Football World Cup 1974
|1974 FIFA World Cup|
|1974 FIFA World Cup|
|Number of nations||16 (of 99 applicants)|
|World Champion||BR Germany (2nd title)|
|Opening game||June 13, 1974 ( Frankfurt am Main )|
|Endgame||July 7, 1974 ( Munich )|
|Gates||97 (⌀: 2.55 per game)|
|spectator||1,865,753 (⌀: 49,099 per game)|
|Top scorer||Grzegorz Lato (7 goals)|
|yellow cards||87 (⌀: 2.29 per game)|
|Red cards||5 (⌀: 0.13 per game)|
The final round of the FIFA World Cup 1974 was the tenth playout this important tournament for football - national teams , and found in the June 13 to July 7, 1974 Federal Republic of Germany instead.
The Federal Republic of Germany won the tournament with a 2-1 victory over the Netherlands in the final in Munich and was thus the second time, after 1954, football world champion - as the first world champion who was also current European champion . Third place went to the Polish team , which provided the top scorer in Grzegorz Lato , who scored seven goals during the tournament. Defending champion Brazil finished fourth, the 1970 vice world champion ( Italy ) was eliminated in the first round.
After several unsuccessful applications, the Federal Republic of Germany was awarded the contract to host the 1974 World Cup on July 6, 1966 during the FIFA Congress in London . The vote was unanimous. The inferior competitors Argentina and Spain did not go away empty-handed. Argentina was awarded to host the 1978 World Cup and Spain to host the 1982 World Cup . Spain had almost 16 years to prepare for the 1982 World Cup, more than any other organizer.
Three months earlier, on April 16, 1966, the Bavarian capital, Munich, had won the bid for the 1972 Olympic Games . The year 1966 thus marked a breakthrough for German sport diplomacy, as 21 years after the end of the Second World War and the National Socialist rule, a German state was once again found to be worthy of hosting the two most important international sporting events.
The games of the World Cup were played in nine stadiums in nine different cities in the Federal Republic of Germany including West Berlin .
- Hamburg : In the Volksparkstadion , which was converted for 17 million marks , three first round matches were held. The home of Hamburger SV offered space for 65,000 spectators (including 28,000 seats). The three games saw a total of 130,500 spectators, an average of 43,500. Most had the historical duel between the two German teams: 60,200; In contrast, only 17,000 spectators wanted to see the GDR game against Australia.
- Berlin : The Olympiastadion , the home of Hertha BSC , was the largest German stadium during the 1974 World Cup with 85,000 seats (including 61,800 seats). The stadium, which was converted for 25 million marks, took place three games of the first final round. A total of 126,800 viewers saw the three games, an average of 42,267. Most of them (81,100) came to the team from Germany's opening game against Chile, making it the best-attended game in the World Cup. In contrast, only 17,400 wanted to see the match between Australia and Chile.
- Hannover : In Niedersachsenstadion of Hannover 96 two games of the first final round and two games were played the second final round. The stadium with a capacity of 60,400 visitors (40,850 seats) was converted for the world championship for 26 million marks. A total of 167,763 saw the four games, an average of 41,941. The fewest spectators (13,400) came in the first round of the game Bulgaria - Uruguay. With 59,863 spectators, the stadium was almost sold out in the second final round of the Brazil - GDR game, although many spectators had bought their tickets in the expectation of seeing the Federal Republic's team there.
- Gelsenkirchen : The park stadium , newly built for 55 million marks, was the home of the FC Schalke 04 football club . The 70,000 -seat venue (36,000 seats) was the venue for two games in the first and three games in the second final round. A total of 247,050 spectators saw the five games, an average of 49,410. Most (68,348) - especially from the Netherlands, but also from the Federal Republic, as a game against the western neighbor was expected - came to the game GDR - Netherlands. In contrast, only 31,700 spectators wanted to see the Yugoslavs game against Zaire, most of whom were Yugoslav guest workers .
- Dortmund : The Westfalenstadion , which was newly built for 33 million marks - the home of Borussia Dortmund , which was playing in the second division at the time - had 53,600 spectators (16,500 seats). The only World Cup soccer stadium without a running track fell short of the minimum requirement of 60,000 seats, but was able to provide a roof for around 90% of the spectator seats. The smallest stadium of the 1974 World Cup was the venue for three games in the first round and one game in the second final round. A total of 187,700 spectators, the majority from the Netherlands, whose team played three times in Dortmund, saw the four games. An average of 46,925 spectators. While only 27,000 spectators wanted to see Zaire against Scotland, more than 53,000 spectators came to each of the three games of the Dutch.
- Dusseldorf : The Rhine stadium of Fortuna Dusseldorf has hosted two first-round and three second-round encounters. The venue with a capacity of 70,100 spectators (31,600 seats) was rebuilt for 24 million marks before the World Cup tournament. 228,585 spectators came to the five games, an average of 45,717. Only 23,800 spectators came to the first game in which Sweden and Bulgaria met. The two games of the Federal Republic in the second final round against Yugoslavia and Sweden saw 67,385 and 67,800 spectators respectively.
- Frankfurt am Main : The opening match between Brazil and Yugoslavia took place in the Waldstadion on June 13, 1974. In addition , two more games of the first final round and two games of the second final round were played in the stadium in which Frankfurt Eintracht plays their home games. The stadium, which was converted for 27 million marks (29,200 seats), held 62,200 visitors. A total of 300,000 spectators and thus most of the five games came to Frankfurt, an average of 60,000. There were 62,000 three times: at the opening game between Brazil and Yugoslavia, the Scotland-Brazil game and the Frankfurt Water Battle .
- Stuttgart : The Neckarstadion , home of VfB Stuttgart , was the scene of three first-round and one second-round match. The stadium, which was converted for 22 million marks, offered 72,200 seats (34,400 of which were seats). The four games saw a total of 217,855 spectators, an average of 54,464. The game Poland - Argentina, one of the best games of the World Cup, only wanted to see 32,700, on the other hand 70,100 spectators - mostly Italian guest workers - came to their team's games against Argentina and Poland.
- Munich : In the Olympic Stadium built for the 1972 Olympic Games for 85 million DM (without a roof), three preliminary round games as well as the game for third place and the final took place. The stadium in which FC Bayern Munich played its home games had 76,000 seats (44,200 of which were seats). The five games saw 259,500 spectators, an average of 51,900. The Olympic Stadium was only a third full at the two games in Haiti against Argentina and Poland. The two finals saw 77,100 and 78,200 spectators - the official FIFA attendance figure for these two games is higher than the stadium's capacity.
The application deadline for qualifying for the 1974 World Cup ended on June 30, 1971. The drawing of the qualifying groups took place on July 17, 1971 in Düsseldorf. Two of the 99 nations entered were directly qualified for the finals. After seven teams withdrew, 90 eventually took part in the qualification. In addition to the reigning world champions Brazil and hosts BR Germany , who were automatically entitled to participate in the tournament, 14 other teams were able to qualify for the World Cup finals.
Particularly surprising was the elimination of England against Poland , which meant that a former world champion was missing from the 1974 World Cup. Once again also sat Bulgaria through, this time against Portugal , whose great time and of Eusébio was finally over. Somewhat unexpectedly, Spain was eliminated against Yugoslavia in the qualification and Mexico only finished third in the qualifying round behind Haiti and Trinidad and Tobago . In addition to the footballers from the Caribbean island, the GDR , Australia and Zaire were the first ever black African teams to qualify.
While the winners of the remaining qualifying groups qualified directly for the World Cup, the Soviet Union was the first in European Group 9 to compete in two play-off games for participation in the World Cup finals against Chile , the winner of South America Group 3. In the first game in Moscow, the two teams separated 0-0. The Soviet Union did not play for the second leg in Chile, as the game was to be played in the national stadium in Santiago de Chile , where opposition members had been imprisoned only a few weeks earlier in September 1973 during the CIA- supported military coup . Torture and killings that had taken place there were later reported. Nevertheless, the game was kicked off, but canceled after the 1-0 win, as no restart was possible due to the lack of Soviet players. The Soviet team was disqualified by FIFA and the game was rated 2-0 for Chile. It was only thanks to the euphoria due to the GDR selection's first successful World Cup qualification that the GDR continued to take part in the World Cup.
The following teams finally qualified for the final round of the 1974 World Cup in the Federal Republic of Germany:
|9 from Europe||Sweden||Italy||Netherlands||GDR|
|BR Germany (hosts)|
|4 from South America||Uruguay||Argentina||Chile||Brazil (TV)|
|1 from North, Central America and the Caribbean||Haiti|
|1 from Africa||Zaire|
|1 from Asia and Oceania||Australia|
The 1974 World Cup was held according to a new mode. The 16 participants formed four groups with four teams each, of which the first two qualified for the next round. However, the tournament was not continued in the knockout system , but in two intermediate round groups with four teams each. The winners of the second final round contested the final of the world championship, the second placed the game for third place.
If several teams tied for points in the group matches, the goal difference and then the number of hits decided on the placement. If the points and goals matched, the lot would have decided in the first final round, whereas in the second final round, the result (i.e. the better placement) from the first final round and finally also the lot for the final standings.
A draw in the final as well as in the game for third place would have led to an extension of the season. If extra time hadn't brought a decision, the winner in the game for third place would have been determined directly on penalties . At the final there would have been a rescheduling within the next few days. Only after a draw despite extra time in the second final would a penalty shoot-out have decided the 1974 World Cup.
After the red card had already been included in the rules at the 1970 World Cup , but without being used, the first red card at a soccer World Cup on June 14, 1974 in the preliminary round match BR Germany - Chile against the Chilean Caszely , after a Revenge foul on Berti Vogts , shown by the Turkish referee Doğan Babacan . Then the referees showed 4 more red cards in the course of the tournament.
New World Cup trophy
After the Coupe Jules Rimet passed into permanent possession of the South Americans after the Soccer World Cup in Mexico in 1970 when the Brazilians won the third title, the world association FIFA donated the new FIFA World Cup trophy for the upcoming World Cup . Artists from seven countries submitted a total of 53 designs. The decision was finally made on the work of the Italian artist Silvio Gazzaniga , whose trophy describes two triumphant soccer players who hold the globe in their outstretched hands.
The trophy, which was first presented at the 1974 World Cup, is made of solid 18-carat gold , is 36.8 centimeters high and weighs 6175 grams. In the base, on the underside of which the winners of the trophy are engraved, two rings made of the semi-precious stone malachite are inlaid.
Unlike its predecessor, the new trophy will always remain the property of FIFA and cannot be won by any country on a permanent basis. The reigning world champion initially kept the trophy until the next World Cup and was then given a replica that was not made of solid gold like the original, but simply gold-plated. In the meantime, the trophy is returned to FIFA immediately after the final, at the latest when leaving the host country, and the world champion receives a replica in return.
The draw for the World Cup finals took place on January 5, 1974 in the large broadcasting hall of the Hessischer Rundfunk in Frankfurt . The event was watched by around 800 million people worldwide.
For the draw, the qualified teams were divided into four pots. The assignment was made after a decision by FIFA on the same day. In addition to an assessment of the performance, which was added from previous successes and current results, as well as geographical, continental and sport-political aspects served as the basis. A special feature was that at the time of the draw, only 15 of the 16 participants were known, as in qualification group 7 a playoff between Spain and Yugoslavia, which finally qualified, was necessary, which only took place on February 13, 1974. The four pots finally contained:
- Pot 1: Brazil, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, Uruguay (the top four at the 1970 World Cup )
- Pot 2: Argentina, Chile, Netherlands, Scotland (South America and Western Europe)
- Pot 3: Poland, Bulgaria, GDR, Yugoslavia / Spain (Eastern Europe and Spain)
- Pot 4: Zaire, Australia, Haiti, Sweden (outsiders)
Hosts BR Germany and defending champions Brazil were already set as heads of Groups I and II. In the 35-minute draw, the Schöneberg Boys' Choir Detlef Lange drew the remaining teams from the individual pots. The teams from Argentina and Chile from Pot 2 were not drawn from Brazil or Uruguay to ensure that there was a South American team in each preliminary group.
The sensation of the draw was the meeting of the two German teams in Group I. When FIFA President Sir Stanley Rous had announced the lot, there was silence in the hall for a few moments, followed by prolonged applause. After the event the rumor arose that the GDR would consider withdrawing from the World Cup due to the clash with the team from the Federal Republic of Germany . However, this was quickly denied by those responsible in the GDR.
The draw resulted in the following group allocation:
|Group I.||Group II||Group III||Group IV|
The opening ceremony of the 10th World Cup took place on June 13, 1974 before the opening game between world champions Brazil and Yugoslavia. It was the first time that a World Cup was opened not by a game by the host but by the reigning world champion. Only at the 2006 World Cup did the hosts play the opening game again.
Frankfurt am Main , the seat of the German Football Association , was chosen for the opening of the tournament . On the opening day, the location of the event was under a dense cloud cover, so that it rained almost continuously and the temperature was only 13 ° C. The 90-minute opening ceremony in Frankfurt's Waldstadion began at 3 p.m. with a fanfare by the Bundeswehr Big Band under Günter Noris . Each of the 16 participating countries was then represented by a folk group or an artist. They hid themselves in oversized plastic footballs that opened like a flower blossom when they appeared. The beginning was made by the Yugoslav ensemble "Gradimir". This was followed by flag throwers from Florence, bagpipers from Scotland, gauchos from Chile, wooden shoe dancers from the Netherlands, the popular Polish singer Maryla Rodowicz and the Brazilian samba dance group “Ballett Tropical”. The Winningen winegrowers dance and costume group from the Moselle performed for the Federal Republic of Germany ; Pop singer Frank Schöbel and a mixed ballet dance group interpreted the song " Friends are everywhere" for the GDR .
After Uwe Seeler and Pelé symbolically exchanged the old and new World Cups at the center circle, Hermann Neuberger , the head of the organizing committee, welcomed the guests from all over the world. While more than 2000 Frankfurt schoolchildren dressed in white formed the emblem of the 1974 World Cup on the lawn, the outgoing Federal President Gustav Heinemann rose from the rostrum and opened the tournament with the words: “A warm welcome to the many thousands of guests from all parts of the world came to the Federal Republic of Germany for the World Cup. I hope that the games of the X World Cup will be games of friendship and fairness. The games of the 10th soccer world championship have started. "
|1.||GDR||3||2||1||0||4: 1||+3||5: 1|
|2.||BR Germany||3||2||0||1||4: 1||+3||4: 2|
|3.||Chile||3||0||2||1||1: 2||−1||2: 4|
|4th||Australia||3||0||1||2||0: 5||−5||1: 5|
|June 14, 1974, 4 p.m. in Berlin|
|BR Germany||-||Chile||1: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 14, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Hamburg|
|GDR||-||Australia||2: 0 (0: 0)|
|June 18, 1974, 4 p.m. in Hamburg|
|Australia||-||BR Germany||0: 3 (0: 2)|
|June 18, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Berlin|
|Chile||-||GDR||1: 1 (0: 0)|
|June 22, 1974, 4 p.m. in Berlin|
|June 22, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Hamburg|
|GDR||-||BR Germany||1: 0 (0: 0)|
The DDR-Eleven was contrary to the expert group winners expectations. After a 2-0 win against Australia and a 1-1 draw against Chile, the only ever A international match between the DFB-Elf and the GDR team took place in the first final round . The GDR representatives won 1-0 through a goal by Jürgen Sparwasser .
The high expectations of the German national team as the reigning European champion and World Cup favorite were not fulfilled in the first round of the finals. The arduous 1-0 victory over Chile and the 3-0 win against outsiders Australia was followed by the historic defeat against the GDR team. It was the only game that the DFB-Elf lost during this World Cup. The positive effect of the defeat was that the Bundesliga professionals played second in the preliminary round in group B and therefore did not have to compete against the opponents Brazil, Argentina and the Netherlands, who were rated as significantly more difficult. In addition, the defeat led to a legendary discussion of the players in the sports school on the night of Malente , in which the team, according to Franz Beckenbauer, "went from a quarreling bunch to a unit".
Chile disappointed at the 1974 World Cup. After the expected opening defeat against the West German team, there were two draws against the GDR and Australia. The two German teams had already qualified for the second final round before their last group match and Chile were eliminated. Only the political fringes around the team from Chile caused a stir. During the first game against the DFB team, the game was disrupted by protesters against the coup in Chile in 1973 .
The appearance of the strong debutant Australia surprised positively. In their 2-0 win, the GDR team needed almost an hour to take the lead against Australia. Against the DFB-Elf, the team managed to prevent a debacle and only lost 3-0. In the final group game against Chile, Australia celebrated a point win.
|1.||Yugoslavia||3||1||2||0||10: 1||+9||4: 2|
|3.||Scotland||3||1||2||0||3: 1||+2||4: 2|
|June 13, 1974, 5 p.m. in Frankfurt|
|June 14, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Dortmund|
|Zaire||-||Scotland||0: 2 (0: 2)|
|June 18, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Gelsenkirchen|
|Yugoslavia||-||Zaire||9: 0 (6: 0)|
|June 18, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Frankfurt|
|June 22, 1974, 4 p.m. in Frankfurt|
|Scotland||-||Yugoslavia||1: 1 (0: 0)|
|June 22, 1974, 4 p.m. in Gelsenkirchen|
|Zaire||-||Brazil||0: 3 (0: 1)|
Somewhat surprisingly, Yugoslavia was able to qualify as group winners for the second final round. The Yugoslavs were the better team in the 0-0 game against reigning world champions Brazil. This was followed by a 9: 0 against the overwhelmed team from Zaire and a final 1: 1 against Scotland.
The Brazilian team disappointed. The reigning world champion could not find an equivalent replacement for the four years previously successful players around world star Pelé . Therefore, he had to strengthen the defense at the expense of the attack and renounced his usual jogo bonito ("nice game"). With two draws and a victory over Zaire, Brazil was able to reach the second final round. Scotland were the only team that did not suffer defeat during the tournament, very unhappy due to the worse goal difference. The main reason for this was the insufficient number of goals scored against the “football dwarf” from Zaire, who was only defeated 2-0 in the first group game, while Yugoslavia won 9-0 and Brazil 3-0 and the three direct encounters ended in a draw.
The Zaires team , which started as a clear outsider, ended the tournament with three defeats and 0:14 goals. For the second time after 1954 (Hungary - South Korea 9-0 in the preliminary round), a team had lost in a World Cup finals by nine goals. Nevertheless, the Africans were able to gain a lot of sympathy. Experts certified that they were “Brazilian ball handling” and “European fitness”. What was missing was international experience. During the tournament it went largely unnoticed that the players of Zaire were in a very threatening situation after the high defeat in the second game. Zaire's tyrannical dictator Mobutu Sese Seko was very upset with the performance of his national team and threatened the players with drastic consequences if the last group match were lost with more than three goals. So it was literally a matter of life and death for the team in the game against reigning world champions Brazil, which can be seen in retrospect from the duel behavior. Particularly remembered is a scene in which Ilunga Mwepu ran out of the wall before taking a free kick for Brazil and knocked the ball away.
|1.||Netherlands||3||2||1||0||6: 1||+5||5: 1|
|3.||Bulgaria||3||0||2||1||2: 5||−3||2: 4|
|4th||Uruguay||3||0||1||2||1: 6||−5||1: 5|
|June 15, 1974, 4 p.m. in Düsseldorf|
|June 15, 1974, 4 p.m. in Hanover|
|Netherlands||-||Uruguay||2: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 19, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Dortmund|
|June 19, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Hanover|
|Bulgaria||-||Uruguay||1: 1 (0: 0)|
|June 23, 1974, 4 p.m. in Düsseldorf|
|Sweden||-||Uruguay||3: 0 (0: 0)|
|June 23, 1974, 4 p.m. in Dortmund|
|Netherlands||-||Bulgaria||4: 1 (2: 0)|
The Netherlands were the only team that lived up to their role as favorites in the first round of the finals. After two convincing victories against Uruguay and Bulgaria and a 0-0 win against Sweden, the Dutch were considered to be the biggest contenders for the world title after the preliminary round.
Sweden , which had only been classified as an “outsider” in the run-up to the group draw, qualified as second in the group for the second final round. The not so highly rated Swedish football players benefited from the international experience of their strikers Roland Sandberg and Ralf Edström as well as the defensive boss (Liberos) Björn Nordqvist , who, together with goalkeeper Ronnie Hellström, spoiled the concept for the Dutch at 0-0.
The Bulgarians , who with Christo Bonew had only one player of stature, did not manage to win a World Cup in their fourth participation in the finals. After two draws against Sweden and Uruguay, they lost 4-1 to the Netherlands in the final group game.
Uruguay , formerly world champion and Olympic champion, had little to offer besides its great tradition. With an average age of the World Cup squad of 29 years and 4 months, Uruguay, which had finished fourth four years earlier, showed "old-school football" without speed and security, and only managed to win a single point against Bulgaria.
|2.||Argentina||3||1||1||1||7: 5||+2||3: 3|
|3.||Italy||3||1||1||1||5: 4||+1||3: 3|
|June 15, 1974, 6 p.m. in Munich|
|Italy||-||Haiti||3: 1 (0: 0)|
|June 15, 1974, 6 p.m. in Stuttgart|
|Poland||-||Argentina||3: 2 (2: 0)|
|June 19, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Munich|
|Poland||-||Haiti||7: 0 (5: 0)|
|June 19, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Stuttgart|
|Argentina||-||Italy||1: 1 (1: 1)|
|June 23, 1974, 4 p.m. in Munich|
|Argentina||-||Haiti||4: 1 (2: 0)|
|June 23, 1974, 4 p.m. in Stuttgart|
|Poland||-||Italy||2: 1 (2: 0)|
Poland were already very strong in the first round and were the only team to remain without a point loss. The team also offered exciting football, so that it was frenetically celebrated by the audience. The game of the Olympic champion in 1972 was clearly laid out in its conception and carried out at such a great pace that Poland clearly dominated Group 4 and outshone its competitors Argentina, Haiti and Italy.
The Argentines also impressed with a cohesive team performance, which still gave space for soloists and ball artists like Carlos Babington . After the 2: 3 opening defeat against Poland and the 1: 1 against Italy, Argentina reached the second final round due to the better goal difference. The decisive factor was the 4-1 victory in the final group game against Haiti.
The sensation of the first round of the finals was the elimination of Italy , one of the big favorites in the run-up to the 1974 World Cup. The Italians struggled in the first game against the “football dwarf” Haiti. Only after Haiti took a 1-0 lead and goalkeeper Dino Zoff had conceded a goal again for the first time after 1143 minutes of international play, the southern Europeans woke up and finally won 3-1. This was followed by a flattering 1: 1 against Argentina and a 1: 2 against Poland. Due to the worse goal difference against Argentina, this meant elimination.
Haiti did not get beyond the role of points supplier. After the team had taken the lead against Italy through Emmanuel Sanon and lost in the end mainly due to poor physical condition, they lost in the second game against Poland mainly for tactical reasons. Haiti neglected the cover and the Poles had an easy 7-0 game so they could have won even higher without difficulty. In the last game the Haitians had learned from the game against Poland, they tried to keep the Argentinians from getting into the game by slowing down their pace and holding the ball. After Argentina failed to cope with the unusual tactics of their opponents at the beginning of the game, Haiti lost the game in the end with 1: 4.
|2.||Brazil||3||2||0||1||3: 3||± 0||4: 2|
|3.||GDR||3||0||1||2||1: 4||−3||1: 5|
|4th||Argentina||3||0||1||2||2: 7||−5||1: 5|
|June 26, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Gelsenkirchen|
|Netherlands||-||Argentina||4: 0 (2: 0)|
|June 26, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Hanover|
|Brazil||-||GDR||1: 0 (0: 0)|
|June 30, 1974, 4 p.m. in Gelsenkirchen|
|Netherlands||-||GDR||2: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 30, 1974, 4:00 p.m. in Hanover|
|Brazil||-||Argentina||2: 1 (1: 1)|
|July 3, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Gelsenkirchen|
|Argentina||-||GDR||1: 1 (1: 1)|
|July 3, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Dortmund|
|Netherlands||-||Brazil||2: 0 (0: 0)|
|1.||BR Germany||3||3||0||0||7: 2||+5||6-0|
|2.||Poland||3||2||0||1||3: 2||+1||4: 2|
|3.||Sweden||3||1||0||2||4: 6||−2||2: 4|
|4th||Yugoslavia||3||0||0||3||2: 6||−4||0: 6|
|June 26, 1974, 4 p.m. in Düsseldorf|
|BR Germany||-||Yugoslavia||2: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 26, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Stuttgart|
|Poland||-||Sweden||1: 0 (1: 0)|
|June 30, 1974, 4 p.m. in Frankfurt|
|Poland||-||Yugoslavia||2: 1 (1: 1)|
|June 30, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Düsseldorf|
|BR Germany||-||Sweden||4: 2 (0: 1)|
|July 3, 1974, 4:30 p.m. in Frankfurt|
|BR Germany||-||Poland||1: 0 (0: 0)|
|July 3, 1974, 7:30 p.m. in Düsseldorf|
|Sweden||-||Yugoslavia||2: 1 (1: 1)|
For the first time in the history of the World Championships, the best eight teams played the finalists not in a knockout round, but in another group stage. Although there had already been a second group stage in 1950, only the best four played against each other and there was no final. This innovation was intended on the one hand to prevent a favorite from being eliminated early in the knockout round, like the English at the 1970 World Cup , and on the other hand, more games ensured higher income. For example, a team that wanted to become world champions had to play seven instead of six games for the first time. The total number of games increased from 32 to 38, which is a better justification for investing in new and renovated stadiums, especially since, in contrast to the 1970 World Cup, there were nine instead of five venues.
This mode lasted at the following World Cup in Argentina . There the first weaknesses became apparent when Argentina reached the final only because of the better goal difference compared to the Brazilians, who were unbeaten in the entire tournament. After an even less successful interim solution at the 1982 World Cup , the knockout system was used again after the preliminary round from the 1986 World Cup .
The assignment to the two groups of the second final round was determined in advance with the intention that the organizer and European champion BR Germany and the world champion Brazil, as the expected winners of their preliminary group groups, should not meet in the second final round, thus creating a World Cup final with the two favorites would have become impossible. Only if one of the two had finished second in the group would there have been a premature clash - if the other had finished first. Since both the Federal Republic after the defeat against the GDR and Brazil only came second in their groups due to the worse goal difference compared to Yugoslavia, they did not meet in the second round. The DFB-Elf came second in group B; the GDR as group winners, on the other hand, was the first German team to meet the Brazilians at a World Cup in Group A.
Even if there were no real semi-finals as a result of this second group phase, the order of play and the results of the first group games resulted in two semi-finals: In Group A, Brazil and the Netherlands, who had both won against Argentina and the GDR, met in the last Match against each other, whereby the Dutch would have been enough to reach the finals with a draw. In a game played very hard by the Brazilians, the Dutch won 2-0.
The constellation before the last game in Group B was similar: The Federal Republic of Germany had defeated Yugoslavia and Sweden by improving on the preliminary round, but the Poles had also succeeded. Due to the better goal difference, a draw in the last game was enough for the Germans. This game on July 3, 1974 in Frankfurt's Waldstadion went down in football history as the “ Frankfurt Water Battle ”. Before the start of the game, a downpour made the lawn unplayable. The fire brigade tried to push the water off the square with rollers. Poland was generally considered to be the technically better team at the time; However, due to the adverse space conditions, they could not play their strength, and the Federal Republic of Germany qualified for the final with a 1-0 victory. Gerd Müller scored the goal, drawing level with Just Fontaine in the all-time goalscorer list.
The last day of the match on July 3rd caused controversy. In the middle of the game there was an interruption to remember Juan Perón, who had died two days earlier, with a minute's silence. Usually there are minutes of silence before kick-off.
A total of 30 goals were scored in 12 games in the second round, half of them by the two future finalists Germany and the Netherlands.
Game for third place
|July 6, 1974, 4:00 p.m. in Munich|
|Brazil||-||Poland||0: 1 (0: 0)|
One day before the final, the game for third place was played in the Munich Olympic Stadium. On July 6, 1974, the dethroned world champions Brazil and Poland, the surprise team of the World Cup, met. In a game with few highlights in front of 77,500 spectators, the Polish right winger Grzegorz Lato started a solo effort in the 79th minute, played around 30 meters from the goal of the Brazilian Zé Maria , ran in a half-right position to the penalty area and pushed from 13 meters to the decisive 0: 1 a. Lato's seventh goal in the tournament gave Poland a sensational third place. At the same time, he consolidated his lead in the fight for the title of World Cup top scorer , which he finally won because those who followed in the scorers' list could no longer overtake him in the final final.
Jan Jongbloed - Arie Haan - Wim Suurbier , Wim Rijsbergen (68th Theo de Jong ), Ruud Krol - Wim Jansen , Johan Neeskens , Willem van Hanegem - Johnny Rep , Johan Cruyff , Rob Rensenbrink (46th René van de Kerkhof ) Trainers: Rinus Michels
Sepp Maier - Franz Beckenbauer - Georg Schwarzenbeck , Berti Vogts , Paul Breitner - Rainer Bonhof , Uli Hoeneß , Wolfgang Overath - Jürgen Grabowski , Gerd Müller , Bernd Hölzenbein Trainer: Helmut Schön
|1-0 Neeskens (2nd, foul penalty)||
1: 1 Breitner (25th, penalty kick)
1: 2 Müller (43rd)
|van Hanegem (22nd), Neeskens (39th), Cruyff (45th)||Vogts (3.)|
The kick-off was delayed by a few minutes because the corner flags had not yet been positioned.
From the start, the Dutch combined over 16 stations without a German player intervening. 17th stop was Johan Cruyff, who received the ball in the kick-off circle and fought his way through to the German penalty area, where he was brought down by Uli Hoeneß who was striding across the penalty area. After just 53 seconds of playing time, the English referee John Taylor decided on the first penalty kick in the history of the World Cup finals. Neeskens kicked the penalty in the middle of the goal and gave Sepp Maier, who dived to the right, no chance. The 1-0 for the Netherlands after one and a half minutes is the earliest lead in a World Cup final to date.
The German team was only able to recover slowly from this shock, but got stronger afterwards. The Dutch seemed more technically pleasing and enjoyed the game a little more, but the Germans looked more dangerous in front of goal. In the 23rd minute, while the game was interrupted, Gerd Müller was knocked over by van Hanegem with both hands behind the eyes of the referee. After consulting the linesman, he received a yellow card.
After a long assist from the middle of Overath's own half, Hölzenbein stepped into the Dutch penalty area on the left in the 25th minute and was brought down by Jansen with a tackle. Paul Breitner converted the penalty with a shot in the left corner to make it 1-1. Goalkeeper Jongbloed had no chance.
The Germans played superior after equalizing. Beckenbauer, however, failed with a free kick to Jongbloed. Vogts and Grabowski also gave good chances to take the lead. In the 42nd minute, Bonhof fit in with Gerd Müller after preliminary work. The latter, under pressure from two Dutchmen, initially let the ball bounce off a bit, spun on its own axis and caught Jongbloed on the wrong foot. The ball rolled flat into the left corner to make it 2-1 for Germany.
The second 45 minutes turned into a defensive battle against the Germans. In the 48th minute Bonhof headed inches past the left post of the Dutch goal. After that, the Dutch dominated the game, but failed with numerous chances, including from Rep and van Hanegem, against the German goalkeeper Sepp Maier. Gerd Müller's goal to make it 3-1 in the 59th minute was falsely canceled by the linesman because he was supposed to be offside, although Müller was not offside by 2.5 meters at Grabowski's pass. In the 85th minute, the referee denied a penalty after a foul on Hölzenbein. Neeskens just missed the goal shortly before the end, and the German team ultimately held the lead. The winning goal by Gerd Müller was his 14th World Cup goal - at the same time his last international goal - and gave him the sole lead in the all-time goalscorer list . Müller only lost this at the 2006 World Cup , again in Germany, when he was surpassed by the Brazilian Ronaldo with 15 goals. For Helmut Schön the final was the 19th game as a coach at a world championship, he replaced Sepp Herberger (18 games between 1938 and 1962) as the record holder and expanded the record at the following World Cup to the current record of 25 games .
World Champion Federal Republic of Germany
Press comments on the final of the 1974 World Cup
“It was a hard-fought but well-deserved victory for the Germans.”
“If the team had kept up the initial pace, they would have become world champions.”
“The Dutch ultimately had to pay for their lack of discipline.”
"... the team that showed the greater fighting spirit and the will to win won."
“The cup went to Germany, but the fame went to the Dutch team.”
“Germany has found the remedy against Cruyff: Berti Vogts.”
"Holland had to pay dearly for arrogance and stupidity."
“Germany - a hurricane. Maier - a colossus. ”
With the final whistle of the final on July 7, 1974 at 5:47 p.m., the German national team became football world champions for the second time since 1954. To squad by national coach Helmut Schoen and assistant coach Jupp Derwall supervised DFB team included 22 players, 18 of which came in the tournament used:
- Goalkeeper: Sepp Maier
- Defense: Franz Beckenbauer , Paul Breitner , Horst-Dieter Höttges , Georg Schwarzenbeck , Berti Vogts
- Midfield: Rainer Bonhof , Bernhard Cullmann , Heinz Flohe , Uli Hoeneß , Günter Netzer , Wolfgang Overath , Herbert Wimmer
- Attack: Jürgen Grabowski , Dieter Herzog , Jupp Heynckes , Bernd Hölzenbein , Gerd Müller
The German team showed a technically clean, but not high-class football. Compared to the team that had become European champions in Belgium in 1972, they could no longer shine in the same way in terms of play, but were strong in the fighting area. For the 1974 World Champions, the focus was on fighting strength, determination and the will to win, especially from the second final round.
The strength of the 1974 team was on the defensive. Sepp Maier , who developed into what was probably the best goalkeeper in the world at the time, was a surefire support in goal . Before that there was a defense that was equally responsible for preventing goals, initiating goals and scoring goals. Here the stars Paul Breitner and Franz Beckenbauer harmonized with the "workers" Berti Vogts and Georg Schwarzenbeck . Franz Beckenbauer was the central figure with his playful elegance and perfect positional play. Paul Breitner was a tenacious defender who went on the offensive and scored the most goals for the German team after Gerd Müller. Added to this were Berti Vogts, who are considered the best defender of the tournament, and Georg Schwarzenbeck, who improved from game to game and Franz Beckenbauer kept his back free when he intervened in the build-up game.
The midfield of the German team, which competed in the 1974 World Cup with a 4-3-3 system, was the linchpin of the game. Here Wolfgang Overath and Günter Netzer competed for the position of playmaker. Overath finally prevailed just ahead of Netzer, for whom the world championship was then disappointing, as he was only used for 20 minutes. In addition to director Overath, his helpers Uli Hoeneß and Rainer Bonhof , the youngest player on the team and one of the great discoveries of the World Cup , acted .
Above all, Gerd Müller should be mentioned in the attack , who scored four of the 13 West German goals - including the decisive 2-1 in the final. The two wingers were the positions that national coach Helmut Schön took the longest to finally occupy. He used a total of five different players here. After the World Cup began with Jürgen Grabowski on the right, Bernd Hölzenbein took over this role against Yugoslavia and Sweden. In the final, Hölzenbein played on the left, where previously Jupp Heynckes (injured against Australia in the second game), Heinz Flohe and Dieter Herzog had tried without luck .
Immediately after the final it became clear that an era in German football had come to an end. At the final banquet there was a scandal in the German camp because the women of the World Cup players, unlike those of the officials, were not allowed to enter. Some players, including Gerd Müller and Wolfgang Overath, then announced their resignation from the national team indignantly. Others like Franz Beckenbauer or Berti Vogts stayed with the national team and still contested the European Championship in 1976 and the World Cup in 1978 , whereby neither the European nor the world championship title could be defended. Helmut Schön originally wanted to end his coaching career with the World Cup in his own country, but changed his mind and continued until 1978. After the 1978 World Cup in Argentina, which was not very successful for the Federal Republic, he finally handed over his office to Jupp Derwall .
For winning the world championship title, each player received 60,000 marks and a VW Beetle . In the run-up to the World Cup, there had been a heated dispute about the amount of the premium. After it became known that the Italians would receive the equivalent of 120,000 marks for the World Cup success, the German national players initially demanded 100,000 marks, later 75,000 marks. The DFB offered 30,000 marks. After some German players almost left, they finally agreed on the amount that would later be distributed.
Honors of the finalists
In West Germany, the German national team was voted Team of the Year and Franz Beckenbauer was voted Footballer of the Year . Johan Cruyff was named European Footballer of the Year (Franz Beckenbauer came second and Kazimierz Deyna came third) and was voted Sportsman of the Year in the Netherlands .
An official all-star team of the most valuable players in a tournament was first elected at the 2002 World Cup in Japan and South Korea. For the compilation of the best players from the 1974 World Cup in the Federal Republic of Germany, therefore, no unambiguous criteria need to be applied. When looking at the stars of the 1974 World Cup, the following players are usually named:
During the course of the games, the Dutch Johan Cruyff and the German Franz Beckenbauer emerged as the two biggest stars of the tournament . Both were the leading players on their team, directing and shaping the game. While Beckenbauer organized the build-up of the game as a libero from the defense and excelled above all with long passes, headers as well as his game overview and tackle strength, Cruyff found himself with his strengths in short passing, dribbling, speed and the risk of goals especially in the attacking center of his team.
A few years later, FIFA determined the best young player for the World Cups from 1958 to 2002 by means of an Internet vote. Władysław Żmuda was elected for 1974, who took part in the World Cup for the first time at the age of 20.
Best goal scorers
The top scorer of the World Cup was Grzegorz Lato, a player that no one had on the bill before the tournament. The lightning-fast right winger, who only sat on the reserve bench in the 1972 Polish Olympic victory and was only used as a replacement for the failed Włodzimierz Lubański at the World Cup in Germany , made a significant contribution to Poland's third place with his seven goals. In addition to his four goals in the first final round, he scored one goal each in the second round matches against Sweden and Yugoslavia, as well as the decisive 1-0 in the game for third place.
In addition, there were 29 players with a hit. There were also three own goals.
Organization and environment
A World Cup Organizing Committee (OK for short) was set up to plan the process and implementation of the 1974 World Cup. Its headquarters were in the Otto-Fleck-Schneise on the outskirts of Frankfurt . President of the OK was the future DFB boss Hermann Neuberger .
The organizing committee's press chief was Wilfried Gerhardt , who was responsible for media work and support for journalists. The team was completed by the chief of protocol Hartmut Nevries and the person responsible for the stadiums and the supervision of the referees, Hans Lang.
Arno Scheurer was responsible for organizing the opening ceremony in Frankfurt's Waldstadion and the closing ceremony before the Munich final. The official stadium announcer for the soccer world championship was ZDF editor Helmuth Bendt .
The logo of the soccer world championship of 1974 represented a stylized rolling soccer ball with the words "WM 74" underneath.
After World Cup Willie at the 1966 World Cup and Juanito in Mexico in 1970, there was a mascot for the third time at a World Cup . It was Tip and Tap , two laughing little boys with red cheeks and rabbit teeth in black and white DFB dress, on which "WM 74" could be read. The smaller of the two was the black-haired Tip who carried a soccer ball under his arm. His buddy Tap - who sold far worse than Tip - was blond with a happy wave. The name of the mascot goes back to the “tip-tap” selection procedure used by children before a soccer game, whereby one foot is alternately placed in front of the other and the person who touches the opponent's foot first is allowed to vote first.
The mascots created by the Saarbrücken graphic artist Horst Schäfer were very popular and were widely marketed in the context of the 1974 World Cup. For example, there were tip and tap as plush figures or key rings. In addition, the image of the mascot was found on ties, children's pajamas, beer mugs, mustard glasses and other consumer items.
The 1974 World Cup was subject to strict security precautions against the backdrop of terrorist threats, such as the hostage-taking and murder of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich . After threats from the Red Army Faction to carry out a rocket attack on the Volksparkstadion in Hamburg and the announcement of an assassination attempt by the Irish Republican Army on Scottish national players, the security forces described the preparations as follows: “The Munich massacre has changed consciousness, it is now happening nothing more that is not considered possible. ” For this reason, simulation games were carried out in the run-up to the World Cup to rehearse a total of 20 alarm cases, including attacks by extremists, hostage-taking of members of the German national players and riots in stadiums.
The quarters of the 16 teams were specially protected and resembled armed fortresses. The selection of the GDR enjoyed special protection after a bomb threat when it moved to Ratingen near Düsseldorf during the second final round. The team from Chile, which was exposed to strong protests in their home country because of the military junta , was also heavily guarded in their quarters in Berlin 's Glienicke Palace, surrounded by barbed wire and police .
In front of the stadiums themselves, the tiers of which were monitored by cameras, random body searches were carried out for the first time in order to prevent objects of attack from being brought in. Around 900 stewards and 600 police officers were mixed with the stadium spectators, for example in Hanover, so that when a game was sold out there was one security guard for every 40 spectators.
The visits of celebrities such as US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger , Prince Rainier of Monaco and Chancellor Helmut Schmidt were also subject to special security precautions . Armored cars and hundreds of police officers with submachine guns were used here for personal protection. Since a risk could not be ruled out despite the safety measures, the armored Mercedes 600 of Federal President Gustav Heinemann was immediately followed by a mobile operating theater when visiting the opening game. Too great a risk for those responsible was the planned visit by the Yugoslav head of state Tito , which was then canceled.
As early as February 1974, the FIFA Referees Committee selected the 30 referees who would later lead the 38 World Cup matches and function as both referees and linesmen. There were also four other referees from the DFB, who were only used as line judges. The 34 selected met a week before the opening game in Frankfurt am Main , where they were accommodated together in the Esso Motor Hotel . In preparation, mainly theoretical training was carried out in order to achieve a uniform rule interpretation.
The referees to be used in the individual matches were determined by the FIFA Referees Committee only one or two days before each match, which was intended to protect the referee team from possible interference. On the other hand, this approach offered the possibility of replacing a game master relatively inconspicuously in the event of poor performance.
The performance of the referees during the tournament was largely rated as good. They worked consistently and inconspicuously, so that the event differed positively from previous world championships. There was a trend towards tougher measures taken by the referees, which was reflected in an unprecedented number of warnings and dismissals. After not a single player was shown the red card at the 1970 World Cup in Mexico, four players were expelled from the field in 1974 in the first final round. In addition, the referees took action against game delays for the first time with considerable severity.
Accommodation and transportation
The demands of the participants on their accommodation were quite different. So the Dutch team set up close to their own national border in the Waldhotel Krautkrämer in Hiltrup (today a part of Münster). The Brazilians were drawn to the Herzogenhorn , a mountain in the Black Forest , Italy to the Schlosshotel Monrepos near Ludwigsburg , the GDR to a sports hotel in Quickborn near Hamburg and Yugoslavia to the former summer residence of the Rothschilds - the Hotel Sonnenhof in Königstein im Taunus . The Scots found their quarters in the Sporthotel Erbismühle in Weilrod , Poland in the Hotel Sonne-Post in Murrhardt near Stuttgart. The teams from Uruguay were more Spartan in the Duisburg-Wedau sports school and Haiti in the Grünwald sports school near Munich .
The German team was accommodated in the Malente sports school ( Schleswig-Holstein ) four weeks before the start of the World Cup . After the preliminary round, she lived in a sports school near Duisburg and before the final day in Grünwald near Munich .
Mercedes-Benz provided each national team with a bus in the appropriate paintwork with the national colors. The GDR had initially not accepted their bus because there were no hammer and compasses . Due to the massive intervention of the East German delegation, the national symbol of the GDR was finally attached. A replica of the West German copy was presented at the IAA 2005 in Frankfurt am Main . It can be viewed in the Mercedes-Benz Museum in Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt .
The budget for the organization of the 1974 World Cup by the world association FIFA as the organizer and the German Football Association as its organizer was around 80 million DM . The financing of the sum was self-sufficient, so that, unlike the construction of the stadiums - for which the public budget raised around 238 million DM - the organization of the major event itself did not require financing from tax revenues.
On the revenue side, around 30 million marks came first, which were turned over from the sale of the tickets. The next big revenue items were 18 million marks from television fees and 20 million marks from perimeter advertising in the stadiums. In addition, there were around 12 million marks in fees from licensing of various kinds, for example for World Cup records and books, the World Cup emblem and the World Cup mascots Tip and Tap. The organizers also generated additional income such as a five percent share in the Glücksspirale or an eight percent share that FIFA received from all games played by the 16 participants four weeks before and four weeks after the World Cup.
All income came into a common pot, from which all expenses were initially paid. This included the organizational and administrative apparatus as well as the costs for officials, referees and, above all, for the 16 teams. Each participating association received travel expenses for 25 people as well as 3,000 marks for accommodation and food, starting four days before its first to two days after its last game. The remaining profit of around 40 million marks after taxes was divided up using a fixed key. 65 percent of the amount went to the participating associations, 10 percent to FIFA and 25 percent to the DFB, which was able to book its own profit of 10 million marks.
Spectators and stadiums
In the run-up to the World Cup, the stadiums in which the games took place were rebuilt or rebuilt. Although large parts of the grandstands were not covered at the time and most of the spectator seats were on the standing stands, the West German stadiums were among the most modern in the world. Overall, the 38 final round matches in the nine stadiums were watched by around 1.77 million viewers. The majority of the matches were therefore not sold out, so that a ticket could be bought at the stadium box office before the start of the individual games. The ticket prices for the 1974 World Cup were between 10 and 80 marks.
Most of the spectators came to the games of the host German team and those of the Dutch, many of them who used the short journey from the neighboring country. The games of the Italian and Yugoslav teams in the preliminary and intermediate rounds were well attended, as many guest workers from these countries living in Germany took the opportunity to support their team, even if it wasn't enough to advance. Since many West Germans expected the West German team to win the group and had therefore already bought tickets for the corresponding games in the second final round, the games of the GDR team in the second final round were almost sold out. In the last, meaningless game against Argentina, although 53,000 tickets had been sold, only about 20,000 spectators came to the stadium.
In contrast to the 2006 World Cup, there was a lack of fan masses, which was also due to the fact that the fans of the three teams from the Eastern Bloc (Bulgaria, GDR and Poland) still had travel restrictions and the costs were too high for many. In contrast, teams from England and France from economically more developed countries were missing; instead, two teams from economically weak countries, Haiti and Zaire, took part. Since the World Cup also fell into a bad weather phase and most of the stadium seats were not covered, numerous neutral spectators from the host country stayed away, because many games were not attractive enough to attend despite the uncertain weather. The match between Australia and Chile was attended by just 16,000 spectators. The occupancy rate of the Berlin Olympic Stadium was only 19.4%.
The novelty of the 10th World Cup taking place in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1974 was the first broadcast of the entire tournament on color television . Around 900 million television viewers in 112 countries worldwide followed the games. There were no transmissions in the Soviet Union and China, for example. With its waiver, the Moscow government protested against the participation of Chile against the background of the military coup of September 1973 .
FIFA sold the worldwide broadcasting rights for 18 million marks to the two German television companies ARD and ZDF , which in turn resold them abroad. The costs for the technical effort of the transmissions amounted to around 22 million marks, part of which was passed on to the affiliated foreign television stations at cost price through the rental of television studios or the facilities for the speakers. The "Deutsche Olympia Zentrum Radio Television" (DOZ), a special-purpose association founded and managed jointly by ARD and ZDF in the run-up to global radio coverage of the 1972 Summer Olympics, served as the company (host broadcaster) officially responsible for the implementation of television and radio production .
Worldwide broadcasts began around ten minutes before the game kicked off. First - especially for viewers outside Germany - the city in which the game took place was portrayed in a three-minute film. The last shot of the film showed the respective stadium from the outside, from which the live broadcast switched to an overall view of the now full stadium. The remaining seven minutes showed the arrival of the teams, the playing of the national anthems and the choice of seats. During the game itself there were pictures from five camera positions: two guide cameras in the middle of the side, one behind the goals and one near the coaching benches.
For the 10th World Cup, which took place in the Federal Republic of Germany 20 years after the miracle of Bern , the German Football Association, as the host, received great praise from FIFA officials. The World Cup in West Germany was seen as a good tournament that met expectations. Outgoing FIFA President Sir Stanley Rous recognized the games as a success in all nine cities. No previous World Cup tournament generated such high income as the 1974 World Cup, so that the economic goals were achieved.
In contrast to the " happy games of Munich " two years earlier, the 1974 World Cup was felt to be rather sober and hypothermic. Critics spoke of an almost "fully sterilized World Cup [...] whose teams lived behind barbed wire [...] and barred hotel doors." This was due to the extreme security measures taken against the background of terrorist threats, which ensured a peaceful course of the event.
The rainy summer in 1974 also contributed to the rather dreary atmosphere of the tournament. A rainy period began at the opening ceremony, which culminated in the second final round of the rain game between Germany and Poland and only ended shortly before the final - which was played in bright sunshine. In this context there is also the sometimes weak audience response. Despite a total occupancy rate of around 73% in the stadiums - which was a new record for a football World Cup - many games were poorly attended, so that the mood in the stadiums suffered from the empty stands.
In terms of sport, the 1974 World Cup in the Federal Republic of Germany was assessed differently. Experts agreed that the tournament was a step backwards in terms of play compared to the 1970 World Cup . On the other hand, the players had become more athletic and more flexible in their positions. With only 2.55 goals per game, the 1974 World Cup set a new record. Never before had so few goals been scored on average.
The biggest sensation of the tournament was - besides the defeat of the West German team against the GDR - the elimination of vice world champion Italy in the preliminary round. The South American teams also disappointed. The only positive exception was the Argentina team, which played some of the most beautiful games in the preliminary round, but had no chance in the second final round. It became clear early on in the tournament that the defending champions Brazil, who are regarded as one of the biggest tournament favorites, no longer had the class that had inspired the football world four years earlier. In the second final round, they ended up second behind the Dutch, but because of the poorer direct comparison. The "Seleção" only played for third place. But even third place was not granted to the former wizards of the Sugar Loaf, as the enthusiastic Poles won the small final.
The team from the Netherlands, with players like Johan Cruyff , Johan Neeskens and Johnny Rep , was one of the favorites even before the tournament. With their concept, known as totaalvoetbal or total football , the Dutch team at the 1974 World Cup, led by Bondscoach Rinus Michels, revolutionized football in the years to come. In the 4-3-1-2 game system, which is characterized by individuality and creativity, all ten field players took part in attack and defense. If one player left his position, another immediately followed suit. Nobody was tied to his position, defenders went into the storm, strikers helped out on the defensive. So the Dutch team thrilled the audience and stormed into the final.
World champions in 1974 were others. For the second time in history, a team that had been beaten once in the tournament won - and for the second time this team was called BR Germany. As in the 1954 World Cup , when it lost to Hungary in the preliminary round and was nevertheless world champion, the German national team showed that they are a typical "tournament team" that can improve from game to game. So the players only grew into a team during the course of the tournament. Franz Beckenbauer played a decisive role in this, and in addition to his globally recognized achievements on the field, he also took on responsibility off the field.
Despite the unchanged dominance of South Americans and, above all, Europeans, the tournament in the Federal Republic of Germany marked the beginning of a turning point in the history of FIFA and the world tournament. Although the results of the participating "football developing countries" Zaire, Australia and Haiti were still disappointing with a draw, eight defeats and 2:33 goals, they became the first non-European President of FIFA in the run-up to the World Cup with the election of the Brazilian João Havelange set the course for the future. At the time of the 1974 World Cup, countries outside of the traditional pillars of Europe and Latin America made up the majority of FIFA members. The strategy adopted by Havelange in the election campaign took this fact into account. He promised the “football developing countries” a doubling of the non-American and non-European presence at the world tournament, help with the construction and modernization of stadiums, technical and medical support and measures to improve the quality of football there. Above all, this is seen as the reason for the choice of Havelange, for whose election ultimately the votes of the associations of Africa and Asia were decisive. The development that began in 1974 led to an increase in the field of participants at the 1982 World Cup in Spain and the promised doubling of the African, Asian, and North and Central American starting places. When an African team, namely Cameroon , reached a quarter-finals for the first time at the 1990 World Cup in Italy, the former "exotic" finally established themselves as a serious part of the World Cup.
- Franz Beckenbauer (Ed.): WM 74. Pamir Verlag, Bern 1974
- Uli Hoeneß , Paul Breitner , Udo Lattek : Football World Cup 1974 in Germany. BS-Verlag, Winnenden 1974
- Harry Valérien (Ed.): Football 74 - World Cup. Südwest Verlag, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-517-00450-2 .
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Comments and individual evidence
- fifa.com: Announcement of the host of the FIFA World Cup
- Dietrich Schulze-Marmeling: The History of the FIFA World Cup ( Memento of February 10, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) from Parliament , No. 19 of May 8, 2006
- Harry Valérien: World Cup stadiums 1974 from Fußball 74 - Weltmeisterschaft , p. 166 f.
- rsssf.com: World Cup 1974 finals
- Chile against USSR 1973: The most absurd game in football history . In: spiegel.de .
- Paul Doyle: The Joy of Six: football fiascos . The Guardian , Jan. 17, 2014.
- Kicker special edition WM 74: Only the final will be repeated , p. 131
- Hardy Greens: Football World Cup Encyclopedia ; Agon-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-89784-380-6
- fifa.com: The FIFA World Cup ™ Trophy
- fifa.com: Regulations FIFA World Cup South Africa 2010 ™ In: fifa.com , August 3, 2007, accessed on June 11, 2018 (PDF, 467 kB)
- Ulrike John: World Cup draw in 1974. In: Zeit.de. October 12, 2005, accessed June 11, 2018 .
- Karl Adolf Scherer: The Germans in a group: The draw on January 5, 1974 from the 1974 World Cup , p. 114 ff.
- Harry Valérien: TV show in continuous rain from Football 74 - World Cup , p. 24
- Steffen Haffner: Exerted jubilation after an obvious title. World Cup series: 1974. In: FAZ.NET . April 21, 2006, accessed March 18, 2018 .
- Abseits.at: Play for your life - Zaire at the 1974 World Cup
- YouTube.de: Brazil - Zaire, Football WC 1974
- Harry Valérien: Football 74 - World Cup , p. 232 f.
- Franz Beckenbauer: The night when it came to the bonus from WM74 , p. 30 f.
- All-Star Team. Retrieved December 31, 2013 .
- Kicker special edition WM 74: Where night turns into day ... , p. 134
- Edgar Fuchs: A police officer for 40 spectators from Fußball 74 - Weltmeisterschaft , p. 168
- Edgar Fuchs: A police officer for 40 spectators from Fußball 74 - Weltmeisterschaft , p. 168 f.
- Edgar Fuchs: The secret of the men in black from Football 74 - World Cup , p. 156 f.
- Franz Beckenbauer: The quarters: Brazil went to the mountain, Italy moved into the castle from WM 74 , p. 40 ff.
- Kicker special edition WM 74: The 100 Million Game , p. 62
- "These Germans can never beat us". In: Spiegel. June 24, 1974. Retrieved June 11, 2018 .
- Hennes Weisweiler: Counterattack with the last of my strength: Yugoslav tears after Poland's victory in the 1974 World Cup , p. 196
- Hennes Weisweiler: gloss gates before spirits backdrop: East Germany and Argentina played 1: 1 in World Cup 1974 , p 208
- Harry Valérien: Chile failed in the rain from football 74 - World Cup , p 40
- Thomas Soltau: Colorful revolution at the push of a button . Stern.de , August 25, 2007.
- Live for Lima . In: Der Spiegel of May 13, 1974, accessed on August 29, 2011
- Kicker special edition WM 74: We put everyone in the right place , p. 128 f.
- Harry Valérien: Football between Celibacy and the Safety Net from Football 74 - World Cup , p. 21
- fussballdaten.de: The hoped-for success after dramatic games
- Ron Wijckmans: "Do you want total football?" - David versus Goliath on the field
- Der Spiegel 16/2014: For money and a beetle (review)