|origin||Manchester , England|
|Genre (s)||Post punk|
|founding||1976 as Stiff Kittens
1977 as Warsaw
1978 as Joy Division
|Terry Mason (until 1976)|
Vocals , guitar
|Ian Curtis (from 1976)|
|Stephen Morris (from 1977)|
|Steve Brotherdale (1977)|
|Tony Tabac (1977)|
Joy Division was a post-punk band from Manchester formed by Peter Hook and Bernard Sumner in 1976. The band was announced at their first concert as Stiff Kittens , was temporarily active as Warsaw and renamed itself in 1978 to Joy Division . The band is considered one of the early protagonists of post-punk and a point of reference for subsequent developments, especially in pop , rock and metal . She is also considered to be a direct pioneer of the genres Dark Wave and Gothic Rock , to which the band is temporarily assigned. After the suicide of the singer Ian Curtis , Joy Division broke up and reorganized in 1980 as the New Order .
In 1976 Peter Hook , Bernard Sumner and Terry Mason formed a band after attending a Sex Pistols concert in Manchester in 1976, which initially remained unnamed. When it was founded, Sumner announced that the Sex Pistols had dismantled the myth of the pop star as a kind of god to be worshiped. His parents gave him a guitar for Christmas 1975, and Peter Hook volunteered to play bass. In their first line-up, the band rehearsed with Terry Mason as a singer, who switched to rhythm guitar and then drums after the first rehearsals . The band looked unsuccessfully for a new possible singer via an advertisement on the notice board of the local Virgin Records store . Initially, friends and acquaintances were tried out for the vacant position, but the search continued to fail. Meanwhile, due to a lack of talent, Terry Mason has also been fired as a drummer and initially appointed as a manager. So Joy Division temporarily consisted exclusively of Sumner and Hook and in the following weeks wore out various potential drummers.
Soon after, Ian Curtis joined the band. According to Peter Hook, the band members and Ian Curtis met a few times during this period, but did not speak or spoke very little. At the third Sex Pistols concert in Manchester in December 1976, however, the contact changed. Sumner and Hook became aware of him through the neon orange tag hate on Ian Curtis' jacket and a loose friendship developed. Ian Curtis had already founded a band himself by this time and was rehearsing under the name with drummer Martin Jackson, who would later be one of the founding members of Magazine , guitarist Iain Gray, a close friend, and with the later Morrissey bassist Richard Kedzior Wild ram . After the band split up, he joined the project that would become Joy Division. The exact circumstances of joining the band are not clearly understandable. Either he responded to another advertisement on Virgin Records or the entry resulted from a direct conversation between Curtis, Hook and Sumner at the Sex Pistols' fourth and final Manchester concert on December 19, 1976.
|Concerts as Warsaw|
In this constellation and still without a drummer, Pete Shelley of the Buzzcocks Hook and Sumner offered to play in the opening act of a concert of the Buzzcocks with the band Penetration on May 29, 1977 at Electric Circus . The musicians agreed and redecorated themselves to increase their recognition value. Peter Hook got himself a plastic cap, German military boots and grew a mustache, Sumner boy scout clothing. The band was also increasingly looking for a new drummer, whom they found in John 'Tony' Tabac a night or two before the concert. Around the same time, the Stiff Kittens were renamed Warsaw . Posters and leaflets for the concert were still printed by Buzzcocks manager Richard Boon using the old name, which led to lasting tensions between Warsaw and the Buzzcocks. Ian Curtis opened the evening with the announcement “We are not the Stiff Kittens. We are Warsaw. ”(Ian Curtis after Peter Hook) The concert was discussed by Paul Morley at the NME , who gave a positive impression. Two days later the band, this time properly advertised as Warsaw , played as the opening act for the Heartbreakers .
In the further course of 1977 Warsaw played a number of concerts, some of which appeared as the opening act of renowned bands. According to the music journalist Dave Thompson , she owed some of these appearances to her future producer Martin Hannett , who was involved with the booking agency Music Force in 1977 . According to Thompson, he is said to have seen Warsaw at their first concert and was taken with them. After Hook, Martin Hannett only saw Warsaw on October 7, 1977 when she performed at Salford College of Technology . Warsaw played the year with performances with the Drones , The Fall , The Negative , Generation X , The Worst , the Adverts and Slaughter & the Dogs , among others . The second appearance in the Squads on June 25, 1977 with The Worst was positively reviewed by Tony Moon in Sounds . Shortly after that performance, Tony Tabac was arrested for drug offenses and Warsaw was again left without a drummer. Five days later Steve Brotherdale took over the position of drummer, but could not fit into the social fabric of the band. Brotherdale held the position until he was poached by Rob Gretton for The Panik in late August .
In part, Warsaw's concerts were accompanied by riots. The first gig to escalate was a concert on June 30, 1977 at Rafters , Manchester, where a drunk Ian Curtis smashed the furniture of the place and rolled in pieces on the floor. Hook later interpreted the outbreak as a throwback to the Ian Curtis adored Iggy Pop . Further riots were justified by local rivalries between the bands and their friends and fans.
Warsaw played primarily in Manchester and hardly earned any money from their appearances. For this reason, at the time still with Steve Brotherdale, a first demo tape was recorded in the Pennine Sound Studios on July 18, 1977 to promote the band at concert promoters in other cities. The demo contained the tracks Inside the Line , Gutz for Garters , At a Later Date , The Kill and You're No Good for Me . The Kill and Inside the Line were written by Ian Curtis and the other three by Peter Hook. Terry Mason copied the demo tapes by placing two cassette recorders facing each other, recording background noise from the current television program and fragments from conversations with his mother. As a reaction to the band that was disturbed in this way, the group was rejected outright by the concert organizers who were contacted. It was only when Hook and Sumner checked the demo tape that the inadequate dubbing was noticed, and Mason was dismissed as manager and made a roadie . After that, the musicians shared the management tasks for the time being. New copies of the master tape were made and sent out as demos, and finally Warsaw was also booked. The original demo tape came out as a bootleg after Joy Division ended . The title The Kill was recorded again in the recording session for the Joy Division debut album Unknown Pleasures (1979), but not included on the album and only released in this version on the compilation Still in 1981 .
After the first concert outside of Manchester, Rob Gretton had recruited Steve Brotherdale to play drums and the band re-placed ads in music stores to replace him. Stephen Morris reacted to one of the advertisements and was hired after a prelude to Peter Hook and Bernard Sumner. Until the end of Joy Division, the band would continue to exist in this constellation. The second concert with Morris, on September 14, 1977 at the Rock Garden in Middlesbrough , was recorded by concert promoter Bob Last and later became a coveted collector's item as the only live bootleg from Warsaw. The next appearance took place as part of the Farewell Festival of the Electric Circus and was documented by Virgin Records . Warsaw opened the second day of the two-day festival. Due to a breakdown of the recording car, only the piece At A Later Day was recorded. The performance began when Bernard Sumner went to Ian Curtis' microphone with the words “You all forgot Rudolf Hess .” (Sumner after Hook). Some of the festival recordings were released as 10 " under the title Short Circuit: Live at the Electric Circus 1978. Warsaw had already renamed itself at this point and are also listed as Warsaw on the sampler.
Despite slowly increasing popularity as a live band, the band, according to Peter Hook, "was slowly getting fed up with it [...] not getting any further [.]" (Peter Hook) Ian Curtis in particular suffered from the standstill. As the manager of Warsaw, he finally made it possible to have a total of 1,000 copies of a single pressed for £ 600 and took out a loan to raise the amount. On December 14, 1977 No Love Lost , Leaders of Men , Failures and Warsaw were recorded. They were released as a 7 " EP called An Ideal for Living and under the name Joy Division on June 3, 1978. After the recording and before Bernard Sumner had designed a cover, Warsaw decided to change its name again. In In the meantime, the London punk band Warsaw Pact had hit the headlines with the record Needle Time , which was recorded, produced and released in 24 hours , which led to frequent mix-ups and made it difficult for the band under the name Warsaw to get performance opportunities after lengthy discussions about the name They made the move to Joy Division and on December 31, 1977 the band gave their last concert under the name Warsaw at The Swingin 'Apple in Liverpool .
1978: The beginning as Joy Division
First appearances and recordings as Joy Division
After their renaming in Joy Division , the band appeared on January 25, 1978 for the first time under the new name. The concert escalated into a mass brawl when friends of Peter Hook got into an argument and fought in front of the stage. After the evacuation by the bouncers, Joy Division played the concert to an end in front of an empty hall. In the following two months there was no performance for Joy Division, which is said to have been extremely frustrating for the musicians.
On April 14, 1978 the Stiff-Test / Chiswick-Challenge took place in the Rafters in Manchester. A large number of local bands wanted to use the talent competition to get contracts with the organizing record companies. Joy Division, who previously yanked Paul Morley and Kevin Cummins' art project The Negative off the stage, played last at 2:20 that night, despite trying to get an early performance time. The late appearance and the conflict with The Negative led to an aggressive mood. Ian Curtis got drunk that evening and verbally attacked Tony Wilson . The trigger was possibly that Joy Division has not yet been invited to appear on his TV show So it Goes . As a result of the argument, Tony Wilson initially promised Ian Curtis a feature in the near future, but was unable to keep his promise because the show was discontinued shortly afterwards. The appearance at the Stiff-Test / Chiswick-Challenge was positively discussed by Paul Morley in the NME, while it was treated as an Iggy-Pop imitation by Mick Wall in Sounds. Neither of the two organizing record companies responded with a contract offer. However, Tony Wilson and Rob Gretton became aware of Joy Division. Even before Wilson or Gretton contacted the band, Ian Curtis arranged a contract with the RCA . As a part-time job, he worked in the record store Rare Records , near the label's offices, and made contacts with employees, such as the manager Derek Brandwood. When Brandwood was asked by the RCA through American Swan Records to find a punk band that could record a cover version of the Northern soul piece Keep on Keepin 'On , he turned to Joy Division. The RCA claims that the condition for an album production should be a punk version of the N. F. Porter song . The studio recordings took place on May 3rd and 4th 1978 at Arrow Studios in Manchester. A total of eleven tracks were recorded for a debut album with John Anderson, including early versions of Shadowplay and Transmission . As a result, the musicians were dissatisfied, the production was characterized by discrepancies between the production team and the musicians, especially the synthesizers used and the suggestion to use a women's choir in Ice Age , were later also publicly criticized. Rob Gretton later bought the master tapes and the rights to the recordings and prevented a regular release. Nevertheless, there are a number of different bootlegs of the recording as a supposed Warsaw album, including recordings from the Warsaw demo tape.
Rob Gretton and Tony Wilson start working together
A few days after the recording, Rob Gretton spoke to Bernard Sumner and suggested that he take over the management of the band. Gretton's first actions as manager were to buy the master tapes for the single, reissue the single as a 12 "maxi single with altered artwork, get Ian Curtis' credit for the recordings, and buy the master tapes for the album from the RCA to get a release against the Will of the band to prevent. The already pressed 7 "s had poor sound quality due to the length of the recordings. The single was released on June 3, 1978 due to a distribution agreement, the 12 "maxi with a different cover motif on October 10, 1978. A week after the 7", the short-circuit sampler from Virgin Records was released . In the meantime, Rob Gretton provided the band with additional opportunities to perform and increased their popularity with possible promoters. In the second half of the year Joy Division appeared as opening act for Suicide , A Certain Ratio and Cabaret Voltaire, among others . Gretton convinced the musicians to join the Manchester Musicians' Collective (MMC), which gave them appearances in the Band on the Wall , in which the MMC organized monthly events. Tony Wilson, whose music show had recently been discontinued on local television, had taken over the management of The Durutti Column with Alan Erasmus, a band manager and actor, and had booked the Russell Club in Manchester for four Fridays within two months. Under the name Factory, the club was to serve mainly as a venue for local bands, especially The Durutti Column . In this context, Factory Records was founded by Wilson and Erasmus . Tony Wilson, who was enthusiastic about Joy Division and the An Ideal for Living EP, enabled the band through Rob Gretton to appear as the opening act for the Tiller Boys on May 9, the fourth evening of the first Factory series of concerts .
In May 1978, the musicians met the sound engineer Keith "Oz" McCormick at a concert that was arranged by their friends, Emergency . After appearing at the Mayflower , an evening that Peter Hook describes as the evening of the "very first all-machine-stopping moment" , McCormick stayed with the band and their follow-up project New Order as a live sound engineer throughout their career. Peter Hook describes the rehearsal of the track Transmission as the special moment , which led to the technicians, roadies and the two other bands playing in the evening abandoning their activities and only following the performance and the band.
In July 1978, Gretton and Curtis clashed over control of the band and expenses from the band's treasury after Gretton invested all of the band's money in a better PA system to perform in Band on the Wall . The conflict between the two "dominant personalities of the band" has continued on the basis of the economic management decisions made by Gretton, but has not resulted in any personnel consequences.
A factory sample
On September 20, Joy Division made its first television appearance on the regional news program Granada Reports and was featured in the program What's On . In accordance with the concept of the segment, Joy Division as a local band was recorded beforehand and, with the remaining airtime including an announcement by Tony Wilson, played with the piece Shadowplay .
Roger Eagle, the operator of Eric’s Liverpool club , in which Joy Division had already performed as Warsaw and with whom they were on friendly terms, suggested to Tony Wilson at that time a cooperation in order to bring out a sampler with regional bands. Since Wilson and Eagle could not agree on the format, Wilson decided to release A Factory Sample as a double 7 "together with the creative team of the Factory Club, Martin Hannett , Peter Saville and Alan Erasmus on Factory . Joy Division participated The collection was limited to 5,000 copies without a contractual agreement with Glass and Digital . Wilson paid for the recordings, but because there was no contractual agreement between Joy Division and Factory Records , Joy Division owned the rights to the recordings. Produced by Martin Hannett at Cargo Studios in October 1978 and mixed by John Brierley, the recordings mark the first collaboration between Joy Division and Hannett, who from then on produced most of the band's subsequent releases and which had a significant impact on the sound and meaning of the Music by Joy Division is said to be, Hannett, who will be involved in later productions nen Joy Division and especially Morris demanded intensely, implemented “simple” and “straightforward” recordings for A Factory Sample . A planned Christmas release was postponed after Peter Saville, also a Factory founding member, missed the design deadline . When Saville had completed the template and the rest of the performers represented on A Factory Sample had delivered their recordings, the compilation could appear in two tranches in January and February of the following year.
Appearance in London and Ian Curtis' first epileptic seizure
On December 27th, Joy Division performed for the first time in London. The band experienced the concert as a blatant failure. The evening was badly attended, the sound was called "terrible" by Peter Hook in retrospect. In addition, Bernard Sumner was seriously ill with the flu and was only willing to play the concert under pressure from the other band members. Sounds magazine printed a bad rating, Nick Tester described the band's music as "lame, dull and mediocre". On the way back, Ian Curtis suffered an epileptic seizure after an argument with Bernard Sumner over his sleeping bag. Morris, Sumner, and New Order's future guitarist and keyboardist Gillian Gilbert , who would be sitting in the car , stopped and laid Curtis on the shoulder until the seizure was over. They then took him to a nearby hospital. After initial medical attention and a referral to the family doctor, Ian Curtis was brought home by Stephen Morris and Gillian Gilbert. On January 23, 1979, after further examinations and seizures that occurred several times a week, he was diagnosed with epilepsy .
1979: Factory Records and Unknown Pleasures
(tour appearances as the opening act for the Buzzcocks in italics )
NME cover story and the first John Peel session
On January 6, 1979, the band met with Kevin Cummins for a photo session. The photos were used, among other things, for the cover of The Best Of Joy Division , published in 2008 - Joy Division can be seen from a distance on the snow-covered Epping Walk Bridge. A photo of Ian Curtis smoking, which graced the front page of the NME in January along with photos of Bob Last and Here and Now , and photos of the band leaning against the railing of the bridge and walking through the snow were also taken. The photos, along with those taken by Cummins in August and Anton Corbijn in November of the same year, are among the best known and contributed posthumously to the visual canonization and iconization of the band in pop culture . On January 13th, Joy Division was mentioned in a cover report by the NME on the current British alternative scene. A Factory Sample was released on January 26th, three days after Ian Curtis was diagnosed with epilepsy , and Joy Division performed at the Record Release Party with Cabaret Voltaire and John Dowie. In the meantime, Rob Gretton had quit his employment with an insurance company and got involved entirely as a manager, which, along with the EP remake of An Ideal for Living , helped to make the successes noticeable. So Gretton arranged the first peel session for January 31, 1979 . The appearance aired on BBC Radio 1 included Exercise One , Insight , She's Lost Control and Transmission . The recordings were released in 1986 as the first Peel Sessions EP on Strange Fruit and in 2000 with further radio and television recordings for The Complete BBC Recordings , also on Strange Fruit Records , as an album.
After their first appearance for John Peel and while Joy Division continued to play actively and productively, the search for a suitable label began. While the musicians initially preferred to relocate to London, Rob Gretton was convinced that the band should stay in Manchester. According to Peter Hook, Gretton put Joy Division under moral pressure to push through his ideas in the long term. Because of this motivation, Gretton negotiated with Tony Wilson about a possible album on Factory Records . Wilson and Gretton negotiated an equal-part contract with the label covering recording, production and copyright fees. By taking over the copyright fees, Factory ended up paying another eight percent of the band's revenues through the British Phonographic Industry . This modality arose from the lack of contract law knowledge on the part of the parties involved and led to ongoing debates between Gretton and Wilson.
Before signing a contract and after Tony Wilson made his offer to Joy Division, Rob Gretton explored other alternatives. Among other things, he received an offer for several albums from Genetic , a sub-label of the Warner Music Group at the time , which included an advance payment of 70,000 pounds. The band and manager got caught up in a dispute over the choice of contract - while Rob Gretton thought Factory's offer was the better deal in the long term, the musicians were primarily interested in focusing on the music by making the advance payment and terminating their respective employment contracts can. During this phase of the dispute, Genetic Joy Division invited to demo recordings that were to be produced by Martin Rushent , a producer, studio operator and label owner known in the punk scene. The band liked the prospect of working with Rushent, who had already produced the Stranglers and Buzzcocks, so the first demo recordings were agreed. On March 4, 1979, Glass , Transmission , Ice Age , Insight and Digital were recorded at Eden Studios in London. In these versions, they officially appeared for the first time in 1997 on the rarity CD of the Heart and Soul box set . The band ultimately chose Factory Records , both because of the financial conditions and the artistic freedom Tony Wilson had promised . Ten days after the recordings, Rob Gretton and Wilson signed a contract for an album.
Joy Division signed the contract with Factory in mid-March. In the weeks that followed, the band prepared for the recordings with rehearsals and performances. The concert at the Bowdon Vale Youth Club in Altrincham on March 14, 1979 during this period was partly filmed by Malcolm Whitehead and processed into a short film about Joy Division, which together with other short video recordings by Ludus and A Certain Ratio as The Factory Flick ( Factory FAC 9 1979) premiered on September 13th. The recordings were later illegally published several times as VHS, DVD or DVDr and officially as part of the video edition of the Substance compilation .
The album Unknown Pleasures was recorded and mixed at Strawberry Studios in Stockport from March 31st to May 2nd . Joy Division presented a potential selection of their pieces to Martin Hannett. Hannett selected a few of these to be recorded in the weeks that followed. He also encouraged the band to write more pieces in the studio. Thus arose From Safety to Where and Candidate during a short jam session by Stephen Morris and Peter Hook. Since the band had decided to sign a contract without an advance payment, which is why the musicians had to continue doing various work activities during the week, the album was recorded on a weekend from Friday evening to Monday morning. In the period around the recording of the album, decisive family events took place for Ian Curtis and Bernard Sumner, which, according to Sumner, had a direct influence on the atmosphere of the album. Bernard Sumner's stepfather had died of lung cancer in his sole presence a few weeks before the hospital admissions. Ian Curtis became a father on April 16. The musicians exchanged little about the events. Ian Curtis casually mentioned the birth of his daughter Natalie to Peter Hook. Ian Curtis had a laceration on his forehead at the time, which was due to either an epileptic fit, according to Deborah Curtis, or a fainting, according to Ian Curtis, according to Hook, during childbirth.
Contrary to the usual method of recording a band live in the studio at the time, Martin Hannett had the drums and vocals recorded separately after an initial joint recording in order to obtain the most isolated and clean sound possible for the two elements. He also fragmented the drum recording by having Stephen Morris dismantle the drum set and play each track separately so that they could be edited individually. In particular, the hall, which as Martin-Hannett-Hall is typical for the recordings he produces - a kind of practice room or bathroom hall - goes back to him. Tony Wilson gave Ian Curtis the requirement that he should listen to Frank Sinatra's Greatest Hits and adopt something of "Frank's lard in his vocal line". According to Peter Hook, isolated references in the lyrics, especially in I Remember Nothing , did not, however, transfer to Ian Curtis' singing style. After the band had recorded sixteen pieces over two weekends, they selected ten for the album, which were produced by Martin Hannett. Contrary to the band's earlier belief not to use keyboards, Hannett put a keyboard track over Day of the Lord . The use of a sampler in I Remember Nothing , however, went back to Bernard Sumner. Further innovations and sound experiments, such as the percussive use of a spray can in She's lost control or the guitar recorded backwards for Candidate , were again due to Martin Hannett. While Peter Hook and Benard Sumner disapproved of the mix as "weak" and "anemic", Curtis, Morris, Gretton and Wilson valued Hannett's product and overruled Hook and Sumner regarding their desire for a new mix. The remaining six recorded songs Autosuggestion , From Safety to Where , Exercise One , The Kill , The Only Mistake and Walked in Line were only distributed among the posthumous publications Still from 1981 and Substance from 1988.
For the design of the album, Bernard Sumner recommended Peter Saville an image of several radio pulses of the first discovered pulsar PSR B1919 + 21 , which he had discovered in the Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy . Saville used the photo as the central motif with inverted and reduced colors, whereby the outer shell was depicted in black and the image of the radio pulses in white. The picture was embossed over it, the name and title printed on the back in white letters along with the naming of the label and the catalog number. The inside of the cover was made in white as a contrast to the black outside. A grainy black and white photograph of a half-open door was printed on the inside left. On the opposite side, analogous to the outside, the title list, information on copyrights, the producer and the sound engineer ( liner notes ) followed.
Unknown Pleasures was published on June 14, 1979 in a first edition of 10,000 copies and with the catalog number FACT 10 . While the reviewers profusely provided the album with superlatives and described it as the most depressive, saddest and darkest album of all time, commercial success was slow. "[T] he NME called it an 'English rock masterpiece' and the Melody Maker one of the best debuts of the year." After initial teething problems, Factory sold about 15,000 copies in six months, making a profit of close to £ 50,000 in that period .
Before the album was released, Joy Division performed again and played a Piccadilly radio session on June 4th at Pennine Sound Studios in Oldham . The band played These Days , Candidate , The Only Mistake , for the first time the Atmosphere , then called Chance , and Atrocity Exhibition . An old home organ that Sumner had discovered at his grandmother's was used at Chance . Vini Reilly of The Durutti Column accidentally destroyed the organ while it was being set up for the concert with Orchestral Maneuvers in the Dark and Joy Division at the F-Club in Leeds, making the Piccadilly Radio Session recordings the only ones that contain organ sounds necessary for the piece were intended in the official version. The recordings were published several times as part of various bootlegs and officially released in 1997 as part of the Heart and Soul box set.
Following the release of the debut, Joy Division opened up for The Cure and John Cooper Clarke and prepared the recordings for the Transmission single. After repeatedly impressing audiences at concerts, the band decided to release it as a single. First demos were recorded on July 1st at Central Sound Studios in Manchester. Martin Hannett was again responsible for production. None of the recorded Transmission , Novelty , Dead Souls and Something Must Break were released for the time being - versions of Dead Souls and Something Must Break only appeared on Heart and Soul (1997) . Like most unpublished recordings, the demos of the first transmission session were released several times as bootlegs. From July 28th to August 4th the single was recorded at Strawberry Studios in Stockport, producer was again Martin Hannett. Rob Gretton chose Novelty as his second piece. The single, released on October 7th and designed by Peter Saville, is labeled with lines from She's Lost Control : “And how I'll never know” for the A-side ( transmission ) and “Just why or understand” for the B-side ( Novelty ). Saville used an image of the 1980 NGC from the Orion without annotations or edits for the front cover. Volume name, title and catalog number are on the back, which is illustrated with the post-processed image of a similar nebula . Tony Wilson tried to send it to different radio stations in the hope that they would play the piece more often because of the chorus "Dance, Dance, Dance to the Radio". However, Gretton and Hannett spoke out against such a promotion of the single because it did not correspond to the philosophy of the label.
Between the first demo recording and the publication of Transmission , Joy Division appeared again on television, along with a few concerts and festivals. Her second television appearance took place on 20 July in the Granada Television telecast What's On instead. Joy Division played She's Lost Control during the credits.
On August 13, the band performed in the Nashville Room in London with OMD and A Certain Ratio. The concert was extremely successful; for the first time in her career the audience sang along with the lyrics. On the evening of the concert, the music journalist Annik Honoré introduced herself and arranged an interview with Rob Gretton for the Belgian fanzine En Attendant on August 24th . On the way home from the concert, Peter Hook, who was driving one of the two minibuses, fell asleep while driving. The already damaged and very slow bus was rammed by a truck at around 110 km / h. The rear axle was broken, the rear door was dented. Parts of the band equipment were damaged in the impact and thrown out of the vehicle. Hook and Terry Mason, who was also on the bus, survived the accident with only minor injuries. From this point on, the band used a rental bus that was driven by one of the crew members. Following the concert on August 24th at the Walthamstow Youth Center in London, the band Annik Honoré gave an interview in the apartment of roadie David Pils, where she and Ian Curtis met. An intense bond developed between the two of them by the beginning of 1980, but according to Peter Hook the relationship remained platonic.
With the critically acclaimed album and the prospect of the upcoming Transmission single, the interest of the music press increased. Rob Gretton, who was strictly against interviews, admonished Bernard Sumner and Peter Hook, who often enjoyed themselves at the expense of their interlocutors, not to talk to the press and to let Ian Curtis and Stephen Morris do the talking. Tony Wilson, however, encouraged the band to behave inappropriately. The band used a taciturn interview style, which resulted in "a mysterious aura surrounding the band."
Joy Division made their first and only national television appearance on September 15 on the BBC 2's Something Else . Rob Gretton redesigned the band for the performance and had a backdrop made with the motif of the Unknown Pleasures LP for £ 100 . Were played Transmission and She's Lost Control . The recording was officially released on the compilation The Complete BBC Recordings in 2000 and on the Best Of in 2008 . Bootlegs containing the recordings were already in circulation beforehand.
As part of the Factory concert evenings in the Russels Club , Joy Division performed a performance on September 28th that was to have a lasting effect on the band's reputation. After the sound check, Hook went to a nearby pub with roadie Carl Twinny Bellingham and a friend of Bernard Sumner's to get Sumner's friend drunk. However, he kept swapping the glasses, causing Peter Hook and Bellingham to get drunk. Meanwhile, Ian Curtis had an epileptic fit in the cloakroom. On stage, Peter Hook then increased the tempo of the pieces to animate the audience. A large pogo dancing group had formed in front of the stage . Out of the group, an obvious fan who did not participate in the pogo and sang along with the songs was knocked to the ground. Peter Hook wanted to jump off the stage to attack the attacker, but fell to the ground and was physically attacked himself. Carl Bellingham rushed to Hook's aid, and together the two attacked a bystander, believing they were attacking an attacker. After the situation was resolved by the intervention of other spectators, Hook climbed back on stage and verbally addressed the other band members. The argument then continued in the band's dressing room. Only in a band meeting the next day did he realize the extent of his derailment. Since that concert, Peter Hook has often been provoked by the audience and involved in brawls. Due to the recurring escalations, Joy Division had a reputation for violence.
Light and Blindness and Closer
In January 1980, Joy Division set out on a month-long European tour with concerts in the Netherlands , Belgium and Germany , in Germany in front of 150 spectators in the Basement in Cologne and in the Kantkino, Berlin . In March 1980 the single light and blindness with the songs Atmosphere and Dead Souls was released. In April Love Will Tear Us Apart was released , which - like all previous publications - initially remained without any notable commercial success. Also in March, the recordings for the second album Closer , again produced by Martin Hannett and designed by Peter Saville , took place in the Britannia Row Studios in London . In addition, an America tour was planned for early summer.
The end of Joy Division came abruptly when Ian Curtis hanged himself at his home in Macclesfield, near Manchester, in May 1980, two days before the planned American tour . Motives for his act can be suspected in his illness or in the personal environment. The epilepsy had become more acute in the past few weeks, and the seizures were often misinterpreted at concerts as a special contribution. Curtis also increasingly suffered from the pressure of having to keep Factory Records alive practically alone with Joy Division. In addition, he had apparently estranged himself from his wife - their daughter Natalie was one year old at the time - and had a very close, if platonic, as they say, relationship with the journalist Annik Honoré, but under no circumstances wanted to meet divorce.
The single Love Will Tear Us Apart was re-released after Ian Curtis' death in June 1980. She is the best known example of Joy Division's musical expressiveness. In July 1980 the LP Closer was released , the release of which was originally scheduled for May 1980, after Ian Curtis' death. The album was a considerable commercial success and is mostly celebrated as the high point of Joy Division's oeuvre due to its stylistic diversity and the more mature playing technique.
New Order tried a short time, the typical Curtis, deep shaped frame vocal style, so on the subsequent New Order Single Album Ceremony , but soon freed himself from the typical Joy Division sound and found, supplemented by the guitarist and keyboardist Gillian Gilbert to her own, more synthesized style.
The band sound of Joy Division, which is mostly referred to, only developed over time. The first concerts as well as the demo recording as Warsaw are decidedly subordinate to punk rock . Peter Hook also described You're No Good for Me as a bad copy of the Buzzcocks. The band played mostly fast songs that Ian Curtis screamed more than sang to. His later formative baritone was not yet sufficiently developed at this point. Ian Curtis only got into his typical singing style when the band was rehearsing at Big Alex - a warehouse where “twelve bands were practicing at the same time [...]. To compete, Ian had the WEM PA buy. "(Hook) After Curtis had invested in a more powerful amplifier, it was singing and speaking drown out the music volume at the same time rehearsing bands and keep the volume of their own band. During a rehearsal, Terry Mason tried to plug his guitar into Curtis' amplifier because he had no amplifier and Ian Curtis was not singing. The amplifier distorted the guitar sound and Bernard Sumner continued to use the amplifier as a result. The resulting bright distortion became part of the tape sound. Joy Division also found their real sound with Stephen Morris' addition. Peter Hook describes Stephen Morris' drumming as powerful and structured. While other drummers simply "hammered", Morris "played" the instrument. "You could tell that he had played in a jazz trio because it was as if he somehow combined the feeling and complexity of jazz with the power and energy of rock and punk." (Hook) Bernard Sumner, on the other hand, had a more passive one Introducing Morris' drumming. Mainly Stephen Morris should react and follow the rhythm of the band, while Peter Hook would lead the melody of the pieces and he himself would rather play rhythms and chords. According to Hook, the special sound of Joy Division was also formulated through Bernard Sumner's playful economy. Bernard Sumner is occasionally credited with the role of the band's musical mastermind by outsiders. Peter Hook, on the other hand, describes Ian Curtis as the one who defined the sound of the band. The typical guitar and bass sound, as well as Curtis' vocals, was shaped by technical requirements. The amplifier used by Sumner only achieved the distortion he wanted when he played it particularly loud. For this reason, Peter Hook should buy a new speaker for his Sound City amplifier, which then again did not harmonize with the lower frequencies. Hook, who refused to follow a guitar melody, consequently specialized in high notes in the rehearsal room. The new idea of the band sound was taken up by Ian Curtis: Hook should play high notes, Sumner barre chords and Morris "jungle drums".
Simon Reynolds describes the effect of the early Joy Division as "in the ears of most contemporaries like a hard rock band influenced by punk [...]" (Simon Reynolds) However, a "metallic shimmering otherness" can be heard - a reference that Reynolds both literally, as well as in relation to Black Sabbath . He compares the digital with paranoid , but sees different and “less clumsy” points of contact in the music and lyrics by Joy Division. Hook attributes the attempt of the band to break free from punk, like the renaming of Stiff Kittens to Warsaw , to riots during and after the last Manchester concert of the Sex Pistols.
"When the football fans show up - the assholes who just want to spit and toss bottles - it's time to move on, and people like the Buzzcocks and then we, Magazine, The Fall and Cabaret Voltaire finally found a way forward."
Following Jon Savage , Joy Division didn't play punk but were directly inspired by the energy of punk. Simon Reynolds points out in this context that the originality of the band only became apparent when they reduced the tempo.
“Minus the fast, distorted punk sound, the music sounded sparse and simple. Hook's bass carries the melody, Sumner's guitar leaves gaps instead of filling the mix with dense riffs, and Steve Morris' drums seem to trace the edge of a crater. Curtis sings from a 'lonely place' in the center of this empty space. "
Carsten Heinze attributes the band an "innovative style that expressed the melancholy and depressing attitude towards life of an entire generation". The music is an idiosyncratic mixture of metallic, monotonous and gloomy soundscapes carried by the hypnotic voice of its singer. Heinze also speaks out against the later retrospectively assigned culture and genre classifications, as “in no way doing justice to the band's origin and history”. With that he means the assignment of the band to Gothic . Nevertheless, Joy Division are counted among the most important pioneers in this genre.
The music of Joy Division has an important place in the history of pop and rock music and has influenced many other bands . Music journalist Dave Thompson calls the band one of the most acclaimed and influential bands of their time.
Joy Division is said to have had a lasting influence on the creation of New Wave , Cold Wave , Gothic Rock and Dark Wave . The band's style is still often adapted in the context of these genres, in particular Ian Curtis' vocals and Peter Hook's bass playing continued to flow into the sound of many Gothic interpreters. Nevertheless, Joy Division is regarded as a “singular phenomenon” that is independent of these areas. Simon Reynolds sees some of the early Gothic bands as a direct successor to the band. In France, Joy Division's albums laid the foundation for the cold wave movement, from which numerous bands emerged in the early 1980s. In German-speaking countries, the band influenced - in addition to the genres already mentioned - bands such as EA80 , Grauzone and Phillip Boa . In this way, Joy Division are generally considered to be a style-defining factor for the New Wave and its German variety, the Neue Deutsche Welle .
The band is also an inspiration for countless other bands. Her influence on Moby , Depeche Mode , U2 , The Chemical Brothers , The Cure , the Swans , the Nine Inch Nails , Nirvana and The Rapture is attributed to her. In addition to numerous other performers, Joy Division influenced a number of new post-punk bands in the early 2000s, which "clearly referred to them in their outward forms of expression and clothing". Interpol , the Editors and The National were especially highlighted . Many of the post-rock bands, especially Mogwai , who have been active since the mid-1990s , cite Joy Division as one of their main musical inspirations.
Post-metal bands like Neurosis , Year of No Light , Cult of Luna , Dirge and Tephra also refer to Joy Division. The influence of Joy Division can also be seen in bands from the post-black metal environment, for example the Amesoeurs , Joyless , Circle of Ouroborus or Lifelover .
The name Stiff Kittens was suggested by the Buzzcocks manager Richard Boon. Shortly after Ian Curtis' entry, however, the band members found the name "too much 'cartoon punk'" (Peter Hook) and looked for another.
Peter Hook, according to the decision was the name of Warsaw "much easier than all the name changes that were to follow." The band slightly, the band chose the name because it "sounded cold and hard." As an alternative would only Berlin stood for election , but the piece Warszawa from David Bowie's album Low ultimately made the decision because all the musicians in the band liked this piece. The rival band Warsaw Pact , who released their album Needle Time in record time in November 1977 , achieved enough fame at short notice to unintentionally deprive Warsaw of the opportunity to book concerts. The bands were constantly mixed up and Warsaw was rejected as a potential live band.
Joy Division was based on the novel The House of Dolls by Yehiel Feiner , which is written in German as Höllenfahrt (Gerlingen, 1980), Das Haus der Puppen (Paris, 1960; Munich, 1995), Nazi dolls house and joy department! (Paris, 1960) was chosen. The suggestion to name the band Joy Division came from Ian Curtis. Curtis had read the book and used excerpts from it in No Love Lost . He also gave the other band members the book to read. Alternatives were Slaves of Venus and Boys in Bondage . Joy Division was the name given in the book to groups of Jewish women "who had to be sexually available to Nazi soldiers in concentration camps." (Peter Hook) Hook and Morris raised the identification with the victims of fascism as defining the naming emerged.
“It was the oppressed, not the oppressor. Which, in a punk, 'no-future' way, was exactly what we wanted to express with the name. It was a bit like Slaves of Venus , just not that shit. "
Similar to the industrial band Throbbing Gristle , which was one of the influences and friends of Joy Division, “experimented” with Nazi aesthetics or similar designs on record covers and in booklets ( An Ideal for Living ) and at concerts. The An-Ideal-for-Living -7 "originally appeared with one of Bernard Sumner drawn, Hitler Youth as a cover motif, adapted the Sumner from a Hitler Youth poster, self-published. The remainder of the single was released on June 3. On October 10, In 1978 the single was reissued, this time as 12 " with scaffolding as the cover motif. Rob Gretton arranged for the design to be changed to break away from the band's Nazi image. In June, An Ideal for Living was discussed in Sounds Magazine under the title “Not another fascism-for-fun-and-greed-mob” (Sounds). On June 9, 1978, one week after the release of the 7 "single, the short-circuit sampler from Virgin Records appeared , on which Sumner's Hess call can be heard before the recording of At a Later Date . The one after a prostitute -Riege in a German concentration camp , chosen name conditional allegations because of an alleged intellectual closeness to National Socialism . The harsh sound of Bernard Sumner's German pseudonym Albrecht also contributed to discussions about the political orientation. Also that early songs like Walked in Line , den Fascism was a direct theme of the band's controversy, and the soundtrack of their appearance in the Malcolm Whitehead- made label video A Factory Flick includes a speech by the Manchester Police Chief about setting up labor camps for the many Unemployed people in the city, followed by roaring Nazi slogans by German SS men. The title of the first single An Ideal for Living weck also had corresponding associations. Meanwhile, Peter Hook explained the Nazi aesthetic in part as a fascination and general fixation on war that had previously been provocatively taken up by Sex Pistols , Siouxsie and the Banshees, and Throbbing Gristle.
- 1979: Unknown Pleasures ( Factory Records : LP, MC)
- 1980: Closer (Factory Records: LP, MC)
- Deborah Curtis: Touching From a Distance - Ian Curtis & Joy Division . Faber & Faber, London 1995.
- German: From afar ... - Ian Curtis and Joy Division . Die Gestalten Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-931126-02-1 .
- Ian Curtis: So This Is Permanence. Joy Division Lyrics and Notebooks. Edited by Deborah Curtis and Jon Savage . Faber & Faber, London 2014, ISBN 978-0-571-30955-9 .
- German: “So this is permanence. Joy Division; Lyrics and Notes ”. Translated by Jan Böttcher. Rowohlt Verlag , Reinbek 2015, ISBN 978-3-498-00805-5 .
- Peter Hook: Unknown pleasures: Inside Joy Division . Simon & Schuster, New York and London 2012, ISBN 978-0-85720-216-1 .
- German: Unknown Pleasures - The Joy Division Story. Metrolit 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 .
- Mick Middles: From Joy Division to New Order: The True Story of Anthony H. Wilson and Factory Records . Virgin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-7535-0638-6 (English).
- Mick Middles and Lindsay Reade: Torn Apart. The Life of Ian Curtis . Omnibus Press, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84609-754-6 (English).
- Paul Morley : Joy Division: Piece by Piece. Writing about Joy Division, 1977-2007 . Plexus, London 2007, ISBN 978-0-85965-404-3 .
- Horst Puschmann: Joy Division - INsideOUT . Sonnentanz-Verlag Roland Kron, Augsburg 1992, ISBN 3-926794-09-7 .
- Jon Savage: This searing light, the sun and everything else: Joy Division: The Oral History . Faber & Faber, London 2019, ISBN 978-0-571-34537-3 (English).
- German: Searing light, the sun and everything else. The story of Joy Division. Heyne, Munich 2020, ISBN 978-3-453-27251-4 .
- Bernard Sumner: Chapter and Verse: New Order, Joy Division and Me . Bantam, New York 2013, ISBN 978-0-593-07317-9 .
- German: New Order, Joy Division and me: The autobiography . Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2015, ISBN 978-3-85445-471-7 .
- 24 Hour Party People (UK / France / Netherlands, 2002, directed by Michael Winterbottom )
- The Dutch photographer and filmmaker Anton Corbijn published the film Control about Joy Division and Ian Curtis in 2007 as a film adaptation of the biography Touching From a Distance by Deborah Curtis (German translation from afar ).
- In early November 2007, a second film was premiered, dealing with Joy Division. The director Grant Gee, known from other documentaries ( Radiohead ), sees his film as a complement to Control. The films have to do with each other in that the work on Control for Gee gave the reason to approach the band members with the intention that they should now (finally) break their decades of silence. Gee's film is simply called Joy Division .
- Appearances in B-Movie: Lust & Sound in West Berlin 1979–1989 (2015), a documentary with Mark Reeder , Jörg A. Hoppe , Klaus Maeck , Heiko Lange and Alexander von Sturmfeder
- ^ A b c Jon Savage: Joy Division: Someone Take These Dreams Away . In: Rock Mojo . tape 7/1994 , 1994.
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Is that a bass guitar ?, p. 60 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 67 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was one of us, p. 71 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 68 f .
- ↑ Shelly Guild: MANCHESTER - SO MUCH TO ANSWER FOR RICHARD KEDZIOR CHATS ABOUT THE EARLY PUNK SCENE - INTERVIEW BY SHELLEY. Mudkiss Fanzine, accessed July 22, 2015 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , There is nothing that suits us less than a battle with wet towels, p. 76 ff .
- ↑ a b Dave Thompson: Shadow World . Heroes and legends of Gothic Rock. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , Do you remember Rudolf Hess ?, p. 56 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , There is nothing that suits us less than a battle with wet towels, p. 77 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , There is nothing that suits us less than a battle with wet towels, p. 77 ff .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Apart from the fact that you got a pint cup in your face every now and then, it was a good concert, p. 95 .
- ^ A b c Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Chronicle 2, p. 111 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was one of us, p. 82 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , These assholes showed us the stinky finger, p. 83 ff .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , These assholes showed us the stinky finger, p. 87 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , These assholes showed us the stinky finger, p. 86 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , These assholes showed us the stinky finger, p. 88 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Apart from the fact that you got a pint cup in your face every now and then, it was a good concert, p. 92 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Apart from the fact that you got a pint cup in your face every now and then, it was a good concert, p. 94 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Even the shitty ones were pretty good, p. 96 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Even the shitty ones were pretty good, p. 96 f .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , I explained to him exactly where to put his vibrators, p. 102 f .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Prolog, p. 13 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , it was like X Factor for punks, p. 124 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , it was like X Factor for punks, p. 126 ff .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi artwork, p. 130 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Chronicle 3, p. 157 ff .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 131 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 132 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 135 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 136 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 139 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 144 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , We must get rid of the Nazi Artowork, p. 145 f .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , The biggest spit storm I've seen in my life, p. 151 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Chronicle 3, p. 164 .
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Chronik 4, p. 249 ff .
- ↑ a b Kevin Cummins: Beautiful Joy Division shots from Kevin Cummins' new Exhibition. NME, accessed August 10, 2016 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Peter fell off his chair again, p. 168 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Fuck. Martin has the trunk full of stolen car radios, p. 174 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Fuck. Martin has the trunk full of stolen car radios, p. 175 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , It sounds like a damn helicopter, p. 178 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was looking for this igniting spark, p. 185 .
- ↑ Bernard Sumner: New Order, joy and Division I . Hannibal, Höfen 2015, ISBN 978-0-593-07317-9 , pp. 128 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Not that I would change anything, p. 194 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was looking for this igniting spark, p. 184 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was looking for this igniting spark, p. 183 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Unknown Pleasures, p. 237 ff .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was looking for this igniting spark, p. 189 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , He was looking for this igniting spark, p. 190 .
- ↑ Peter Saville: Unknown Pleasures . Factory Records, Manchester 1979.
- ↑ Dave Thompson: Shadow World . Heroes and legends of Gothic Rock. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , p. 68 f .
- ^ A b c Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Not that I would change anything, p. 193 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , it turned out to be horse meat, p. 225 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Not that I would change anything, p. 199 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Not that I would change anything, p. 206 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , you shouldn't believe a word, p. 207 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Not that I would change anything, p. 197 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , you shouldn't believe a word, p. 209 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , you shouldn't believe a word, p. 213 .
- ↑ Michael Kloft: Intermediate realm of post-punk. one day / Spiegel Online , January 14, 2010, accessed on August 6, 2010 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 70 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 73 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 72 f .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , These assholes showed us the stinky finger, p. 73 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , I explained to him exactly where to put his vibrators, p. 105 .
- ^ Paul Lester: It felt like someone had ripped out my heart. The Guardian, accessed July 31, 2015 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , I explained to him exactly where to put his vibrators, p. 106 .
- ↑ Simon Reynolds: Rip It Up And Start Again . Hannibal-Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-85445-270-6 , Just Step Sideways, p. 200 .
- ^ Deborah Curtis: Touching from a Distance: Ian Curtis and Joy Division . Faber, London 1995, ISBN 0-571-17445-0 , Foreword by Jon Savage, p. IX – XVI here IX .
- ↑ a b Simon Reynolds: Rip It Up And Start Again . Hannibal-Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-85445-270-6 , Just Step Sideways, p. 201 .
- ↑ a b c Carsten Heinze: Joy Division . In: Rock and Pop in the Movies . No. 1 , 2011, ISSN 2193-3901 , p. 158 .
- ↑ Dave Thompson: Shadow World . Heroes and legends of Gothic Rock. Hannibal Verlag, Höfen 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , The collective term "Goth", p. 19 .
- ↑ a b Dave Thompson: Alternative Rock . Third Ear - The Essential Listening Companion. Miller Freeman Books, 2000, ISBN 978-0-87930-607-6 , Joy Division, pp. 439-441 .
- ↑ Simon Reynolds: Rip It Up And Start Again . Hannibal-Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-85445-270-6 , Dark Things, p. 433 .
- ↑ Simon Reynolds: Rip It Up And Start Again . Hannibal-Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-85445-270-6 , Dark Things, p. 430 .
- ^ Dominik Oswald: German punk. An inventory. The Gap, accessed February 13, 2014 .
- ↑ Samuel Mumenthaler: 50 years of Berner Rock . Ed .: Berner Zeitung. June 15, 2008.
- ↑ Phillip Boa and the Voodoo Club. (No longer available online.) Little Death, archived from the original on March 4, 2016 ; accessed on November 30, 2015 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Marcus Maeder: More than polar bears: Electronic music in Switzerland. norient, accessed November 30, 2015 .
- ↑ Chris Weiss: Shades of Black . In: Musikexpress . Dec13, No. 696 , 2013, ISSN 1618-5129 , p. 40 .
- ↑ Simon Reynolds: Music to Brood by, Desolate and Stark. NYTimes.com, accessed July 29, 2015 .
- ^ Carsten Heinze: Joy Division . In: Rock and Pop in the Movies . tape 1/2011 , no. 1 , 2011, ISSN 2193-3901 , p. 159 .
- ↑ Joachim Hiller: Rock Action Heroes. Ox fanzine, accessed July 30, 2015 .
- ↑ Leah Sottile: "What Are We to the Stars?": Neurosis Steve Von Till Gets Deep on the Majestic Splendor of Idaho. Noisey / VICE , accessed July 29, 2015 .
- ↑ Alexander Eitner: INTERVIEWS :: Mathieu, Johan & Pierre from Year Of No Light. metalnews, accessed July 29, 2015 .
- ↑ Evil Dr. Smith: Cult of Loonie Tunes. lordsofmetal.nl, accessed on July 29, 2015 .
- ↑ Captain Chaos: DIRGE: Acoustic natural events. Vampster, accessed July 30, 2015 .
- ↑ Lars Heitmann: Tephra Interview. metalinside.de, accessed on July 29, 2015 .
- ↑ Captain Chaos: AMESOEURS: Amesoeurs. Retrieved April 14, 2016 .
- ↑ Taakefrost Reviews - Section J - Joyless / Wild Signs Of The Endtimes. taakefrost.de, archived from the original on September 12, 2012 ; Retrieved August 6, 2010 .
- ↑ a b Robert Müller: The dead angle. Hearing with pain . In: Metal Hammer . November 2009, 2009, p. 93 .
- ↑ Dominik T .: NONPOP> LIFELOVER: Powder (review) - Black Metal with a difference. nonpop.de, accessed on August 6, 2010 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Is that a bass guitar ?, p. 64 .
- ↑ Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , he was just a boy with a "hatred" on the back of his jacket, p. 70 .
- ^ A b c Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , Prolog, p. 13 .
- ↑ Dave Thompson, Kirsten Borchardt: Shadow World - Heroes and Legends of Gothic Rock . Hannibal, 2004, ISBN 3-85445-236-5 , pp. 56 .
- ^ A b Peter Hook: Unknown Pleasures . Metrolit, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-8493-0064-7 , I explained to him exactly where to put his vibrators, p. 104 f .
- ↑ Chris Weiss: Playing with fire . In: Musikexpress . Dec13, No. 696 , 2013, ISSN 1618-5129 , p. 41 .
- ^ Joy Division premieres @ Doc Fest. BBC, November 20, 2007, accessed August 6, 2010 .