Bob Dylan , [ bob ˈdɪlən ], stage name of Robert Allen Zimmerman (born May 24, 1941 in Duluth , Minnesota ), is an American musician and poet . He is considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century. “For his poetic new creations in the great American song tradition”, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2016 as the first musician .
Bob Dylan is a singer and plays guitar , harmonica , organ and piano . After achieving his first successes as a folk musician , he turned to rock music in the mid-1960s , but in the course of his career also drew on other musical traditions such as country , blues , gospel and the Great American Songbook . Dylan's texts in connection with the musical presentation and performance practice are characterized by multi-layered reference levels in which high culture and popular culturemeet. Woven into his work are references to countless figures from American and European music and literary history, including, for example, Hank Williams , James Joyce , Woody Guthrie , Ovid , Merle Haggard , William Shakespeare , Jerry Lee Lewis , Arthur Rimbaud , John Lennon , Homer , Billy Joe Shaver , Petrarca or Frank Sinatra. Both Dylan's very independent, inventive work in the combination of diverse lines of tradition, as well as the enigmatic personality of the singer-songwriter, led to a cultural and humanities reception that was barely manageable as a whole .
Childhood and adolescence
Robert Allen Zimmerman was born as the first child of Abraham "Abe" Zimmerman (1911-1968) and his wife Beatrice "Beatty" Stone (1915-2000) in the industrial and port city of Duluth ( Minnesota ) in the American Midwest . His parents were descendants of Turkish - Kyrgyz and Ukrainian-Jewish immigrants who immigrated to the United States from Odessa in 1905 . In February 1946, his younger brother David Benjamin was born. At the same time, his father fell ill with poliomyelitis and lost his position as an executive with the Standard Oil Company. To avoid impoverishment, the Zimmermans moved to live with Robert's grandparents in Hibbing , Minnesota, where Abe's father became a partner to his two brothers, who were self-employed electricians.
Robert "Bob" Zimmerman heard the music of Hank Williams , Little Richard , Chuck Berry and Buddy Holly in his youth . “I've always wanted to be a guitarist and a singer. Since I was ten, eleven or twelve, that was the only thing that interested me ... Henrietta was the first rock 'n' roll record I heard. ”He was also interested in literature from an early age and, among other things, was enthusiastic for the works of John Steinbeck . His musical talent was encouraged by his parents. Under the guidance of a cousin, he first learned to play the piano before switching to acoustic and later to electric guitar. During this time he often played the blues- standards that he heard on the radio. He was particularly impressed by Elvis Presley's first pieces, he taught himself his version of Blue Moon of Kentucky on the guitar, which he played at his concerts until 1999.
In high school he met like-minded people who shared his taste in music, and he soon became a member of the a cappella group The Jokers , which performed mostly at parties. From it later emerged The Golden Chords , whose repertoire consisted of cover versions of Little Richard pieces. With this band he took part in a talent competition in Duluth and was disappointed when the first prize went to a group of mimes .
In September 1959, Bob Zimmerman left the "wilderness" by his own account and enrolled in an art course with a major in music at the University of Minnesota at St. Paul . Although he did not attend courses there, he came into contact with the folk music of Pete Seeger , The Kingston Trio and Woody Guthrie in his residential area of Dinkytown . Guthrie's technique of modifying a folk standard with his own texts and changed phrasing fascinated him in particular, and Dylan was to use this technique himself later. Seeger was an icon of the leftand a musical role model for him. At that time Dylan was still under the name "Bobby Zimmerman" . Since music and performances became more and more important to him, he decided to replace his family name with an artist name. His choice fell on "Dylan", a decision about which he has expressed himself differently over the course of his career. He claims to have named himself after the character of Matt Dillon from the then popular television series Smoking Colts , but to differentiate himself from her, he took over the name with a different spelling. A better known and more likely possibility is that the name refers to the poet Dylan Thomasleaned on, whom he admired and of which he owned some books. He's also said that the name just occurred to him.
At the end of December 1960 he visited his parents, whom he announced that he wanted to pursue a career as a musician. They reacted angrily at first, because his father actually wanted to take him into his business. They finally gave Bob Dylan a year; as long as he could do whatever he wanted. If there is no success by then, he must return to the university and learn "something right".
1961–1965: Bob Dylan as a folk singer
In January 1961, Bob Dylan made a detour to New York 's Greenwich Village , which had developed into a focal point for artists. Since the 1940s, low rents ensured an influx of musicians, to whom representatives of the beat generation , the beatniks , came in the 1950s . These became increasingly political in their works and ensured a steady influx of visitors from all US states. Her appearances in the so-called coffee houses were so well attended that the sidewalks around the centrally located Washington Square Parkwere crowded on weekends and had to be closed to traffic. In the early 1960s, folk music added to the beatnik movement, and musicians such as Fred Neil , Phil Ochs and Tom Paxton made their first appearance in the Village. The guitarist and singer Dave Van Ronk and the singer Odetta Holmes had a powerful effect on Dylan, who could only absorb many styles by listening.
Bob Dylan met his first great love there, Suze Rotolo , who not only inspired him artistically, but also sharpened his socially critical view. She introduced him to the books of the French symbolists Arthur Rimbaud , Paul Verlaine and Charles Baudelaire . The changeful relationship inspired him to write the so-called Love / Hate songs like Don't Think Twice, It's All Right , Boots of Spanish Leather and Ballad in Plain D , with which he expanded the then common form of the romantically transfigured love song with a bitter variant .
He also visited his idol Woody Guthrie in the hospital, who was already in the terminal stages of the terminal disease Huntington's disease and was confined to bed. Since a conversation with him would have been very arduous, Dylan played him Guthrie songs instead. He later processed his admiration for him and the impressions of these visits in Song to Woody , one of his first original compositions, and in Last Thoughts on Woody Guthrie . Bob Dylan was the only one ever to recite this poem from his pen. He read it live during his first major concert at Town Hall, New York City on April 12, 1963.
Dylan's first professional appearance was on April 11, 1961 at Gerde's Folk City , supporting John Lee Hooker . After performing with success in small clubs, he made his first recordings as a harmonica player on an album by Harry Belafonte . On September 29, 1961, the New York Times published a very benevolent article by Robert Shelton, who later became one of its biographers. The legendary impresario John Hammond noticed him and took Dylan on October 25, 1961 for the major Columbia labelunder contract. According to the terms of the contract, which was initially set for five years, he was entitled to a small advance payment and only five percent of the income from record sales. But Dylan didn't care, as he was happy to have received a record deal at all. His girlfriend Suze Rotolo took a more critical look at Dylan during the period of early success:
“Success [transforms] my friend more and more into an egocentric. […] The personality changes as soon as everyone knows it. You develop an uncontrollable egomania. [...] This can also happen to the most humble and humble people [...], it clicks and suddenly this person can no longer perceive anything but himself. [...] Every day it gets worse "
While his first album, released in 1962, contained mostly foreign compositions and received little attention, his following albums The Freewheelin 'Bob Dylan and The Times They Are a-Changin' brought the breakthrough. In addition to simple but all the more haunting love songs, they mainly contained socially critical songs. These topical songs related to current political events. Blowin 'in the Wind on The Freewheelin' Bob Dylan hit the nerve of the time and - albeit initially in the interpretation of Peter, Paul and Mary - became the pacifist anthem of an entire generation. In the angry haunted oneMasters of War cursed Dylan's military-industrial complex , some songs like the apocalyptic A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall already hinted at his extraordinary literary talent. The woman depicted arm in arm with Dylan on the cover of the LP is his girlfriend at the time, Suze Rotolo.
As a guest singer of Joan Baez - who was already so well known at the time that it could easily fill larger halls - Bob Dylan went on his first major tour of the United States on August 3, 1963. Dylan sang a few duets with her at these concerts, where Baez enthusiastically introduced him to the audience, and then had a love affair with her. For him, this tour and the connection with Baez meant an enormous increase in his fame. The tour was also financially worthwhile - his manager Albert Grossman had negotiated a greater share of the revenue for him than for Joan Baez, even though she was the star of the tour. On August 28, 1963, he performed with Baez and other folk singers at the closing rally of the Civil Rights March in Washingtonwhere Martin Luther King gave his famous speech I Have a Dream .
Bob Dylan's success in the early 1960s came at a time of political and social change in America. In 1960 John F. Kennedy was elected President. The time was marked by the Cold War , by race riots, but also by significant social reforms. The youth became increasingly political and the civil rights movement became more and more confident. Bob Dylan became a symbol of this emancipatory movement at the age of less than 25, but he did not like the role of an idol and he strictly refused to be assigned this role. In the course of his further career he tried again and again to evade his fans, most clearly perhaps in the Wedding Song from 1974: “It's never been my duty to remake the world at large, / nor is it my intention to sound a battle charge” (“It was never my duty to recreate the world as a whole, / it still is my intention to sound a battle cry ”).
1965–1966: Bob Dylan as a rock musician
From the mid-1960s, Dylan had his music, which had been played almost exclusively solo and on the acoustic guitar, electrically amplified and now he also had an accompanying band. A milestone of this change was his appearance at the Newport Folk Festival in 1965 with musicians from the Paul Butterfield Blues Band , which sparked heavy criticism from the purist friends of folk music. Part of the audience booed the "electric" version of Maggie's Farm . There were also dramatic scenes behind the stage between representatives of the classical folk tradition and “electrified” music. After three plays, Dylan left the stage with the band, but was hosted by Peter Yarrowasked back; He then played two more pieces in the usual manner, solo with acoustic guitar and harmonica . These events are dealt with in the documentary No Direction Home - Bob Dylan by Martin Scorsese , published in 2005 , in which, among other things, his childhood sweetheart Suze Rotolo, who did not comment publicly about her relationship with Dylan for a long time.
On the subsequent European tour, on which he was accompanied by the musicians who later became known as The Band , his electrically amplified music met with some violent rejection, especially in England. In 1966 he was even insulted as “Judas” at a concert for his alleged “betrayal” of folk music (heard on The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Live 1966 (1998) ). During this tour it became almost a ritual for the audience to boo Dylan and his band. Dylan himself asked his band to play particularly loud at the concert in question.
Dylan became a rock star who sold millions of records and was seen as a mouthpiece by parts of the increasingly politicized counterculture . However, he was now increasingly suffering from the pressure to succeed. Many of his old fans resented his turn to rock music and reacted downright hostile. Others tried to take him over. The press began, on the one hand, to pin him on the role of the idol of a generation and, on the other, to accuse him of betraying the ideals of the folk movement. When journalists suggestive of him at press conferencesTried to corner questions, Dylan usually gave quick-witted and slightly arrogant-looking, absurd answers and let them run nowhere. Nevertheless, the tension due to the stress of touring life and the reaction of the press and audience was clearly noticeable. Curiously, many of Dylan's spontaneous statements from that time (such as his ironic self-assessment as "Song and Dance Man") are cited to this day.
He made his transition from folk singer to rock musician on three albums, which he released in quick succession in the mid-1960s and which are now considered rock music classics. The second side of the LP Bringing It All Back Home contains only acoustically recorded songs, but Dylan already played the A side of the LP with a band. The two following albums Highway 61 Revisited and the double LP Blonde on Blonde contain almost only electrically amplified rock songs. Like a Rolling Stone from Highway 61 Revisited made it to number 2 on the Billboard singles chart in 1965. The song was later named by Rolling Stone magazine "Greatest Song of All Time ”, and in 2005 Greil Marcus wrote a book about its creation.
In terms of language in particular, his songs on these records reached a complexity previously unattainable in popular music. His texts were peppered with metaphors and literary references, and allusions to drug experiences appeared. Dylan was a drug addict himself, using heroin in the early 1960s. Typical of this period were also sprawling, surrealistic word games that Dylan wrote in the style of the Stream of Consciousness . This also dominates the book Tarantula, written in 1965 and not published until 1971, as well as the longer texts and prose poems that he occasionally published on the back of his LP covers. The most famous of these are the Eleven Outlined Epitaphsfrom 1964, which was also published in book form in the 1980s in German translation by Carl Weissner . Back then, Dylan was strongly influenced by the poets of the Beat Generation like Jack Kerouac , and he was on friendly terms with Allen Ginsberg .
In late 1965 he married the model Sara Lowndes . The wedding was kept secret from the public. Lowndes brought a daughter from his first marriage to the connection. So Dylan suddenly became a family man at the age of 24. Now he shielded his private life even more strictly from the public. One of the best known of the numerous songs he wrote inspired by his relationship with Sara is Sad-Eyed Lady of the Lowlands , which takes up one of the four sides of the record on the double LP Blonde on Blonde . After separating from his wife in 1975, he confessed this publicly with the song Sara on the album Desire. Dylan was and is otherwise extremely cautious with information about possible addressees of his songs and interpretations of the contents of his texts.
1966–1973: Retreat into private life
After a motorcycle accident near Woodstock on July 29, 1966, Dylan withdrew completely from the public for two years. The extent of the accident is still unclear. However, it enabled Dylan to radically turn away from a lifestyle that, dictated by an overcrowded and exhausting schedule and his then extraordinary artistic productivity, had caused almost complete health and mental exhaustion. Dylan now lived in Bearsville near the small town of Woodstock not far from New York and devoted himself primarily to his wife Sara and their children. He appeared only occasionally in the following years, so he did not appear at the legendary Woodstock Festivalin Bethel. In the first part of his autobiography “ Chronicles ” he says that at the time he wanted a simple life with a job from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Musically, he oriented himself towards country music during this time . There were two albums, some of which he recorded in Nashville - the spartan instrumented John Wesley Harding and the Nashville Skyline , which is very pleasing for his standards , on which he also worked with country musician Johnny Cash . The LP became Dylan's greatest commercial success to date. Dylan paved the way for the acceptance of country music in rock camps, previously frowned upon as reactionary, and became - next toBuffalo Springfield / Neil Young , the Byrds and Gram Parsons - a pioneer of country rock . With the band's musicians , in the basement of an old house in Woodstock, he recorded a hodgepodge of almost forgotten songs from US roots music (blues, folk and country) that were circulated as bootlegs for years before they were officially abbreviated under the title in 1975 The Basement Tapes have been released. The songs of the time are often interpreted as Dylan's commitment to the joys of the simple life as a family man. However, many of his old fans betrayed the ideals of theAccused of counterculture .
In 1969 his son Jakob was born, who now works as a musician himself. Besides him, Dylan has three other children: Anna, Jesse and Samuel. His double album Self Portrait from 1970 appeared to many fans as a loveless collection of uninspired songs and is considered one of his worst records. Dylan himself later described the publication as an attempt at a liberation with which he wanted to destroy the expectations of his audience, which he found oppressive. He then released two albums that were regarded as respectable but not outstanding ( New Morning and Planet Waves ) and played a small role in Sam Peckinpah'sWestern Pat Garrett chases Billy the Kid alongside Kris Kristofferson and James Coburn . He also wrote the music for this film, including the anthemic and disaffected Knockin 'on Heaven's Door . He rarely appeared in front of an audience, for example at the Isle of Wight Festival in 1969 or at the 1971 concert for Bangladesh .
1974–1982: Divorce and turning to Christianity
In the mid-1970s, Dylan's private idyll began to crumble when his marriage fell into crisis. A spectacular comeback tour (documented on the double album Before the Flood ) at the beginning of 1974 sold out within a few hours and was a great success with the public, but the reviews were rather mixed. Above all, it was criticized that he hardly brought any new songs and more “scream than sing”. It was noticeable that he performed many well-known songs in a completely new musical guise, revitalizing them on the one hand, but often changing them beyond recognition on the other. Dylan has maintained this approach to his own work to this day and it has become a trademark. In 1975 Dylan released Blood on the Tracks. The album has since been interpreted as Dylan's artistic processing of the separation from his wife Sara. However, Bob Dylan himself has repeatedly denied a direct connection.
In 1975/76 he started the Rolling Thunder Revue project , a kind of musical traveling circus with numerous musicians, which was often only announced at short notice at various locations in the USA. Dylan's appearances during the first part of this tour are now considered to be among the best of his career. On the record Desire , on which songs from this period were released, Dylan also sang in a duet with Emmylou Harris . It was a great commercial and artistic success and brought Dylan to a second peak in popularity. The song Hurricane about the boxer Rubin Carter became particularly famouswhose career was ended by a possibly racially motivated legal misjudgment. With the wistful song Sara he made a memorial to his former wife. The four-hour movie Renaldo & Clara , which documented the tour and directed by Dylan himself, was panned by criticism and made little profit. In 1977 he recorded background vocals for a piece from Leonard Cohen's album Death of a Ladies' Man . That same year, Bob and Sara Dylan were divorced.
Dylan's world tour in 1978 (including an appearance on July 1st in front of around 75,000 people on the Zeppelin Field, the former Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg ) was very successful. However, in the winter of 1978/79 he reached the limits of his psychic powers. Dylan's girlfriend Mary Alice Artes , an African American actress, advised him to pastoral care to avail and referred him in this connection, two pastors that you were personally known. Dylan accepted, attended a three-month Bible course with the then fledgling Vineyard Movement, and was baptized in early 1979 . Dylan's conversionChristianity, especially its commitment to being a born again Christian, caused a sensation. The artistic expression of his conversion were the following three albums released between 1979 and 1981: Slow Train Coming , Saved and Shot of Love .
This new turn in Dylan's music could not understand a large part of his audience. He was sometimes exposed to harsh criticism, although he received his first Grammy for the song Gotta Serve Somebody . The lyrics of the song Every Grain of Sand , permeated with “divine revelation ” , are also considered to be one of his most inspired texts. Over time, the controversy surrounding his Christian phase subsided, especially since from 1981 the song Lenny Bruce (a tribute to the subversive comedian who died in 1966 ) indicated a return to secular issues.
The 1980s were characterized by many different albums, the style (music and text) of which mostly triggered a muted response from critics and audiences. While Infidels (1983) and Empire Burlesque (1985) still contain some excellent songs, he reached an artistic low point with Knocked Out Loaded (1986) and Down in the Groove (1988). The music magazine Rolling Stone voted Down in the Groove in May 2007 as "the worst album by a major artist". On January 28, 1985, Dylan took part in the recording of We Are the Worldpart and sang the line “there's a choice we're making”. During the second half of the decade he had a drinking problem . The appearances at that time were in part correspondingly chaotic. At the Live Aid concert on July 13, 1985 for the benefit of the starving population of Ethiopia , he attracted attention with the remark that he hoped some of the money would go to the suffering American farmersused. ("I hope that some of the money ... maybe they can just take a little bit of it, maybe ... one or two million, maybe ... and use it, say, to pay the mortgages on some of the farms and, the farmers here , owe to the banks ... “.) This statement was regarded by many as inappropriate in view of the starving population of Ethiopia and in some cases heavily criticized, but ultimately led to a benefit concert Farm Aid , which was organized for the first time on September 22, 1985 in Champaign , Illinois .
On June 4, 1986, Dylan married Carolyn Dennis, one of the many backing singers he was with at the time. A daughter was born on January 31, 1986. The wedding and the birth were kept secret from acquaintances and the public, only a few close friends of the couple knew about it. It was not until 2001 that Howard Sounes made these private events public in a biography. The marriage had been divorced in the early 1990s. On September 17, 1987, Dylan gave a concert in East Berlin in Treptower Park together with Roger McGuinn and Tom Petty & the Heartbreakers in front of 70,000 visitors, after the advance booking of tickets for the day in West Berlin's Waldbühne The concert that had been planned started very slowly.
From 1988 he worked alongside Roy Orbison , Tom Petty and Jeff Lynne significantly in the George Harrison group Traveling WilburysWith. The group, which lasted from 1988 to 1990, produced two studio albums. Since 1988 Dylan has been on the unofficially so-called "Never Ending Tour", which has already taken him around the globe several times. He gives an average of over 100 concerts a year. While Dylan introduced some pieces in the first few years of this tour with mostly bizarre comments, with the exception of introducing the band members, he often hardly speaks a word and confines himself to singing and making music. Occasionally, however, he takes pleasure in throwing in a joke. Almost every Dylan concert in the past few decades (there are now around 4,000) was illegally recorded as a so-called bootleg . The recordings are exchanged for free in fan circles under "Tape Traders".
That same year, Bob Dylan was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame . His laudatory speaker was Bruce Springsteen , who had been referred to as the "new Dylan" at the beginning of his career. In 1989 Dylan managed to return to old form with the album Oh Mercy produced by Daniel Lanois in New Orleans, but the follow-up Under the Red Sky (1990) was again a disappointment. In 1991 he was awarded another Grammy for Lifetime Achievement. He did not publish any new compositions in the first half of the 1990s. 1992 and 1993 released two albums (Good As I Been to You, World Gone Wrong) with recordings of traditional folk and blues songs, which he recorded solo, only accompanied by guitar and harmonica.
1994 – today: return
On August 14, 1994, Dylan performed at the Woodstock II Festival, a new edition of the legendary festival of 1969. To the surprise of many observers, his performance was received euphorically by the predominantly young audience. In November 1994 he recorded a live album with DVD for the MTV Unplugged series. Originally he wanted to play old country and blues pieces on it, but the producers wanted some of his biggest hits instead. Dylan gave in, and the album became one of his most financially successful, reaching number 23 on the US album chart. The publishing house Random House published in the same year under the title Drawn Blank(see below) an illustrated book with drawings by Dylan that he made between 1989 and 1992. They show his impressions of touring life - streets, hotel rooms and diners . In the preface he mentions that drawing is a way for him to escape from everyday life and relax.
In 1996 he agreed to the use of his song The Times They Are a-Changin ' in commercials for the Bank of Montreal and the accounting firm Coopers & Lybrand . In 2004 he not only made his song Love Sick available for a Victoria's Secret commercial , but also appeared as an actor. In 1997, Dylan released new songs for the first time in seven years. He made a comeback with the dark album Time Out of Mind , again produced by Daniel Lanois . He was awarded three Grammys for the record, including the song Cold Irons Bound . With the songThings Have Changed for the film The WonderBoys , he won the Golden Globe Award and the Oscar for best movie songin 2001. In 2000 he also received the unofficial “ Nobel Prize for Music”, the Polar Music Prize .
In 1997 Dylan gave a concert at which John Paul II and Cardinal Ratzinger, later Benedict XVI. , were present. It took place during an International Eucharistic Congress in Bologna and was attended by 300,000 people. For the occasion, Dylan performed Knockin 'on Heaven's Door and his anti-war classic A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall, as well as Forever Young as an encore . In 1998 he went on tour with fellow musicians Van Morrison and Joni Mitchell . A year later, Paul Simon accompanied him on a successful US tour in which everyone performed a larger part of their own and four songs were sung together.
On September 11, 2001, “Love and Theft” was released , a record that was enthusiastically received by audiences and critics. On the album, Dylan takes a journey to the roots of American music. In 2003 the feature film Masked and Anonymous was released , for which he wrote the screenplay with Larry Charles and in which he took the lead role. Numerous Hollywood stars could be won for the cast. In October 2004 the first part of his three-part autobiography Chronicles: Volume One (Simon & Schuster) was published in Germany under the same title, translated by Gerhard Henschel and Kathrin Passig. At the same time his lyrics up to the album “Love and Theft” were published under the title Lyrics 1962–2001 , in Germany in the literal translation by Gisbert Haefs (Hoffmann and Campe, 2004) according to Dylan's management . To market the book, he gave his first television interview in 19 years in December 2004.
On September 26 and 27, 2005, the American broadcaster PBS broadcast the film No Direction Home - Bob Dylan as part of the American Masters series. The documentary covering the years 1959 to 1966 was produced by star director Martin Scorsese . Hundreds of hours of unreleased material were viewed and an interview with Dylan was conducted for the film. The soundtrack for the documentation, released in August 2005, is also the seventh part of the “Bootleg Series”. From May 2006 to April 2009, Dylan presented the weekly one-hour program Theme Time Radio Hour on the American radio station XM Satellite Radioeach dedicated to a specific topic. He himself chose the music that earned mostly praise and reached an audience that went far beyond the circle of Dylan fans.
In August 2006, Dylan's 32nd studio album Modern Times was released , which received mostly very positive feedback worldwide and with which he reached the top of the US charts for the first time since Desire (1976). The return to number one on the US hit parade after three decades had not been achieved by any living musician. In late June 2007, Dylan announced that it would release a final best-of album entitled Dylan . The album went on sale worldwide on October 1, 2007 and was released in two versions: One edition contains 18 of the most successful Dylan songs, the "Highlight Deluxe Edition" comprises 51 tracks on 3 CDs. On April 24, 2009, a studio album entitled Together Through Life was released. On October 13, 2009 another studio album was released with the title Christmas in the Heart, which contains Christmas classics such as Little Drummer Boy or Winter Wonderland . The proceeds from the sale of the CD were donated to the World Food Program and the organization Crisis UK. These distribute around 15,000 meals to the homeless during Christmas week. On September 7, 2012, another studio album titled Tempest was released . In the summer of 2011 Dylan came to Europe for a few appearances, as well as in most of the following years, most recently in the summer of 2019.
In February 2015 he released his 36th studio album Shadows in the Night - a concept album with reinterpretations of well-known Sinatra pieces from the 1950s. In 2016 and 2017 further studio albums followed with Fallen Angels (2016) and Triplicate (2017). In contrast to previous studio releases, the three last-named albums focused almost exclusively on pieces from the Great American Songbook or by Frank Sinatra . Dylan's turn to American popular music prior to the emergence of rock 'n' roll was rated partly in agreement, but partly also skeptical. Maik Brüggemeyerfor example, wrote that the turn to the pre-rock'n'roll icon Sinatra must appear strange to many of his fans. Obviously, however, Dylan was serious. In the meantime, he has also completely adjusted his vocals to this repertoire and is now celebrating his crooner- style concerts .
In early March 2016, it was announced that Dylan had sold his private archive to the University of Tulsa for $ 15-20 million as an asset . The archive contains around 6,000 objects, including poems, letters, recordings, films and photographs.
In March 2020, Dylan published Murder Most Foul on his YouTube channel . The 16-minute long song is about the assassination attempt on John F. Kennedy and the injuries it caused in American self-confidence. The title is a quote from Shakespeare's Hamlet (1st act, 5th scene). Accompanied by cautious piano and violin sounds, Dylan is committed to the relevant conspiracy theory and paints a picture of American pop culture with numerous quotations and names. In April of the same year the song I Contain Multitudes followed , the title of which was the poem Song of Myself by Walt Whitmanis borrowed. On June 19, 2020, the album Rough and Rowdy Ways was finally released, with which Dylan reached number one in the German Media Control Charts for the first time . He also took first place in the UK sales charts, his ninth number one album in the European island nation.
In December 2020, Bob Dylan sold the publishing rights to his 600-plus work to Universal Music Group . The company did not provide any information about the purchase price. The New York Times , which called the deal "may be the biggest acquisition ever of a single act's publishing rights," estimated the amount at more than $ 300 million. Before the sale, Dylan was one of the few artists who still controlled the publishing rights for their music themselves.
On the side, Dylan also works as a draftsman, painter and sculptor. On his travels through the USA, Mexico, Europe and Asia he made drawings, mostly with pencil and charcoal. The first black and white drawings were published in 1994 under the title Drawn Blank . In August 2007 it became known that Dylan had colored these drawings in an elaborate process. The decisive factor for this artistic implementation was the interest of the Chemnitz Art Collections , which wanted to honor this extra-musical work by Dylan with its first art exhibition The Drawn Blank Series - watercolors and gouaches between October 2007 and February 2008. In this exhibition were 170 watercolors andGouaches shown. Due to its great success, the exhibition was extended until Easter 2008.
In 2013 Bob Dylan showed self-designed and welded garden gates at the Halcyon Gallery in London.
Bob Dylan's "Never Ending Tour"
The term "Never Ending Tour" was coined by the critic Adrian Deevoy in a 1989 interview. The tour itself started in 1988 and is ongoing. Dylan plays around 100 concerts a year across half the world. On October 16, 2007, according to the Still on the Road website in Dayton, Ohio, Dylan was said to have played the 2000th concert on the tour.
Dylan's introduction is hugely popular with fans. Until August 2002 this was:
"Ladies and gentlemen, would you please welcome Columbia Recording Artist Bob Dylan"
Since August 15, 2002 it has been changed based on a newspaper article:
“Ladies and gentlemen, please welcome the poet laureate of rock 'n' roll. The voice of the promise of the 60's counterculture. The guy who forced folk into bed with rock. Who donned makeup in the 70's and disappeared into a haze of substance abuse. Who emerged to find Jesus. Who was written off as a has-been by the end of the 80's, and who suddenly shifted gears releasing some of the strongest music of his career beginning in the late 90's. Ladies and gentlemen - Columbia recording artist Bob Dylan! ”
“ Ladies and gentlemen, please say hello to the rock'n'roll poet prince. The voice of the promise of the counterculture of the 1960s. The man who brought folk and rock together. Who wore make-up in the 70s and dived in the drug swamp. Who rose from it and found Jesus. Which was already written off at the end of the 80s and suddenly took a completely new direction and published some of the greatest works of his career in the late 90s. Ladies and Gentlemen: Columbia Recording Artist Bob Dylan! "
This concert introduction was also abolished at the beginning of 2012. There is currently no announcement by the artist.
Since October 2013, Dylan has almost always played a very similar setlist, unlike in previous years .
In October 2019, Dylan swapped longtime drummer George Receli for Matt Chamberlain .
His last concert for the time being - as of October 2020 - was given by Bob Dylan on December 8, 2019 in The Anthem in Washington DC Tours already planned in April and June / July 2020 in Japan and the USA were canceled due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
Influence on pop culture
Like no other musician, Dylan has influenced the development of pop music since the 1960s. He draws from the huge pool of traditional, popular American music from folk to country to gospel , blues and rock 'n' roll . The legacy of the so-called Americana forms the breeding ground for his work throughout his career. Although he only acquired some of these idioms in the course of his career, he has repeatedly succeeded in transforming and expanding them decisively. One of his greatest merits is that he has given modern rock music a new linguistic complexity with a strong focus on the lyrics of his songs.
Before him, rock music was mainly characterized by trivial love songs (a collector and friend of Dylan's works once described this phase as “love and instincts”), but with Dylan it was not only political, based on the socially critical tradition of folk music, but also a medium of serious poetry. Dylan established the pop song as a medium with which individual experiences can be processed and communicated. Some of Dylan's texts are considered works of the highest literary standing and have been the subject of intellectual debate ( e.g. Desolation Row , Like a Rolling Stone and Hurricane ). Dylan has made a significant contribution to establishing popular rock music as a serious art form.
Since 1996, Dylan has been seen as a contender for the Nobel Prize in Literature . A campaign led by writers John Bauldie and Allen Ginsberg resulted in his first nomination in 1996. She was also supported by the literature professor Gordon Ball, who compares Dylan's texts in their "extraordinarily imaginative symbolism" with Arthur Rimbaud and William Butler Yeats . For others, Dylan's dark and associative poetry "repeatedly gives the impression that he knows more than he can dig deeper and give answers." Dylan's chances were, however, diminished by the fact that his songs can only be classified as literature in the broader sense they only fully develop their effect through the musical performance.
Dylan's turn to complex texts and an individual way of playing rock music in the mid-1960s took place at about the same time as the no less important innovations of other pop musicians. In Great Britain, The Beatles recorded two albums with Rubber Soul and Revolver , which clearly stood out, both musically and lyrically, from the standard of popular music up until then. In the USA, The Velvet Underground experimented with new musical forms and processed literary topics in their texts. Even Brian Wilson from the Beach Boys- a musician who up until then had actually subscribed to naive pop songs - released the album Pet Sounds against the resistance of his record company , which in its musical complexity overshadowed much of the shallow pop music customary at the time and struck unusually melancholy and thoughtful tones. With Dylan and these other, equally outstanding artists, the counterculture, which was forming and articulating more and more self-confidently, also received an artistic voice.
Dylan realized his constantly changing musical and textual ideas (from idealistic, explicitly political folk songs to surrealist rock numbers and sentimental country songs to gospel sermons in song form) with the support of his record company, but sometimes against bitter resistance from his traditional fan base. This illustrates how much Dylan contributed to the role of the popular rock musician as an autonomous artist. Time and again he emphasized how important traditional folk songs were and are for his development. He often drew his inspiration from songs from before World War IIthat had long since disappeared from the public eye. The myths and legends of American culture processed there form a cornerstone of his work as a songwriter.
This was already clearly visible on his first LP , on which he mostly played Traditionals . But even later this came to light again and again, for example on The Basement Tapes and the two solo albums released in the early 1990s as well as on his album “Love and Theft” from 2001. The piece High Water (For Charlie Patton) included there referred to explicitly on Charley Patton's bluesong High Water Everywhere from 1929, which tells of the disastrous and momentous Mississippi flood of 1927 . Just like those old songs of American folkloreIt was quite common to address real events in the lyrics, so Dylan takes up such topics in his songs. These were socially critical issues, especially in his early career, and later increasingly personal experiences.
Dylan never had a trained singing voice that satisfied the classical ideal of beauty . His qualities as a singer are controversial: some critics appreciate his expressive, deliberately “ugly” way of singing, the unusual phrasing full of rhythmic shifts, his unmistakably self-confidently complaining sound; Others are bothered by the fact that Dylan (originally probably to make the traditional blues and folk songs of the first records sound more believable) sings with an artificially roughened, so to speak disguised voice. Time magazinewrote in the 1960s that his voice sounded "as if it came over the walls of a tuberculosis sanatorium". That changed temporarily during his country phase around 1970 when it sounded almost smooth - not least because he had temporarily given up smoking. Over the years, however, his voice has aged significantly, so that it now has a downright croaking sound, which also gives it character.
His songs have been recorded by numerous musicians. These include Joan Baez , Eric Clapton , The Byrds , Rod Stewart , Van Morrison , Joe Cocker , Johnny Cash , Jimi Hendrix , Bryan Ferry (who released an album exclusively of Dylan songs called Dylanesque in 2007 ) and Elvis Presley. Many of Dylan's songs only became popular through the recording of other musicians, which may also be due to his voice, which is not very compatible with the masses, for example It's All Over Now, Baby Blue in the version of Them ,Mr. Tambourine Man from the Byrds , Blowin 'In The Wind from the Hollies , All Along the Watchtower in the version by Jimi Hendrix, Mighty Quinn and Father Of Night in the interpretation by Manfred Mann and Knockin' on Heaven's Door by Guns n ' Roses .
Dylan has had a formative influence on many musicians, including Van Morrison, The Beatles, Steely Dan , Bruce Springsteen, Jimi Hendrix and Nick Cave . He also shaped German musicians such as Wolfgang Niedecken ( Leopardefell ) and the Austrian songwriter Wolfgang Ambros ( Wie im Schlaf ), both of whom had a complete album with early Dylan translated into German, or more precisely, into German dialects ( Kölsch and Viennese ) -Songs published. In addition, Falco , whose coffin was one of the sounds ofIt's All Over Now, Baby Blue was left in the ground, Dylan among his role models.
The news magazine Newsweek found for Dylan's importance the phrase: "He means the same thing to pop music as Einstein means to physics". In the list of the 500 best albums of all time published by the US music magazine Rolling Stone , Dylan is represented with ten albums (two of them in the top 10), which puts him just behind the Beatles with eleven albums.
Dylan has two honorary doctorates . He received the first from Princeton University in 1970 and the second from the Scottish University of St Andrews on June 23, 2004 , which dubbed him an “Icon of the Twentieth Century” whose songs marked his time as well as his time Shaped songs. In the early days of political dialogue through music, Bob Dylan's poetry is indispensable.
On April 8, 2008, the Pulitzer Special Prize was announced to Bob Dylan. He received the award for his special influence on pop culture and his "lyrical compositions".
US President Barack Obama awarded him the National Medal of Arts in his absence in 2009 . Live in 1966 (The Royal Albert Hall Concert) was included in The Wire's "100 Records That Set the World on Fire (While No One Was Listening)" . In 2011 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .
In 2012, Dylan was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom . In 2013 he was admitted to the American Academy of Arts and Letters , but only as an honorary member for life, as the academy could not agree whether he should be more of a musician or a writer.
On May 25, 2013, the spring general assembly of the Berlin Academy of the Arts accepted him as a new member in the Film and Media Art section.
In November 2013, Dylan received the French Order of the Legion of Honor despite the rejection of the Order's Grand Chancellor, Jean-Louis Georgelin . At the award ceremony, Minister of Culture Aurélie Filippetti praised the singer as a unique embodiment of the “subversive power of culture that can change people and the world”.
On October 13, 2016, the Swedish Academy announced its decision to award Bob Dylan the Nobel Prize in Literature as the first singer-songwriter and poet "for his poetic new creations in the great American song tradition". Even a week after the award was announced, the Nobel Prize Academy failed to get in touch with Bob Dylan. Two weeks after the award was announced, Dylan said the award was an honor. If possible, he would receive it himself. On November 16, he canceled his participation in the December 10 award ceremony. On behalf of the artist Patti Smith tookfor Bob Dylan in Stockholm for the Nobel Prize. She wore the Bob Dylan song A Hard Rains A-Gonna Fall to the award ceremonyfrom 1962. Dylan had the banquet address sent in writing so that it could be delivered by US Ambassador to Sweden, Azita Raji. In it he describes his surprise and his thanks for the fact that the committee answered the question of whether his songs were literature that he had never asked himself in this way. On April 1, 2017, Dylan accepted the award in Stockholm at a meeting with members of the academy and in camera. The musician and poet was in the Swedish capital for a concert. Shortly before the deadline on June 10, 2017, he delivered the award speech, which he had recorded on June 4, 2017 in Los Angeles. In it he speaks, underlined by piano music, about his relationship to literature and his formative role models.
He is the second person to receive a Nobel Prize and an Oscar after George Bernard Shaw .
The Rolling Stone lists Dylan in second place of the 100 greatest musicians (before him only the Beatles are placed as a group), in seventh place of the 100 best singers and in first place of the 100 best songwriters of all time .
- Bob Dylan (1962)
- The Freewheelin 'Bob Dylan (1963)
- The Times They Are a-Changin ' (1964)
- Another Side of Bob Dylan (1964)
- Bringing It All Back Home (1965)
- Highway 61 Revisited (1965)
- Blonde on Blonde (1966)
- John Wesley Harding (1967)
- Nashville Skyline (1969)
- Self Portrait (1970)
- New Morning (1970)
- Pat Garrett & Billy the Kid (1973)
- Dylan - A Fool Such as I (1973)
- Planet Waves (1974, with The Band )
- Blood on the Tracks (1975)
- The Basement Tapes (1975, with The Band)
- Desire (1976)
- Street Legal (1978)
- Slow Train Coming (1979)
- Saved (1980)
- Shot of Love (1981)
- Infidels (1983)
- Empire Burlesque (1985)
- Knocked Out Loaded (1986)
- Down in the Groove (1988)
- Oh Mercy (1989)
- Under the Red Sky (1990)
- Good As I Been to You (1992)
- World Gone Wrong (1993)
- Time Out of Mind (1997)
- "Love and Theft" (2001)
- Modern Times (2006)
- Together Through Life (2009)
- Christmas in the Heart (2009)
- Tempest (2012)
- Shadows in the Night (2015)
- Fallen Angels (2016)
- Triplicate (2017)
- Rough and Rowdy Ways (2020)
- Before the Flood (1974, with The Band)
- Hard Rain (1976)
- At Budokan (1978)
- Real Live (1984)
- Dylan & The Dead (1989, with Grateful Dead )
- The 30th Anniversary Concert Celebration (1993)
- MTV Unplugged (1995)
- Bob Dylan Live 1961-2000 (2001, Japan only)
- Live at the Gaslight 1962 (2005)
- Live at Carnegie Hall 1963 (2005)
- Bob Dylan in Concert - Brandeis University 1963 (2011)
- Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits (1967)
- Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. 2 (1971)
- More Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits (Double LP) (1971)
- Masterpieces (1978; released in Japan, Australia, and New Zealand only)
- Biographer (1985)
- Subterranean Homesick Blues (CD, 1989)
- Bob Dylan's Greatest Hits Vol. 3 (1994)
- The Best of Bob Dylan (1997)
- The Best of Bob Dylan Vol. 2 (2000)
- The Essential Bob Dylan (released in 2000 as a "Special Limited Edition")
- The Ultimate Collection (2001)
- The Best of Bob Dylan (2005, US only)
- DYLAN (October 1, 2007)
- Bob Dylan All Time Best (2011)
The Bootleg Series
Official releases of archive material that for a long time was only available as bootleg or not at all:
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 1-3 (1991), Rare & Unreleased, 1961-1991
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Live 1966 (1998), The “Royal Albert Hall” Concert
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 5: Live 1975 (2002), Rolling Thunder Revue , see also "Renaldo and Clara"
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 6: Live 1964 (2004), Concert at Philharmonic Hall, including duets with Joan Baez
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 7 (2005), No Direction Home, soundtrack to Martin Scorsese 's film of the same name
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 8 (2008), Tell Tale Signs: Rare and Unreleased from 1989 to 2006
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 9 (2010), The Witmark Demos: 1962–1964
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 10 (2013), Another Self Portrait : 1969–1971
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 11 (2014), The Basement Tapes Complete: 1967
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 12 (2015), The Cutting Edge 1965-1966
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 13 (2017), Trouble No More 1979–1981
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 14 (2018), More Blood, More Tracks, Out-takes von Blood on the Tracks
- The Bootleg Series Vol. 15 (2019), Travelin 'Thru 1967-1969
Outside of the Bootleg Series, the box The 1966 Live Recordings was released in 2016 , a collection of all concerts recorded in 1966 (36 CDs).
- 2006 to 2009 for the Sirius satellite radio station : Theme Time Radio Hour for subscribers to listen to at www.siriusxm.com/deeptracks .
- 2008: Dylan - The times they are a-changing ; biographical-musical revue by Heiner Kondschak (direction and musical direction)
- 1967: Dont Look Back . Documentary about Dylan's tour of Great Britain in 1965. Director: DA Pennebaker
- 1972: Eat the Document . Documentation of Dylan's 1966 tour of England. Directed by Bob Dylan and Howard Alk, camera: Bob Dylan and DA Pennebaker
- 1973: Pat Garrett chases Billy the Kid (Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid). Soundtrack: Bob Dylan; Dylan plays the "alias"
- 1978: Renaldo and Clara (Renaldo and Clara)
- 1987 Hearts of Fire, with Rupert Everett and Fiona, directed by Richard Marquand
- 1990: Catchfire . Dylan plays an artist in a small role. The cast also includes Dennis Hopper , Jodie Foster , Fred Ward , Joe Pesci , Dean Stockwell , John Turturro and Vincent Price .
- 2003: Masked and Anonymous . Dylan stars alongside Penélope Cruz , Jeff Bridges , Jessica Lange , Angela Bassett , John Goodman , Val Kilmer , Michael Paul Chan, Ed Harris and Fred Ward . Dylan plays a released musician, the soundtrack contains many Dylan songs.
- 2005: No Direction Home - Bob Dylan . Bob Dylan portrait by Martin Scorsese .
- 2007: The other Side of the Mirror. Three concerts at the Newport Festival from 1963 to 1965. Documentary by Murray Lerner .
- 2007: Todd Haynes made the film I'm Not There in Montreal in July 2006 , which had its world premiere on September 4, 2007 at the Venice International Film Festival . Bob Dylan did not act himself, he is played by various actors such as Richard Gere or Cate Blanchett .
Tarantula. The Macmillan Company, 1971. Reprint: Scribner, New York 2004. ISBN 0-7432-3041-8 .
- Wolfgang Smejkal (Ed.): Tarantula / Tarantel. Bilingual edition. From the American by Carl Weissner . Hannibal, St. Andrä-WIERT 1995. ISBN 3-85445-100-8 . (In the Reine: Hannibal media classics ; rock biographies, rock history.)
- Tarantula . From the American by Carl Weissner. Revised and provided with an afterword by Heinrich Detering. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-455-00116-7 .
Writings and Drawings . Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1973.
- Texts and drawings . Bilingual edition. From the American by Carl Weissner. Two thousand and one, Frankfurt am Main 1975.
Lyrics 1962-1985 (Includes all of Writings and Drawings. Plus 120 new Writings). Alfred A. Knopf, New York 1985, ISBN 978-0394542782 .
- Lyrics 1962–1985. Bilingual edition. Edited by Walter Hartmann. From the American by Carl Weissner. Two thousand and one, Frankfurt am Main 1987.
Lyrics - 1962-2001. Simon & Schuster, London 2004, ISBN 978-0-7432-3101-5 .
- Lyrics 1962-2001 . All lyrics. Bilingual edition. From the American by Gisbert Haefs. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-455-01591-3 .
- Chronicles, Volume One. Simon & Schuster, New York 2004, ISBN 0-7434-7864-9 .
- The Lyrics - 1961–2012. Edition November 2016: annotated, illustrated. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2016, ISBN 978-1451648768 .
The Nobel Lecture . Simon & Schuster, New York 2017, ISBN 978-1501189401 .
- The Nobel Prize Lecture . From the American by Heinrich Detering. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-455-00343-7 .
Selected texts in individual editions
- Eleven Outlined Epitaphs / Elf designs for my funeral motto. Bilingual edition. From the American by Wolf Biermann . Kiepenheuer and Witsch, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-462-03306-9 .
- Hollywood photo rhetoric. The Lost Manuscript . With photographs by Barry Feinstein . Simon & Schuster, New York City, USA 2010, ISBN 978-1-4391-1255-7 . (English.)
- Blowin 'in the wind. With pictures by Jon J. Muth, an afterword by Greil Marcus and CD. Sterling, New York 2011, ISBN 978-1-4027-8002-8 . (English.)
Translations into German
- Bob Dylan: Poetry Album 189 . Bilingual edition, Verlag Neues Leben, Berlin 1983, ISBN 90-805897-6-4 .
- Bob Dylan: Lyrics 1962–1985. German by Carl Weissner and Walter Hartmann (line by line and "true to rhyme" comparison of the English and German texts), Zweiausendeins, Frankfurt 1987
- Bob Dylan. (= Poetry album . 189/2). Poetry selection and rewrite by Heinrich Detering , graphic by Richard Lindner . Märkischer Verlag, Wilhelmshorst 2016.
- Bob Dylan: Planet Waves. Poems and prose , translated and commented by Heinrich Detering. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 2017, ISBN 978-3-455-00118-1 .
- The Drawn Blank Series (watercolors and gouaches). Prestel, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-7913-3944-3 . (On the occasion of the exhibition: Bob Dylan. The Drawn Blank Series, in the Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz from October 28, 2007 to February 3, 2008; edited by Ingrid Mössinger and Kerstin Drechsel, translated by Irmgard Hölscher and Eva Moldenhauer.)
- The Brazil Series. Prestel, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-7913-5098-1 . (With contributions by John Elderfield and Kasper Monrad.)
- alphabetically, author-related -
- Günter Amendt : Reunion sundown. Jokerman 84 revisits Highway 61. A Robertage about Dylan's 1984 European tour. Two thousand and one, Frankfurt am Main 1985.
- Günter Amendt: The never ending tour. Günter Amendt on Bob Dylan. Konkret-Literatur-Verlag, Hamburg 1991, ISBN 3-89458-104-2 .
- Günter Amendt: Back to the Sixties. Bob Dylan at the sixtieth. Konkret-Literatur-Verlag, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 978-3-89458-199-2 .
- Olaf Benzinger: Bob Dylan. His music and his life. dtv, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-423-24548-4 .
- Olaf Benzinger: Bob Dylan. The story of his music. dtv, Munich 2011, ISBN 978-3-423-34673-3 .
- Gottfried Blumenstein: Mr. Tambourine Man. Bob Dylan's life and music. 2nd Edition. Henschel Verlag, Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-89487-214-4 .
- Betsy Bowden: Performed Literature. Words and Music by Bob Dylan. Indiana University Press, Bloomington 1982, ISBN 9780253343475 .
- Heinrich Detering : Bob Dylan. 4th edition. Reclam, Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-15-011053-9 .
- Heinrich Detering: The voices from the underworld. Bob Dylan's Mystery Games. CH Beck, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-406-68876-8 .
- Michael Endepols: Bob Dylan from A to Z. Reclam, Ditzingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-020225-8 .
- Michael Gray : Song & Dance Man III - The Art of Bob Dylan. Continuum International, London / New York 2000, ISBN 978-0826451507 .
- Michael Gray: The Bob Dylan Encyclopedia . Continuum International, London / New York 2006, ISBN 0-8264-6933-7 .
- David Hajdu: Positively 4th Street - The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Fariña and Richard Fariña . Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York 2001, ISBN 978-0312680695 .
- Clinton Heylin: Bob Dylan: A Life in Stolen Moments - Day by Day, 1941-1995 . Schirmer Trade Books, 1996, ISBN 978-0028646763 .
- Clinton Heylin: Dylan: Behind Closed Doors - The Recording Sessions, 1960–1994 . Penguin Books, London 1996, ISBN 978-0140257496 .
- Clinton Heylin: Bob Dylan: Behind The Shades - The 20th Anniversary Edition. Faber and Faber, London 2011, ISBN 978-0-571-27240-2 .
- Clinton Heylin: Trouble In Mind - Bob Dylan's Gospel Years - What Really Happened. Lesser Gods, New York, 2017, ISBN 978-1944713294 .
- Clinton Heylin: Dylan. Gospel. The harsh tones of the real story . Translated from the English by Christian Rendel. Fontis-Verlag, Kreuzlingen 2018, ISBN 978-3-03848-147-8 .
- Axel Honneth , Peter Kemper , Richard Klein (Eds.): Bob Dylan. A congress. Results of the international Bob Dylan Congress 2006 in Frankfurt am Main. Suhrkamp Verlag (edition suhrkamp 2507), Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-12507-6 , table of contents .
- Richard Klein: The Bob Dylan Challenge. In: Mercury. German magazine for European thinking. 56 (2002), No. 643, pp. 1018-1024.
- Richard Klein: Dylan in Manchester 1966. Aesthetic-political background to a scandal. In: Music & Aesthetics . 7 (2003), , No. 27, pp. 5-29.
- Richard Klein: Crusade as an art explosion. Bob Dylan's turn to gospel music. In: WestEnd. New journal for social research . 3 (2006), H. 1, pp. 146-157.
- Richard Klein: My Name It Is Nothin '. Bob Dylan. Not pop, not art. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-936872-45-7 .
- Richard Klein: The narrative of Bob Dylan's voice. In: Christian Bielefeldt, Udo Dahmen, Rolf Grossmann (eds.): PopMusicology. Perspectives in Pop Music Studies. Transcript, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89942-603-8 , pp. 220-240.
- Walter Liederschmitt : Bob Dylan - all in all. éditions trèves, Trier 1992, ISBN 3-88081-275-6 .
- Greil Marcus: Bob Dylan by Greil Marcus . PublicAffairs, New York 2010, ISBN 978-1-58648-831-4 .
- Greil Marcus on Bob Dylan . From the American by Fritz Schneider. Edel Books, Hamburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8419-0137-8 .
- Philippe Margotin, Jean-Michel Guesdon: Bob Dylan. All songs. The stories behind the tracks. Delius Klasing, Bielefeld 2015, ISBN 978-3-667-10286-7 .
- Tino Markworth: Bob Dylan . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-50560-7 .
- Wilfrid Mellers: A Darker Shade of Pale. A backdrop to Bob Dylan. Faber and Faber, London 1984, ISBN 0-571-13345-2 .
- Petra Mittelstenscheidt: Dylanfotos. In: Music & Aesthetics. 13 (2009), No. 50, p. 99 f.
- Petra Mittelstenscheidt: Bob Dylan - voice and face. In: Music & Aesthetics. 13 (2009), No. 51, pp. 31-40.
- Ingrid Mössinger / Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz (Ed.): Bob Dylan Face Value . Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2016, ISBN 978-3-95498-237-0 .
- Rolling Stone : Bob Dylan: 40 Years of Rolling Stone Interviews. The 100 best songs. Rolling Stone special edition, Axel Springer Mediahouse, Berlin 2013, .
- Jens Rosteck : Bob Dylan - life, work, effect. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-518-18218-8 .
- Giaco Schiesser : The soundtrack of life. Bob Dylan's Theme Time Radio Hour and the Scary America. In: Olaf Knellessen, Giaco Schiesser, Daniel Strassberg (eds.): Seriality. Sciences, arts, media. Turia + Kant, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-85132-766-3 .
- Mathias R. Schmidt: Bob Dylan's “message songs” from the sixties and the Anglo-American tradition of socially critical songs. (= European university publications. Series 14: Anglo-Saxon language and literature. Volume 108; Dissertation from the University of Marburg.) Lang, Frankfurt am Main / Bern 1982, ISBN 3-8204-7220-7 .
- Mathias R. Schmidt: Bob Dylan and the sixties. Departure and departure. Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1983, ISBN 3-596-22987-1 .
- Siegfried Schmidt-Joos : Bob Dylan. Songs on the tightrope. In: Siegfried Schmidt-Joos: My Back Pages. Idols and freaks, death and legend in pop music. Lukas Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-936872-19-8 .
- Stephen Scobie: aka Bob Dylan. Red Deer College, Red Deer 1991.
- Robert Shelton: Bob Dylan: His Life and Music. Goldmann, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-442-32541-2 .
- Robert Shelton: Bob Dylan. No Direction Home. His life, his music 1941–1978. Translated from the English by Gisbert Haefs . Edel Germany, Hamburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8419-0065-4 .
- Howard Sounes: Down the Highway: The Life of Bob Dylan . Black Swan, London 2001, ISBN 0-552-99929-6 , (English).
- Klaus Theweleit (editor and foreword): How Does It Feel. The Bob Dylan Reader. Rowohlt Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-87134-718-4 .
- Knut Wenzel : Hobo Pilgrim. Bob Dylan's journey through the night. Matthias Grünewald Verlag, Ostfildern 2011, ISBN 978-3-7867-2876-4 .
Sean Wilentz : Bob Dylan in America . Doubleday, New York 2010, ISBN 978-0-385-52988-4 .
- Sean Wilentz: Bob Dylan and America . From the American by Bernhard Schmid. Reclam, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-15-010869-7 .
- Paul Williams: Forever Young. The music of Bob Dylan 1974–1986. Foreword by Günter Amendt. From the American by Kathrin Razum . Palmyra, Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 3-930378-66-3 .
- Willi Winkler : Bob Dylan. One life . Rowohlt, Reinbek 2011, ISBN 978-3-499-62716-3 .
- Harm-Peer Zimmermann , Sonja Windmüller (Ed.): Sound of the Wunderhorn. Cultural studies responses to Bob Dylan . Panama Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-938714-30-0 .
- Rainer Bratfisch ao (texts): Bob Dylan: Pictures of a life. The early years . Schwarzkopf & Schwarzkopf Verlag, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-86265-045-3 .
- Barry Feinstein, Daniel Kramer, Jim Marshall: Early Dylan. Photographs. Foreword by Arlo Guthrie . Schirmer / Mosel, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-88814-508-2 .
- Jerry Schatzberg (texts and photographs): Thin Wild Mercury. Genesis Publications, Guildford 2006, ISBN 0-904351-99-8 .
- Richard Williams (Texts): Bob Dylan: A Pictorial Biography . Heyne, Munich 1992, ISBN 978-3453059238 .
- Literature by and about Bob Dylan in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Bob Dylan in the German Digital Library
- Bob Dylan in the Internet Movie Database (English)
- Bob Dylan in the nndb (English)
- Discography of Bob Dylan at Discogs (English)
- www.bobdylan.com - official website with the lyrics and short audio samples of all Dylan songs (English)
- The World's Only Bob Dylan Radio Station
- Essays on Dylan, chords and lyrics, analyzes of harmony and lyrics (English)
- Music Videos: Bob Dylan. In: MTV Germany , accessed on April 5, 2017
- Like a rolling stone . Info graphic on Dylan's stations. In: Die Zeit , No. 23, May 25, 2016, (PDF)
- Current news about Bob Dylan (English)
- Annotated literature list, Dylan Conference 1998, interview list (with links)
- Barry Graves , Siegfried Schmidt-Joos , Bernward Halbscheffel: Rock-Lexikon . Special edition of the revised and expanded new edition from 1998. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-499-61588-6 , p. 286ff.
- Press release: The 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature is awarded to Bob Dylan. (PDF) In: Swedish Academy . October 13, 2016, accessed January 9, 2017 .
- Christiane Schlötzer : The lost relative from America. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 19, 2010.
- Deniz Göktürk, in: Sabine Hake, Barbara Mennel - "Turkish German Cinema in the New Millennium: Sites, Sounds, and Screens." Berghahn Books, 2012, page 206. Original work: Dylan, Bob. 2005. Chronicles. Vol. 1. New York: Simon & Schuster. Quote: " [My grandmother] ... originally, ... 'd come from Turkey, sailed from Trabzon, a port town ... Her family was from Kagizman, town in Turkey near the Armenian border, and the family name had been Kirghiz. (Dylan 2005: 92-93). "
- In his 2004 autobiography Chronicles , Dylan wrote that his paternal grandparents were Sephardic from Istanbul ; his grandmother came from the Turkish city of Kars , his grandfather from Trabzon on the Black Sea coast .
- So in Martin Scorsese's documentary No Direction Home - Bob Dylan
- Pod Dylan: Pod Dylan # 122 - Last Thoughts on Woody Guthrie on Apple Podcasts, 1:26. Retrieved June 11, 2020 (American English).
- Tom Wilmeth: The Wilmeth Way: Essay: "Further Thoughts on Bob Dylan's 'Last Thoughts'". In: The Wilmeth Way. January 24, 2011, accessed April 13, 2020 .
- Still On The Road 1963. Retrieved April 10, 2020 .
- "The rustling of the paper can be heard in the recording." June Skinner Sawyers: Bob Dylan: New York. Roaring Forties Press, p. 52.
- Bob Dylan: First Steps in New York. ( Memento from July 10, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ). In: Historio , April 2011.
- Robert Shelton: Bob Dylan: A Distinctive Folk-Song Stylist. ( Memento from August 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). In: The New York Times , September 29, 1961, (PDF; 107 kB), beginning of the article.
- Hans-Peter Rodenberg: Subversive Fantasy. Studies on the poetry of the American counterculture 1960-1975. Giessen, Focus Verlag 1983, IBN 3-88349-253.1, p. 121.
- Two of the three “electrified” songs played at the time can be heard and seen in Murray Lerner's film The Other Side Of The Mirror - Bob Dylan Live At The Newport Folk Festival 1963–1965 .
- "I was very, very dependent". In: Spiegel Online . May 23, 2011, accessed May 12, 2019 .
- Mw: Bob Dylan Live 1975: The Rolling Thunder Revue. ( Memento from February 20, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: Kulturnews .
- Max Dax : The Last Hippie Hurricane. In: Spiegel Online , December 4, 2002.
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|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Zimmerman, Robert Allen (real name); Frost, Jack (pseudonym)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||American folk and rock musician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||May 24, 1941|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Duluth, Minnesota|