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Richard Nixon leaves the White House .
Helmut Schmidt becomes the new German Chancellor.
Terracotta Army
The Terracotta Army is discovered near Xi'an .
Annual dedications
International Year ( United Nations ) World population year
Bird of the year (Germany) House martin
1974 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2727
Armenian calendar 1422-1423
Ethiopian calendar 1966-1967
Badi calendar 130-131
Bengali calendar 1380-1381
Berber calendar 2924
Buddhist calendar 2518
Burmese calendar 1336
Byzantine calendar 7482-7483
Chinese calendar
 - era 4670-4671 or
 - 60 year cycle

Water cattle ( 癸丑 , 50) -
Wood tiger ( 甲寅 , 51)

revolutionary calendar
Hebrew calendar 5734-5735
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2030-2031
 - Shaka Samvat 1896-1897
Iranian calendar 1352-1353
Islamic calendar 1393-1394
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Shōwa 49
 - Kōki 2634
Coptic calendar 1690-1691
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4307
 - Juche era 63
Minguo calendar 63
Modern Olympics XX
Seleucid calendar 2285-2286
Thai solar calendar 2517

The year 1974 was mainly due to the aftermath of the oil crisis affected the year 1973rd That year, the President of the United States , Richard Nixon , resigned because of the Watergate affair .

In the Middle East , the aftermath of the 1973 Yom Kippur War determined politics. After Golda Meir resigned because of the high Israeli losses, Yitzchak Rabin took over the office of Israeli head of government.

The Cyprus War began in northern Cyprus with the invasion and occupation by Turkish troops ; in Portugal the so-called Carnation Revolution took place . In Germany there was a change of government due to the resignation of Willy Brandt due to the espionage affair involving his personal advisor Günter Guillaume .

The year was dominated by the soccer world championship in Germany, where the German national team won the championship title, and the boxing match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman in Zaire (" Rumble in the Jungle ").


January 1st

Switzerland : Ernst Brugger becomes Federal President .

Sweden : Parental insurance comes into force.

Finland signs a free trade agreement with the EC .

The Federal Republic of Germany has reached a framework agreement on development aid with Botswana .

EG : The Federal Republic of Germany takes over the presidency of the Council of the European Communities.

January 2nd Spain : Carlos Arias Navarro is sworn in as Prime Minister.
January 18th Agreement on the separation of the forces of Egypt and Israel .

Federal Republic of Germany : The Bundestag passes the Federal Immission Control Act .

January 23 The Austrian parliament passed a new penal code that came into force on January 1, 1975.
January 25th UN troops move into the positions on the Suez Canal vacated by the Israelis .
31 January Raids by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) on the Japanese embassy in Kuwait and the Japanese Red Army (JRA) on a Shell facility in Singapore . In the latter case, several Singapore government employees can be voluntarily captured, including the later President Sellapan Ramanathan . The hostages will be released on payment of a ransom and safe flight on a Japanese plane to southern Yemen .
February 7th Grenada gains independence from Great Britain .
February 8 In Upper Volta a military coup occurred.
20. February The German Bundestag ratifies the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty .
21st of February Yugoslavia : A new constitution will be adopted. Tito is elected President for life.
February 28 Great Britain : No majority (“ Hung parliament ”) in the general election , new elections on October 10th

The Ethiopian Prime Minister Tsehafi Aklilu Habte-Wold , in office since 1961, is dismissed by Emperor Haile Selassie and replaced by Endelkachew Makonnen .

2nd March In Spain the be anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and the German refugee Georg Michael Welzel executed .
3 March In the general election in Hamburg, the SPD loses an absolute majority.
7th March Agreement on the establishment of permanent representations in Bonn and East Berlin
March 10th Victory of the Christian Socials in elections in Belgium .
March 12th In Venezuela occurs Carlos Andrés Pérez to the Office of the President.
the 14th of March The Deputy Foreign Minister of the GDR, Kurt Nier , and the Federal German State Secretary Günter Gaus sign the protocol on the establishment of " permanent representations " in Bonn .
March 22 Federal Republic of Germany : The Bundestag decides to reduce the age of majority from 21 to 18 and decides to withdraw from the partial payment purchase.
26th of March Federal President Gustav Heinemann on a three-day state visit to Belgium .
27th of March US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger ends multi-day meetings in Moscow .
28th March Party leader Nicolae Ceaușescu is elected President of the Republic of Romania . The office was newly created.
April 1st Burma : A new constitution comes into force.
2nd of April The Republic of Niger becomes a member of UMOA (West African Monetary Union) and BOAD (West African Development Bank).
11 April Israel : Golda Meir resigns as Prime Minister, her successor is Yitzchak Rabin .

Arab terrorist attack on the Israeli border town of Kirjat Shmoneh , killing 18.

April 16 Niger : President Hamani Diori is overthrown in an army coup.
April 19th Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt is the first German head of government to visit Algeria .
April 21 Willy Brandt on a visit to Egypt .
April 24th South Africa : Elections, the National Party retains its absolute majority.

Federal Republic of Germany : Günter Guillaume , personal advisor to Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt , is exposed as a spy of the GDR.

April 25 Portugal : Overthrow of the dictatorship through the " Carnation Revolution ". The military junta “Movement of the Armed Forces” takes power.
April, 30th Execution of 22-year-old Leyla Kassim and four other students after severe torture for “favoring and approving of separatist efforts” in South Kurdistan
1st of May In the Federal Republic of Germany, a point system is being introduced for the first time in the driving license law, with which entries in the central traffic register of the Federal Motor Transport Authority in Flensburg - Mürwik are assessed.
May 6th Federal Republic of Germany : Willy Brandt resigns as Chancellor because of the espionage affair surrounding Günter Guillaume .
May 9 In Canada , Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau is overthrown by a vote of no confidence. In the elections that are then held, Trudeau's party wins an absolute majority; Trudeau becomes prime minister again.
May 13th If there is a referendum in Italy to keep or abolish the divorce, 59.1 percent will vote in favor of keeping it.
May 15 Federal Republic of Germany : Walter Scheel is elected German Federal President .

Portugal : General António Ribeiro de Spínola becomes President.

Northern Ireland : Ulster Workers Council calls general strike .

May 16 Federal Republic of Germany : Helmut Schmidt is elected Chancellor by the Bundestag .

Portugal : Adelino da Palma Carlos becomes Prime Minister (until July 17th).

May 18 India carries out the first nuclear weapon test (" Operation Smiling Buddha ").
May 19th In France, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (50.8 percent) is elected President before François Mitterrand (49.1 percent).
May 21 The government of Sanya Thammasak in Thailand resigns.
23. May 25th anniversary of the Federal Republic of Germany.
May 26 The People's Republic of China publicly announces a military aid agreement with the Khmer Rouge .
2th of June Bhutan : Jigme Singye Wangchuck becomes king crowned.
3rd of June After the Labor Party election victory , Yitzchak Rabin becomes Israel's new Prime Minister .
8th June The Palestinian National Council (PNC) publishes a 10-point program at its 12th session.
June 9th State elections in Lower Saxony end with a narrow victory for the SPD / FDP coalition.
June 11th After a three-day strike in the public sector, the Bundestag resolved to increase civil servants 'and salaried employees' salaries by eleven percent retrospectively from January 1 .

US President Richard Nixon visits Austria.

June 12 Richard Nixon begins his Middle East journey.
18th of June Gaston Thorn becomes Prime Minister of Luxembourg .
June 19th The Bundestag unanimously resolves to set up a Federal Environment Agency in West Berlin . The GDR and USSR see this as a violation of the Berlin Agreement .
23rd June Austria : Rudolf Kirchschläger is elected Federal President.
June 24th First state visit of the Yugoslav head of state Josip Broz Tito to the Federal Republic of Germany
June 27th Richard Nixon on a visit to Moscow .
June 29th Argentina : Isabel Martínez de Perón is sworn in as President.
July 1 EC : France takes over the Presidency of the Council of the European Communities .
July 4th Erhard Eppler , Minister for Economic Cooperation, resigns in protest against budget cuts in development aid. He is succeeded by Egon Bahr .
15th of July Cyprus : coup by Greek generals.
17th July Portugal : Colonel Vasco dos Santos Gonçalves becomes Prime Minister. The "Movement of the Armed Forces" takes a radical socialist course and thus comes into opposition to Spínola.
20th of July Turkish invasion of Cyprus . Beginning of the Cyprus War .
22nd of July The Ethiopian Prime Minister Endelkachew Makonnen will be replaced by Mikael Imru .
July 23 The collapse of the Greek military dictatorship .
24th July With the return of former Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis from exile in Paris and his swearing in that night, the seven-year Greek military dictatorship ends and, under Western pressure, the return to a democratically ruled Greece begins.
July 27th The impeachment proceedings against incumbent US President Richard Nixon for "obstruction of justice" begin in Washington D. C.
30th July Rhodesia : Elections, victory of the white minority party Rhodesian Front
August 7th The French high-wire artist Philippe Petit walks eight times over a 417-meter-high steel cable between the twin towers of the World Trade Center . The illegal action resulted in his arrest.
August 9 USA : US President Richard Nixon resigns as part of the Watergate affair .
15th of August South Korea : President Park Chung-hee narrowly escapes an assassination attempt in a public speech. However, his wife dies in the attack.
August 19th US Ambassador John William Davies is in Nicosia ( Cyprus shot).
20th of August Nelson Rockefeller becomes US Vice President .
August 21 The Geneva Disarmament Committee is expanded to include 31 participating countries. The Federal Republic of Germany, the GDR, Peru, Zaïre and Iran were included on January 1, 1975.
August 28th France lifts the arms embargo against the Middle East countries.
August 30th Karl Wienand resigns from the office of parliamentary manager of the SPD parliamentary group on the suspicion of bribery in the Steiner-Wienand affair .
September 4th Establishment of diplomatic relations between the USA and the GDR.
September 8th A Boeing 707 is bombed in the Ionian Sea , killing 88 people. The terrorist organization Abu Nidals is suspected of being the mastermind behind the attack .
September 10 The independence of Guinea-Bissau is recognized by Portugal.
September 11 Portugal becomes a member of UNESCO again .
12th September Ethiopia : Emperor Haile Selassie is deposed by the military.
13.september Members of the Japanese Red Army raid the French Embassy in The Hague and take eleven hostages in order to free Yatuka Fumiya . The hostage-takers also demand $ 300,000 and an airplane to take them to Aden . After lengthy negotiations, the prisoners are released at the embassy. A plane flies the hostage-takers first to southern Yemen, where they are turned away, and then to Syria . The local government forces them to give up the ransom.
16th September US General Alexander Haig is NATO - Commander in Europe.
17th of September Grenada , Guinea-Bissau and Bangladesh become members of the United Nations .
September 18 The Turkish Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit resigns from his office.
September 27th The People's Chamber approves an amendment to the constitution of the German Democratic Republic , from which the wording reminiscent of a German nation has been removed.
30. September Portugal : President de Spínola resigns. He is succeeded by General Francisco da Costa Gomes .
October 1 Hans-Dietrich Genscher is elected FDP chairman, Hans Friderichs becomes his deputy.
October 3 The Italian Prime Minister Mariano Rumor announced his resignation.
October 7th In the amended constitution of the German Democratic Republic , the goal of the unification of the two German states is abandoned by resolution of the People's Chamber . The terms German nation and Germany are removed from it.
October 10th The Labor Party wins the elections in Great Britain , Harold Wilson becomes Prime Minister .
October 18 The Democratic People's Republic of Korea becomes a member of UNESCO .
October 18 The big swallow relief operation of NABU , together with many other bird friends for the transport of more than a million birds.
October 19th Independence from Niue , in free association with New Zealand
the 20th of October In Switzerland, the deportation of foreign workers is rejected by referendum .
October 21 President Siad Barre acknowledges drought and famine problems in northeast Somalia .
October 27 State elections in Hesse and Bavaria : In Hesse, the CDU becomes the strongest force, the SPD / FDP form a coalition. In Bavaria, the CSU achieved an absolute majority with 62.1 percent, the SPD 30.2 percent, the FDP 5.2 percent.
30th of October Chancellor Helmut Schmidt meets with Leonid Brezhnev in Moscow for a one-on-one conversation .
November 1st Guinea-Bissau becomes a member of UNESCO .

Hamburg's Senator for the Interior, Hans-Ulrich Klose , will succeed the resigned Mayor Peter Schulz .

The Homeland QwaQwa receives from South Africa , the local government transferred.

November 10th In Berlin, the President of the Supreme Court, Günter von Drenkmann, was shot seriously after a scuffle with perpetrators who had penetrated his house and died in hospital. The June 2nd movement , attributed to the RAF , has committed itself to the act . The perpetrators remain unidentified.
November 12th San Marino becomes a member of UNESCO .
November 13th PLO leader Yasser Arafat gives his first address to the UN General Assembly .
14 - November 16 World Food Conference in Rome.
15th of November The Council of the OECD after the experience acting oil crisis , the establishment of the International Energy Agency , which is supported by 16 founding members.
November 17th Greece : First free elections after the military dictatorship, victory of the New Democracy under Konstantinos Karamanlis .

In Ireland , President Erskine Hamilton Childers dies of a heart attack in the middle of a speech.

21st November Two of the IRA attributed Birmingham pub bombings causing 21 dead and 182 injured.
22nd of November Palestinians hijack a British plane to Dubai and demand the release of prisoners from Egypt .
November 24th Palestinians release several hostages and shoot a German hostage to back up the demands, Egypt releases seven prisoners. A day later, the Palestinians give up the British plane.

Meeting between US President Gerald Ford and Soviet party leader Leonid Brezhnev in Vladivostok .

25. November Exchange of fire on the border between Mali and Burkina Faso
November 26th Japan : Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei resigns after a real estate scandal.
30th of November Manfred Rommel , son of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel , becomes Lord Mayor of Stuttgart .
December 4th Federal Councilor Pierre Graber is elected Swiss Federal President for 1975.
December 8th In a referendum , almost 70 percent of the voters in Greece vote for the abolition of the constitutional monarchy in favor of the form of a republic .
9th of December Japan : Miki Takeo becomes Prime Minister .

EG : Summit in Paris. Creation of the European Council . Decision to create an economic and monetary union.

13th December The independent Republic of Malta is proclaimed.
December 17th The Switzerland and North Korea take on Diplomatic Relations.
19. December Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh is sworn in as the fifth President of Ireland.

Austria and the ČSSR sign the treaty on compensation for the expropriation of Austrian citizens in 1945.

Ongoing events

A major factor for international political and economic development were the effects of the oil crisis of the previous year in 1973 , which were particularly noticeable in Europe and America in 1974 and demonstrated the economic power that the Arab OPEC states were able to exercise.


In 1974, the European economy was shaped primarily by the sharp rise in inflation , which was felt both in individual countries and internationally. The particularly through the commitment of Willy Brandt coined detente between the Western NATO -Staaten, especially the Federal Republic of Germany and its eastern neighbors, which the previous years had dominated in 1972 and 1973, was displaced by the internal economic problems of European nations. The European Economic Community came under increasing criticism for exacerbating the problems, mainly by representatives from Great Britain . In December, after a multi-day conference of the heads of state and government of the EEC member states in Paris, the decision was made to set up the European Regional Fund, which entailed financial compensation for poorer regions such as Ireland and Italy . In addition, the heads of state and government decided to institutionalize their conferences, which have taken place irregularly since the Hague Summit in 1969, and to meet as the European Council at least twice a year.

Attempts to counter inflation through trade restrictions and tariff cuts led to reduced economic growth in the nations and to popular discontent, which in some states made itself felt through several changes of government and national strikes. In Italy no government majority could be found, the formation of a government became impossible, in Great Britain two elections had to be held to form a new government.

Federal Republic of Germany

In the Federal Republic of Germany, besides the economic crisis, developments in Ostpolitik and developments in relation to the German Democratic Republic played a central role. On April 25 of that year, Chancellor Willy Brandt's personal advisor , Günter Guillaume , was exposed as a spy for the GDR, triggering the espionage affair, which ended on May 6 with Brandt's resignation from his post, just four days after the opening permanent representations in the two German capitals Bonn and East Berlin . On May 15, Walter Scheel was elected the new German Federal President , and one day later the Bundestag elected Helmut Schmidt as Willy Brandt's successor. On May 23, the Federal Republic of Germany has existed for 25 years.

On July 5th, Ulrich Schmücker , a former member of the June 2nd movement , was murdered in West Berlin . In a letter of confession from the group, Schmücker was described as a "traitor and counter-revolutionary" who was executed after a death sentence. Who had committed the crime and whether the organization was involved in it was not clarified despite the 17-year Schmücker trial . The June 2nd Movement murdered Günter von Drenkmann, President of the Supreme Court, on November 10, also in West Berlin . In the meantime, several prisoners from the Red Army Faction went on hunger strike against their conditions . Here died Holger Meins on November 9 . On November 29 , Horst Mahler and Ulrike Meinhof were sentenced to 14 and 8 years' imprisonment, respectively, for attempted murder during the liberation of Andreas Baader .

German Democratic Republic

The international recognition of the GDR came to a preliminary conclusion in 1974. On May 2nd, the permanent representations of the two German states were established in the capitals. On September 4, the GDR and the USA established diplomatic relations. A number of bilateral agreements were reached between the two German states, for example on the border in the Bay of Lübeck, on the transport of garbage from West Berlin and the continuation of the swing regulation in domestic German trade.

At the same time, memories of the whole of Germany were erased from the public in the GDR. From January 1st, the new car registration number “GDR” was in effect, and when new banknotes were introduced on September 14th, the old currency designation “Mark of the German Central Bank” was replaced by “ Mark of the GDR ”. In a constitutional amendment passed on September 27, the GDR finally said goodbye to the concept of the German nation and the goal of reunification . All relevant passages have been deleted from the constitution of the GDR . The main task in the developed socialist society , resolved in 1971 at the Eighth Party Congress of the SED , to increase the material and cultural standard of living of the people on the basis of strong economic development, became part of the constitution. In addition, the State Council of the GDR was significantly devalued in favor of the People's Chamber and the Council of Ministers .


The Austrian Federal President Franz Jonas ( SPÖ ) died on April 24 at the age of 74 in Vienna . His successor was Rudolf Kirchschläger , who was not party to any party and who was previously Foreign Minister in Bruno Kreisky's government . Kirchschläger remained Federal President until 1986.


Valery Giscard d'Estaing

In France, the Republican Valéry Giscard d'Estaing narrowly prevailed against François Mitterrand in the second ballot and thus became president of his country and successor to Georges Pompidou , who died on April 2 of that year. Giscard d'Estaing held this office until 1981.

Although Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was popular with the people, he was confronted with strikes and demonstrations over the course of 1974 over the economic situation in France and against its policies. In the election he had promised to close the social gap with the help of school and tax reforms. However, when he tried to counter the economic crisis with cuts in government subsidies , grants and tax increases in December of that year , he was responded to with far-reaching strikes.


In Portugal, on April 24 and 25, 1974, the Carnation Revolution took place against the dictatorship ruling the country under Marcelo Caetano . The trigger was a publication by General António de Spínola , in which he criticized the Portuguese colonial policy and called for a turn away from the current political situation with the participation of the people. The revolution started after an agreed radio recording of the song Grândola, Vila Morena by José Afonso and was overall very bloodless. On the evening of April 25, Caetano handed over the government to the provisional head of state Spínola. As a result, political prisoners were freed and on May 1 a comprehensive general amnesty was issued for deserters and conscientious objectors.

On September 8, the Portuguese government decided to give its colony Mozambique independence by June 25, 1975. This change in Portuguese politics was foreseeable after António de Spínola became president after the military coup. Spínola has long criticized his country's colonial policy, stating that Portugal could not win the colonial war against the independence movement. In a speech at the end of July, he proclaimed the unconditional release of the colonies and declared that by July 1975 he would also release the other colonies into independence. On September 20, the FRELIMO liberation movement took over the transitional government in Mozambique. Portugal's new policy provoked protests and panic reactions from the white settlers.

António de Spínola resigned on September 30, 1974 after disputes with the left wing of the new government from his office as provisional head of state and from now on led the conservative opposition. His successor was Francisco da Costa Gomes .

Great Britain

In Great Britain, the economic crisis and the restrictive policies of Prime Minister Edward Heath led to massive strikes as early as the end of 1973, especially in the country's coal mines. To address this, Heath limited the industry's working hours to a three-day week instead of negotiating with the miners. In February 1974, he then lost in the general election, the majority in Parliament. However, the election had no clear winner, and so took a minority government of the Labor Party into office until new elections in October. Meanwhile, on June 17th, the Palace of Westminster was damaged by an IRA bombing . The Labor Party won the elections and Harold Wilson became Prime Minister. Despite the change of government, economic turmoil continued, mainly due to government calls for companies to be nationalized.

In Northern Ireland the called Ulster Workers Council on May 15 for a general strike on. The reason for the protest was the Sunningdale Agreement , an attempt to resolve the Northern Ireland conflict by dividing power between unionists and nationalists . After two weeks of barricade fighting, Brian Faulkner resigned as head of government on May 28th . This ended both the strike and the agreement.


In Italy, too, the financial crisis determined the country's politics. The economic crisis led to severe unrest and economic and social collapse here. There were no mail deliveries for months, and housing became scarce in large cities due to the influx of people from the countryside. There has been an increasing number of cases of corruption in the government , with government members being paid by oil companies. The ruling Christian Democratic party increasingly lost support. Prime Minister Mariano Rumor was advised twice this year to step down due to problems with his coalition partners, which he did in October.


The Greek military dictatorship was worn down at the beginning of 1974 by the seven-year power struggle between dictatorship, monarchy and people, but also between the army and the navy and within the army. The uprising at the National Technical University of Athens in November of the previous year had further weakened the dictatorship, and the coup of Dimitrios Ioannidis on November 25, 1973 was the last attempt to keep the regime in power. This again declared a state of emergency. When the Cyprus conflict openly broke out on July 15, 1974 , the colonels were too weak to counter the Turkish troops marching into Cyprus on July 20. Many military officials turned away from the colonels, and the government they installed under Adamantios Androutsopoulos had to resign.

Konstantinos Karamanlis , who had been Greek Prime Minister several times between 1955 and 1963, then returned from exile in Paris with the support of French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and took over government. Due to the precarious situation, he was forced to live on a yacht in the harbor that was guarded by a destroyer. He removed collaborators of the dictatorship from the administration and relaxed relations with Turkey. He also legalized the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), allowed the establishment of the Panellinio Sosialistiko Kinima (PASOK) on September 3rd and founded the Nea Dimokratia (ND). In the first free elections on November 17th, the victory of the ND legitimized the government of Karamanlis. A referendum on December 8th showed that the monarchy, which had been abolished by the colonels in the previous year, would not be reintroduced.


On January 27 died Georgios Grivas , a former resistance fighter and commander of the Cypriot National Guard . He had returned to Cyprus in 1971 to set up EOKA- B, which fought underground against President Makarios in order to achieve enosis - unification with Greece . With his death, EOKA B came under the control of Dimitrios Ioannidis , the "strong man" of the Greek military dictatorship in Athens . On July 15, 1974, officers of the National Guard launched a coup against the government of Archbishop Makarios III. and made Nikos Sampson President of the Republic of Cyprus. Since Great Britain did nothing, Turkey , which was the island's protecting power alongside Greece and Great Britain , responded with a military advance on July 20 and occupied the north of the island. The impending war with Turkey led to political chaos in Greece; on July 23, the dictatorship collapsed with the resignation of the colonels, and their puppet regime in Cyprus was also overthrown.

On July 25 began in Geneva peace talks between the three protecting powers. Turkey temporarily halted its advance. On August 8 was followed by a second round of talks, this time with the participation of Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, but the talks ended without result on 14 August. There was renewed fighting, which ended in another ceasefire on August 16 . At this time, the Turkish troops controlled an area of ​​34 percent of the island, on which 70 percent of the GNP was previously generated. The Turkish vision of Taksim , the wish to divide the island, had been achieved. As a result of the conflict, 162,000 Cypriot Greeks lost their home in what is now the Turkish north, 65,000 Cypriot Turks in the south. The UN set up a demarcation line, the so-called "Green Line", which to this day is the island between the de facto national territory of the Republic of Cyprus and the occupied territory on which the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey, was proclaimed in 1983 . Splits.


On February 21, a new constitution was passed in Yugoslavia , which declared Josip Broz Tito president for life. The Yugoslav Communist Central Committee , consisting of 2/3 Slovenes and Croats , also ensured that the individual republics were granted more autonomy , including the right to secede from Yugoslavia. The state of Serbia was divided into three parts with the proclamation of autonomy for Kosovo and Vojvodina . The reason for this was the aspirations for autonomy of people of Albanian and Hungarian descent, who at that time made up 50 percent and 15 percent of the local population respectively. Similar attempts at autonomy by the Serbs living in the Republic of Croatia were not accepted.

Soviet Union

On February 12, one of the best-known critics of the regime, the writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, was arrested in the Soviet Union and expelled one day later. The winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature meets with his friend and colleague Heinrich Böll in the Eifel , where he spends the first few days after his expulsion. Solzhenitsyn moved to a short stay in the Federal Republic of Germany in Switzerland , where his family, wife and four sons, followed in March.

The story of the prohibitions for the author begins with the book A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich , published in 1962 . Other works by him, such as The First Circle of Hell or Cancer Ward , are not even published in the Soviet Union. For his extensive criticism of the conditions in the Soviet Union, Solzhenitsyn was expelled from the Writers' Union of the USSR in 1969. In 1970 the writer was honored with the Nobel Prize for Literature, which he did not accept in person because he feared that the government would refuse him to re-enter the Soviet Union.



President Juan Perón , who had come back to power the previous year, died on July 1. His office was taken over by Isabel Perón , his third wife. In this way, the succession in the presidency was arranged without major discussions or even new elections. Isabel Perón was completely overwhelmed with the office. She had neither the education nor the political talent to carry out this task for the benefit of her country. She was the puppet of the Peronist rulers behind her. Her term of office was marked by irregularly recurring “wildcat strikes” (“huelgas”) and officially ordered standstill of life (“paro general”) . Her reign was overshadowed by economic decline and renewed terrorism . The semi-state terrorist brigade Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (AAA), which was founded under Perón, provided the first so-called disappeared and murdered numerous opposition members and activists of the left. Isabel Perón was arrested by the military two years later, on March 24, 1976, and placed under house arrest. In the so-called process of national reorganization that followed , around 30,000 people died between 1976 and 1983.


After the country had been ruled by a military dictatorship triumvirate under Anastasio Somoza Debayle for two years , he was elected president for the second time in September. As American support for his regime waned, the opposition, led by the Sandinistas (FSLN), grew stronger. In December, guerrillas kidnapped 13 political figures, including several members of the Somoza family . The group secured a $ 1 million ransom and released 14 prisoners. Somoza responded by declaring martial law and appointing the National Guard.

United States

Richard Nixon's successor as President of the United States, Gerald Ford

The President of the United States Richard Nixon was severely weakened by the Watergate affair, which had dominated the political scene for two years . After already many participants had been forced to resign charged or convicted, was finally on July 27 by the Legal Committee of the House of Representatives an impeachment initiated procedure against the president. Nixon anticipated the process, which would very likely have been successful, by stepping down on August 9th . His successor, Vice President Gerald Ford , pardoned him in advance on 8 September on all counts.

Through the Watergate affair, the Democrats achieved clear victories in the same year in the elections for the House of Representatives (+49 seats) and the Senate (+3 seats). In the House of Representatives they made up just over two thirds of the MPs.

Also in that year the USA withdrew the last soldiers from Vietnam and cut military aid for the regime in South Vietnam . Among other things, these measures led to the collapse of the regime a year later.

In October, race riots broke out in Boston between blacks and whites. The reason for this was a court order that found that, contrary to the provisions of the American constitution , racial segregation still prevailed in public schools . In order to change this, in the future city buses should transport black children to schools that were previously “white” and vice versa (“desegregation busing”). This measure sparked unexpectedly violent protests from many white parents. Black people who picked up their children from schools were beaten. There were more and more violent riots against the colored people, who in turn responded with violence after initial reluctance.



After the signing of the Paris Peace Treaty in 1973, American forces withdrew completely from Vietnam. The government of Nguyễn Văn Thiệu in South Vietnam was on the verge of collapse. The Saigon regime, which was marked by corruption, crime and nepotism, had to cope with an economic crisis caused by the loss of its main employer ( US Army ) and the 1973 oil crisis . In 1974 the US Congress granted Saigon effective military aid of only 400 million dollars, which did not meet the needs of the further expanded Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). Nixon, who was battered by the Watergate affair and finally forced to resign, was no longer able to give Thiệu the promised help.

Unemployment in the cities was around 40 percent. The upper class gradually removed their property from the country. 240,000 deserters turned their backs on the ARVN in 1974. On the other hand, the communists in the south, who still controlled around 25 percent of the country, succeeded in achieving strategic and economic stability with support from Hanoi. The numerous conflicts over compliance with the armistice and respect for the “National Council” could not shake her position. Even after the Paris Agreement, the USA dropped a total of 250,000 tons of explosives on Cambodia; however, Congress, which redefined its foreign policy competencies at the expense of the White House, refused to launch further attacks on South Vietnam. In the following year, the leadership in Hanoi finally decided to bring about a decision. In March 1975 the North Vietnamese crossed the border. The numerically and materially superior ARVN almost collapsed. At the end of the month, Hue and Da Nang came under communist rule. That ended the Vietnam War .


The Cambodian civil war had raged in Cambodia since 1970 . While the PRC signed a military aid agreement with the Khmer Rouge , US ground forces withdrew step by step, but continued to bomb the country. Several attempts to initiate peace negotiations failed. (see also History of Cambodia )


On January 4th, the Revolutionary Council dissolved after the Socialist Federal Republic of Burma was proclaimed . The dictator Ne Win became president. The supreme legislative, executive and judicial power passed to the newly created People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw). On April 1st, the country received a new constitution under the slogan “Burmese Road to Socialism”.

On Nov. 25 died Sithu U Thant , to 1971, Secretary General of the United Nations in New York ( NY ). His body was transferred to his native Burma in Rangoon , but Ne Win refused to give him an honorable burial there. U Thant belonged to the democratic government that Ne Win had defeated in his 1962 coup. On December 5, shortly before the official burial, students kidnapped the body, buried it on the grounds of the University of Yangon (RUSU) student union, which was destroyed in 1962, and built a mausoleum for it . On December 11th , the area was stormed by the Burmese military. Some students were killed in the process. The body was removed and buried at the foot of the Shwedagon Pagoda . This action led to street protests in Rangoon. The government declared a state of emergency .

see also history of Burma


Tanaka Kakuei

The central event in Japan in 1974 was the resignation of Prime Minister Tanaka Kakuei in November of that year. This was preceded by a massive loss of confidence during the 1973 energy crisis, in which he lost around 30 percent of his electorate. During his reign, the inflation rate soared that Japan in 1974 had the highest rate of any industrialized nation. The economic growth was the end of the first quarter for the first time since the Second World War, with almost zero percent.

In October 1974, the magazine Bungei Shunju Tanaka Kakuei also found numerous questionable real estate deals from the 1960s. Among other things, he had paid a geisha to do business for him. His rivals within the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) took the opportunity to subject him to a public hearing in parliament. He resigned on November 26th to prevent the chief executive of the Etsuzankai (his support organization), with whom he had a relationship, from testifying in front of parliament. The new Prime Minister was Miki Takeo , also from the LDP, to whom the office was transferred by consensus of the members of the government.

In the last month of his reign, Tanaka Kakuei received US President Gerald Ford , who was the first US President to visit the country. The main purpose of the talks in Tokyo was to improve the US's economic relations with Japan. These were overshadowed by the affairs surrounding Tanaka Kakuei as well as by a scandal surrounding American nuclear weapons transports: Admiral Gene LaRoque explained in advance to the US Congress that American ships carrying nuclear weapons had entered Japanese ports without the Japanese government giving notice to inform. The US government made it clear to Japan that these were only the unofficial views of a military. However, there was no emphatic denial.

On March 10, the Japanese intelligence officer Onoda Hirō was discovered on the Philippine island of Lubang . He had been in hiding for 29 years because he refused to recognize Japan's surrender .

The East Asian Anti-Japanese Armed Front bombed Mitsubishi Heavy Industries' headquarters on August 30 .

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China was in the final phase of the Cultural Revolution . Prime Minister Zhou Enlai was unable to carry out official business because of his cancer. Therefore, in August Deng Xiaoping , who had only been rehabilitated by Zhou Enlai at the 10th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party the previous year and was declared his deputy, provisionally assumed office. Also in that year began the campaign against Lin Biao, who died in 1971, and the anti-Confucius campaign .

The Portuguese colony of Macau gained independence after the Carnation Revolution. However, the People's Republic did not want to take over the administration. Because of this, Macau became "Chinese territory under Portuguese administration".


After a 40-year period of military dictatorship ended in October 1973 through protests by students and the middle class, Thailand experienced its first, short period of democracy. The oil crisis and the Vietnam War in the immediate vicinity determine the political issues.


In India , the first nuclear weapon test (" Operation Smiling Buddha ") was carried out on May 18 . This made the country the sixth nuclear power .

In the presidential election on August 17, 1974 , Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed emerged victorious.


The Yom Kippur War of 1973, which was formally not yet ended, determined politics. On January 18, 1974, negotiated by Henry Kissinger , a troop unbundling agreement was signed with the Egyptian government , and one on May 31 with the Syrian government. The resigned Golda Meir took over the provisional presidency again in March, but made way for Yitzchak Rabin in April . Internationally, the war resulted in an Arab oil embargo for the states that traded with Israel.

On May 15 at were a bloodbath Palestinian terrorists in a northern Israeli school killed 21 children.

Palestinian Movement

The strong Israeli resistance in the Yom Kippur War made it clear to the Palestinian movement that the Arab states would not succeed in defeating Israel militarily. Instead, a three-phase plan was developed. In the armed struggle, Israeli territory should be conquered step by step and a state should be built on the "liberated" areas as a basis for further fighting, in order to then provoke a final war of decision. The ten-point program drawn up on June 9th at the 12th Palestinian National Council in Cairo contains these goals ( Wikisource ).

At the same time, the PLO achieved international political recognition. At a conference of Arab heads of state in Rabat in October , the organization was recognized as the sole representative of the Palestinians. The breakthrough came a month later at the United Nations . On November 13th, Yasser Arafat gave a speech to the UN General Assembly ( Wikisource ).

On November 22nd , the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 3236 ( Wikisource ), which recognizes in principle the right of the Palestinian people to self-determination and statehood. The PLO was recognized by the UN as the representative of the Palestinian people and received observer status.

Numerous Palestinian hardliners disagreed with this course and split off from the PLO, including the Abu Nidal organization .


In 1974 fighting broke out again between the central government and the Kurds in Iraq . The neighboring country Iran supported the Kurds, which is why there were massive tensions between the two countries, which even briefly culminated in military clashes on the common border in the summer of 1974.


The process of decolonizing Africa was not yet complete in 1974. Numerous states were still under colonial rule, such as Namibia . Some were still in the War of Independence early in the year, including Mozambique and Zimbabwe . A boost for decolonization was brought about by the Carnation Revolution, which this year brought independence to the Portuguese colonies .

Other African states were ruled by dictators who had succeeded the colonial powers and partially ousted democratic governments, including Uganda under Idi Amin , Zaïre under Mobutu and Equatorial Guinea under Francisco Macías Nguema .


In Angola , after the end of the Portuguese colonial empire as a result of the Carnation Revolution, power was handed over to a coalition of three liberation movements, the MPLA, the FNLA and the UNITA . This plunged the country into a civil war that lasted until 2002.


After a drought, the oil crisis, inflation, student protests and waves of strikes in 1973, parts of the Ethiopian army revolted at the beginning of 1974 . The lower ranks in particular came mostly from rural areas and knew the plight of the rural population. This brought about the decisive power shift. Emperor Haile Selassie was overthrown on September 12, 1974.

The military quickly seized the revolution, the student movement split into an ethnic and a socialist opposition, some went underground and led an armed resistance. Within the military, the moderate representatives, mostly higher ranks, could not prevail. A Provisional Military Administrative Council ( Amharic : Derg ) took power, led by Major Mengistu Haile Mariam . In 1975 the monarchy was abolished and the former empire a socialist people's republic.

South Africa

The government of South Africa (President Jacobus Johannes Fouché from January 1968 to April 1975 ) issued the Afrikaans Medium Decree as part of the apartheid policy , which forced all secondary schools to teach mathematics , social sciences , geography and history to black students to be held half in English and half in Afrikaans . This law sparked student demonstrations two years later that ended in bloody fashion. The ANC and PAC organizations continued their fight against the apartheid regime.


January 1st The Federal Republic of Germany lifts the fixed price for branded articles .

The federal government grants Italy a loan of DM 5 billion.

10. January Due to a drop in sales, BMW decided to take a 14-day break in February.
January 19th France is leaving the European exchange rate system.
20. February The workers in the metal industry in the Federal Republic of Germany receive an eleven percent wage increase
February 26th Norway announces the discovery of the Statfjord oil field in the North Sea .
8th of March Charles de Gaulle airport opens near Paris .
March 18th Oil crisis : Most OPEC nations are ending the five-month oil embargo against the USA , Japan , the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries.
April 6th The Vallorbe caves, opened up for tourism, will be accessible to visitors in the Swiss canton of Vaud .
April 18 6,000 Italian farmers block the Brenner border crossing in protest against excessive meat and milk exports.
April 18 The Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries raises - with the exception of Libya - that after the Yom Kippur War imposed on the West oil embargo on.
April 23 Bankruptcy of the Berlin construction project Steglitzer Kreisel . The limited partners lose 80 million DM in deposits.
2.May Italy adopts import restrictions.
May 3rd Mannesmann acquires Demag shares .
8th of May Denmark is raising import taxes to restrict imports.
18th of June In connection with the reform of food law, the German Bundestag decides to ban commercials for cigarettes and tobacco products on radio and television.
23. May 25th anniversary of the Federal Republic of Germany.
June 26th The Herstatt Bank in Cologne is closed.
5th July Germany concludes investment protection and promotion agreements with Egypt
10th of July Arab oil boycott against the Netherlands lifted after nine months.
16th of July In Hesse , the Biblis nuclear power plant , which was then the largest nuclear reactor in the world, goes online.
17th July The Iran acquires 25.04 percent of the share capital of the subsidiary Bochum Krupp Hüttenwerke AG .
July 25th The state-owned telecommunications company ANTEL (Administración Nacional de Telecomunicaciones), based in Montevideo, is founded in Uruguay .
15th of August South Korea's first subway runs in the capital, Seoul .
August 16 The Bundesbank is reducing the minimum reserve by ten percent.
September 14th The State Bank of the GDR is replacing its banknotes. The "Mark of the German Central Bank" is renamed "Mark of the GDR".
September 18 The largest German private bank, Trinkaus & Burckhardt , is majority controlled by the First National City Bank (USA).
25th of September The Federal Republic of Germany refuses to raise agricultural prices in Brussels .
October 2nd The Klöckner-Humboldt-Deutz AG gets the order, 9500 Magirus-Deutz tanker lorry in the Soviet Union to deliver that in Siberia for the construction of the Baikal-Amur Mainline are to be used (so-called. Delta project ). The value of the delivery is over 1 billion DM.

The Federal Republic of Germany withdraws its veto against a five percent EC agricultural price increase.

8th October US President Gerald Ford gives a speech to Congress under the slogan “ Whip inflation now ”.
October 24th The Bundesbank lowers the discount rate to 6.5 percent and the Lombard rate to 8.5 percent.
20th November The US Department of Justice opens antitrust proceedings against AT&T .
2. December A larger block of shares in Daimler-Benz AG in Stuttgart is bought by the Emirate of Kuwait .
19. December From Cape Canaveral , the first Western European communications satellite Symphony 1 will be launched into geosynchronous orbit .

Oil crisis

The (first) oil crisis , which began in the autumn of 1973, when the OPEC countries Algeria , Iraq , Qatar , Kuwait , Libya , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates increased their oil output by around five percent, was decisive for economic activity in 1974 throttled, raised prices and imposed an embargo on western states. The USA, Japan, which was more than 70 percent dependent on oil from the Middle East for its energy supply, and the Netherlands, the center of oil processing in Europe, were particularly hard hit.

With the embargo, the oil boom of the previous decades, with production growth rates of over seven percent, came to an abrupt end. As early as 1973 the oil price had increased by around 70 percent. In the course of 1974 the world oil price rose to over twelve dollars.

These measures were primarily aimed at Israel and its supporters in the Yom Kippur War . Reservations by the oil-producing countries, especially against the USA, had existed since 1971, when Richard Nixon lifted the peg of the US dollar to the gold standard . The subsequent devaluation of the dollar led to a fall in the price of oil, and the resource-rich countries now saw the value of their resources in danger.

The oil crisis of 1973/74 demonstrated the susceptibility of modern industrial countries to a variety of influencing factors and their dependence on fossil energy .

In the Federal Republic of Germany , as a direct reaction to the crisis, a Sunday driving ban was imposed on four Sundays in November and December 1973 . In addition, the speed was limited on many road and motorway sections. Although this policy had hardly any economic effect, it gave the population the feeling that they could actively contribute to overcoming the crisis. In 1974 Germany had to pay around DM 17 billion more for its oil imports than in the previous year (oil price shock). This resulted in an economic crisis. However, unlike in other nations, the inflation rate rose only slightly to seven percent. The oil crisis thus marked the end of the economic miracle . As a result, hitherto largely unknown phenomena occurred, such as short-time work , unemployment , increasing social spending , higher inflation (better: stagflation ), increasing national debt , rationalization , strikes , corporate bankruptcies .

Due to the oil crisis, initiatives were taken to achieve greater independence from oil. For example, alternative fuels such as vegetable oil and biodiesel came into public interest. There was increased investment in nuclear energy , renewable energy sources , the thermal insulation of buildings and in increasing the efficiency of engines and heating devices. Even as the oil crisis subsided, there was an increased awareness of energy-saving behavior among the population. In addition, the share of oil procured from OPEC countries was reduced by developing submarine oil fields in the North Sea and diversifying trading partners .

To compensate for the price increases, the central banks of some industrialized countries put more money into circulation . However, as is to be expected according to quantity theory, this led to an increased inflation rate in the following years, which could only be ended by a more rigid financial and monetary policy during the 1980s.

Overall, world economic growth in 1974 was 1.5 percent, which was a significant decrease compared to the previous year, when it was 6.5 percent.

German investments in China and the USSR

German companies closed two large deals with Eastern countries in March 1974. In the Soviet industrial city of Kursk on the upper Seim , the companies Krupp , Korf Stahl and Salzgitter AG built a smelting combine; the USSR paid for it in cash.

A few days later, other companies reported the conclusion of the largest single deal to date with the People's Republic of China. Under the leadership of Demag and Schloemann-Siemag , they built a cold rolling mill near the city of Wuhan , the capital of the central Chinese province of Hubei .

These agreements brought the repeatedly crisis-ridden metal and steel industry security for their jobs. The order from the Soviet Union, for example, was the largest project in a long time for the Krupp Group.

Closure of the Herstatt Bank

The Federal Supervisory Office for the credit system withdrew on June 26, the Cologne Bankhaus Herstatt permission to continue his business. When the news broke, customers and savers of the bank gathered in front of the closed doors of Germany's second largest private bank. Other banks and the cities of Cologne and Bonn , which had deposits with the bank , were also affected . The insurance company Gerling held an 81.4 percent stake in Iwan David Herstatt's bank . The cause of the collapse is a deficit of 480 million DM, which was caused by speculation with forward exchange transactions . The demands of the bank customers alone amounted to more than 300 million DM. The federal government tried in cooperation with other banks to help at least the small savers to get a replacement.

Iran participates in Krupp

A surprising agreement for the public and large parts of the economy was announced on July 17th: Iran is participating in the most important Krupp subsidiary, Friedrich-Krupp-Hüttenwerke-AG . For an unspecified amount - probably between DM 200 and 300 million - the Iranian Minister of Economic Affairs and Finance, Hushang Ansari , bought 25.04 percent of the steelworks' capital on behalf of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi . At the same time, both partners founded an investment company.

VW boss Leiding resigns

Rudolf Leiding , Chairman of the Board of Management at Volkswagen , is stepping down from his post on December 20. The trained mechanic resigned, although VW was able to expand its market position under his direction. Leiding discontinued obsolete models such as the VW 1600 and unsuccessful ones such as the VW 412 and instead added models such as the Passat , Scirocco , Golf and Audi 50 to its range. Although these cars were successful sales, Volkswagen, like the entire automotive industry, was in crisis and in 1974 suffered losses of at least 400 million DM.


January 5th The first edition of the pen and paper role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons appears.
13th February The Russian writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn is expelled from the Soviet Union and flown to Frankfurt am Main .
February 16 The opera Einstein by Paul Dessau will be premiered at the Deutsche Oper Berlin .
February 23 In food is Rolf Hochhuth's work Lysistrata premiered.
February 28 In the New York Museum of Modern Art , Pablo Picasso's famous work Guernica is sprayed with a text.
4th of March The Roman-Germanic Museum in Cologne opens.

The television opera La Cubana or A Life for Art by Hans Werner Henze is premiered in New York .

5. March The film Fear Eats the Soul by Rainer Werner Fassbinder has its premiere. It is about the love between a 60-year-old cleaning lady and a young Moroccan who fails because of the social environment.
April 6th ABBA win the Grand Prix d'Eurovision de la Chanson with the title Waterloo .
May 26 The Russian cellist and conductor Mstislaw Leopoldowitsch Rostropowitsch leaves the country after serious conflicts with the Soviet government and becomes chief conductor in Washington, DC
June 7th Awarding of the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade to Brother Roger .
15th of August The newly built Toronto Zoo is opening. The previously existing Riverdale Zoo is subsequently abandoned and converted into the city's own farm in 1978 .
5th September In the ZDF the first shipment will Quiz - TV show The Grand Prix with wim thoelke broadcast.
October 10th After the overthrow of the Greek military junta , the first people 's concert by Mikis Theodorakis takes place in front of tens of thousands of enthusiastic people in the Karaiskakis Stadium in Athens.
November 29th The band Yes releases the album Relayer .
Academy Awards
Best movie The highlight of George Roy Hill
Best Actor Jack Lemmon in Save the Tiger
Best main actress Glenda Jackson in Man, You Are Great!
Best director George Roy Hill for The Clou


In 1974 glam rock was at its peak. Artists like Gary Glitter and the Rubettes with Sugar Baby Love had number 1 hits. One of the biggest flops in music history was also part of glam rock history. The second album by the American singer Jobriath , Creatures of The Street , was sold only a few despite huge advertising. The artist was forgotten and died of AIDS in 1983, unnoticed .

The counter-movement to glam rock was progressive rock or art rock. The band Genesis , which was part of this direction , released the album The Lamb Lies Down on Broadway , before Peter Gabriel left the band in the same year.

The disco sound became mainstream in 1974. The first hits were Rock Your Baby by George McCrae , the best-selling single in Germany in 1974 , Kung Fu Fighting by Carl Douglas , and Waterloo by ABBA , with which the Swedish group won the Grand Prix d'Eurovision de la Chanson and started their international career .

Seasons in the Sun by Terry Jacks meanwhile became the swan song for the flower power era . The hippie era came to an end.

Another youth movement, punk , was just emerging. The Ramones were formed in New York in January 1974 , and Patti Smith released her first single, Hey Joe , which is considered the first ever punk rock single.

In November 1974, the band Kraftwerk released Autobahn , the fourth studio album . The album was very successful with international top 10 placements and is one of the most important German music releases of the 20th century.

The German hit was still "in", Michael Holm landed with tears of lies not a hit that stayed at the top of the German charts for four weeks. The West German music industry declared Vicky Leandros ' song Theo, we drive to Lodz , to be the “summer hit ” of 1974, which in a certain sense represents the German hit's commentary on Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik.


see also: 1974 film year

The film 1974 falls within the period of the New Hollywood , represented by academically trained directors such as Francis Ford Coppola ( The Godfather - Part II ), Steven Spielberg ( The Sugarland Express ) and Martin Scorsese ( Alice Does not Live Here Anymore ), and in particular Roman Polanski with Chinatown .

Authors dominate in Europe . In France, the era of the Nouvelle Vague is coming to an end, while in Germany the representatives of the New German Cinema create important works, such as Rainer Werner Fassbinder with Angst Eats Seele auf and Wim Wenders with Alice in the Cities .

In Zardoz , Sean Connery breaks radically with his James Bond image, the science fiction film in the typical style of the 1970s flopps at the box office, but becomes a cult film.

With Murder on the Orient Express , Sidney Lumet creates the film adaptation of an Agatha Christie novel, which is awarded six Oscars. In Lenny, Bob Fosse films the life of stand-up comedian Lenny Bruce with Dustin Hoffman .

The disaster films include Earthquake and Flaming Inferno .

watch TV

In Paris, ORTF and ARD began producing the language course Les Gammas! Les Gammas! , which was conceived as a contribution by television to the Franco-German cultural agreement concluded twenty years earlier. Due to its unconventional design, the series was a surprise success and later broadcast in many countries in Europe, Africa and America.

The ZDF beamed between 31 January and August 8, the first time the anime series Vicky the Viking men out.

On October 20th, the episode Waldweg starts the crime series Derrick on ZDF. The series, a joint production of ZDF , ORF and SF DRS , had a total of 281 episodes and is the best-selling German series of all time. Scriptwriter Herbert Reinecker wrote all 281 episodes, the producer was Helmut Ringelmann with his company Telenova-Fernsehproduktion . The series was broadcast on ZDF until October 16, 1998.


On December 2nd, Heinrich Mann's Professor Unrat was performed in Bochum with great success . As Peter Zadek it went, the Professor refuse to stage, he along with Gottfried Greiffenhagen to comedy with music has in dialogue, it was feared that this piece would try in vain to contact the film The Blue Angel by Josef von Sternberg to measure. But the production was one of the great highlights of the theater season. 44 years after the Blue Angel with Marlene Dietrich and Emil Jannings , Zadek Mann's novel Professor Unrat or the end of a tyrant with Hannelore Hoger and Günther Lüders in the leading roles. The Bochum performance adhered more closely to the novel, which is a satire on Wilhelmine Germany. The aggressive exaggerations of the novel were incorporated into Daniel Spoerri's set design . The performances of the two main actors were counted by critics as the best that could be seen on German stages this season.

In Berlin , Peter Stein celebrated a triumph at the Berliner Schaubühne with the staging of Maxim Gorki's Summer Guests . Stein, together with the dramaturge Botho Strauss and the stage designer Karl-Ernst Herrmann , set the piece, which premiered in 1904, in a birch landscape in which the individual scenes take place with the help of a cross-fading technique. The overall picture was always preserved. The diversity of characters from a morbid bourgeois society allowed the Schaubühne ensemble to perform brilliantly. However, Stein and Strauss made a number of minor changes to the piece in order to make the confusing abundance of characters that Gorky depicts transparent.

Scott & Muriel at the 32nd International Circus Festival 2008

Prince Rainier III of Monaco founds the Monte Carlo Circus Festival .

Visual arts

On his 200th birthday (September 5, 1974), the painter of German inwardness , Caspar David Friedrich , attracts more attention than it has for a long time. The Hamburger Kunsthalle is dedicating an exhibition to him in which 95 of 140 paintings that have survived are shown as well as 137 drawings and graphics. The 51-day exhibition has a record number of visitors: a total of 220,000 people queue in front of the entrance to the Kunsthalle, even in cold and rainy weather. In the 1970s Friedrich's pictures were booming everywhere. An exhibition in London was also a great success. The Diocesan Museum Freising makes its collection public.


In 1974 high society wore models by Christian Dior , Ted Lapidus , Nina Ricci , Yves Saint Laurent and the fashion house Chanel in beige, caramel and lavender. Above all, Dior also played with colored furs in pastel. The youthful style has been replaced by a ladylike one. Even young women wanted to appear more mature and expressed this in undulating hairstyles, delicate make-up and corresponding accessories. Above all, coats were combined with dresses and trousers and a wide variety of types of fabric - sometimes combined into so-called "onion fashion", which was worn layer upon layer.

On the street, however, the mini skirt was still very popular, and there was also the trend towards mini dresses and overalls in a wide variety of shapes. However, the longer skirt, the hem of which was below the hollow of the knees, also caught on again in large parts of the world of women. Knitted fashion was also very popular again. In pop culture and color television , the "shock colors" of women's fashion almost reached the pain threshold of the eyes. Pop singers like Rex Gildo and Jürgen Marcus also showed the gentlemen how to do it: The flare of the pants widened , the collars of the shirts grew into true sails. And the men's ties reminded more and more of the children's bib. Almost mandatory the gefönte was perm . Sideburns reaching to the cheeks were also very fashionable .

The last of the hippie movement experimented with ethnic styles, such as caftans with African motifs, Mao shirts or shaggy coats and jackets in sheep design. However, the directions in which fashion was trying to adapt to the coming musical styles were already showing. On one side of glam rock with his Glitter and the disco movement with hot pants , platform shoes , scarce and ever more transparent blouses, skin-tight one-piece swimsuits (as a precursor of the later leggings ) and the daring Afro (for example, Paul Breitner ). On the other side there were those who favored hard rock with long hair, cowboy boots , jeans , T-shirts and leather jackets.

The alternative scene also slowly shaped its own style with dungarees and turtlenecks , but also the army parka . Scarves in all colors and styles were worn as accessories , be it Indian scarves or the Palestinian scarf .


The book The Archipelago Gulag by Alexander Solzhenitsyn was published in Paris . Solzhenitsyn worked on the Gulag Archipelago for over ten years from April 1958 , but withheld its publication and hid the manuscript. A publication of the Gulag Archipelago and the subsequent possible arrest would have made the work on it impossible, which he did not want to complete until 1975. In August 1973 the KGB (Solzhenitsyn had been under surveillance by the secret service since 1965) discovered the manuscript. As a result, it no longer made sense for Solzhenitsyn to keep the work a secret. A Russian emigrant publisher who had a copy of the manuscript was instructed by him to print the book immediately. It was published in Paris at the beginning of January 1974 and shortly afterwards in translations in many Western countries.

Stephen King (February 2007)

Other important new releases included Carrie , Stephen King's first novel , All the President's Men , in which journalists Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward presented their views on the Watergate affair, and Heinrich Böll's short story Die Lost Ehre der Katharina Blum , in the he sharply criticized the practices of the German newspaper Bild .

The Swede Eyvind Johnson received the Nobel Prize for Literature .


At midnight on the 24th and 25th December opens Pope Paul VI. with the opening of the Holy Door the Holy Year . At the end of the year, the jubilee gate was bricked up again on Christmas 1975. The Holy Year or Jubilee Year of the Roman Catholic Church is intended to serve the inner renewal of the faithful. It has been celebrated every 50 or 33 years since 1300, and every 25 years since 1475. The year is marked by a comprehensive indulgence, which can only be obtained in Rome and the details of which are regulated by the respective anniversary bull.

Hobby and play

The company geobra Brandstätter presented the newly developed Playmobil for the first time at the Nuremberg Toy Fair .

Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson publish the first edition of Dungeons & Dragons , the first commercially available pen and paper role-playing game , and thus establish the genre.

science and technology

science and technology
February 2nd The General Dynamics F-16 multi -role fighter is being tested in its first flight .
February 8 The Skylab-4 crew returns to Earth.
March 29 Series production of the VW Golf I begins.

The Mariner 10 probe , the last of the Mariner series, reaches Mercury .

May 9 Commissioning of the Prague Metro .
3rd of July Start of Soyuz 14 .
September 11 Charles T. Kowal discovers the Jupiter moon Leda (Jupiter XIII).
26th of August Start of Soyuz 15
September 20th Federal President Walter Scheel inaugurates the Köhlbrand Bridge in Hamburg, the second longest road bridge in Germany.
November 11th The research groups led by Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting jointly present their independently successful proof of the J / ψ elementary particle .
November 16 The Arecibo message is sent into space.
November 24th "Lucy", the best-preserved Australopithecus afarensis skeleton to date , is found.
December 1 Foundation of the Hagen Open University
2. December The Pioneer 11 spacecraft flies past Jupiter.

Start of Soyuz 16

10th of December With Helios 1 , the first not from the will USSR or the US -built spacecraft in the universe transported. The German probe launched from Cape Canaveral provides data for solar research after reaching its orbit around the sun .
Nobel Prizes
physics Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
chemistry Paul Flory
medicine Albert Claude , Christian de Duve and George Emil Palade
literature Eyvind Johnson and Harry Martinson
peace Seán MacBride and Eisaku Sato
Economy Gunnar Myrdal and Friedrich Hayek
Further prices
Fields Medal Enrico Bombieri and David Bryant Mumford
Turing Prize Donald Knuth
Templeton Prize Brother Roger

Computer technology

While the large mainframes continued to dominate computer technology, the beginnings of downsizing and personalization appeared. In 1974 Intel introduced the 8080 , a further development of the 8008 and the first "full" 8-bit microprocessor .

At the same time, the competitor Motorola presented the 6800 . The Altair 8800 , the first commercially successful home computer, was based on the Intel chip . Gary Kildall began developing CP / M , the first platform-independent operating system for use on home computers. Pocket calculators , too, became small computers when the first programmable model, the HP-65 from Hewlett-Packard , was ready for the market .

Skylab, captured by Skylab 4


In 1974 Volkswagen launched the VW Golf , the successor to the legendary VW Beetle . The VW Golf, in the angular design by Giorgio Giugiaro , became a symbol for the new compact class , which hit the nerve of the times (oil crisis).

Space travel

The 1974 space year began on February 8 with the return of the crew of the American Skylab 4 space station . The team of Gerald Carr , William Pogue and Edward Gibson also represented the last crew of the Skylab , which only came back into public interest in 1978/79 when it was decommissioned by NASA .

The Soviet Union started three missions this year. The Soyuz 14 was launched on July 3. They docked at the Salyut-3 - space station, where the cosmonauts stayed for two weeks before returning to Earth. The Soyuz 15 was followed on 26 August. The mission was canceled after two days. Soyuz 16 , launched on December 2, served in preparation for the first joint Soviet-American space program, the Apollo-Soyuz project (July 17, 1975).

On December 10th, a Titan 3E-Centaur from Cape Canaveral brought the German-American solar probe Helios A , built in West Germany, into a solar orbit with a point closest to the sun only 46 million km away from the sun. The probe, designated as Helios 1 after the start, worked successfully until 1986.

For the first time Europeans began on December 19, a rocket carrying a communications satellite into space, the first Franco-German communications satellite Symphonie had on board. The launch took place from the American Cape Canaveral Air Force Station . The satellite was launched into orbit at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers. It was supposed to transmit two color television and two radio programs as well as 600 telephone calls at the same time. However, he was not allowed to compete with the American satellite Intelsat .


The transmission tower in Konstantynów

The Sears Tower in Chicago , completed in 1974, became the tallest skyscraper in the world and held this title until the Petronas Towers were built in 1998 (in total height until 2009).

In Dallas was Renaissance Tower completed. At 216 meters, the skyscraper was the tallest building in Dallas at the time and remained so until 1985. In 1986, the skyscraper was extensively renovated and, thanks to its various structures, now reached a height of 270 meters. It was the second tallest building in the city.

The 34-story Guy's Tower is completed in London . This will make Guy's Hospital in London the tallest hospital in the world at 143 meters and the eleventh-tallest building in London.

The first freeway interchange with only one intersection on the slip road went into operation on February 25, 1974 in Clearwater, Florida , USA, and connects Interstate 19 with Florida State Road 60 at 27 ° 57 ′ 38 ″  N , 82 ° 43 ′ 48 ″  W , referred to as Single Point Urban Interchange - “diamond with an intersection”.


In 1974 the results of the Milgram experiment are published in an article entitled: Behavioral study of obedience , which appeared in the prestigious Journal of abnormal and social psychology (Vol. 67, 1963 pp. 371-378). Milgram later published his own book in which he placed the results in a broader context ( Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View , German The Milgram Experiment. On Obedience to Authority, 1974).

The Milgram Experiment is a scientific experiment developed by psychologist Stanley Milgram to test the willingness of average people to obey authoritarian orders even when they are in direct conflict with their conscience.


The skeleton Lucy , a replica. Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City


In Hadar , Ethiopia discovered Donald Johanson on November 30 the skeleton of an early pre-human , which later after the Beatles -Song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds Lucy was called. Based on this find, Johanson, Yves Coppens and Tim White scientifically named the new species Australopithecus afarensis in 1978 .

Lucy is usually described in the literature as a grown woman of about 25 years of age; however, some researchers now interpret the find as male. Their skeleton is one of the best preserved skeletons of the early ancestors of man ( hominini ). Lucy died about 3.2 million years ago. The skeleton structure shows clear adaptations to the upright gait.

Terracotta Army

The Terracotta Army, part of the Qin Emperor's mausoleum , was discovered near Xi'an , Shaanxi Province , China , in March 1974 .

It is a representation of a complete army of the time, consisting of more than 7000 life-size clay figures, which are distributed in several underground chambers. Foot soldiers, horsemen, horses and war chariots with real weapons (swords, arrowheads, crossbows) are displayed. The different ranks can be recognized by different uniforms . The army forms the grave goods of the first emperor of the Chinese Empire from the years 210 BC. Until 209 BC BC, who united China into one empire with the help of armies like this one. It is noteworthy that all of these figures are individually designed, so no two are identical in posture, facial features or equipment details. The open question is whether actual soldiers from that time were reproduced or whether the creators freely designed the different figures.

The tombs have been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1987 .


see also: 1974 sport year

World athlete of the year Eddy Merckx
Ballon d'Or Johan Cruyff
Major events


The sporting highlight of the year from a German point of view was the soccer world championship , in which the Federal Republic of Germany not only acted as host but also won the world championship title.

Special stamp for the 1974 World Cup

Memorable games were the final against the Netherlands (2: 1), in which several controversial referee decisions were made, as well as the intermediate round match between Germany and Poland (1: 0), which went down in history as the “ Frankfurt Water Battle” and the clear victories the Dutch over the teams from Argentina and Brazil . In the preliminary round, the national teams of the GDR and the Federal Republic of Germany met for the only time . With a goal from Jürgen Sparwasser , the GDR won the game 1-0.

In the Bundesliga , FC Bayern Munich continued to dominate , becoming German champions for the third time in a row and thus succeeding in the first hat-trick in Bundesliga history. In the same year, FC Bayern also won the European Champions Cup . A total of seven FC Bayern players were also part of the world championship squad.

In Düsseldorf , Eintracht Frankfurt won the DFB Cup with a 3-1 victory over the Hamburger Sportverein .

In the DDR-Oberliga who won 1. FC Magdeburg the championship title. In addition, 1. FC Magdeburg was the first and only team in the GDR to win a European football cup. On May 8, the team defeated AC Milan 2-0 in front of 5,000 spectators at the De Kuip stadium in Rotterdam and won the European Cup Winners' Cup .

By a. 3: 1 aet over Dynamo Dresden won FC Carl Zeiss Jena the FDGB Cup .

Feyenoord Rotterdam won the UEFA Cup on May 29 with a 2-0 win against Tottenham Hotspur at De Kuip Stadium after the first leg ended 2-2 on May 21 at White Hart Lane Stadium .

In Austria in the acquired National League of SK VOEST Linz the championship title. The Swiss champions were FC Zurich .

Footballer of the year in the Federal Republic of Germany was for the third time after 1966 and 1968 Franz Beckenbauer . Bernd Bransch was named footballer of the year in the GDR .

On August 16, it became known that Paul Breitner from Bayern Munich to Real Madrid changes.

Pelé ended his career in São Paulo on October 3rd. Pelé, whose real name is Edson Arantes do Nascimento , was three times world champion with the Brazilian national team (1958, 1962 and 1970).


On March 26 won George Foreman 's fight and world champion in the heavyweight division against Ken Norton in El Poliedro , Caracas , Venezuela , by technical K. O. Already on January 28, defeated the boxing legend Muhammad Ali , Joe Frazier . The highlight of the year, however, was the " Rumble in the Jungle " , the heavyweight match between Muhammad Ali and George Foreman, on October 30th at the 20th of May Stadium in Kinshasa , Zaïre , in which Muhammad Ali won the world title through Ko.

There was also a change at the top in the light heavyweight division. Here Bob Foster from Albuquerque won the world title on September 16, 1973 and then fought against Jorge Ahumada on June 17, 1974 in a draw. With a victory over Ahumada on October 1st, the Englishman John Conteh got the title. Another boxing champion ended on September 7 from Nicaragua native Alexis Argüello against the Mexican Ruben Olivares featherweight forth.


Nate Thurmond scored the first quadruple double in the history of the National Basketball Association (USA) against the Atlanta Hawks on October 8th . The NBA Finals win the Boston Celtics after seven games against the Milwaukee Bucks with MVP Kareem Abdul-Jabbar . In the ABA , the New York Nets win their first championship with Julius Erving .


Cycling legend Eddy Merckx won both the Tour de France and the Giro d'Italia , both races for the fifth time, and took gold for the third time at the UCI Road World Championships . He was voted World Sportsman of the Year for the third time .


Emerson Fittipaldi

The Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi became Formula 1 World Champion after winning three Grand Prix races. The Swiss Clay Regazzoni followed three points behind. In the same year, the racing drivers Peter Revson and Helmut Koinigg died on the Formula 1 racetrack . The American Revson had an accident on March 22nd during test drives in Kyalami ( South Africa ), the Austrian in his second Grand Prix race in Watkins Glen ( USA ) on October 6th.

Show jumping

Hartwig Steenken became world champion in show jumping on the mare Simona in Hickstead on July 21st .



Natural disasters
January 27th A flood in Brisbane , Australia kills 14 people and damages AUD 200 million .
3rd of April The Super Outbreak , the longest tornado series in American history, devastates 13 US states and a Canadian province. Balance of 148 hurricanes: 315 dead and over 5,000 injured.
May 11th Earthquake in Sichuan a . Yunnan / People's Republic of China , around 20,000 dead.
September 8th Hurricane Carmen hits the south coast of the USA.
September 18 The hurricane "Fifi" attracts over Honduras , approximately 10,000 deaths.
October 3 Earthquake in Peru , 83 dead, 60,000 homeless.
24. - 25. December The Cyclone Tracy destroyed over 70 percent of construction and infrastructure Darwin , 71 people died, 20,000 people are homeless. The cyclone addressed a damage of 837 million AUD to.
December 28th 6.2 magnitude earthquake in Pakistan kills approx. 5,300.
January 30th Crash of a Boeing 707 of Pan American World Airways .
February 1st Major fire in the Joelma skyscraper in Sao Paulo, 189 dead.
3 March Paris , France Shortly after taking off from Paris-Orly Airport , a McDonnell Douglas DC-10 of Turkish Airlines had an accident . 346 dead.
April 22 Tinga-Tinga , Bali , Indonesia . A Boeing 707 ( Pan-Am flight 812 ) crashed into a mountain about 60 km northwest of the airport during its approach . All people died.
June 1st Flixborough disaster: 28 people die and 36 are injured in an explosion in a chemical plant near Flixborough .
July 19 In an explosion in the Záluží chemical plant of the CHZ ČSSP, 17 people die and 124 are injured.
August 9 The accident of the Dutch oil tanker Metula in the Strait of Magellan leads to the leakage of 53,000 tons of crude oil. The oil spill that was washed up cost the lives of around 40,000 animals on Tierra del Fuego coasts.
August 14th In Prague , the exhibition palace (built in 1924) burned down completely.
August 30th In Zagreb, a train derailed in a curve due to excessive speed. 153 people die.
20th November Nairobi , Kenya , a jumbo jet of Lufthansa crashed at startup. 59 dead, including 30 Germans.
December 1 A Boeing 727 of the Northwest Orient Airlines crashes 40 km northwest of Washington Dulles International Airport from. All 92 inmates die.
December 4th Colombo , Sri Lanka . Crash of a Dutch Douglas DC-8 . On board were Indonesian Muslims on the pilgrimage to Mecca . All 191 people on board died.

Crime and terrorism

  • On March 4th, the American publisher's daughter Patricia Hearst is kidnapped by the socially utopian group SLA (Symbionese Liberation Army) . The group wants to extort a ransom to buy food for poor and needy people in California. On April 4, Patricia Hearst declares that she will join her kidnappers.
  • April 18 : First use of the final rescue shot with fatal outcome in the Hamburg bank robbery on April 18, 1974 .
  • On May 28, 1974, an attack by neo-fascists took place in the Piazza della Loggia in Brescia .
  • On July 17th, the IRA launched an attack on the British Crown Jewels in the Tower Of London, since then only replicas have been exhibited and the original jewels have been kept in a secret location.
  • On November 13th, Ronald DeFeo kills his entire family in Amityville.


  • In order to be able to better control violations of the road traffic regulations, the Federal Motor Transport Authority in Flensburg began to record penalty points in the " traffic offenders index" on May 1st .
  • The 1974 grape harvest was poor. In many well-known wine-growing areas, only thin, short-lasting wines were produced, which are now undrinkable. Only Californian wines are still considered an insider tip in 2006.
  • Probably the most sensational separation of the year was Sonny Bono and Cher's divorce after ten years of marriage.
  • The first lesbian spring meeting took place in Berlin (at that time it was still called the lesbian Pentecost meeting ).
  • On March 15, the speed limit introduced in the Federal Republic of Germany as a result of the oil boycott by the Arab states will be lifted again.
  • On August 4th, bathing is banned in several parts of Lake Garda ( Italy ) due to water pollution .
  • On July 15, TV presenter Christine Chubbuck shot herself in front of the camera during her morning broadcast live.



Marco Schreyl


Seth Green, 2011
Robbie Williams, 2012





Sylvain Wiltord


Michael Rasmussen, 2005


Martina Hill , 2012


Natasha Henstridge, 2009




Ralf Schmitz
Alessandro Del Piero, 2008
Kurt Kromer


Marco Paulo Coimbra de Abreu

Day unknown

Hafsat Abiola , Willem Dafoe and Bianca Jagger (from left) at the Dropping Knowledge “Table of Free Voices” in Berlin



Mural David Alfaro Siqueiros: The New Democracy (1945) in the Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City


Imre Lakatos



James Charles Cardinal McGuigan
Franz Jonas , 1969


Duke Ellington († May 24)



Juan Perón , 1946


Alois Hundhammer (1963)



Salman Shazar (1951)


Sithu U Thant, 1968


Jack Benny

Day unknown

See also


  • The American Peoples Encyclopedia 1975 Yearbook - Events of 1974 , Grolier Incorporated 1975, ISBN 0-7172-0406-5 .
  • Britannica - Book of the Year 1975 , Encyclopaedia Britannica Ltd. 1975.
  • World Panorama 1974 - A Chronicle of Current Events , Faunus-Verlag AG, Basel.
  • Britta Kruse, Christiane Lege: Chronicle 1974 , Bertelsmann Lexikon Institut, Gütersloh 1991, ISBN 3-577-14074-7 .
  • Archive of the Present - 1974 , Siegler & Co. Verlag für Zeitarchive GmbH 1986, ISBN 3-87748-040-3 .
  • Archive of the Present - Germany 1945 to 1999 , Directmedia Publishing, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89853-178-3 (CD-ROM).

Web links

Commons : 1974  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. https://www.nabu.de/tiere-und- Pflanzen/voegel/artenschutz/schwalben/ 03542.html
  2. - ( Memento from February 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  3. Ayla Gürel: Property and Population Issues in Divided Cyprus. In: From Politics and Contemporary History . Issue 12, 2009, p. 14 ( online and PDF )
  4. ^ Postbank: stagflation unlikely. Deutsche Postbank AG press release of July 31, 2008, accessed on October 15, 2012.
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on May 22, 2006 .