place , in which around 20,500 miners were involved and which - with the exception of Duisburg - covered all cities in the Ruhr area. It was the largest strike ever to have taken place in Germany. The demands of the miners were u. a. a 25 percent increase in commemorative rates, minimum wages, eight-hour shift including entry and exit, purchase of cheaper coal to heat the apartments. - The miners could not enforce their demands.
Expansion of industry from 1873 to 1914
Due to the founding crisis of 1873, as a result of speculation by German investors, capital from the French contribution payments flowed into companies in the Ruhr mining industry without any further capital claims from the Kuxen being covered. Steel production in the Ruhr area decreased by 13%.
The Prussian administration divided the provinces into districts, which were administered by a district administrator. Within these circles there were mayor's offices, which mostly comprised several municipalities, individual municipalities could be granted city rights, which thus became an independent mayor's office within the district. In addition to the districts that we would call rural districts today, there were urban districts that were not administered by a district administrator but by a mayor.
Due to the growing population, between 1873 and 1876, the four largest cities in the Ruhr area were initially removed from their districts and converted into their own urban districts. On February 28, 1873, the city of Essen became a city district, so that there were two districts in this area in the future, the city district of Essen and the (rural) district of Essen.
On January 24, 1874, the city of Duisburg became its own district, and the (rural) district of Mülheim an der Ruhr was formed from the previous communities of the (rural) district of Duisburg. Since the (rural) district of Mülheim encompassed the area up to the Lippe and the increasing population in the Emscher zone made administration from Mülheim increasingly difficult, on July 1, 1887, the communities north-west of the community of Alstaden were incorporated into a newly created (Land- ) Organized in the Ruhrort district.
On February 15, 1875, the city of Dortmund became an urban district, so that there was an urban district of Dortmund and a (regional) district of Dortmund. On April 1, 1887, the municipalities south of the Dortmund district were spun off from the (rural) district of Dortmund and the (rural) district of Hörde was formed from them, so that three districts existed in the Dortmund area from 1887: Stadtkreis Dortmund, rural district Dortmund and the (rural) district of Hörde.
Most recently, on May 24, 1876, the city of Bochum became an independent urban district alongside the still existing (rural) district of Bochum, from which the Gelsenkirchen and Hattingen districts were spun off on July 1, 1885, so that there are four in the area of the former Bochum district Circles were: Stadtkreis Bochum, rural district Bochum, (rural) district Gelsenkirchen and (rural) district Hattingen.
Due to industrialization, the judicial district of the Hamm Higher Regional Court became the most important in Westphalia in 1874. With the imperial justice reform of 1877 it became the only higher regional court in Westphalia.
Meiderich , the "largest village in Prussia" with over 20,000 inhabitants, received town charter on October 11, 1894.
In 1897 Herne received city rights.
In 1910, the municipalities of the Ruhr area first had a majority on the RWE supervisory board .
extension of infrastructure
The Rheinisch-Westfälische Elektrizitätswerke (RWE) was founded in 1898. In the following year also the Emschergenossenschaft to channel and lower the Emscher . The regulation of the sewage problems up to around 1910 was a prerequisite for the further growth of the industrial region.
The Dortmund-Ems Canal was opened in 1898. Wilhelm II traveled to the inauguration of the Dortmund harbor and the Henrichenburg ship lift . The canal is of particular importance for the transport of ores imported by sea, which are smelted with coal from the Ruhr area.
Karl Imhoff , engineer at the Emschergenossenschaft, wrote an expert opinion in 1910 on keeping the Ruhr clean .
Under the influence of Karl Imhoff's work to keep the Ruhr clean, the Ruhr Cleanliness Act was passed in 1913 . The work of the Ruhrtalsperrenverein was regulated at the same time by the Ruhrtalsperrengesetz . Both laws made a major contribution to ensuring the supply of process and drinking water to the growing metropolitan area.
The opening of the Rhine-Herne Canal , which will become the busiest inland canal in Europe, took place in 1914. It established the connection between the Rhine and the Duisburg port to a branch canal of the Dortmund-Ems Canal leading to Herne .
In 1892 the coal fields, discovered in 1874, were first awarded in Herringen and Pelkum near Hamm.
In Werries near Hamm, coal was found in eight deep boreholes down to a depth of 840 m. In Werries near Hamm, coal was found in eight deep boreholes down to a depth of 840 m. In 1900, excavation work began in Werries and the Maximilian colliery was founded.
Around 1900 there were 170 mines in the Ruhr area with 228,000 employees and 60.1 million tons of hard coal extraction.
In 1904 the entrepreneur Otto Heinrich Flottmann from Herne received the Reich patent for the pneumatic hammer drill with ball control and automatic implementation . The use of the new type of jackhammer in the Ruhr mining industry should significantly increase the extraction rate.
In 1905 the Radbod colliery was founded in the villages of Bockum and Hövel near Hamm and the initially single- track Oberhausen-Osterfeld – Hamm line , also known as the Hamm-Osterfelder Bahn, was opened and enlarged the Hamm railway junction.
On November 12, 1908, the worst mine accident in Germany to date occurred at the Radbod colliery in Hamm . To this day it is the second heaviest in German coal mining. 350 buddies - apart from a few people the entire night shift - were killed. The mine was flooded with water from the river Lippe 15 hours after the accident due to the fire in the pit . It was not until October 1909 that funding was resumed.
On August 13, 1914, the Maximilian colliery in Werries near Hamm was drowned due to a lack of material due to the war. The inflowing brine flowed four weeks later from the shaft over days into the Geithe.
Development of employer organizations
On February 24, 1882, fifteen Rhenish and Westphalian steelworks formed a cartel to protect themselves against competition.
In 1893 the Rhenish-Westphalian Coal Syndicate was formed with its seat in Essen as an association of a large part of the Ruhr mines. Their goal was to regulate production, sales and prices. The sale was organized through a central point.
The Zechenverband was founded on January 22nd, 1908 as an association of employers in the Ruhr mining industry.
Dortmund - around April 10, 1874: A strike by steel workers at Hoesch who wanted to strike a reduction in daily working hours led to a mass dismissal of the striking workers.
As an expression of social tension , the first major miners' strike from Bochum spread across the entire Ruhr area in 1889 . The workers demanded a share in the company's profits, which had stabilized after the start-up crisis. In the same year, the first permanent miners' union was founded in Dorstfeld with the " Old Association " . In 1894 a Christian and in 1902 a Polish miners' union was added.
The later social democratic member of the Reichstag, Otto Hue , became editor of the miners and ironworkers newspaper of the old miners' association in 1895 . Because of his role, Hue was soon considered the miners' spokesman .
In a strike across the Ruhr area in 1905, the miners were able to limit their daily working hours to 8½ hours.
The Duisburg Tonhalle , which was destroyed in the Second World War, was opened in 1887.
The Grillo Theater was opened in Essen in 1892.
The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research was founded in Mülheim an der Ruhr in 1912 .
The Duisburg City Theater was opened in 1912.
Weimar Republic 1919–1933
First collective agreement between the colliery association and mining associations.
The Ruhr uprising as a result of the Kapp Putsch occurred in 1920. In Mengede and Ickern , the first workers' battalions were set up to fight the Ruhr. The Red Ruhr Army consisted mainly of supporters of the KPD, the USPD and syndicalists.
The Ruhr Coal District Association (SVR) was founded in 1920 and took on important planning tasks for the entire Ruhr area.
French and Belgian troops occupied Duisburg on March 8, 1921. The sanction measure was a direct consequence of the Paris conference, at which Germany was asked to pay reparations .
From Duisburg the occupation of the rest of the Ruhr area began on January 10th and 11th, 1923 ( Ruhr occupation ). In Duisburg, separatists of the Rhenish Independence League proclaimed the “ Rhenish Republic ” in October , but their efforts were ended by the occupation troops in November. The financing of the defense against the occupation of the Ruhr by the Cuno government was one of the causes of the onset of hyperinflation .
The Ruhr industrialist Fritz Thyssen began with massive financial support from the NSDAP . In return, he received extensive armaments orders for his company from the Nazi regime after 1933.
In August and September 1925, the Dawes Plan was adopted by the German government. The Allies ended the occupation of the Ruhr.
Representatives of the cities of Cologne, Düsseldorf and the Ruhr coal district settlement association founded the “ Study Society for the Rhenish-Westphalian Schnellbahn ”. A continuous rapid transit line with its own track and electric trains from Cologne to Dortmund was planned. The Reichsbahn opposed these plans and, a few years later, intended to expand the existing railway lines and set up its own rapid transit system.
The broadcasting station in Dortmund of Westdeutsche Funkstunde AG (WEFAG) started operations. Two rooms in a building opposite the old town hall in the city center were used as a studio. The transmission systems for radio operation were at the Dorstfeld colliery . This first radio operation existed in Dortmund until July 1930, then transmission operations were centralized in Cologne.
The Wedaustadion , built in 1921, was inaugurated in Duisburg in 1926. With a capacity of 40,000 spectators, it was the second major arena in the German Reich after the Berlin Grunewald Stadium. The German Athletics Championships took place there as early as 1922 . In 1924, Germany lost 1-0 in the first game of a German national soccer team on German soil against Italy in the Wedaustadion.
The new Wanne-Eickel district was formed.
Paul Reusch founded the Ruhrlade in January 1928 . On April 1, 1928, the first step in the local reorganization of the Weimar period in the Ruhr area began. As a result, the "twin cities" Gelsenkirchen-Buer and Duisburg-Hamborn were created . These temporary name constructs had already found their role models in the form of Castrop-Rauxel and Wanne-Eickel two years earlier .
The Volkspark Grugapark was opened as the Great Ruhrland Horticultural Exhibition in 1929.
The Oberhausen gasometer was completed as the largest gas container in Europe. Up to the present day it is a widely visible symbol of the industrial region in the Emschertal.
The Prussian law on the municipal reorganization of the Rhenish-Westphalian industrial area came into force on August 8, 1929.
With the beginning of the global economic crisis, the export-oriented production of the coal and steel industry collapsed drastically. The global economic crisis reached its peak in 1932. The unemployment rate in the Ruhr area was 31.2%. Since the beginning of the crisis in 1929, export-oriented production in the coal and steel industry had collapsed dramatically. Iron production had decreased by 60%, and the situation was similar with production in the steel sector and hard coal mining. The industrialist Friedrich Flick saved his fortune by doing business with members of the imperial government in what became known as the Gelsenberg affair .
Third Reich 1933–1945
When the National Socialists came to power , the Steinwache in Dortmund became a Gestapo torture prison from 1933. In 1936 Jewish business owners such as the Alsberg brothers were expropriated and on April 20, Marl was granted city rights. During the November pogroms in 1938, the synagogues of most of the Ruhr area cities were destroyed, such as the Old Synagogue in Dortmund. The construction of the synagogue in Essen was so stable that it was impossible to blow it up without endangering the surrounding buildings, so the construction was preserved, although its interior was devastated and burned.
The Hüls chemical works were founded in the Drewer Mark in Marl . The majority of them were a subsidiary of IG Farben . During the Third Reich, synthetic rubber, Buna , was produced there for tires. Forced laborers were also used in production.
Allied air raids on the Ruhr area in 1943 destroyed more than 65% of residential developments in some cities such as Dortmund and Duisburg . In Essen it was still more than half of the houses. Thousands of people lost their lives. The inner city areas along the Hellweg zone were almost completely in ruins.
On May 18, 1943, the Möhne Reservoir was bombed by the British Air Force. As a result of the dam wall bursting, a tidal wave raced down the valleys of the Möhne and Ruhr, more than 1,000 people perished in the floods.
Already during the Tehran conference it became clear what importance the Allies attached to the Ruhr area in a reorganization of Germany after the end of the war. According to Franklin D. Roosevelt's proposal , the industrial region would come under international administration independently of other German states.
The Morgenthau Plan was discussed in the United States in 1944. According to him, the Ruhr area would have become an international zone under UN administration after the end of the war, alongside a North German and a South German state. Industrial plants were threatened with dismantling, combined with a ban on re-industrialization.
In 1945, shortly before the end of the war, the Ruhr basin claimed around 105,000 deaths.
On April 11, the arms industrialist Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach was arrested by American troops at Villa Hügel .
Post-war period 1945 until today
Upheaval and reorganization 1945–1948
When the British military government took over the administration of the Ruhr area in 1945, the North German Coal Control (NGCC) was founded as a control body for mining in the British zone. It was based in the Villa Huegel in Essen. It was renamed the UK / US Coal Control Group (UK / USCCG) at the end of 1947, with the creation of the Bizone, and in 1949, when the French joined, the Combined Coal Control Group (CCCG).
During the Potsdam Conference in July / August 1945, Winston Churchill and Josef Stalin discussed an exchange of Ruhr coal from the British occupation zone for food from the Soviet zone. At the same time, reparations payments in the form of industrial equipment for the Ruhr area were determined. Stalin and Truman agreed that the Ruhr area would remain a part of Germany, contrary to the wishes of France, which demanded a special state status for the industrial region.
In March 1946 the four occupying powers agreed on the “industrial plan”, in which the Ruhr area was granted an industrial level as in 1932, production in the areas of aviation, shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and large-scale chemicals was prohibited. The mining industry was prescribed to mine coal, especially for the energy needs of neighboring countries.
In 1946, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia , on whose territory the entire Ruhr area lies, was formed by the British military government. Thus the plans of France to introduce a special status for the Ruhr area were prevented by political facts. The alternative proposal by Stalin of Potsdam to introduce a four-power status for the region is also obsolete.
The hitherto largest firedamp explosion took place in 1946 at Grimberg III / IV colliery , 405 miners fell victim to it.
In January 1948 there were repeated strikes by workers in the cities of the Ruhr area; in Essen alone, 50,000 people went on strike. The workers wanted to draw attention to the insufficient supply of food. In particular, Bavaria refused to meet its obligations to exchange goods in the Bizone .
With the currency reform in June, the supply of goods that had previously been hoarded became visible again, but households with low incomes, such as working-class households, had to bear the main burden of the war costs due to the subsequent devaluation of financial assets.
Reconstruction and economic miracle 1949–1958
Hard coal mining
The Ruhr Statute of April 28, 1949 regulated the control of coal and steel production by the International Ruhr Authority. The armaments-relevant industries of the Ruhr area thus remained under international control even with the transfer of state sovereignty to the Federal Republic in May.
In the Ruhr 1950 143 mines worked with 433,359 employees and 103 million tonnes of coal annual production .
With the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community on July 23, 1952, the International Ruhr Authority, created according to the Ruhr Statute, ceased its work. The coal and steel union became the nucleus of the European Union.
The 7.5-hour shift for miners underground was introduced in 1953. In Gelsenkirchen, the Dahlbusch bomb was developed to rescue buried miners .
In 1957, the Ruhr Mining Association started an advertising campaign in rural Italy to recruit workers under the title “Vita Nuova presso l'industria mineria di carbon fossile nella Germania Occidentale”.
In 1947 the city of Recklinghausen and the German Trade Union Federation founded the Society for the Organization of the Ruhr Festival and called the Ruhr Festival into being as an annual event.
On April 6, 1950, the Westfalenstudio of the North West German Broadcasting Corporation (NWDR) started operations in Dortmund . The studio was in a wing of the city's Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
The Dortmund Westfalenhalle was rebuilt in its present form in 1952 after it was destroyed in the Second World War. The inauguration took place on February 2nd in the presence of Federal President Theodor Heuss .
The current building of the Bochum theater was opened. The house is still considered to be one of the best speaking theaters in Germany.
Duisburg was the first German city to ration the parking space. On January 4, 1954, 20 so-called parkographs were installed in the street “Am Buchenbaum”.
The West German Culture Film Festival took place in Oberhausen in 1954 for the first time . At the eighth festival in February 1962, the Oberhausen Manifesto was announced, with which 26 young German filmmakers, including Alexander Kluge , Peter Schamoni and Edgar Reitz , declared the old film to be dead and announced their claim to create the new German film .
In 1955, Duisburg and Düsseldorf founded the Deutsche Oper am Rhein . It developed into one of the most renowned opera stages in Germany. In Dortmund, the oldest stone town hall in Germany until then was demolished.
The diocese of Essen was founded in 1958 as (Ruhrbistum) from parts of the dioceses of Cologne, Münster and Paderborn.
On February 12, 1950, the municipality of Kamp-Lintfort was granted city rights.
The mining area and the mining crisis 1958–1974
On October 31, 1964, the Rationalization Association of the Hard Coal Mining announced 31 large mines with 64,000 employees and an annual production of 26.5 million tons for closure. There were demonstrations in the weeks that followed.
The Ruhrkohle AG was founded 1969th
The Musiktheater im Revier was opened in Gelsenkirchen in 1959 by the architect Werner Ruhnau . Its architecture, influenced by the Bauhaus , and the blue sponge reliefs by the artist Yves Klein gave the building an international reputation to this day.
The Duisburg Mercatorhalle was officially opened in 1962.
The writer Max von der Grün published his first novel, Men in Two Nights , which deals with the working world of miners in the Ruhr area .
The Bochum Planetarium was opened in 1964 . Since then it has been the most modern and largest facility of its kind in Germany.
The Ruhr University Bochum was opened in 1965.
The Essen International Song Days took place from September 25 to 29, 1968 . The festival was considered to be the birth of independent German rock music.
The University of Dortmund was founded on December 16, 1968 .
In 1972 the comprehensive universities of Essen and Duisburg were founded. They were merged in 2003 to form the University of Duisburg-Essen .
The central office for the allocation of study places was set up in Dortmund in 1973.
The International Building Exhibition Ruhr City , which opened in 1956, was canceled prematurely in 1973.
The Federal Garden Show took place in Essen's Gruga in 1965.
The Duisburg contract was signed on September 16, 1966. As an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Free State of Bavaria on the financing and implementation of the expansion measures for the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal, it formed the basis for the continuously navigable connection from the mouth of the Rhine in Rotterdam to the mouth of the Danube in the Black Sea.
The regional green corridors A to F of the Ruhr coal district settlement association were defined in the 1966 regional development plan. Green corridors between the core cities of the Ruhr area thus became mandatory as a spatial planning element for the first time in the Federal Republic.
The Stadtbahngesellschaft Ruhr , founded on the initiative of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia by the Ruhr area cities, took over the planning of the Rhein-Ruhr urban railway network in 1969 .
Sport in the Ruhr area
On July 28, 1962, at a meeting in Dortmund , the German Football Association decided to introduce the Bundesliga for the 1963/64 season. The Bundesliga started in 1963 with three clubs from the Ruhr area: Schalke 04 , Meidericher SV (today: MSV Duisburg ), Borussia Dortmund .
The North Rhine-Westphalian state government under Franz Meyers (Prime Minister from 1958 to 1966) had the first plans in 1965 to form a Ruhr district administrative district. Since the change of government in December 1966 (Meyer's successor was Heinz Kühn (SPD) from 1966–1978 ) the idea was not pursued.
The city of Oberhausen celebrated its 100th birthday in 1962.
The territory and the crisis of the steel industry 1975–1990
In 1976, the second Hammer colliery, the Sachsen colliery in Heessen, closed due to the coal crisis.
In 1986 the last mine in Essen was closed.
Steel industry crisis
In 1977 there was a first climax in the steel crisis , which began in 1975. Since 1974 crude steel production has decreased from 32.2 million t to 21.5 million t. The crisis affected large parts of the Ruhr area. 200,000 jobs were lost in the manufacturing industry. After the first oil crisis (1973/74), years of stagflation ( inflation and stagnation ) followed in many industrialized countries . The first EC expansion (“Northern Expansion ”): Denmark, the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the EC (now the EU), which until then consisted of the six founding states (D, F, I, Benelux).
Territorial-wide protests by steel workers against plans to close and fire the steel companies in the Ruhr area took place in 1982. Krupp shut down the rolling mill in Duisburg-Rheinhausen. The last blast furnace between Duisburg and Dortmund was shut down in Gelsenkirchen.
A concept for the reorganization of the German steel industry was presented in 1983.
In 1977, in downtown Essen, the tram service between Saalbau and Porscheplatz was moved underground. With the U 18 between Mülheim and Essen, the first “real” light rail went into operation.
The Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Ruhr was founded in 1980.
The last section between Bochum and Dortmund of the S-Bahn from Düsseldorf to Dortmund was completed in 1984.
In 1984 the first partially underground tram line was inaugurated in Dortmund.
The first state horticultural show in North Rhine-Westphalia took place in 1984 on the renovated and redesigned site of the Maximilian colliery in Hamm . The colliery was the first Hammer colliery to be closed in 1914 due to an uncontrollable brine ingress. The landmark of the event was the almost 40 m high glass elephant sculpture. Today the elephant is the city's symbol and mascot.
In 1988 the Initiativkreis Ruhrgebiet was founded.
At the beginning of 1989 the first German Internet connections were put into operation. The EUnet project of the University of Dortmund is playing a leading role . The domain uni-dortmund.de was registered as the first of the now more than 10 million .de domains .
In 1988 the International Building Exhibition Emscher Park began its work.
The old synagogue in Essen became a memorial in 1979.
Pope John Paul II visited Essen and the Ruhr area in 1987.
Sport in the Ruhr area
In 1984 the Ruhr area competed for the Olympic Games .
The Settlement Association of the Ruhr Coal District (SVR) lost planning sovereignty over the Ruhr area through a state law in 1975. The municipal reorganization gave Bochum and Duisburg area growth: Bochum received Wattenscheid, Duisburg Rheinhausen , Homberg and Walsum . Herne and Wanne-Eickel joined forces. Hamm was the inclusion of the towns Heessen , Bockum-Hoevel and communities and villages to Pelkum , Herringen , Rhynern and Uentrop the city . From the circles Dinslaken , Moers and the southeastern part of the circle Rees was the Wesel formed.
A ruling by the Constitutional Court for the State of North Rhine-Westphalia in Münster ended the 1975 dispute over the Glabotki formed in the course of the local reorganization . The merger of Bottrop , Gladbeck and Kirchhellen was declared null and void and Gladbeck became part of the Recklinghausen district.
For the first time, a smog alarm was triggered in the Ruhr area on January 17, 1979.
The highest smog alarm level was triggered in the western Ruhr area in January 1985. At that time, North Rhine-Westphalia had the strictest smog limit values in Germany.
In May 1986 there was an incident at the Uentrop nuclear power plant , when a radioactive cloud moved from Hamm over the Ruhr area. The operators tried to cover up the dangerous accident. In Essen, attention was drawn to the high level of radiation, as the Becquerel values were regularly measured due to the Chernobyl catastrophe .
Structural change and reorientation from 1990 to today
The end of mining in the Ruhr area
In 1990 19 mines with 101,000 employees extracted 54 million tons of hard coal. Shaft 9 of the Auguste Victoria colliery went into operation in Haltern . It was the last commissioning of a shaft in the Ruhr mining industry .
The Radbod colliery - founded in 1905 and the scene of the second worst mine accident in Germany to date - closed in 1990 as planned due to the ongoing coal mining crisis.
In January 2007, the government coalition of the federal government agreed to discontinue the subsidies for German hard coal mining in 2018. While at the same time foregoing structural aid from the federal government for the Ruhr area, the North Rhine-Westphalian state government wanted to cancel support for the mining industry in 2015. According to a statement from Lutz Lienenkämper , the economic policy spokesman for the CDU parliamentary group in the state parliament, the funds released in the state budget should expressly not flow solely into structural change in the Ruhr area.
In the absence of the EU Commissioner for Energy, Günther Oettinger , the European Commission decided on July 20, 2010 the proposal for a regulation on state aid to facilitate the closure of uncompetitive hard coal mines , which should replace a regulation that expired at the end of 2010. The draft envisaged the closure of all affected mines by October 2014.
In Hamm, the Ost mine , the former De Wendel and Heinrich-Robert colliery , was the last hard coal mine in the eastern Ruhr area. The shutdown took place on September 30th without a ceremony, as the shutdown was no reason to celebrate. It was originally planned nine months earlier, but the mine still had to absorb production losses at the Saar mine. After 109 years, Hamm was no longer a mining town; at the height of coal mining, more than 40,000 people were employed in mining in the Hamm region.
In Marl, the Auguste Victoria colliery and the Blumenthal / Haard mine, which was merged in 2001, were the last hard coal mine in the northern Ruhr area and the Recklinghausen district to close in December 2015. From the start of operations at the Erin colliery to the closure of Auguste Victoria, almost 150 years of mining in the northern coalfield and in the Recklinghausen district ended.
After the Ibbenbüren mine the last coal was mined in August 2018 took place there the last coal production at the St. Barbara (December 4). With the last coal mining at the Prosper-Haniel mine on September 14, 2018, it was officially closed on December 21, 2018 with a ceremony. This ended more than 150 years of hard coal mining for the Prosper-Haniel mine. With the closure of the last two mines, hard coal production ended for the Ruhr area and Germany. After the reduction of under active conveyors few hundred miners are the only drainage be employed in the Ruhr mining.
Downsizing of jobs
In 2004 Adam Opel AG planned to cut several thousand jobs in Bochum as well. A strike by the workforce against the will of IG Metall and against its own works council shut down European production for a short time. On October 19, 25,000 people gathered on the square at the Schauspielhaus for a spontaneous rally of solidarity.
The Nokia plant in Bochum was closed in 2008. Around 1700 jobs were lost.
Due to the financial crisis , General Motors had to file for bankruptcy in February 2009. Opel was affected by the automobile company's insolvency. Closing the Bochum location was temporarily considered. In January 2010, the receipt of the works in the Ruhr area was announced.
The Opel plant in Bochum was closed in December 2014. From 1962, up to 20,000 people were employed here at peak times and over 350,000 vehicles were manufactured per year. After the facilities have been dismantled, the site will be handed over to urban and commercial use. The only facility in the former Opel plant in Bochum is the goods distribution center.
Administrative structure of the Ruhr area
The Ruhr Area Municipal Association (KVR) was replaced in 2004 by the Ruhr Regional Association (RVR). Under pressure from the cities in the Ruhr area, the latter again had extended rights and was now authorized, for example, to create so-called master plans.
In 2007, the state parliament passed the law transferring regional planning for the Ruhr Metropolis to the Ruhr Regional Association . The three previously responsible regional councils were responsible for the planning.
In 2004 the conversion of the Emscher system into an underground Emscher canal started.
On October 21, 2007, the Ruhr Regional Association took over the regional planning for the Ruhr area again, as the Ruhr Coal District Settlement Association had already done from the time it was founded between 1920 and 1975. After 34 years of tripartite division between the administrative districts of Arnsberg, Düsseldorf and Münster, this task was now back in the center of the Ruhr area.
Sport in the Ruhr area
After reunification , the Ruhr area gave up its 1984 Olympic bid in favor of an application from Berlin.
Since the 1990s, Borussia Dortmund has emerged as the leading soccer club in the Ruhr area, the club won the German soccer championship in 1995, 1996, 2002, 2010 and 2011.
The 7th World Games took place in 2005 in Duisburg and its neighboring cities of Mülheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen and Bottrop .
Dortmund and Gelsenkirchen were the venues for the 2006 World Cup .
Creation of shopping centers
On November 14, 1964, the Ruhr-Park opened in the Harpen district of Bochum, the first shopping center in the Ruhr area; it was the second shopping center in Germany. When it opened, the rental area was 24,000 m², after several extensions and renovations it is now 125,000 m².
The RheinRuhrZentrum in Mülheim on the city limits of Essen was built in 1973 on the site of the former Rosenblumendelle colliery . After several extensions, it now comprises 79,000 m² of rental space. The first shopping center in Essen opened on November 2, 1973 in the Altenessen district of Essen .
The Marler Stern shopping center was built in 1974 as part of the reconstruction of the Marler city center, and in the same year the Forum City Mülheim directly adjacent to the city center with a direct connection to the Mülheim main station.
In 1976 the Indupark Center was built in Dortmund and in 1979 the Rathaus Galerie Essen , which creates a connection between the town hall and the pedestrian zone in the city center.
On September 11, 1996, the CentrO shopping center was opened in Oberhausen. It was the centerpiece of the Neue Mitte on the site of the former Gutehoffnungshütte and a visible sign of structural change in the Ruhr area.
Many of these early shopping centers were built on the site of former industrial facilities.
Major events in the Ruhr area
The Love Parade took place in Essen in August 2007 . The motto of the first event after the parade moved from Berlin to the Ruhr area was Love Is Everywhere . In the following year, the Love Parade in Dortmund reached a record attendance with 1.6 million participants.
In 2010, Essen and the rest of the Ruhr area organized RUHR.2010 - European Capital of Culture . Federal President Horst Köhler and José Manuel Barroso , President of the European Commission, took part in the opening ceremony on January 9th on the premises of the Zeche Zollverein . The key project still life on the A 40 was visited by an estimated several million people on July 18, 2010 and celebrated a festival of everyday cultures.
During the Love Parade on July 24, 2010, there was a crush in the entrance area of the event site, killing at least 21 people.
In December 1994 an EU summit was held in Essen in the Grugahalle . The main topics of the European Council were drafts to combat unemployment and to promote equal opportunities in the European Union .
On November 17, 1995, the last location of the British Rhine Army in Dortmund, the Suffolk Barracks, was closed.
In 2005 Hartz IV was introduced . Almost 1 million people in the Ruhr area were affected.
The parties of the North Rhine-Westphalian government announced the formation of a regional council for the Ruhr area.
Since the closure of the branch of the Pädagogische Hochschule Ruhr in 2005, Hamm received a university again, the private SRH University for Logistics and Economics. It started as the SRH University of Applied Sciences Hamm.
- History of Westphalia
- Ruhr shipping
- Reichstag elections in the Ruhr area from 1871 to 1912
- List of mines in North Rhine-Westphalia
History of the Ruhr Area Cities
- Mülheim an der Ruhr
- Bodo Harenberg (Hrsg.): Chronicle of the Ruhr area. WAZ-Buch Chronik Verlag, Dortmund 1987, ISBN 3-88379-089-3 (with 155 calendars, 1,693 individual articles, 1,759 predominantly colored illustrations, 19 overview articles, tables and statistics appendix as well as person and subject indexes).
- Wolfgang Köllmann u. a .: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. 2 volumes, Patmos-Verlag , Düsseldorf 1990, ISBN 3-491-33206-0 .
- Dietmar Bleidick, Manfred Rasch (ed.): History of technology in the Ruhr area. Technical history for the Ruhr area. Klartext Verlag , Essen 2004, ISBN 3-89861-376-3 .
- Georg W. Oesterdiekhoff, Hermann Strasser : Heads of the Ruhr. 200 years of industrial history and structural change in the light of biographies. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8375-0036-3 .
- Detlef Hopp, Charlotte Trümpler: The early Roman Empire in the Ruhr area. Colloquium of the Ruhrland Museum and the city archeology / monument authority in cooperation with the University of Essen , Klartext Verlag, Essen 2001, ISBN 3-89861-069-1 .
- Ferdinand Seibt (Hrsg.): Forgotten times, Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Catalog for the exhibition (September 26, 1990 to January 6, 1991) in the Ruhrland Museum Essen, 2 volumes, Essen 1990.
- Ernst Dossmann : In the footsteps of the Counts of the Mark. Interesting facts about the development of the former Grafschaft Mark and the Märkischer Kreis. Verlag Mönnig, Iserlohn 1983, ISBN 3-922885-14-4 .
- Johann Dietrich von Steinen : Westphalian history. 1757.
- Harald Polenz: Of counts, bishops and cowardly murders. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2004, ISBN 3-89861-260-0 .
- Albert K. Hömberg : Historical news about aristocratic seats and manors in the Duchy of Westphalia and their owners. published from the estate, Münster / Westf. 1969–1979, 20 issues (publications of the Hist. Komm. Westfalens, volume 33).
- Friedrich Keinemann: Social and political history of the Westphalian nobility 1815-1945. Hamm 1976.
- Jan Gerchow: House, Stand and Office. The society of the Ruhr area before the industry. In: The invention of the Ruhr area. Work and everyday life around 1900. Catalog for the social-historical permanent exhibition, Ruhrlandmuseum Essen, ed. by Michael Zimmermann u. a., Essen-Bottrop 2000, ISBN 3-89355-211-1 , pp. 31-46.
- Andreas Schlieper: 150 years of the Ruhr area. A chapter of German economic history. Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1986, ISBN 3-590-18150-8 .
- Hans Spethmann : The Ruhr area in the interplay of country and people, economy, technology and politics. Volume 1: From the pre-Roman times to the shape of a district in the middle of the 18th century. Verlag Reimar Hobbing , Berlin 1933 (reprinted unchanged: Klartext Verlag, Essen 1995, ISBN 3-88474-287-6 ).
- Ludger Tewes : Middle Ages in the Ruhr area settlement on the Westphalian Hellweg between Essen and Dortmund (13th to 16th centuries), Verlag Schöningh, Paderborn 1997, ISBN 3-506-79152-4 .
Mining and colliery:
- Wilhelm Hermann, Gertrude Hermann: The old mines on the Ruhr. Langewiesche publishing house, Königstein im Taunus, 6th edition 2008, ISBN 978-3-7845-6994-9 .
- Joachim Huske : The coal mines in the Ruhr area. Data and facts from the beginnings to 1997. Deutsches Bergbau-Museum , Bochum 1998, ISBN 3-921533-62-7 .
- Hans-Christoph Seidel: The Ruhr mining in the Second World War. Collieries - miners - forced laborers. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8375-0017-2 .
- Hans Spethmann: The Ruhr area in the interplay of country and people, economy, technology and politics. Volume 2: The development into a major area since the middle of the 18th century. Verlag Reimar Hobbing, Berlin 1933 (reprinted unchanged: Klartext Verlag, Essen 1995, ISBN 3-88474-287-6 ).
- Hans Spethmann: The Ruhr area in the interplay of country and people, economy, technology and politics. Vol. 3: The Ruhr area of the present 1. Verlag Reimar Hobbing, Berlin 1933 (unchanged reprint: Klartext Verlag, Essen 1995, ISBN 3-88474-287-6 ).
- Hans Spethmann: The Ruhr area in the interplay of country and people, economy, technology and politics. Vol. 4–5: The Ruhr Area of the Present 2 and 3. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0336-4 (first publication from the estate).
- Gustav Adolf Wüstenfeld: On the trail of coal mining: Pictures and documents on the history of the Ruhr mining in the 18th and 19th centuries 19th century (monographs on the history of the Ruhr area, script III) Wüstenfeld, Wetter-Wengern 1985, ISBN 3-922014-04-6 .
- Gustav Adolf Wüstenfeld: Early sites of the Ruhr mining industry . (Monographs on the history of the Ruhr area, writing I) Wüstenfeld, Wetter-Wengern 1975.
Steel production and processing:
- Egon Erwin Kisch : Steelworks in Bochum, seen from the blast furnace. / The nest of the cannon kings: food. two reports; in: The mad reporter. Berlin 1924. ( Aufbau-Verlag 2001, ISBN 3-7466-5051-8 ).
- Hans Spethmann: The Ruhr area in the interplay of country and people, economy, technology and politics. Vol. 4–5: The Ruhr Area of the Present 2 and 3. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0336-4 (first publication from the estate).
- Contemporary witness exchange Duisburg e. V .: Duisburger Hüttenwerke , Erfurt 2014, ISBN 978-3-95400-364-8 .
National Socialism and Third Reich:
- Wilfried Böhnke: The NSDAP in the Ruhr area 1920-1933 . Bonn 1974, ISBN 3-87831-166-4 .
- Heinz-Jürgen Priamus: Meyer. Between loyalty to the emperor and Nazi perpetration. Biographical contours of a German citizen . Klartext Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0592-4 .
- Hetty Kemmerich: Say what I should confess! Witch trials - origins-fates-chronicle! Lessing, Dortmund 2003, ISBN 3-929931-17-6 .
- Doris Freer (concept); City of Duisburg, women's office (ed.): From Griet to Emma. Contributions to the history of women in Duisburg from the Middle Ages to today. 2. Duisburg women's history book, Duisburg 2000. ( pdf part 1 (1 MB) ; PDF part 2 (3.25 MB) ).
- Roland Günter : In the Valley of the Kings: a travel book on the Emscher, Rhine and Ruhr. Klartext-Verlag, Essen 1994, ISBN 3-88474-044-X .
- Klaus Engel , Jürgen Großmann , Bodo Hombach u. a .: Phoenix flies !: The Ruhr area is rediscovering itself . Klartext-Verlag, Essen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8375-0425-5 .
- Paul Kanold among other things: Basics for the new regulation of the communal borders in the Ruhr area. Berlin 1928.
- The communal reorganization in the Ruhr area as a stage in the dictatorial Greater Prussian centralization. Writings of the Reich Association of German Federalists, Cologne 1929.
- Grütter / Grewe (ed.): Chargesheimer. The discovery of the Ruhr area , Cologne 2014, ISBN 978-3-86335-526-5 .
- Ruth Kersting, Lore Ponthöfer (ed.): Economic area of the Ruhr area. Cornelsen and Schroedel , Berlin 1990 (Seydlitz Gymnasiale Oberstufe).
- Air raids on the Ruhr area 1939–1945
- Gauleiter of the NSDAP in the Ruhr area
- PSM: Statement by the miners' associations in the Ruhr area of 7 January 1905
- Ruhr Museum Essen , excellent exhibition on the social history of the industrialization of the Ruhr area ( Ruhr Museum )
- Daniel A. Rehbein: The railway network in the Ruhr area
- City of Dortmund (ed.): Building blocks and found pieces. ( Dortmund Monument Booklet, Volume 01). Dortmund 2011, .
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 16.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 17.
- Compare the map of Germania and Raetia in Roman times . In: Hans-Georg Stier et al. (Ed.): Westermann. Great Atlas of World History . Georg Westermann Verlag, Braunschweig 1981, p. 37.
- Heinz Cüppers: Sugambri . In: The Little Pauly. Lexicon of antiquity. Volume 5: Sheep-Zythos. Supplements . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1979, column 415.
- Reinhard Wolters: Roman conquest and rulership organization in Gaul and Germania . Brockmeyer, Bochum 1990, pp. 140 f., 149-157.
- Tilmann Bechert: Asciburgium - excavations in a Roman fort on the Lower Rhine . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974 (Duisburg Research, Vol. 20).
- On the location of the Roman camps mentioned and the direction of the Roman armies, see: K. Stade: Deutschland in Roman Zeit . In: Walter Leisering (Ed.): Putzger. Historical world atlas . 102nd edition. Cornelsen Verlag, Berlin 1993, p. 30 f.
- On the process of Romanization see: Harald von Petrikovits: Rheinische Geschichte in three volumes. Volume I.1: Antiquity . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1978, pp. 67-70.
- Him: Franci . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity . Volume VII.1, 13th half volume: Fornax to Glykon . Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1910, Sp. 82f; other and more detailed division of the Franconian tribal association cf. Sp. 83.
- Harald von Petrikovits: Rhenish history in three volumes. Volume I.1: Antiquity . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1978, p. 171.
- Harald von Petrikovits: Rhenish history in three volumes. Volume I.1: Antiquity . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1978, p. 177.
- Him: Franci . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity . Vol. VII.1, 13th half volume: Fornax to Glykon . Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1910, Sp. 82.
- Him: Franci . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity . Vol. VII.1, 13th half volume: Fornax to Glykon . Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1910, Sp. 82f; other and more detailed division of the Franconian tribal association cf. Sp. 85 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Vol. I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 22.
- Peter La Baume: The Romans on the Rhine . 2nd Edition. Wilhelm Stollfuss Verlag, Bonn undated, p. 18.
- Him: Franci . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity . Vol. VII.1, 13th half volume: Fornax to Glykon . Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1910, Sp. 85.
- Heinz Cüppers: Franconia . In: The Little Pauly. Lexicon of antiquity. Volume 2: Dicta Catonis - Iuno . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 1979, p. 608.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 25.
- Bernhard Sicherheitsl: The Merovingian burial ground of Dortmund-Asseln.
- The Merovingian Dispargum, a former Roman fort, was located west of the Meuse on what is now Belgian territory. Compare: Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 27 f.
- A brief outline of the founding of the monastery and other historic development with extensive visual material see Manfred Gerwing: The Werden Abbey and its abbot Liudger . In: Ferdinand Seibt u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Volume 1. Peter Pomp Verlag, Essen 1990, pp. 29-37.
- G. Bechthold: On the history of the city of Essen . In: Guide to Prehistoric and Protohistoric Monuments. Vol. 15: Essen, Düsseldorf, Duisburg . Unchanged reprint. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1975, p. 134.
- For an overview of the statistical, chronological and geographical spread of the royal stays, the exercise of rule by the kings and the equipment of the residence, see Reinhold Kaiser: The Ruhr area in the itinerary of the early and high medieval kings . In: Ferdinand Seibt u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Volume 2. Peter Pomp Verlag, Essen 1990, pp. 12-19.
- Reimund Haas : Criminal cases at the first Christian imperial synod in Duisburg from the year 929. In: Monthly books for Evangelical Church History of the Rhineland. Volume 60, 2011, pp. 383-394.
- Reinhold Kaiser: Der Hoftag in Steele (938) . In: Ferdinand Seibt u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Volume 2. Peter Pomp Verlag, Essen 1990, pp. 20-27; Wolf Schneider: Essen - The Adventure of a City. Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1963, p. 33 f.
- Reg. Imp. II / 3 No. 1059 and 1059a
- Ferdinand Frensdorff: Dortmund statutes and judgments. Verl. D. Bookstore d. Orphanage, Halle adS 1882, S. X.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905. 3rd edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 35 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905. 3rd edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 36.
- D. Ellmers: Duisburg. In: Guide to prehistoric and early historical monuments, vol. 15: Essen, Düsseldorf, Duisburg . Unchanged reprint. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1975, p. 121.
- Helga Mohaupt: Small story of eating. From the beginning to the present. 3rd revised and expanded edition. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2002, p. 21 f.
- Helga Mohaupt: Small story of eating. From the beginning to the present. 3rd revised and expanded edition. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2002, p. 17 f.
- Thomas Weiß: Hattingen Chronicle. Klartext-Verlag, Essen 1996, p. 13.
- Helga Mohaupt: Small story of eating. From the beginning to the present. 3rd revised and expanded edition. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2002, p. 20.
- Ludwig Hostkötter: The beginnings of the Premonstratensian Peninsula Hamborn and its development in the first century of its existence. A contribution to the history of the Premonstratensian Order in the 12th and 13th centuries . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1967, pp. 77-100 (Duisburger Forschungen. Supplement 9).
- Elke Dißelbeck-Tewes: Medieval women's monasteries between Lippe and Ruhr. In: Ferdinand Seibt, Gudrun Gleba u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr Area, Vol. 2. Verlag Peter Pomp, Essen 1990, p. 153.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905. 3rd edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, pp. 251-253.
- Elke Dißelbeck-Tewes: Medieval women's monasteries between Lippe and Ruhr. In: Ferdinand Seibt, Gudrun Gleba u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr Area, Vol. 2. Verlag Peter Pomp, Essen 1990, p. 154.
- Monika von Alemann-Schwartz: "... happened in the year of the Lord 1093, ... Mülheim, in the court of Count Bernher ...". The court charter of 1093 and its background. In: 900 years of Mülheim an der Ruhr. 1093-1993 . Journal of the history association Mülheim an der Ruhr, vol. 66. Edited by the history association Mülheim an der Ruhr and the city archive Mülheim an der Ruhr. Self-published, Mülheim / Ruhr 1993, pp. 13–65.
- D. Ellmers: Duisburg. In: Guide to prehistoric and early historical monuments, vol. 15: Essen, Düsseldorf, Duisburg . Unchanged reprint. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 1975, p. 120.
- On the expansion of the federal government, see the map in Josef Niessen: Geschichtlicher Handatlas der Deutschen Länder am Rhein. Volume: Middle and Lower Rhine . JP Bachem Verlag, Cologne 1950, p. 35.
- Karl-Pollender-Stadtmuseum Werne (Hrsg.): The Werner Städtebund from 1253 in the context of the Westphalian urban development of the 13th century . In: 750 Years of the Werner Bund 1253–2003 . Werne 2003, p. 11–15, print of the deed of incorporation p. 3 f.
- Roland Günter: Dinslaken district . L. Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1968, p. 17 (The monuments of the Rhineland, vol. 14).
- Wilhelm Crecelius: Engelbert II., Count of the Mark . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, p. 126.
- Wolf Schneider: Essen - The adventure of a city . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf 1963, p. 86 f.
Hermann Cardauns: Konrad, Archbishop of Cologne . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1882, pp. 583-587.
Karin Groll: Konrad von Hochstaden . In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) . Volume 4, Herzberg 1992, Sp. 395-396.
- Dieter Kastner: The territorial policy of the counts of Kleve . Schwann, Düsseldorf 1972, p. 24 (Publications of the Historical Association for the Lower Rhine, Vol. 11; also Diss.phil. University of Bonn 1972).
- Bodo Harenberg (ed.): Chronicle of the Ruhr area . Chronik Verlag, Dortmund 1987, p. 38.
Karl Leopold Strauven: Adolf IV., Count von Berg . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 93.
Helmut Dahm: Adolf IV. (VI.), Graf von Berg . In: New German Biography (NDB) . Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, p. 76.
- Alfred Bruns: Limburg. Duchy . In: Gerhard Taddey (Hrsg.): Lexicon of German history. People, events. Institutions . Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1979, p. 719.
- For the power constellation in the Limburg succession dispute and before the battle of Worringen, see: Irmgard Hantsche: Atlas zur Geschichte des Niederrheins . Cartography by Harald Krähe (series of publications by the Niederrhein Academy, vol. 4). Verlag Peter Pomp, Bottrop / Essen 1999, p. 32 f.
- Kurt Hofius: The plague on the Lower Rhine, especially in Duisburg . In: Duisburger Forschungen, Vol. 15. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1971, pp. 174-221.
- Stadtarchiv Dortmund (ed.): History of the city of Dortmund . Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, ISBN 3-611-00397-2 , p. 146.
- Albert K. Hömberg: Economic history of Westphalia . Mehren & Hobbeling, Münster 1968, p. 106.
- Bodo Harenberg (ed.): Chronicle of the Ruhr area . Chronik Verlag, Dortmund 1987, p. 34.
- Joseph Milz: The topographical development of Duisburg up to the middle of the 16th century . In: Ferdinand Seibt, Gudrun Gleba u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Vol. 2. Verlag Peter Pomp, Essen 1990, p. 37.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1973, p. 37.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 280 f.
- For the details of the pledge and the feud that took place in autumn 1290 between Duisburg and the Count of Kleve see: Heinrich Averdunk, Walter Ring: Geschichte der Stadt Duisburg . Baedeker Verlag, Essen 1927, p. 30.
- Karl Theodor Wenzelburger: Reinald III. In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 27, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1888, pp. 726-728.
- Pieter Lodewijk Muller: Eduard, Duke of Geldern . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, p. 649 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 40.
- Joseph Milz: Everyday Life in Medieval Duisburg. In: Stadtarchiv Duisburg (Ed.): Duisburger Forschungen. Series of publications on the history and local history of Duisburg. Volume 45. Mercator Verlag, Duisburg 2000, pp. 27f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 40 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume II: The districts from the beginning, the entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, pp. 187-189.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume II: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 186.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, pp. 76-79.
- Wilhelm Crecelius: Engelbert III., Count of the Mark . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, pp. 126-128.
- For the history, course and effects of the Dortmund feud, see also Hans Georg Kirchhoff: Die Große Dortmunder Feud 1388/89 . In: Ferdinand Seibt u. a. (Ed.): Forgotten times. Middle Ages in the Ruhr area. Volume 2. Peter Pomp Verlag, Essen 1990, pp. 59-63.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 80.
- Detailed description of the feud in Thomas Schilp: Die Reichsstadt (1250–1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, pp. 80-87.
- Contrary to the older historiography, which puts the economic decline of Dortmund in the context of the great feud, compare Thomas Schilp: Die Reichsstadt (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, pp. 87-92.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Vol. I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 42.
- Kuno Drollinger: Soester feud . In: Gerhard Taddey (Hrsg.): Lexicon of German history. People - events - institutions . Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1979, p. 1130.
- On the Soester feud and Duisburg's role in the dispute see: Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1973, pp. 43–45.
- Gustav Engel: Political History of Westphalia . Grote, Cologne / Berlin 1968, pp. 140 f.
- Robert Jahn: Essen history. The historical development in the area of the city of Essen. Essen: Verlag GD Baedecker, 1957, p. 104f
- Bodo Harenberg (ed.): Chronicle of the Ruhr area. Chronik Verlag, Dortmund 1987, p. 43.
- Thomas Schilp: Time Spaces. From the history of a city . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Wittmaack Verlag, Dortmund 1989, p. 63 f.
- Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, p. 411.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 94 f.
- Albert K. Hömberg: Economic history of Westphalia . Mehren & Hobbeling, Münster 1968, p. 88 f.
- Irmgard Hantsche: Atlas for the history of the Lower Rhine . Cartography: Harald Krähe. Verlag Peter Pomp, Bottrop / Essen 1999, p. 72 f.
Woldemar Harleß: Johann III. (Duke of Kleve-Mark and Jülich-Berg) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, pp. 213-215.
Wilhelm Janssen: Johann III . In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, p. 493 f.
- Christian Schulte: Attempted denominational neutrality in the Reformation age. The duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg under Johann III. and Wilhelm V and the Duchy of Münster under Wilhelm von Ketteler . Lit Verlag, Münster 1995 (history, vol. 9); also University of Münster (Westf.) Diss.phil. 1995, pp. 20-22.
- Christian Schulte: Attempted denominational neutrality in the Reformation age. The duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg under Johann III. and Wilhelm V and the Duchy of Münster under Wilhelm von Ketteler . Lit Verlag, Münster 1995 (history, vol. 9); also University of Münster (Westf.) Diss.phil. 1995, p. 32 f.
- On the content of the church order and its reception compare Christian Schulte: Attempted denominational neutrality in the age of the Reformation. The duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg under Johann III. and Wilhelm V and the Duchy of Münster under Wilhelm von Ketteler . Lit Verlag, Münster 1995 (history, vol. 9); also University of Münster (Westf.) Diss.phil. 1995, pp. 34-36.
- summary of the Klevian church order of 1532/1533 see Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, Vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, pp. 232-236.
- On the content of the “Declaratio” and its significance for further development, see Christian Schulte: Attempted denominational neutrality in the age of the Reformation. The duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg under Johann III. and Wilhelm V and the Duchy of Münster under Wilhelm von Ketteler . Lit Verlag, Münster 1995 (history, vol. 9); also University of Münster (Westf.) Diss.phil. 1995, pp. 41-44.
- Memorandum for the centenary of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr in 1908 . Published by the Mülheim an der Ruhr History Association. Julius Bagel, Mülheim a. d. Ruhr 1908. Unchanged reprint, Mülheim a. d. Ruhr 1983, pp. 129-132.
- Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, Vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, p. 412.
- Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, p. 413 f.
- Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, p. 414.
- August Döring: Hamelmann, Hermann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1879, pp. 474-476.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, pp. 182-185.
- Alois Schröer: The Reformation in Westphalia. The battle of faith in a landscape, vol. 1. Aschendorff Verlag, Münster 1979, p. 417.
- Irmgard Hantsche: Book printing on the Lower Rhine until the 17th century . In: Irmgard Hantsche: Atlas for the history of the Lower Rhine . Cartography: Harald Krähe. Verlag Peter Pomp, Bottrop / Essen 1999, p. 86f. (Series of publications by the Niederrhein Academy, Vol. 4).
- On Mercator's work see Scharfe, Wolfgang: Gerhard Mercator und seine Zeit. 7. Colloquium of Cartography History. Duisburg, 6.-8. October 1994. Lectures and reports. Duisburg: Walter Braun Verlag, 1996 (Duisburg Research, Volume 42)
- Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg, Volume I: The old Duisburg from its beginnings to 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 264 f.
- Christian Schulte: Attempted denominational neutrality in the Reformation age. The duchies of Jülich-Kleve-Berg under Johann III. and Wilhelm V and the prince-bishopric of Münster under Wilhelm von Ketteler (= history, vol. 9; also University of Münster (Westf.) Diss.phil. 1995). Lit Verlag, Münster 1995, pp. 173-176.
- For the measurement basis of the Corputius plan see Joseph Milz: The Duisburger city map of Johannes Corputius and his measurement bases. In: Stadtarchiv Duisburg (Ed.): Duisburger Forschungen. Series of publications on the history and local history of Duisburg. Volume 45. Mercator Verlag, Duisburg 2000, pp. 1-24.
- Günter von Roden: Duisburg in 1566. The city map of Johannes Corputius . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1964 (Duisburg Research, Supplement 6). Compare also: Heike Frosien-Leinz: The Corputius Plan: Communal self-confidence and advertising material. In: Heike Frosien-Leinz (editor): From Flanders to the Lower Rhine: Economy and culture overcome borders. Accompanying volume for the exhibition . Edited by City of Duisburg - The Lord Mayoress, Museum of Culture and City History Duisburg, 2000, pp. 87-100.
- Compare chapter “Thirty or Eighty Years War - The Lower Rhine Perspective” in: Stephan Ehrenpreis (Ed.): The Thirty Years War in the Duchy of Berg and in its neighboring regions . With the collaboration of Klaus Herdepe. Verlagdruckerei Schmidt, Neustadt ad Aisch 2002, pp. 9–64.
- Franz Petri: In the Age of Faith Struggles (1500-1648) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege: Rhenish History, Volume 2: Modern Times . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 84.
- Franz Petri: In the Age of Faith Struggles (1500-1648) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege: Rhenish History, Volume 2: Modern Times . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 85.
- Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg, Volume 2: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 130.
- Wolf Schneider: Essen - The adventure of a city . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf 1963, p. 96.
- Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg, Volume 2: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 197.
- Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg, Volume I: The old Duisburg from its beginnings to 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 48.
- Günter von Roden: History of the City of Duisburg, Volume II: The districts from the beginning, the entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 695.
- Rudolf op ten Höfel: Brief history of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr . Journal of the Mülheim ad Ruhr history association, issue 54/1978, p. 46.
- Wolf Schneider: Essen - The adventure of a city . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1963, p. 96 f.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250 to 1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 190.
- Franz Petri: In the Age of Faith Struggles (1500-1648) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege (Hrsg.): Rheinische Geschichte, Vol. 2: Neuzeit . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 99.
- Memorandum for the centenary of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr . Published by the Mülheim an der Ruhr History Association. Julius Bagel, Mülheim a. d. Ruhr 1908. Unchanged reprint, Mülheim a. d. Ruhr 1983, p. 46.
- Rolf-Achim Mostert: The Jülich-Klevian Regimental and Succession Dispute - a Prelude to the Thirty Years War? In: Stefan Ehrenpreis (Ed.): The Thirty Years War in the Duchy of Berg and in its neighboring regions . Verlagsdruckerei Schmidt, Neustadt ad Aisch 2002, pp. 26–64 (Bergische Forschungen. Sources and researches on Bergische history, art and literature, Vol. 28).
- Gerhard Taddey: Jülich-Klevischer succession dispute . In: Gerhard Taddey (Hrsg.): Lexicon of German history. People - events - institutions . Alfred Kröner Verlag, Stuttgart 1979, p. 600.
- Albert K. Hömberg: Economic history of Westphalia . Mehren & Hobbeling, Münster 1968, p. 91.
- Otto R. Redlich: Mülheim ad Ruhr. Its history from the beginning to the transition to Prussia in 1815 . Mülheim an der Ruhr: Self-published by the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr, 1939, p. 195.
- Gustav Luntowski et al. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 191.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 54 f.
- Wolf Schneider: Essen - The adventure of a city . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf 1963, pp. 99-101.
- Otto R. Redlich: Mülheim ad Ruhr. Its history from the beginning to the transition to Prussia in 1815 . Mülheim an der Ruhr: Self-published by the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr, 1939, p. 198 f.
- Gustav Luntowski et al. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 193.
- Gustav Luntowski et al. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 194.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 57.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 58.
- Gustav Luntowski et al. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 195.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 58 f.
- Johannes Arndt: The results of the peace negotiations in Münster and Osnabrück for the Rhenish territories . In: Stefan Ehrenpreis (Ed.): The Thirty Years War in the Duchy of Berg and in its neighboring regions . Neustadt an der Aisch: Verlagsdruckerei Schmidt, 2002, pp. 299–327 (Bergische Forschungen. Sources and researches on Bergische history, art and literature. Vol. 28)
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 187.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 187 f.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 188 f.
- The trial files have been preserved and have been in the Fürstenberg archive at Huegenpot Castle in Mülheim ever since. Content reproduced here from Franz Wegener: Kelten, Hexen, Holocaust , Gladbeck 2010.
- Karl-Heinz Bader: Bochum. Coal mining and its influence on the development of this city . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 96 f.
- Bruno J. Sobotka : The development of the city of Witten with special consideration of the mining industry . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 75.
- For the meaning of Angerort see: Günther Engelbert: Angerort as a fortress towards the end of the Thirty Years War . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1961 (Duisburger Forschungen, Vol. 5), pp. 192-204; there is also a picture
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 59.
- Gustav Engel: Political History of Westphalia . Cologne and Berlin: Grote, 1968, pp. 183–189.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume II: The districts from the beginning, the entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 696.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume I: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 60 f.
- Max Braubach: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege (Hrsg.): Rheinische Geschichte. Volume II: Modern Times . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 250.
- Max Braubach: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege (Hrsg.): Rheinische Geschichte. Volume II: Modern Times . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 256 f.
- Numerous aspects of the history of the old Duisburg University are presented in Geuenich, Dieter / Hantsche, Irmgard (eds.): Zur Geschichte der Universität Duisburg 1655-1818. Scientific colloquium organized in October 2005 on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the founding of the old Duisburg University . Duisburg: Mercator Verlag, 2007 (Duisburg Research, Volume 53)
Wilhelm Gaß: Clauberg, Johann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, p. 277 f.
Hans Saring: Clauberg, Johann . In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, p. 265 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, pp. 305-307.
- About the end of the university see Komorowski, Manfred: The closure of the University of Duisburg and the beginnings of the University of Bonn. In: Geuenich, Dieter / Hantsche, Irmgard (ed.): On the history of the University of Duisburg 1655-1818. Scientific colloquium organized in October 2005 on the occasion of the 350th anniversary of the founding of the old Duisburg University . Duisburg: Mercator Verlag, 2007 (Duisburger Forschungen, Volume 53), pp. 253-269
- The state and university at the "Heinrich Heine University" in Düsseldorf has made the entire inventory of the newspaper accessible online: http://digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de/periodical/titleinfo/416472
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 210.
- August Döring: Mallinckrodt, Arnold . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, pp. 141-143.
Jacob Achilles Mähly: Cortüm, Karl Arnold . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 4, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1876, p. 507.
Jakob Franck: Kortum, Karl Arnold . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1882, pp. 728-730.
- Thomas Schilp: The Imperial City (1250-1802) . In: Gustav Luntowski u. a .: History of the city of Dortmund . Edited by the Dortmund City Archives. Harenberg Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 210 f.
- Wolfgang Köllmann: Beginning of industrialization . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina, Wolfhard Weber: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Vol. 1 . Schwann in Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, p. 60.
- Lehmann, Herbert: Ruhrort in the 18th century . Duisburg: Walter Braun Verlag, 1966, pp. 85–91 (Duisburger Forschungen, supplement 8)
- Gustav Adolf Wüstenfeld: The Ruhr Shipping from 1780 to 1890 . Wetter: Gustav Adolf Wüstenfeld Verlag, 1978, p. 108 (monographs on the history of the Ruhr area, vol. 2)
- Hort M. Bronny / Wilfried Dege: space potential and spatial structure on the threshold of Insztrialisierung . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina, Wolfhard Weber: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Vol. 1. Schwann in Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, p. 100.
- Kurt Pfläging: The Hattinger mining . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 56.
- Hort M. Bronny / Wilfried Dege: Space potential and spatial structure on the threshold of industrialization . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina, Wolfhard Weber: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Vol. 1. Schwann in Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, p. 100 f.
- Compare Köllmann, Wolfgang: The beginning of industrialization . In: Köllmann, Wolfgang u. a .: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. Vol. 1. Düsseldorf: Schwann im Patmos Verlag, 1990, pp. 11-80.
- Bruno J. Sobotka: The development of the city of Witten with special consideration of the mining industry . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 78.
- Kurt Pfläging: The Hattinger mining . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 55.
- Wolfgang Köllmann : Beginning of industrialization . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina , Wolfhard Weber: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Vol. 1 . Schwann in Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, p. 24 f.
- Bruno J. Sobotka: The development of the city of Witten with special consideration of the mining industry . In: Ernst Beier (Ed.): The historical development of the Ruhr area with special consideration of mining . Studienverlag Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, p. 76.
- Gerhard Gebhardt: Ruhr mining. History, structure and interdependence of its societies and organizations . Essen: Glückauf Verlag, 1957, pp. 5-8.
- Wolfgang Köllmann: Beginning of industrialization . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina, Wolfhard Weber: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Vol. 1 . Schwann in Patmos Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, p. 31.
- Friedrich Zunkel: Aspects of the industrialization of the Ruhr area in the 19th century - with special consideration of the Ruhr mining . In: Kurt Düwell / Wolfgang Köllmann (ed.): Rhineland-Westphalia in the industrial age. Vol. 1: From the creation of the provinces to the founding of an empire . Peter Hammer Verlag, Wuppertal 1983, p. 177.
- Wolfgang Köllmann: Early entrepreneurs . In: Walter Först (ed.): Ruhr area and new land . Grote, Köln / Berlin 1968, p. 16f (contributions to the recent history of the Rhineland and Westphalia, vol. 2)
- For the history of the "St. Anthony Hut" compare: Roland Günther: Oberhausen . Düsseldorf: Schwann, 1975, pp. 79-90 (The monuments of the Rhineland. Vol. 22)
- Wolfgang Köllmann: Early entrepreneurs . In: Walter Först (ed.): Ruhr area and new land . Grote, Köln / Berlin 1968, p. 17f (contributions to the recent history of the Rhineland and Westphalia, vol. 2)
- On the territorial reorganization of 1803 see map in Irmgard Hantsche: Atlas for the history of the Lower Rhine . Cartography: Harald Krähe. Essen / Bottrop: Verlag Peter Pomp, 1999, p. 116f (publication series of the Niederrhein-Akademie vol. 4)
- Helmuth Ronne trip: conferences and treaties. Contract Ploetz, a handbook of historically significant meetings, agreements, manifestos and memoranda. Part II: 1493-1952 . Ploetz Verlagsbuchhandlung, Bielefeld 1952, p. 99.
- Meent W. Francksen: Council of State and Legislation in the Grand Duchy of Berg (1806-1813) . Verlag Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Bern 1982, p. 17 (Legal History Series, Vol. 23)
- Josef Niessen: Historical hand atlas of the German states on the Rhine. Volume: Middle and Lower Rhine . JP Bachem Verlag, Cologne 1950, p. 40.
- Mahmoud Kandil: Social protest against the Napoleonic system of rule. Statements by the population of the Grand Duchy of Berg 1808-1913 from the perspective of the authorities . Mainz Verlag, Aachen 1995, pp. 28–31; at the same time diss. phil. Distance University Hagen 1995.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Vol. 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 173.
- Max Braubach: From the Peace of Westphalia to the Congress of Vienna (1648–1815) . In: Franz Petri, Georg Droege (Hrsg.): Rheinische Geschichte. Vol. 2: Modern times . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1976, p. 346.
- Gustav Engel: Political History of Westphalia . Grote, Cologne / Berlin 1968, p. 233.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Vol. 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 70.
- Lange, Irmgard: "The introduction of the steam engine in the former Duisburg district". In: Duisburger Forschungen, Vol. 14. Duisburg: Walter Braun Verlag, 1970, p. 74
- Back then on the Pütt. In: WAZ Extra. Essen, April 16, 2010.
Franz Maria Feldhaus: Krupp, Friedrich . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 55, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1910, p. 537 f.
Renate Koehne-Lindenlaub: Krupp, Friedrich . In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 13. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1982, p. 129 f.
- Otto Schell: Harkort, Friedrich Wilhelm . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 50, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1905, pp. 1-6.
- Peter Borscheid : Westphalian industrial pioneers in early industrialization . In: Kurt Düwell, Wolfgang Köllmann (Hrsg.): Rhineland-Westphalia in the industrial age. Vol. 1: From the creation of the provinces to the founding of an empire . Peter Hammer Verlag, Wuppertal 1983, p. 165.
- PH Mertes: The development of the Dortmund economy - written on behalf of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Ruhfus Verlag, Dortmund 1940, p. 109.
- Reininghaus, Wilfried: Piepenstock, Hermann Diedrich . In: Bohrmann, Hans (ed.): Biographies of significant Dortmunders. People in, from and for Dortmund. Volume 1 . Ruhfus Verlag, Dortmund 1994, p. 109 ff.
- Walter Gronemann: Brief history of the city of Hörde . Dortmund 1991, pp. 76-79.
- Luntowski, Gustav: Small economic history of Dortmund . Dortmund 1988, p. 49.
- Luise von Winterfeld : History of the free imperial and Hanseatic city of Dortmund . 2nd expanded edition. Ruhfus Verlag, Dortmund 1956, p. 170.
- Winterfeld, Luise von: History of the free imperial and Hanseatic city of Dortmund . 2nd expanded edition. Ruhfus Verlag, Dortmund 1956, p. 171 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 188 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 191 f.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 1: The old Duisburg from the beginning until 1905 . 3. Edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975, p. 192.
- more details see Weber, Wolfgang: Entfaltung der Industriewirtschaft. In: Köllmann, Wolfgang / Korte, Hermann u. a .: The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Volume 1 . Düsseldorf: Schwann im Patmos Verlag, 1990, pp. 207–210.
- Gerhard Gebhardt: Ruhr mining. History, structure and interdependence of its societies and organizations . Glückauf Verlag, Essen 1957, p. 20 f.
- Karl-Peter Ellerbrock / Marina Schuster (eds.): 150 years of Cologne-Minden Railway . 2nd Edition. Klartext, Essen 1997.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Vol. 2: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . 2nd improved edition. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1979, p. 222.
- Gustav Adolf Wüstenfeld: The Ruhr Shipping from 1780 to 1890 . Wüstenfeld Verlag, Wetter 1978, pp. 118–120 (monographs on the history of the Ruhr area, vol. 2)
- Schumacher, Martin: “Alexander Seydell - a forgotten pioneer. A contribution to navigation on the Rhine in the first half of the 19th century ”. In: Duisburger Forschungen, Vol. 14. Duisburg: Walter Braun Verlag, 1970, p. 47
- Memorandum for the centenary of the city of Mülheim an der Ruhr in 1908 . Edited by the Mülheim an der Ruhr History Association. Mülheim an der Ruhr: Julius Bagel, 1908, p. 84.
- On the development of Oberhausen, compare: Heinz Reif: Die belated Stadt. Industrialization, urban space and politics in Oberhausen 1846–1929. Text tape . Rheinland Verlag, Cologne, pp. 162–172.
- Susanne Henle: Industrial culture and architecture . In: Wolfgang Köllmann, Hermann Korte, Dietmar Petzina u. a. (Ed.): The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and development . Schwann im Patmos-Verlag, Düsseldorf 1990, Volume 2, pp. 219–290, here p. 223.
- Gert-Jan Hospers, Burkhard Wetterau: Small Atlas Metropole Ruhr. The Ruhr area in transition . Regionalverband Ruhr, Essen, 7th, completely revised edition 2018, p. 3.
- For the development, expansion and description of the settlement, compare: Günter, Roland: Oberhausen . Schwann Verlag, Düsseldorf 1975, pp. 92–96 (The monuments of the Rhineland. Volume 22)
- Kurt Koszyk: Dortmund local politics during the founding years . In: Historical Association for Dortmund and the County of Mark (Hrsg.): Contributions to the history of Dortmund and the County of Mark . Volume 67. Dortmund 1971, pp. 92-94.
- Ludger Heid: From the guild to the workers' party. The social democracy in Duisburg 1848–1878 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1983, pp. 125 f., 129. (Duisburg Research, Vol. 32)
- Arno Herzig: The General German Workers' Association in German Social Democracy. Depicted in the biography of the functionary Carl Wilhelm Tölcke (1817–1893) . Berlin: Colloquium Verlag, 1979, ISBN 3-7678-0465-4 , p. 57 (Supplements to the international scientific correspondence on the history of the German labor movement (IWK), vol. 5)
- Friedrich Albert Lange: About politics and philosophy. Letters and editorials 1862 to 1875 . Edited by Georg Eckert. Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1968, pp. 33-36 u. ö. (Duisburg Research, Supplement 10)
- Friedrich Albert Lange: The worker question in its meaning for the present and future . Verlag W. Falck and Volmer, Duisburg 1865; new ed. by Julius H. Schoeps in Social Policy Between Liberalism and Socialism . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1975 (Duisburg University Contributions, Vol. 4)
- on Lange's political significance compare Klaus Tenfelde: Social history of the miners in the Ruhr in the 19th century . 2nd revised edition. Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, Bonn 1981, p. 441 f.
- Klaus Tenfelde: Social history of the miners on the Ruhr in the 19th century . 2nd revised edition. Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, Bonn 1981, p. 443 f.
- Election result see Fritz Specht, Paul Schwabe: The Reichstag elections from 1867 to 1907. Statistics of the Reichstag elections together with the programs of the parties and a list of the elected representatives. 2nd edition supplemented by an appendix. Addendum. The Reichstag election of 1907 (12th legislative period). Carl Heymann Verlag, Berlin 1908, p. 167; The election is dealt with in detail in Ludger Heid: From the Guild to the Workers' Party. The social democracy in Duisburg 1848–1878 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1983, pp. 176–187 (Duisburger Forschungen, Vol. 32)
- Compare Karl Rohe's thesis of the Ruhr area as a "belated region": Rohe, Karl: The "belated" region. Theses and hypotheses on the development of elections in the Ruhr area before 1914 . In: Steinbach, Peter: Problems of political participation in the modernization process . Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1982, pp. 231-252 (history and theory of politics: sub-series A, history: vol. 5)
- Lothar Machtan : Strikes and lockouts in the German Empire. A socio-historical documentation for the years 1871 to 1875 . Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1984, p. 207 (Supplement to the international correspondence on the history of the German labor movement. Vol. 9); see. also Klaus Tenfelde : Social history of the miners in the Ruhr in the 19th century . 2nd Edition. Verlag Neue Gesellschaft, Bonn 1981, pp. 464–486; see. also Dietrich Milles: "But nobody came to the pits to drive ...". Ruhr Mining Movement, Social Democracy and Class Relations in Prussia-Germany 1867–1878 . Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1983, pp. 133-265.
- Günter von Roden: History of the city of Duisburg. Volume 2: The districts from the beginning. The entire city since 1905 . Walter Braun Verlag, Duisburg 1974, p. 157 f.
- Karl Imhoff: Keeping the Ruhr pure . Edited on behalf of the District President von Bake in Arnsberg. CW Haarfeld, Essen 1910.
- Draft and justification for a law on the Association for keeping the Ruhr clean . CW Haarfeld, Essen 1912 ( uni-duesseldorf.de ).
- Lothar Machtan: Strikes and lockouts in the German Empire. A socio-historical documentation for the years 1871 to 1875 . Colloquium Verlag, Berlin 1984, p. 405 (Supplement to the international correspondence on the history of the German labor movement. Vol. 9)
- Erhard Lucas-Busemann : Kapp Putsch and Red Ruhr Army . In: Johannes Gorlas, Detlev JK Peukert (Hrsg.): Ruhrkampf 1920 . Klartext Verlag, Essen 1987, p. 60.
- Pankoke, Eckart: Public Administration 1918 - 1975. In: Köllmann, Wolfgang / Korte, Hermann / Petzina, Dieter u. a. (Ed.): The Ruhr area in the industrial age. History and Development. Volume 2. Düsseldorf: Schwann im Patmos-Verlag, 1990, p. 40
- Founding of the "Westdeutsche Kulturfilmtage" by Hilmar Hoffmann ( Memento from August 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Ulrike Gilhaus: buddy on four legs. Pit horses in the Ruhr mining industry
- Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlen District: Area Development Plan 1966 / Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlen District . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag / Kohlhammer, Cologne 1967.
- Ulrike Weiland: Introduction to spatial and environmental planning . Schöningh, Paderborn 2007, ISBN 978-3-506-76366-2 .
- Interview with director and actor: youtube.com
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- Law and Ordinance Gazette of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia No. 14