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A bootleg is a sound recording or film , the distribution of which has not been authorized by the rights holder . Most of these are recordings that were made at concerts - unauthorized compilations are also sold as bootlegs. Bootlegs are works that are sometimes confused with bootlegs - that in the areas of copies piracy and bootleg fall. Bootlegs are mostly not authorized, but there are also authorized recordings .


The word bootleg is derived from the English bootleg boot shaft. During Prohibition in the United States, alcohol bottles were smuggled across the border in bootlegs, which gave rise to the secondary meaning to bootleg smuggling.

In contrast to CDs you have burned yourself or audio files downloaded from the Internet, a bootleg is actually an industrially produced sound carrier that is sold to the public or a concert recording that is exchanged with other collectors.

The field of so-called black pressings is very extensive and not easy to define due to the still not entirely clear legal situation. A general distinction is made between bootleg , counterfeit and pirate pressing . The Counterfeit is an illegal copy of an officially released record, such as Снова в СССР , an LP by Paul McCartney , which was first released in the Soviet Union. Pirates are also reprints of officially released records, but no value is placed on an appearance true to the original, as was the case with some Jimi Hendrix LPs, for example . Since the beginning of the 1990s, Schutzlückenbootleg has primarily been used to refer to live and studio releases that were brought onto the market by gaps in the law by the record companies and artists with full payment of the licenses to Gema , for example the Beatles box from Tchibo or the Live & Alive or Live USA releases from Imtrat. The industry only succeeded in legal action when two performers, Phil Collins and Cliff Richard , sued for not having a say in these publications. The versions that appear in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia , often negligently produced, are difficult to fit into the grid because they are usually licensed.

The acronym RoIO , optionally for Recording of Indeterminate / Independent / Illegitimate Origin , is also used. In the electronic dance music scene , a bootleg is a remix that was created without permission or licensing. As a clear copyright infringement, these cannot be legally bought or sold.


Since it was possible to burn CDs yourself , bootlegs and the industry behind them have lost their importance, but for some years now, bootleg CDs and LPs have been increasingly offered again. The French bootleg label Verne Records has been particularly active since 2013, releasing around 60 different bootleg LPs by 2017.


The history of unauthorized recordings began with the advent of the phonograph cylinder as a recording medium. The Canadian magazine Hot Wacks mentions in supplement 7 (Supplement 7) on page 3 in the article A History Of Bootleg Recordings the librarian of the Metropolitan Opera Lionel Mapleson as the unwanted originator of the bootleg. Thomas Alva Edison , with whom he was friends, gave him one of the phonographs he had invented. Despite the great limitations of the device (apart from the enormous distance to the stage), the cylinders only ran for a few minutes, which made recording entire arias practically impossible. In the period from 1901 to 1903, the opera fan managed to put together an astonishing number of unique historical recordings, including artists from whom no sound recordings have otherwise been preserved, such as Jean de Reszke . The extensive accompanying texts for the plates (English: Liner Notes ) also appeared first on bootlegs.

In 1969 they began recording blues and jazz musicians in small clubs and selling these recordings as bootlegs, but only with moderate success, the hoped-for big business with bootlegs failed to materialize. The heyday of bootlegs only began with the advent of rock music. The first bootleg of note was Great White Wonder, which contained recordings by Bob Dylan from December 1961 (Minnesola Tapes) and April 1967 (Basement Tapes) and was released in July 1969. This bootleg is said to have sold over 350,000 copies. Columbia Records released a remastered version of the bootleg in 1975 , which included parts of the basement tapes , to curb the bootlegging of these recordings. In 1971 the first bootleg labels in America came onto the market, Dittolino Disk (USA 1971–1973) and Kink Kong Records (USA 1971–1974); they were followed by the European labels Fruit End Production (Germany 1976–1978), Stoned Records (Sweden 1977) and the Japanese labels OG Records (1975) and LLX (1976). Soon afterwards, a few hundred labels appeared that stayed more or less long in the scene. Only a few of them later had a certain name among collectors.

As a rule, the circulation of bootlegs was 1,000 in the USA , 500 to 1,000 in Europe and a few hundred in Japan . But there were also limited editions of 30 to 500 pieces, which were often only released as multi-colored vinyl records or which had the purpose of increasing the collector's value . Some of these editions actually have a high collector's value today. In 1988 the first bootleg CDs were released (Swingin 'Pig - Ultra Rare Tacks Vol 1 & 2) , of which the Ultra Rare Tacks Volume 1–6 by The Beatles ( Swingin' Pig ) and Dallas '75 Volume 1 & 2 by Led Zeppelin (TWR Toasted / Condor) received special attention. The appearance and sound quality of the CDs corresponded to those of the regularly available compact discs. In 1990 the Rolling Stones released the triple LP / CD box Atlantic City '89 . This was a digital recording of a live concert by the Rolling Stones that was recorded during a satellite broadcast. The presentation of the LP / CD box and the digital recording of the compact discs in DDD quality were felt to be sensational. With over 70,000 copies, it is one of the best-selling bootlegs in the world. In 1995 the four-CD box set Handsome Girls was released, which contained the entire 1978 Rolling Stones show in Fort Worth in the best possible quality. Original mixing console master tapes from the King Biscuit Flower Hour Studios were used, which were then digitally mixed again. To date, there is hardly a comparable four CD box set Bootleg CD in this sound quality. In the years that followed, the bootleg LPs disappeared almost completely from the market, and CDs were now mainly offered, almost all of which had an excellent sound. People switched to recording live radio or television broadcasts or tapping the mixer at a live concert. Older bootleg recordings were remastered. A. Sonic Solutions ' NoNoise process , which removed audio artifacts such as hum, scratches and noise.

Rock music and bootlegs

In the late 1960s, rock music flourished, moving from being a pure entertainment product to a serious art form. The new idols such as Bob Dylan, The Rolling Stones, The Doors and Led Zeppelin were best known for their concert tours. There were hardly any records with concert recordings; therefore the fans wanted to have live and demo recordings of their idols. The first major bootleg, however, only contained studio recordings. Two young men from California produced the first rock bootleg Great White Wonder in 1969 with recordings that Bob Dylan refused to officially release. It contained clippings from the so-called basement tapes . The cover was white, as was the label of the double album. Although the music industry finally took countermeasures (the album had seen several private editions in the meantime), the production of further blackouts could no longer be stopped, although bootlegs were initially aimed primarily at a more elite group of collectors due to their often poor sound quality and production.

But a real industry soon developed underground. Bootlegs in Europe and Japan were sporadic products in the beginning and hardly had a commercial focus, but US bootleg companies such as Trademark of Quality, The Amazing Kornyphone Record Label and Contraband released entire series of concert recordings on records. Numerous vinyl bootlegs appeared on various labels under different titles, primarily to meet the demand of collectors or to sell a new bootleg to inexperienced fans.

The foundation stone for commercialization was thus laid, but curiously, this happened in Europe. Bootlegs were soon aimed at mass, although care was taken to ensure that the sound quality was right and so was the production. In the 1980s and 1990s, people went so far as to attack strictly limited radio productions such as King Biscuit Flower Hour and BBC Rock Hour from the USA, which since the beginning of the 1970s have released complete recordings of concerts on strictly limited audio carriers that have an edition of 250 to 300 pieces. For example, entire concert recordings came onto the market under the name BBC Transcription Services at the time, which led the buyer to believe that they were BBC promotional records . The quality of the presentation was so good that the LPs could be bought in normal record stores. But there were also bootlegs from well-known artists that contained recordings that had nothing in common with the artists, except that these songs were scrambled up by some garage bands, as was the case with the LPs Live Experience '70 and Jimi Hendrix, Live Experience 70 ( Tribute to Jimi Hendrix Vol. V), which were offered as a bootleg by Jimi Hendrix.

The number of titles grew steadily, although the record industry had Bootlegger prosecuted. The sound quality of the robberies ranged from excellent to ghastly, but the rumor that these records would only contain catastrophic recordings was probably the result of industry wishful thinking.

Sound adjustment

For every serious bootleg collector, an equalizer is part of the basic equipment of his stereo system. With the help of reference values from books and magazines that deal with bootlegs, such as the Hot Wacks Books, you can make the optimal sound setting for certain bootlegs. The following three are examples:

Criminal prosecution

According to estimates by the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI), the annual sales to illegal recordings since 1967 of 100 million dollars to nearly 1.5 billion dollars (1989). The total sales volume of the record pirates through the distribution of bootlegs was according to an estimate by the IFPI up to the year 1989 at 25 billion dollars. In 1997, a spokesman for the Recording Industry Association of America stated that the record industry lost $ 10 billion a year and was looking to step up the fight against record pirates.

The IFPI had probably the greatest success in combating bootlegs in Germany at the beginning of the 1990s: during house searches in Elmshorn and Pinneberg , a total of 100,000 records (70,000 CDs and 30,000 LPs) with a total value of around 2.6 million marks were seized and destroyed at Teldec . In 1997, thirteen leading members of the bootlegger scene in the United States were arrested, and 800,000 bootleg CDs were seized and then destroyed. They were later sentenced to a total of 230 years in prison.

Well-known examples

The most widespread were concert recordings and studio recordings of big rock stars like AC / DC , Bob Dylan , David Bowie , Frank Zappa , Genesis , Guns n 'Roses , Led Zeppelin , Metallica , Pink Floyd , Prince , Queen , The Beatles , The Rolling Stones and The Who . For some artists it was a matter of prestige that robbery of their concerts appeared - an indication that they had made it. From Mick Jagger is known that he collected bootlegs. The Who released their record Live at Leeds under the guise of blackmail. Paul McCartney named one of his live albums The Official Bootleg .

Frank Zappa officially released LPs from previously illegally published bootlegs of his concerts under the name Beat the Boots , as he was annoyed that others earned money with his work. Among them were the recordings Saarbrücken 1978 and As An Am .

Numerous concerts of the Beatles were published on black presses. Far more important, however, are the bootlegs of the studio recordings, for example from the recording sessions for the album Let It Be . There you can get an idea of ​​how the Beatles worked in the studio. Incidentally, some bootlegs apparently come from tapes that were thrown away in the studio as expendable and had ended up in the hands of collectors. The same thing happened with Elvis Presley when a fan found tapes of RCA tapes for the Elvis films and released them in a 4-LP box under the title Behind Closed Doors in 1976.

Another important release was another work by the Beatles: the unedited version of Let It Be , the version that was written before Phil Spector mixed up the material with strings and choirs.

The studio album by the group Wicked Lester , produced by Epic Records in 1972 and never released, is only available as a bootleg . The group founded by Gene Simmons and Paul Stanley was renamed Kiss in 1973 .

The release of a revised version of a Rolling Stones bootleg (Oakland Coliseum, November 9, 1969) under the same title Liver than You'll Ever Be on the Oakland Records label was felt to be sensational . This recording is one of the most copied bootlegs ever. A review even appeared in the Rolling Stone music magazine and it was alleged that the Rolling Stones themselves provided the tape with the stereo recording ; in reality the concert was only recorded monaurally. It was never clarified whether the Rolling Stones had provided the tape, but it earned the bootleggers increased prestige , especially since they were reputed to have freed music from the hands of the greedy industry. In response, the Rolling Stones decided to release the live album Get yer Ya-ya's Out! to publish. The atmosphere of the concert could be felt on the black press, while the official release was heavily reworked in the studio.

Another of the first Rolling Stones bootlegs, entitled Bright Lights Big City, contained the demo recordings for IBC from 1962 in very good quality. Soon after, the legendary concerts in London's Hyde Park in 1969 and some songs from the Altamont Free Concert in 1969 appeared. The recordings from the US tour in 1972 and the European tour in 1973 show the guitarist Mick Taylor in top form. The recordings from the concerts in London and Brussels (double album Nasty Music, CD Brussels Affair ) in September / October 1973, intended as an official live record and not released for legal reasons, are likely to be the Rolling Stones' best concert recordings. They come from a broadcast on Radio Luxemburg . It wasn't until 2011 that the Rolling Stones released recordings of the two concerts in Brussels as an official download album and named it after the bootleg The Brussels Affair '73 .

Radio recordings of other tours were pressed onto records and CDs , for example from Passaic and Fort Worth 1978, Hampton 1981, Atlantic City 1989, London 1990, Miami 1995. Audience recordings , which better reproduce the atmosphere during a concert , are also interesting the radio recordings will require considerable post-processing and numerous overdubs .

Bob Dylan is one of the artists with the most bootleg releases. Years after the appearance of the Black Press Great White Wonder , he officially released the basement tapes contained on it in 1975 . A recording session with Johnny Cash was also only available on blackmail. Otherwise countless records of his concert recordings have been released, including the concert with the Hawks in Manchester in 1966 under the title Royal Albert Hall - May 27, 1966 and the famous appearance at the Isle of Wight Festival in 1969. Up to now there have been only a few concerts, from which no audio document exists. Bob Dylan takes his officially published plate series The Bootleg Series - in the well-known of the bootlegs concert recording is released from Manchester in 1966 in brilliant quality ( The Bootleg Series Vol 4 Bob Dylan Live 1966 The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert. ) - with unpublished live recordings direct reference to the black pressings.

There are also quite a few blackmailings from Elvis Presley, but numerous of the well-known bootlegs and also new concert recordings and studio recordings have meanwhile been released on the official label FTD (Follow That Dream), which the record company BMG released in 1999 especially for the countless Elvis fans Had called life. On this label, among other things, an audience recording of the concert that Elvis gave on December 31, 1976 in Pittsburgh was published. This concert is considered by the fans to be one of the best of the King of Rock & Roll and has been unofficially published under various names over the years. In 2003, 26 years after the first bootleg release under the title Rockin 'With Elvis New Years' Eve (1977), the BMG record company finally decided to officially release the recordings to fans in the best possible sound quality. The concert was released under the title Elvis New Year's Eve and contains rarities such as Auld Lang Syne and Rags to Riches, although Elvis only performed the latter song once on stage. Also of interest are the legendary sessions of the Million Dollar Quartet with Johnny Cash, Jerry Lee Lewis and Carl Perkins , which Sam Phillips recorded on December 4, 1956 in the Sun Records studio. Elvis' involvement in these recordings was often questioned in the past, as it could not be proven due to poor sound quality. Recordings of the studio sessions of the recording sessions for the album Blue Hawaii (1962) have been released, with which, for example, the creation of the hit Can't Help Falling in Love with You can be traced in detail.

The continuation of the triumphant advance for the bootleggers and the numerous fans was the fact, confirmed by various companions, that after Elvis' death a bootleg called The Legend Lives On could be found in his collection, with a longer concert sequence from a concert in 1969 in a quality that was appealing for the time. This first pressing of this bootleg is a real gem in Elvis collectors' circles.

Up to the end of 2005 around 1200 bootleg CDs by Elvis Presley had been released in Europe, many of which contained material that had not been published until then, some of which were of sensational quality. A few songs that can be found here were never officially released.

The highlight of the bootleg releases was the 70 LP package The Final Option by Led Zeppelin, which was released in Central Park in 1969/1970 . In this luxury edition in a plexiglass case, limited to 150 copies, various photos of the group were collected. There has otherwise never been such a broad anthology. A little later, a 72 version of the LP package was released which also contained the recordings of A Wrench In The Works .

A good example of the importance of blackmailing in appreciating a music career is Van Morrison , an artist who repeatedly had concerts recorded for the radio. With the help of these radio recordings, you can follow your entire concert career, as post-processing usually no longer took place. From the earliest recordings in 1970 to the radio recordings in the years after 2000, the number of his radio concerts should be over 100. Some of them (for example San Francisco 1971, New York and Los Angeles 1978, Essen 1982, Montreux Jazz Festival 1980, 1984 and 1990, Dublin 1995, Basel 2000) clearly surpass the official live records with the exception of the album It's Too Late to Stop Now , in terms of repertoire and performance. But there are also excellent recordings that were made from within the audience. Van Morrison was so impressed with the double CD Pagan Streams (Utrecht 1991) that he published some tracks about the black press on an official maxi CD.

Bruce Springsteen, on the other hand, was ambivalent: at the beginning of his career he openly supported the bootlegs; but when he was able to record the first major successes, he sued Bootlegger. In the meantime, however, numerous Springsteen bootlegs have appeared. It can be assumed that there has not been a Bruce Springsteen concert since 1992 that was not illegally recorded. There are now several recordings of every concert.

In the case of the Pink Floyd bootleg The Best of Tour '72 - later also released as In Celebration of the Comet - a live recorded raw version of their later classic The Dark Side of the Moon was released even before the actual studio LP was regularly released was available. Due to the relatively good sound quality and perfect cover design, many regular dealers took this LP into their range without knowing the illegal origin of this recording. Several 10,000 copies of the LP British Winter Tour were sold. The record, which came in a glossy cover, was one of the best-selling bootlegs in history at the time. You can hear three songs from a concert in Stoke-on-Trent in 1974: Shine On You Crazy Diamond, which was officially released in 1975 on the Pink Floyd album Wish You Were Here , as well as Raving And Drooling and Gotta Be Crazy - raw versions with some completely different lyrics that were officially released as the songs Sheep and Dogs on the Animals album in 1977 .

A larger collector's work of bootlegs under the label Tangerine Tree appeared within a fan base of the band Tangerine Dream . In terms of music history, the 1970s are interesting, when the band exclusively improvised in most of the concerts. In this way, these bootlegs even contributed to an intense appreciation of this creative period, which cannot be reproduced in official albums. In the meantime this project has been banned by the band because it is seen as impairing the sale of official albums.

One of the best-selling bootlegs in music history is Prince's Black Album , released in 1987 , of which over 250,000 copies were sold in vinyl or CD form, not counting compact cassettes

Some of the most wanted bootlegs are:

tape title Details Publishing year Edition (pieces)
Queen Absolutely Enthusiastic 2-LP-Set, colored vinyl - TFKRL 9002-2 300
Rolling Stones Atlantic City 3-LP set, colored vinyl, poster A3, single 500
Neil Young & Crazy Horse Don't Spook The Crazy Horse 2 CD box set, bonus single, 4 posters 1000

All metal-based Metal Acetate records (Geil Records & UFO Records), which are very rare Japanese pressings, are also in great demand.

Authorized recording

Since the year 2000, some groups have taken new measures against blackmailing by offering a CD recording immediately after the concert. Musicians can benefit from the demand from collectors.

The rock band Pearl Jam, for example, began releasing authorized bootlegs with their world tours in 2000/2001 and 2003 . In this case, the reason for this step was not to deprive bootleggers of the breeding ground, because the band has always been positive towards bootlegs, but to guarantee the fans recordings in good quality. The exchange of these bootlegs, which are sold cheaply via the fan club, is expressly permitted among fans.

In contrast to the many musicians who pursue bootlegs with all legal means, the group Grateful Dead took the other path. At their concerts, special areas were separated off so that the fans could set up their portable systems there for recording the concerts. These recordings were or will be exchanged between fans, and quite a few have also been released on records or CDs. Grateful Dead offers these concert recordings on the Internet for free download. Despite this approach, the music group was one of the highest earners in the USA for several years.

Other bands are not completely negative about recordings either, which is expressed in the announcement of the musician Jon Bon Jovi , "Bootleggers, roll your tapes now", before the band Bon Jovi plays a rare song. David Gilmour says on the DVD David Gilmour in Concert , before the band plays the song Smile live for the first time , “… so please turn on your tape machines now”. The German band Die Ärzte supports the Kill Them All project , where Die-Ärzte bootlegs can be downloaded for free so that black copiers don't make any money. Other groups such as Dream Theater officially distribute their bootlegs. The band Queen does the same and donates all proceeds to the Mercury Phoenix Trust .

On the DVD Pulse by Pink Floyd there are a total of four bonus tracks under the title Bootlegging the Bootleggers , which were put together from various illegally made video recordings. Since 2011, however, Pink Floyd, represented by Pink Floyd (1987) Ltd., has had bootlegs providers in Germany on the auction platforms Ebay and warned by the law firm Sasse & Partner.

The German band Böhse Onkelz has a large number of bootlegs, which consist of various unauthorized pressings with unpublished demo material and live recordings on CD or LP. Some of them are even pressed and sold in the nearer eastern states. Until recently, fans were able to download a large number of the bootlegs from the website, freely accessible with the permission of the band . This is now only possible after registration. According to their own statements, the Böhsen Onkelz are the most booted band in Germany.

The ska band Ska-P is also relaxed about bootlegs. Your opinion is the same as that of Die Ärzte. You tolerate the website , from which you can download several bootlegs of the band in order to let bootleggers dry up their illegal source of money.

In the reggae scene too , there is generally a liberal attitude towards bootleggers; however, the term bootleg is quite unpopular among reggae collectors. Instead, the phrase Reggae live music is for sharing, not for selling is often used in the exchange scene . Numerous reggae bands have allowed their concerts to be recorded for private use or for swapping with one another, for example Bob Marley & The Wailers , Peter Tosh , Toots & the Maytals , Jimmy Cliff , Inner Circle and Jacob Miller .

Like the Grateful Dead , many artists and bands still allow their fans to record concerts for private purposes. They include the Allman Brothers Band , … And You Will Know Us by the Trail of Dead , Black Crowes , Buckethead , Counting Crows , Gov't Mule , U2 , Iron Maiden , Dave Matthews Band , Metallica , Phish , Queens of the Stone Age , Radiohead , Sonic Youth , Therapy , Widespread Panic, and Wilco .

Devices used

Uher report 4400

The most popular devices of the German professional bootleggers were the tape recorders of the Uher Report 4000 series (4000, 4200, 4400). With dimensions of about 300 mm × 95 mm × 230 mm, they were not much larger than a cassette recorder, but had four speeds (2.4 / 4.75 / 9.5 / 19 cm / s.) To choose from and were the big ones Tape machines in no way inferior, the Report Monitor series worked on the level of studio machines. The recording time in battery mode was at least two to two and a half hours, depending on the type of battery. But voice recorders and cassette recorders were used, which manifested itself naturally in the recording quality. Since the 1990s, digital recording devices such as DAT and MiniDisc recorders have been used almost exclusively . The recording time of three to five hours is completely sufficient in battery operation. Thanks to digital technology, the recordings can now be copied without loss.


Since the late 1970s, the book Hot Wacks , published in Canada, has listed all bootlegs with their content and technical data. An updated volume was published every few years (Supplements 1-7). Up to issue number 2, all new bootlegs were listed, from issue 3 only new bootleg CDs and in the last volume (issue 7) also bootleg DVDs. After more than 30 years, all hot wacks projects have been discontinued until further notice. Hot Wacks Quarterly magazine was discontinued after just a few issues in 1985.

  • Andreas Voigts: The Official Bootleg Price Guide . Germany 1990.
  • Andreas Voigts: Voigt's New Collector's Price Guide for Bootlegs . Germany 1991.
  • Clinton Heylin: The Great White Wonders: Story of Rock Bootlegs . Penguin Books 1995 ISBN 0-14-023285-0 .
  • Clinton Heylin: Bootleg. The rise and fall of the secret recording history . Omnibus, London 2003, ISBN 1-84449-151-X .
  • Garry Freeman: The Bootleg Guide . Rowman & Littlefield 2003 ISBN 0-8108-4582-2 .
  • Owen Sound: Hot Wacks (bootleg discography). Book I-XV. Ontario 1978 to 1995.
  • Owen Sound: Hot Wacks - Supplement 1-7. Ontario 1996 to 2003.
  • Ronin Ro: Prince - Inside the Music and the Masks. St. Martin's Press, New York 2011, ISBN 978-0-312-38300-8 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Webster's New Universal Unabridged Dictionary . New York 2003. ISBN 0-7607-4975-2
  2. Example and identifying features of a Pirate LP by Jimi Hendrix ( Memento of the original from January 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (English) @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. Tchibo Beatles Vol. 1
  4. Tchibo Beatles Vol. 2
  5. Tchibo Beatles Vol. 3
  6. Tchibo Beatles Vol. 4th
  7. Brief information about Imtrat and their publications and the indictment of Phil Collins against Imtrat (English)
  8. Pink Floyd RoIOs
  9. PF-RoIO database
  11. Kurt Glemster - Editor of HOT WAX - Books I thru XI . In: Hot Wacks Boot , Supplement 7 (A History Of Bootleg) , 1985
  12. ^ Andreas Voigts: Voigt's New Collector's Price Guide for Bootlegs . Pp. 14-26
  13. Hot Wacks Book , Supplement 7, p. 4
  14. Hot Wacks Boot , Supplement 7, p. 5
  15. Music review and background to Rolling Stones - Atlantic City '89 . Stereo play
  16. ^ Hot Wacks Book . Supplement 5, p. 24
  17. ^ Hot Wacks Book , Supplement 5, pp. 24-25
  18. Barry Graves , Siegfried Schmidt-Joos: Das neue Rock Lexikon, Volume 2, page 930 (1990)
  19. a b 13 Alleged Major Bootleggers Indicted 800,000 Alleged Bootleg CDs Confiscated in Largest Criminal Bootleg Investigation . In: Hot Wacks Book , Supplement 5, 1997, p. 27
  20. Beat the Boots list ( Memento from March 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  21. ^ List of Zappa bootlegs by year
  22. ^ Hot Wacks Book , XV (The Last Wacks), p. 562
  23. Cover of the 70 LP package The Final Option by Led Zeppelin  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /  
  24. ^ Hot Wacks Book XV - The Last Wacks. 1996, p. 354
  25. ^ Ro (2011), p. 263.
  26. ^ Kill Them All website
  27. ytsejamrecords website
  28. ( Memento of the original from August 9, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /