Power plant (band)

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power plant
First power plant logo

First power plant logo
General information
origin Dusseldorf , Germany
Genre (s) Krautrock (until 1973)
Electro-Pop (from 1973)
founding 1970
Website www.kraftwerk.com
Founding members
electronic sound generator, synthesizer, keyboard, voice, vocoder
Ralf Hütter
electronic sound generator, synthesizer, flute, violin, voice, vocoder, Robovox
Florian Schneider (until 2009) († 2020)
Current occupation
Audio operator
Ralf Hütter (since 1970)
Audio operator
Fritz Hilpert (since 1989)
Audio operator
Henning Schmitz (since 1991)
Video operator
Falk Grieffenhagen (since 2012)
former members
Karl "Charly" Weiss (†) (1970)
Bass, cello
Eberhard Kranemann (1970–1971)
Houschäng Néjadepour (1970)
Michael Rother (1971)
Andreas Hohmann (1971–1972)
Klaus Dinger (†) (1971–1972)
Plato Kostic Rivera (1971–1972)
Violin , guitar
Klaus Röder (1974–1975)
Guitar (1971–1972) , texts, covers, slide projections of paintings and drawings
Emil Schult (1971–1986)
Electronic drums
Wolfgang Flür (1972–1987)
Voice, keyboard , electronic drums
Karl Bartos (1975-1991)
Fernando Abrantes (1991)
Video operator
Stefan Pfaffe (2008–2012)

Kraftwerk is a German band from Düsseldorf that was founded in 1970 by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider . Kraftwerk is considered an essential co-founder of the Düsseldorf School in electronic music.

Kraftwerk is best known for its pioneering work in the field of electropop (and Krautrock ). Kraftwerk's pieces of music influenced numerous styles of music such as synth pop , electro funk , Detroit techno and also had a decisive influence on the beginnings of hip-hop . In 1997 the New York Times described Kraftwerk as the " Beatles of electronic dance music ". They are also increasingly being viewed internationally as the most influential music group of all time.


The early days

In 1968 Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider founded the group Organization (short for organization for the realization of common music concepts ), the forerunner of Kraftwerk, which only produced one album, Tone Float . At the beginning of 1970 they set up their Kling-Klang-Studio and started the music project Kraftwerk. The album Kraftwerk was recorded in July and August with studio drummers Klaus Dinger and Andreas Hohmann and released by the Philips label. The album rose to number 30 on the German LP charts. The title Ruckzuck was used as theme music for the show registration D selected. Ralf Hütter left Kraftwerk for a few months at the end of 1970 to finish his architecture studies. On December 26th, Kraftwerk gave a concert with the line-up of Florian Schneider-Esleben, Eberhard Kranemann (bass, cello) and Charly Weiss (drums).

With the entry of guitarists Michael Rother and Klaus Dinger to replace Charly Weiss, Kraftwerk consisted of Schneider, Hohmann, Kranemann, Rother and Dinger for a few months in early 1971. A session was recorded in Conny Plank's studio , but it was never published. As a trio (Schneider, Dinger, Rother), Kraftwerk had a live appearance on German television in the Beat-Club program with the song Rückschlag Gondoliere . At the end of 1971 Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider recorded Kraftwerk 2 between September 26th and October 1st in their own studio. Kraftwerk toured almost continuously from 1971 to 1972 with the cast of Plato Rivera, Florian Schneider, Ralf Hütter and Emil Schult.

The second album Kraftwerk 2 was released by Philips in January 1972. Kraftwerk was voted the most popular band of the year by Sounds magazine . Florian Schneider took second place in the category Musician of the Year and the title Ruckzuck was Song of the Year.

The third album Ralf and Florian was created in July 1973 and was released on the Philips label in October. The Kling-Klang publishing house was founded by Ralf Hütter and Florian Schneider. Wolfgang Flür was hired as a drummer for the TV appearance in aspekte on ZDF .

Turn to electro pop

The first three Kraftwerk albums by Hütter and Schneider were still partly acoustic and experimental, until in 1973 Kraftwerk decided to make the Kraftwerk sound exclusively electronic and to integrate melodic pop elements. The result was the album Autobahn , which, in the opinion of many experts, marked a turning point and is considered the first electro-pop album . The songs increasingly consist of reduced melody fragments that alternate with phases of sound effects, a characteristic that has largely determined Kraftwerk's music to this day. In addition, Hütter and Schneider integrated sung melodies for the first time, which are characterized by a "cold" way of singing ( spoken chant ) freed from all emotions . Autobahn was the last Kraftwerk album to be released by Philips. For the first time, Kraftwerk received gold records worldwide for Autobahn and the single release of the title track climbed the Billboard charts in the USA . Inspired by the great success, Kraftwerk founded its own Kling Klang label in 1974, which is supported by the music label EMI .

In February 1975, Klaus Röder left the band. He was replaced by the drummer and studio musician Karl Bartos . In the summer of 1975, the album Radio Activity was recorded, which was released in November 1975. Once again, Kraftwerk had success with the release of the title track: In the early summer of 1976, radio activity was number 1 in the French charts for weeks. Hütter and Schneider then visited France several times with the Trans-Europ-Express , where the enthusiastic racing cyclist Ralf Hütter accepted the invitation to accompany the Tour de France as an observer.

At the end of 1976 Kraftwerk recorded the sixth album Trans Europa Express , which was released in the first quarter of 1977. Shortly after its release, the theme song Trans Europe Express became popular in the New York ghettos and influenced early hip-hop DJs such as Afrika Bambaataa ; so for some it became a blueprint for their basic rhythm.

After five years of abstinence from television, Kraftwerk returned to ZDF on March 29, 1978 . As living robots (with gray pants, red shirts, black ties with sequencing red LEDs) they presented the new single (We are ...) The Robots to the public . In April 1978 the next Kraftwerk album Die Mensch-Maschine was released with the hit Das Model . Once again this album set the standard for the music industry and the following styles of music.

The 1980s

When groups like Depeche Mode or Ultravox , based on the sound of Die Mensch-Maschine , became successful, Kraftwerk had already developed further. The eighth album Computerwelt was released in 1981. Computerwelt is therefore an important forerunner of the music genres Electro and Techno . In 1981 Kraftwerk went on a major world tour and was particularly successful in Japan. Kraftwerk had four robots built identically to the group musicians especially for the tour, which replaced the real musicians at various promotional appearances.

In June 1983 the single Tour de France was released . The album Techno Pop , which was almost completely produced in 1983 , was discarded. The tracks contained on it appeared, heavily modified and for the first time in digital production technology, in November 1986 under the title Electric Café . The video for the extracted title Musique Non Stop was produced at the Institute of Technology in New York and shown every hour on the music channel MTV . The phone call, sung by Karl Bartos, was chosen as the second extraction .

The 1990s

The entire sound material in the archive of the Kling-Klang-Studios was converted to digital technology, which also had an effect on the stage show. In June 1991 the remix of Die Roboter was released as a single (Top 10 in the charts in Germany, France, the USA and Japan). Karl Bartos , meanwhile , left the band before the release of the tenth album The Mix . It contains newly digitally produced and mixed classics.

In July, Kraftwerk began an extensive European tour with the new specially developed moving robots, which were also presented at television and photo sessions and videos. In 1992/93 Kraftwerk contributed a theme music to the MTV program Music Non Stop , whereby it was not a variation of the title of the same name from the Techno-Pop era between 1983 and 1986, but a completely new composition.

There were also other concert series and an appearance as part of a major Greenpeace campaign in 1992 and in 1993 concerts at the Ars Electronica in Linz (A) and the KlangArt Biennale in Osnabrück. At the same time, the Balanescu Quartet played its interpretations of the Kraftwerk classics in Linz . This was followed in 1997 with concerts at the Electro Festival Tribal Gathering 1997 and at the opening of the Center for Art and Media in Karlsruhe.

Florian Schneider was appointed professor for media art and performance at the Karlsruhe University of Design (HfG) on February 5, 1998 . In 1998 another world tour followed through Japan, USA, Europe and, for the first time, South America with appearances at the Sonar Festival in Barcelona and the Roskilde Festival in Denmark.

New beginning after 1999

Kraftwerk live in Stockholm, 2004
Event poster The Catalog , 2013

Kraftwerk reported back in 1999 with the jingle (and a corresponding single including a remix from the Detroit techno project Underground Resistance ) for the Expo 2000 in Hanover . In 2002, with the cast of Hütter, Schneider, Hilpert and Schmitz, the first concerts with purely virtual technology took place in the Cité de la Musique in Paris. The extensive hardware of the 1990s was reduced to four laptops with a few additional MIDI controllers. From now on the game was played on software synthesizers and sequencers. After appearing at the Electraglide Festival in Tokyo and Osaka in December, an Australia tour followed in spring 2003.

Kraftwerk released the concept album Tour de France Soundtracks after the Tour de France 2003 . It was the first of the band to immediately hit number 1 on the German album charts. With Tour de France soundtracks, Kraftwerk tied thematically to the song Tour de France, which was released in 1983, and thus expressed their passion for cycling .

In 2004 Kraftwerk continued the world tour. The tour was almost sold out and comprised a total of 105 concerts until mid-2005. On June 6, 2005, at the same time as the last section of the tour, the double live CD / quadruple vinyl box entitled Minimum-Maximum was released . For this album Kraftwerk was nominated for the Grammy Awards 2005 in the category Best Electronic Dance Album . The double DVD in DTS format with the same title, as well as a box titled Notebook with CD, DVD and 88-page book about the tour, was released on December 2, 2005. A double SACD was also released.

In 2006, Kraftwerk went on a summer tour with the line-up of Hütter, Schneider, Schmitz and Hilpert, performing in Bergen , Oslo , Saalburg ( SonneMondSterne ), Pardubice ( Summer of Love ) and Gent ( I Love Techno ).

The Kraftwerk tour 2008 with concerts in the United States, Poland and Ireland took place with the cast of Hütter, Schmitz, Hilpert and Stefan Pfaffe (as video operator), without Florian Schneider. In November and December further gigs were made, among others in Australia and New Zealand. Shortly after the concerts, Florian Schneider announced his departure. This has now been officially confirmed by a spokesman for the music label EMI. For various festival appearances in 2009, some songs were removed from the set list, the other pieces were played in shortened versions. Also in 2009 all albums from Autobahn to Tour de France were re-released under the title Kling Klang Digital Remaster 2009 . The four albums released in the 1970s were each provided with new cover designs that were already intended for the publications at that time. Furthermore, the name “Electric Cafe” was changed to “Techno Pop” as originally planned.

From October 15 to November 13, 2011, the Kunstbau of the municipal gallery in the Lenbachhaus in Munich exhibited a multi-channel 3D video installation entitled Kraftwerk 3-D . To mark the opening of the exhibition, Kraftwerk gave three sold-out concerts in Munich, in which the band played the entire performance in front of a 3D video projection for the first time. Since then the band has been on tour with their 3D concept.

In 2012 they played eight concerts (one for each of their albums) at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMa) in New York, which were also sold out within a short time. In 2013, this concept was performed in a few other locations. In the context of the performances in Düsseldorf, a scientific congress on the power plant phenomenon and a photo exhibition with pictures by their band photographer Peter Boettcher took place for the first time. Here, for the first time, Falk Grieffenhagen, who was partly responsible for the implementation of the 3D concept, took the place of Stefan Pfaffe on the stage.

In mid-2013 Sprüth Magers announced that Kraftwerk would present a similar 3D exhibition in the gallery in Berlin in July and August as in the Lenbachhaus.

On January 26, 2014, they received the Grammy Award for their life's work , along with the Beatles and other artists . In May 2014 the band presented the catalog of the 3D concert series in eight sold-out concerts in the Burgtheater as part of the Wiener Festwochen .

In January 2015 the series of eight concerts was staged in the Neue Nationalgalerie in Berlin .

On May 26, 2017, Kraftwerk 3-D published The Catalog . The new recordings of the eight official albums were made from 2012 to 2016 at concerts in 13 cities worldwide. 3-D The catalog is available on four different media: LP (double album and box set with all eight albums), CD (8 disc box set), Blu-ray 3D (2D compatible) and DVD. The complete vinyl edition also includes a download card.

On July 1, 2017, on the occasion of the Grand Départ of the Tour de France 2017, Kraftwerk played an open-air concert in front of 15,000 spectators in the Ehrenhof in their home town of Düsseldorf. On January 28, 2018, Kraftwerk was awarded the Grammy's 3-D catalog in the “ Best Dance / Electronic Album ” category.

In July 2018, the German astronaut Alexander Gerst was switched on at a concert in Stuttgart . Kraftwerk and Gerst played the song Spacelab from 1978 as a duet. However, the German formation was not the first group to go live into space; before that, the Canadian spaceman Chris Hadfield took part in a concert with a choir on earth in 2013 in front of a live audience. Kraftwerk, on the other hand, were the first music ensemble to perform a song with an astronaut who used an everyday object ( tablet ).


Analog vocoder from the 1970s, used for the Ralf and Florian and Autobahn albums .

The band has inspired countless artists, including David Bowie , Dr. Dre , Siouxsie and the Banshees , Joy Division , The Jesus and Mary Chain , Primal Scream , Björk , The Human League , Depeche Mode , Duran Duran , Alphaville , OMD , Rammstein , Ultravox , Moby , New Order (Krafty) and Front 242 . They also have a huge influence on the US electro-funk scene ( Afrika Bambaataa ). Kraftwerk's influence later extended to the Detroit techno scene, which was strongly influenced by Kraftwerk's minimalist arrangements and their danceable beats, especially in the early days. Jeff Mills and Derrick May , two of the most important pioneers of the Detroit techno scene, refer directly to Kraftwerk as a source of inspiration for their artistic work.

Years later, Kraftwerk still inspired other music artists. In 1994 Slovenian bands released a Kraftwerk tribute album entitled "Trans-Slovenia-Express". The project was continued in 2005 with “Trans-Slovenia-Express Vol.2” (both CDs: Mute Records). Characteristic sequences in pieces of music like Jay-Z feat. Foxy Browns  - Sunshine (The Man-Machine) or Coldplays  - Talk (love of computers). In 2000 Uwe Schmidt, alias Señor Coconut, released the album El Baile Alemán , which reinterprets selected pieces from Kraftwerk as Latin versions.

Over the past few years, the Düsseldorf formation Kraftwerk has completed a remarkable process towards the postmodern total work of art. Starting with the exhibition of selected video projections in the Lenbachhaus in Munich (2011) through to retrospectives that have been shown since then. a. took place in MoMA New York, the London Tate Modern, the Burgtheater in Vienna or in the Berlin New National Gallery, Kraftwerk presented itself as an art object. By changing the platform from the concert stage to the museum, the band has once again proven their ability to set trends.

The title Radio von Rammstein , published in 2019, is a clearly recognizable homage to radioactivity . The accompanying music video also contains typical Kraftwerk motifs such as four musicians standing behind keyboards.


Ralf Hütter live at a power plant appearance ( Roskilde 2013)

Over time, Kraftwerk developed a catchy image concept that clearly set them apart from other electronically oriented rock and pop bands. The name already suggests the main theme of their songs, modern technology and their relationship with people. The album title Die Mensch-Maschine best describes their image. Kraftwerk countered the personality and star cult with the concept of depersonalization .

Ralf Hütter often describes himself as a music worker, the individual band members step back behind the image of the group as a system, as a machine. As an expression of this concept, one can see the group's habit from the second half of the 1970s onwards to have puppets and robots representing the band members photographed instead of the actual band members during press appearances. Even when performing live, the real musicians are partly replaced by the band robots. The band likes to play around with this “man-machine” image, which the various photos on the album covers and certain phrase-like statements made by the band members during interviews prove.

Another important factor is the fact that they are clearly committed to their German cultural identity right from the start and, unlike most other bands of the 1960s and 1970s, formulate their song titles in German. Later, however, they relaxed this principle somewhat and generally published their titles in several languages. Some songs were sung in two languages on Radio- Aktivity, and from Trans Europa Express onwards their albums were released in German and English with the exception of Tour de France soundtracks . When performing live outside of German-speaking countries, they occasionally sing in the language of their host country, including Japanese, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish and Russian.


“The living culture of Central Europe was cut in the '30s, and all the intellectuals went to the US or to France, or they were eliminated. We take back that culture of the '30s at the point where it was left, and this on a spiritual level […]. ”

“The living culture of Central Europe was cut short in the 1930s, and all the intellectuals went to the US or France, or they were eliminated. We take up this culture of the thirties at the point where it was abandoned, and this on a spiritual level. "

- Ralf Hütter : Interview with Rock & Folk Magazine, 1976


Kraftwerk has been suing the German start-up company Ezelleron since March 2015, which had brought out a mini fuel cell with the addition of “Kraftwerk”. An injunction in Germany has failed, the proceedings in the USA (as of 2015) are still open.


2013 in Düsseldorf


Early phase (not on CD)

Studio albums (official)


  • 2005: Minimum-Maximum (German and English edition; live album - 2 CDs or 4 LPs , 2 DVDs, special edition "Notebook", 2006 also 2 SACDs )
  • 2009: The Catalog (English edition: The Catalog ; box set of all 8 albums from Autobahn ; Remastered 2012)
  • 2017: 3-D The Catalog (LP, Download Card, CD, Blu-ray 3D, DVD)


  • Hannes Rossacher , Simon Witter: Kraftwerk - Pop Art. 57 minutes, HD, 16: 9, arte , September 14, 2013
  • Kraftwerk and the Electronic Revolution , United States, 2008, 180 min. Three-hour documentary, the first hour of which deals with the West German Krautrock scene of the 1960s and 1970s, the second hour the three early Krautrock albums by Kraftwerk ( Kraftwerk , Kraftwerk 2 and Ralf & Florian ) and the third is the band's albums from Autobahn .


  • Karl Bartos: The sound of the machine. Autobiography. Eichborn, Cologne 2017, ISBN 978-3-8479-0617-9 .
  • Peter Boettcher, Ralf Hütter: Robot Photography . Klingklang Konsum Produkt GmbH, Düsseldorf 2013, ISBN 978-3-9815685-0-9 (illustrated book for the photo exhibition in Düsseldorf 2013).
  • David Buckley: Kraftwerk: The Unauthorized Biography . In collaboration with Nigel Forrest. Metrolit, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0305-1 (English original edition: Kraftwerk. Publication. Omnibus Press, London 2012, ISBN 978-1-84772-931-6 ).
  • Pascal Bussy: power plant . Piper Verlag, 1996, ISBN 3-492-18408-1 .
  • Pascal Bussy: Neon Light - The Kraftwerk Story . Bosworth Music, 2006, ISBN 978-3-86543-261-2 .
  • Rüdiger Esch: Electri_City. Electronic music from Düsseldorf . Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-518-46464-9 .
  • Wolfgang Flür: I was a robot. My time as a drummer at Kraftwerk . Egmont Vgs, 2004, ISBN 3-8025-2926-X .
  • Ralf Hütter: 3-D power plant. Klingklang Konsum Produkt GmbH, Düsseldorf 2011, ISBN 978-3-00-035796-1 (illustrated book for the video installation of the same name in the art building in Munich).
  • Brigitte Hellgoth: power plant . MOJO, London 2012.
  • Philipp Holstein: The Power Plant Myth. The band, founded in 1970, has arrived at the museum: In January, the electronics pioneers give ten concerts in the NRW art collection. You can experience a group of artists who understand their songs as sculptures. In: Rheinische Post , 29./30. December 2012, p. B7.
  • Kraftwerk Songbook . 2008 (music book)
  • Uwe Schütte (Ed.): Man - Machines - Music. The total work of art Kraftwerk. CW Leske, Düsseldorf 2018, ISBN 978-3-946595-01-4 .
  • Alexander Simmeth: Krautrock transnational. The reinvention of pop music in Germany, 1968–1978 , Transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2016, ISBN 978-3-8376-3424-2 .

Web links

Commons : Kraftwerk  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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  2. a b c Power Plant Formations. In: Technopop Archives. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011 ; accessed on January 22, 2017 (English).
  3. Wolfgang Flür: I was a robot. My time as a drummer at Kraftwerk . Egmont Vgs, 2004, ISBN 3-8025-2926-X
  4. Karl Bartos: KARL BARTOS - Curriculum vitae Karl Bartos. In: karlbartos.com. Karl Bartos, 2016, accessed March 30, 2017 .
  5. Kiran Sande: Kraftwerk: It's More Fun To Compute. In: factmag.com. The Vinyl Factory, May 22, 2009, archived from the original on July 10, 2011 ; accessed on January 22, 2017 (English).
  6. Andreas Borcholte: Kraftwerk in Düsseldorf: The smile of the robot. In: Spiegel Online . January 12, 2013, accessed January 12, 2013.
  7. ^ Neil Strauss: Call Them the Beatles Of Electronic Dance Music. In: The New York Times . June 15, 1997, accessed January 22, 2017.
  8. Andriy Makukha: See them to believe it: why Kraftwerk is the world's most influential band. June 1, 2017, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  9. Tim Sommer: KRAFTWERK ARE MORE INFLUENTIAL THAN THE BEATLES. LET US EXPLAIN. September 26, 2017, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  10. ^ Jude Rodgers: Why Kraftwerk are still the world's most influential band. January 27, 2013, accessed May 12, 2020 .
  11. ^ Arno Frank : Kraftwerk - Music Non Stop. In: Arte magazine 9/2013. arte , August 30, 2013, archived from the original on September 11, 2013 ; accessed on January 22, 2017 .
  12. ^ Klaus Dinger: Kraftwerk drummer died. In: Focus Online . April 2, 2008, accessed January 22, 2017.
  13. Record of recoil gondolier on YouTube
  14. Power plant halved. In: Neue Ruhr Zeitung . Funke Mediengruppe , January 7, 2009, accessed January 22, 2017.
  15. ^ Matthias Mühling: Power plant. 3-D video installation. In: lenbachhaus.de. Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus , October 2011, accessed on January 22, 2017 .
  16. a b List of concerts. In: kraftwerk.com. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  17. ^ Diedrich Diederichsen: Power plant in New York. Pop wants to go to the art temple. In: Zeit Online . April 12, accessed January 22, 2017.
  18. ^ Archived concerts. In: kraftwerk.com. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
  19. "A Dream" - Kraftwerk made ten appearances. In: kunstsammlung.de. Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen , January 21, 2013, accessed on January 22, 2017.
  20. 3-D video installation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. In: spruethmagers.com. Sprüth Magers , July 2013, accessed January 22, 2017.
  21. Lifetime Achievement Award: Kraftwerk - A tribute to Germany's groundbreaking electronic / pop band. In: Grammy.com. January 14, 2014, accessed July 14, 2019 .
  22. Kraftwerk - The Catalog - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8th Wiener Festwochen , May 15, 2014, archived from the original on February 21, 2014 ; accessed on May 31, 2014 .
  23. Robots on racing machines . Spiegel Online , July 2017; Retrieved July 3, 2017.
  24. Electronic music: Kraftwerk wins a Grammy . In: The time . January 29, 2018, ISSN  0044-2070 ( zeit.de [accessed January 29, 2018]).
  25. European Space Agency: Good evening Kraftwerk, good evening Stuttgart! In: YouTube. July 21, 2018, accessed December 21, 2018 .
  26. ^ Uwe Schütte: Kraftwerk, DAF and electronic music from Düsseldorf. In: https://www.hsozkult.de/ . H-Soz-Kult, September 21, 2015, accessed December 16, 2019 .
  27. Alexander Esch: Beyond the star cult: The power plant mystery. In: wz-newsline.de. Westdeutsche Zeitung , January 11, 2013; Retrieved January 12, 2013.
  28. ^ Pascal Bussy: Kraftwerk. ISBN 3-492-18408-1 , p. 18, section 1, p. 35, section 3.
  29. Volker Briegleb: Pocket fuel cell: power plant wins against power plant. In: heise online Verlag Heinz Heise , April 24, 2015, accessed on April 24, 2015.
  30. Eriq Gardner: Kraftwerk Frontman Sues Over Electronic Charger Up on Kickstarter. In: The Hollywood Reporter . March 9, 2015, accessed April 28, 2018 .
  31. Homepage of the show. arte , September 14, 2013, archived from the original on September 16, 2013 ; accessed on January 22, 2017 .
  32. Philipp Holstein: Ready for the Museum: Myth Power Plant. In: Rheinische Post . December 30, 2012, accessed January 22, 2017.