James Joyce [ ˌdʒeɪmz ˈdʒɔɪs ], fully James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (born 2 February 1882 in Rathgar , Dublin – † 13 January 1941 in Zürich , Switzerland ) was an Irish writer . Especially his groundbreaking works Dubliner , Ulysses and Finnegans Wake helped him to become well known. He is considered one of the most important representatives of literary modernism . James Joyce lived mainly in Dublin, Trieste , Parisand Zurich.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was born on February 2, 1882, the first child of John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane Murray in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar . Of his twelve siblings, two died of typhus . Originally from Fermoy in County Cork , his father formerly owned a small saltworks and lime works . Both his father and paternal grandfather had married into a wealthy family. In 1887 his father was hired by the Dublin Corporation as a tax collector. The family was able to move to the up-and-coming town of Bray , twelve kilometers from Dublin . At the same time, Joyce was bitten by a dog and developed a lifelong fear of dogs. Joyce also suffered from a fear of thunderstorms, which a deeply religious aunt had described to him as a sign of God's wrath.
In 1891, nine-year-old Joyce wrote Et Tu Healy , a poem about the death of Charles Stewart Parnell . His father was critical of the Catholic Church 's treatment of Parnell and its failures in relation to Irish Home Rule . In his later years, Joyce had the poem printed and sent a copy to the Vatican Library . In November of that year, John Joyce was listed in the Stubs Gazette , an official bankruptcy record, and suspended from duty. Although John Joyce received a pension in 1893, the family slipped into poverty in the following years, mainly due to heavy alcohol consumption and John Joyce's poor financial planning.
From 1888 James Joyce attended Clongowes Wood College, a boarding school in Clane , County Kildare , run by the Jesuits . In 1892 he had to leave school after his father could no longer pay the school fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly attended the O'Connel School in Dublin run by the Christian Brothers . In 1893 Joyce received a place at the Jesuit-run Belvedere College in Dublin. On the part of the Jesuits, there was an expectation that Joyce would join the order. Joyce rejected Catholicism from the age of 16, although the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas influenced him throughout his life.
In 1898 Joyce entered the recently established University College Dublin , where he studied modern languages, particularly English, French and Italian. He first became active in literary and theatrical circles. The first published work was the article Ibsen's New Drama in 1900 . Henrik Ibsen then sent Joyce a letter of thanks. During his university days, Joyce authored several articles and at least two extant plays. Many of his friends at the university became role models for the characters in his works. Joyce was an active member of Dublin University's Literary and Historical Society and submitted his Drama and Life magazine to it in 1900 .
After graduating, Joyce moved to Paris under the pretense of wanting to study medicine, where he devoted the hard-earned maintenance of his family to a hedonistic lifestyle. Joyce returned to Dublin after what he thought his mother's liver cirrhosis turned out to be cancer in April 1903. Fearing her son's ungodliness, she unsuccessfully asked him to take Communion and confess. She fell unconscious and died on August 13. James Joyce had previously refused to pray at his deathbed with the rest of the family. After her death, Joyce continued his heavy drinking while the family's situation deteriorated. In 1904, Joyce won the bronze medal in the tenor competition at the Feis Ceoil music festival . On January 7, 1904, Joyce attempted to publish an essay entitled Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , which was turned down by the freethinking magazine Dana . On his twenty-second birthday, Joyce decided to revise the tale and publish it under the title Stephen Hero . After further revision, the book was published under the title Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man .
On June 16, 1904, Joyce met his future partner Nora Barnacle for the first time, Joyce later set the action of his novel Ulysses on this date. After a drinking spree, Joyce got into a scuffle over a misunderstanding, prompting Alfred H. Hunter, an acquaintance of his father, to take him home. Hunter was said to be Jewish but to have a non-believing wife. Hunter is one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the protagonist of Ulysses . Joyce befriended Oliver St. John Gogarty , who formed the basis for the character of Buck Mulligan in Ulysses . After Joyce had stayed six nights at Gogarty's Martello Tower in Dún Laoghaire , the two men got into an argument, during which Gogarty shot a number of pans hanging over Joyce's bed with a pistol. Joyce walked to Dublin at night, where he stayed with relatives. A friend picked up Joyce's belongings from Martello Tower the following day. Shortly thereafter, he moved to mainland Europe with Nora Barnacle.
Trieste and Pola 1904–1915
Joyce and Barnacle went into self-imposed exile. They first tried to gain a foothold in Zurich, where Joyce believed he had arranged a teaching post at the Berlitz language school through an agent in England. It turned out that the agent had been deceived, but the director of the school sent him to Trieste with the promise of a post . After it turned out that again there was no vacancy, Almidano Artifonti, director of the Berlitz language school in Trieste, placed him in Pola , an Austro-Hungarian naval base in Istria , where Joyce mainly taught naval officers from 1904 to 1905. After a spy ring was discovered in 1905, all foreigners were expelled from the city.
With Artifoni's support, he moved back to Trieste for the next ten years and began teaching English there. James Joyce, the voluntary exile, mainly did in Trieste what one would like to recommend to every tourist today: He wandered through the city, soaked up the atmosphere during his inquiries and walks, sat in the coffee houses and drank with workers in the dive bars . The sombre and golden impression of the Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò fascinated Joyce so much that he incorporated it into the Dublin tales. But he also sought inspiration in the brothels in Via della Pescheria. There are literary scholars who believe that Joyce was memorialized in Ulysses in Trieste and not in Dublin.
From 1905 to 1906 he lived in Trieste at Via San Nicolo 30 on the 2nd floor, and Barnacle gave birth there on July 2, 1905, their first child, their son Giorgio. Among his students in Trieste was Ettore Schmitz, known as Italo Svevo , whom Joyce first met in 1907. He had a long-standing friendship with Schmitz, and the two authors also judged each other. Schmitz, a Jewish freethinker who married into a Catholic family of Jewish descent, is considered the main model for Leopold Bloom. Schmitz advised Joyce on many of the details about the Jewish faith that Joyce used in Ulysses . After Giorgio was born, Joyce persuaded his brother Stanislaus to move to Trieste to also teach at the language school. In justifying his request, Joyce stated that one could live a more interesting life in Trieste in his company than that of a secretary in Dublin. In fact, Joyce had hoped for financial support from his brother. Stanislaus allowed James Joyce to receive his salary to "simplify things". The relationship between Stanislaus and James Joyce was strained throughout their stay in Trieste. The cause of the conflicts were James Joyce's careless handling of money and his high alcohol consumption. The conflicts reached their climax in July 1910. Also in 1906 Joyce completed work on Dubliners . In the years that followed he dealt with Ulysses , which was planned in pre-forms as part of Dubliners .
After adjusting to life in Trieste, Joyce moved to Rome later in 1906, where he worked in a bank. Earlier in 1907, when Rome displeased him, he moved back to Trieste. His daughter Lucia Joyce was born in the summer of 1907. In the summer of 1909 he visited his father in Dublin with his son Giorgio and prepared the publication of Dubliners . In Galway he visited the parents of his partner Nora Barnacle for the first time. While preparing for his return, he managed to persuade his sister Eva to move to Trieste, where she would help Barnacle with the household chores. After a month in Trieste he traveled back to Dublin, where he tried to open a cinema as a representative of a cinema owner. The venture was successful, but disbanded after his departure. His sister Eileen traveled with him to Trieste. While Eva Joyce returned to Dublin after a few years, Eileen spent the rest of her life in mainland Europe, where she married František Schaurek, a Czech banker.
In the summer of 1912, Joyce stayed briefly in Dublin to promote the publication of Dubliners, which had been hampered by years of conflict with his publisher George Roberts. Unable to achieve success, on the return journey he composed the poem Gas from a Burner , an open attack on Roberts. Joyce never returned to Ireland, despite repeated requests from his father and invitations from various Irish writer friends, including William Butler Yeats . Joyce tried several times to start his own business, including opening a cinema in Dublin and importing Irish tweed fabric to Trieste, which ultimately never came to fruition. His income was well below what he had earned as a teacher at the Berlitz language school and through private tuition. During his stay in Trieste, Joyce fell ill with an eye condition that required numerous treatments and cures.
Zurich and Trieste 1915–1920
In 1915 Joyce moved to Zurich because, as a British citizen, he was threatened with imprisonment as an enemy alien in Austria-Hungary during the First World War . When leaving the country, he was often dependent on the support of his private students. In Zurich he came into contact with August Suter , Siegfried Lang and Frank Budgen , who advised and supported him in writing Ulysses and Finnegans Wake . Also in Zurich, through the mediation of Ezra Pound , he came into contact with the English feminist and publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver , who supported him financially for the next 25 years, which meant that he was no longer dependent on teaching. After the end of the war, Joyce returned to Trieste, but now no longer felt at home, also because the city was now Italian-national and economically changed. In retrospect, before 1915 Joyce had come into contact with a cosmopolitan, prosperous port city in a multi-ethnic state in Trieste and many parameters had changed after 1918, whereby he later described the vanished state of Austria-Hungary as “They called the Austrian Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires.
In 1916 Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was published. The relationship with his brother Stanislaus, who had been interned in an Austro-Hungarian prisoner of war camp because of his pro-Italian political stance, was very strained. In 1918, Joyce published his only surviving play, Exiles . Several volumes of poetry followed in the next few years.
Paris and Zurich 1920-1941
In 1920, at an invitation from Ezra Pound, Joyce traveled to Paris for a week, where he lived for the next 20 years. On February 2, 1922, his 40th birthday, Joyce completed work on Ulysses after a self-imposed deadline . Working on Ulysses had so exhausted him that he did not write for more than a year. On March 10, 1923, he wrote in a letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver that he had begun the novel Finnegans Wake on March 9 as the first text after Ulysses . By 1926 he had completed the first two parts of the book. In the years that followed, he continued to work on this work, initially described as a work in progress , but in the 1930s his productivity waned. Maria and Eugene Jolas supported James Joyce while he was writing Finnegans Wake . In their literary magazine Transitions they published various parts of Finnegans Wake under the heading Work in Progress . It is believed that without the constant support of the Jolas couple, Joyce would not have completed or published many of his works.
In 1931 Joyce married Barnacle in London. In the same year his father died. During this time, Joyce traveled frequently to Switzerland, where he received treatment for his eye condition and where his daughter Lucia, who Joyce said was suffering from schizophrenia , was treated. Lucia was examined by Carl Gustav Jung , among others , who, after reading Ulysses , had come to the conclusion that James Joyce also suffered from schizophrenia. Details of the relationship between James Joyce and his daughter are not known, as the grandson Stephen Joyce burned several thousand letters between Lucia and James Joyce that came to him after Lucia's death in 1982. Stephen Joyce stated that he only destroyed letters from his Aunt Lucia that were addressed to him and his wife and were written after the death of his grandparents.
After the Wehrmacht invaded France and occupied Paris in June 1940, Joyce wanted to return to Zurich. However, the Swiss authorities hesitated to admit the famous man. After months of tough negotiations between the immigration police and a small circle of his admirers, the entry permit was granted in December. On January 11, 1941, he was taken to the Red Cross Hospital in Zurich with severe upper abdominal pain, where a perforated duodenal ulcer was diagnosed and treated. After initially improving, his condition worsened the following day. Despite multiple transfusions, Joyce passed out. On January 13, 1941, he woke up at around 2 a.m. and asked a nurse to fetch his wife and son. Joyce died 15 minutes later.
He was buried in a simple grave in the Fluntern Cemetery in Zurich. Although two senior Irish diplomats were in Switzerland at the time of the funeral, no Irish official was present at the funeral. The Irish government refused Nora Barnacle's request for the transfer of the bones. During the preparations for James Joyce's funeral, a Catholic priest tried to convince Barnacle of the need for a funeral service. She declined a Mass because she "couldn't do this to Joyce." The Swiss tenor Max Meili sang "Addio terra, addio cielo" from Claudio Monteverdi's opera L'Orfeo at the funeral .
Nora Barnacle lived in modest circumstances in Zurich until her death in 1951. She too was buried on Fluntern. In 1966 the two graves were combined in a grave of honor erected by the city of Zurich. Their son Giorgio Joyce († 1976) and his wife Asta Jahnke-Osterwalder Joyce († 1993) were also buried in the honorary grave.
His first published book is the volume of poems Chamber Music (1907) , whose poems have often been set to music and recorded . Of all the settings that Joyce became aware of, he liked those by Geoffrey Molyneux Palmer best, which is why Joyce agreed to publish them with the composer Palmer and the publisher Jan Slivinski around 1927/28. To Joyce's regret, the publication did not materialize, which is why Palmer's settings were only published in 1993 from the estate.
It was not until 1914 that the volume of stories Dubliners (German: Dubliner ) followed, a collection of fifteen stories set in Dublin at the turn of the century. In terms of language, the book remains largely conventional, but the first publication in The Irish Homestead newspaper was discontinued after a few stories. The book, completed around 1907, did not find a publisher until 1914. The introductory story, The Sisters , is particularly revealing as it echoes central themes of the cycle in an overture-like manner. The short story The Dead is considered one of the most brilliant short stories in the English language .
Dubliner provides critical insights into Dublin and Irish urban society at the time. Joyce shows a country caught between national awakening and colonial despondency, aspiring bourgeoisie and emigration , the cramped Dublin homes and families and the longing for the “wide world”. At the end of the story, many of the characters are back where they started.
In 1918 the drama Exiles appeared , a largely autobiographical play about themes such as jealousy and trust.
A portrait of the artist as a young man
Two years later the first novel appeared, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (English A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , in the first translation by Georg Goyert : Jugendbildnis ). This is a new treatment of the themes of his earlier , but only fragmentarily preserved and posthumously published work Stephen Hero .
In the five chapters of the novel, James Joyce describes the childhood, youth and adolescence of Stephen Dedalus, who found an artistic identity in conflicts with family and spiritual and secular authorities in turn-of-the-century Ireland. Parallels between the biography of the literary figure Stephen Dedalus and Joyce's youth are obvious but occasionally misleading. In this portrait , a Catholic youth in Dublin is described as an example , which ends up in voluntary exile .
Joyce's characteristic style of writing, which invents new words and puts noises into words onomatopoeic, emerges more clearly in this work than in Dubliner . However, this determines the overall impression far less than in the later works. Stephen Dedalus reappears in Ulysses as one of the main characters.
Joyce's most famous work is the novel Ulysses , excerpts of which were preprinted in The Little Review 1918–1920, and published as a book in 1922 by the Parisian bookshop Shakespeare and Company . It was written between 1914 and 1921. Harriet Weaver submitted the first chapters to the Hogarth Press in April 1918 , but the publisher and writer couple Virginia and Leonard Woolf could not decide to publish them because they did not want to because of the partly obscene content found Drucker who was willing to take the risk. Joyce's Ulysses influenced the history of the modern novel just as significantly as Marcel Proust 's A la recherche du temps perdu (German: In Search of Lost Time ) (1913–1927).
Joyce's most significant contribution to modern literature was his use of the stream of consciousness , or inner monologue . Although Joyce did not invent this literary technique, it was the first to consistently apply it and significantly improve it. For example, the last chapter of the novel consists entirely of the thoughts of Marion ("Molly") Bloom, the wife of the main character Leopold Bloom, written in eight sentences without punctuation marks.
After the protagonist of the novel, the 16th of June (the novel only takes place on this one day and in the morning hours of the following in 1904 ) is now called Bloomsday in literary circles – also increasingly for tourist reasons .
The novel Finnegans Wake (1939) is considered, even more so than Ulysses , to be one of the most complicated literary works of the 20th century, both considered untranslatable. Nevertheless , Ulysses was translated into more than thirty languages, sometimes even several times. Finnegans Wake was only presented in a complete German translation in 1993, after German partial versions already existed before. Complete translations were also published in French (1982), Italian (1982), Japanese (1993 and another in 2004), Spanish (1997), Korean (1998) and Dutch (2002).
The so-called quarks , subatomic particles that make up part of matter, owe their name to a passage in the book . The extremely networked text of Finnegans Wake is considered a literary analogy to the semantic web of the internet. A German counterpart to this is in a certain sense Arno Schmidt's work Zettels Traum .
Incorrect work attributions
With the article “Politics and Cattle Disease” (1912) and the black-and-white photographs called “ Fluviana ” (1928), Joyce’s canon of works was long attributed to two works that have only recently been recognized and proven to be erroneous attributions.
Since 1974, the art historian Werner Spies , the Germanist Harald Weinrich and the art historian Christa-Maria Lerm Hayes have erroneously attributed the four “Fluviana” photographs published in the Paris avant-garde magazine transition in 1929 to James Joyce and his work. These pictures were taken as an opportunity to stylize Joyce as a concept or object artist, which he is not, since the photos of the floating debris exhibits were taken by the Salzburg painter, writer and art collector Adolph Johannes Fischer and the photographed showpieces and their designations by Johann Baptist Pinzinger, who exhibited the curious flotsam exhibits in his "Salzach Museum" in Raitenhaslach , which Joyce visited together with Fischer in the summer of 1928. The Joyce researcher Andreas Weigel has extensively documented that neither Joyce himself nor the editors of transition ever claimed that the "Fluviana" was Joyce's work.
"Politics and Cattle Disease"
Another misattribution was made by the well-known James Joyce biographer Richard Ellmann, who erroneously included in his edition of James Joyce: Critical Writings the newspaper article "Politics and Cattle Disease," which for decades was subsequently considered to be Joyce's work, and also in Kevin Barry's Edition James Joyce: Occasional, Critical and Political Writing .
The American Joyce researcher Terence Matthews was able to prove conclusively in 2007 that the text mentioned does not come from Joyce and should be deleted from his canon of works.
Effects in literature, music, film, astronomy and physics
Joyce's work became the object of humanistic study in all areas. His work influenced many authors including Hugh MacDiarmid , Samuel Beckett , Jorge Luis Borges , Flann O'Brien , Máirtín Ó Cadhain , Eimear McBride Salman Rushdie , Robert Anton Wilson and Joseph Campbell . A self-confessed Joyceaner was Anthony Burgess , author of A Clockwork Orange , who published an introduction to Joyce's Here comes everybody in 1962 , and in 1982 commissioned the BBC to compose a Broadway musical of Ulysses The Blooms of Dublin and has written.
The works of James Joyce have been adapted into over 50 film productions, mostly lesser-known television plays and short films. The first film and television adaptation of one of his works, The Boarding House as a teleplay, did not happen until 1956. Arguably the most famous and acclaimed Joyce film adaptation is The Dead (1987, after the short story The Dead ), director John Huston 's final film . Director Joseph Strick made the novel adaptations of Ulysses (1967) and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1977). 2003 saw the release of the film Bloom , an adaptation of Ulysses , starring Stephen Rea .
Joyce also left his mark on music. His life and work has not only inspired musicians such as Samuel Barber , Luciano Berio , Pierre Boulez , John Cage , Luigi Dallapiccola and Jan Steele to write compositions, but also numerous folk, jazz, pop and rock musicians, including Susanne Abbuehl , Joan Baez , Syd Barrett , Black 47, Kate Bush , Jefferson Airplane , Norma Winstone , Andy White and Robin Williamson (of the Incredible String Band ) were encouraged to score and explore musically.
The James Joyce Society was founded in February 1947 at the Gotham Book Mart in Manhattan. Its first member was T.S. Eliot , Joyce's bibliographer John Slocum became the president and Frances Steloff , owner and founder of the Gotham Book Mart , the treasurer.
Joyce's estate is managed in part by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas . The Harry Ransom Center holds several thousand manuscripts, pieces of correspondence, drafts, evidence, notes, fragments, poems, lyrics, scores, limericks, and translations by Joyce. The University of Buffalo has the largest single collection, with over ten thousand pages of manuscripts, notebooks, correspondence, and the like, and also has Joyce's private library, his passport, his glasses, and his walking stick.
In the original
- The Holy Office (1904)
- Chamber Music (1907)
- Gas from a Burner (1912)
- Dubliners (1914)
- A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York 1916, London 1917), published in Germany in 1926 under the title Jugendbildnis , re-titled A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man in 1972
- Exiles (London 1918)
- Ulysses (Paris 1922, Hamburg 1932, New York 1934, London 1936)
- Pomes Penyeach (Paris 1927)
- Collected Poems (1936)
- Finnegans Wake (London/New York 1939)
- Stephen Hero (1944)
- Letters (Vol. 1 1957; Vols. 2–3 1966)
- Critical Writings (1959)
- Giacomo Joyce (1968)
- Selected Letters (1975)
- pre-war translations
- Frankfurt edition
- Works 1 Dubliner translated by Dieter E. Zimmer
- Works 2 Stephen the Hero , A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man translated by Klaus Reichert
- Works 3 Ulysses translated by Hans Wollschläger
- Works 4.1 Small Writings translated by Hiltrud Marschall and Klaus Reichert
- Works 4.2 Collected Poems (English and German) translated by Hans Wollschläger; Anna Livia Plurabelle (English and German) (= part of Finnegans Wake) translated by Wolfgang Hildesheimer and Hans Wollschläger
- Works 5, 6, 7 letters I, II, III translated by Kurt Heinrich Hansen
- Finnegans Wake translated into French by Philippe Lavergne. Gallimard, Paris 1982
- Finnegan's Wehg. Kainäh evil sentence of the Wehrkeß fun Schämes Scheuß , translated into German by Dieter H. Stündel. Hausser Verlag, Darmstadt 2002.
- A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , German by Friedhelm Rathjen . Manesse, Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7175-2222-5 .
- The Cats of Copenhagen , German by Harry Rowohlt , illustrated by Wolf Erlbruch . Hanser, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-446-24159-6 .
- Finn's Hotel , edited by Danis Rose; German by Friedhelm Rathjen . Suhrkamp, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-518-42454-4 .
- Giacomo Joyce , Appropriations by Helmut Schulze and Alban Nikolai Herbst , etkBooks, Bern 2013, ISBN 978-3-905846-25-6 .
- Chamber Music/Chamber Music , adaptations by Helmut Schulze and Alban Nikolai Herbst, Arco, Vienna & Wuppertal 2017, ISBN 978-3-938375-82-2 .
- David Adams: Colonial Odysseys: Empire and Epic in the Modernist Novel . Cornell UP, Ithaca NY 2003, ISBN 0-8014-8886-9 .
- Jorge Luis Borges (ed.), Eliot Weinberger : Borges: Selected Non-Fictions . Penguin, 2000, ISBN 0-14-029011-7 .
- Bruce Bradley: James Joyce's School Days . St. Martin's Press, New York 1982; Gill & MacMillan, Dublin 1982, ISBN 978-0-312-43978-1 .
- Frank Budgen: James Joyce and the Making of 'Ulysses', and other writings . Oxford University Press, 1972, ISBN 0-19-211713-0 .
- Anthony Burgess : Joysprick : An Introduction to the Language of James Joyce (1973). Harcourt, 1975, ISBN 0-15-646561-2 .
- Anthony Burgess: Here Comes Everybody: An Introduction to James Joyce for the Ordinary Reader . Faber & Faber, 1965, ISBN 0-571-06395-0 (also published as Re Joyce , OCLC 3873146 ), Hamlyn Paperbacks; Rev ed edition (1982), ISBN 0-600-20673-4 .
- Tim Cavanaugh: Ulysses Unbound: Why does a book so bad it "defecates on your bed" still have so many admirers? . reason , July 2004.
- Hilary Clark: The Fictional Encyclopaedia: Joyce, Pound, Sollers . Taylor & Francis, 1990, ISBN 978-0-8240-0006-6 .
- Robert H. Deming (ed.): James Joyce: The Critical Heritage . Routledge, New York 1997, ISBN 978-0-203-27490-3 .
- Kevin JH Dettmar (ed.): Rereading the New: A Backward Glance at Modernism . University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1992, ISBN 978-0-472-10290-7 .
- Richard Ellman : James Joyce . Oxford University Press, 1959, revised edition 1983, ISBN 0-19-503381-7 .
- Barbara Reich Gluck: Beckett and Joyce: Friendship and Fiction . Bucknell UP, Lewisburg PA 1979, ISBN 0-8387-2060-9 .
- Anna-Katarina Gravgaard: Could Leopold Bloom Read Ulysses? University of Copenhagen, 2006.
- Keith Hopper: Flann O'Brien: A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Post-Modernist . Cork UP, 1995, ISBN 1-85918-042-6 .
- Vivien Igoe: A Literary Guide to Dublin . ISBN 0-413-69120-9 .
- Jürgen Klein : Students read Joyce. Interpretations of the early work. Stephen Hero - Dubliners - A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Publisher The Blue Owl, Essen 1984.
- Scott W. Klein: The Fictions of James Joyce and Wyndham Lewis: Monsters of Nature and Design. Cambridge UP, 1994, ISBN 978-0-521-43452-2 .
- Harry Levin (ed. with introduction and notes): The Essential James Joyce . Cape, 1948. Revised edition Penguin in association with Jonathan Cape, 1963.
- DJ Max: The Injustice Collector . In: The New Yorker , June 19, 2006.
- Vladimir Nabokov : Lectures on Ulysses: A Facsimile of the Manuscript. Bruccoli Clark, Bloomfield Hills/Columbia 1980, ISBN 0-89723-027-2 .
- Tara Pepper: Portrait of the Daughter: Two works seek to reclaim the legacy of Lucia Joyce . In: Newsweek International , March 8, 2003.
- William H. Quillian : Hamlet and the New Poetic: James Joyce and TS Eliot . UMI Research Press, Ann Arbor 1983.
- Bob Perelman : The Trouble with Genius: Reading Pound, Joyce, Stein, and Zukofsky. University of California Press, Berkeley 1994.
- Forrest Read: Pound/Joyce: The Letters of Ezra Pound to James Joyce, with Pound's Essays on Joyce . New Directions, 1967.
- Carol Loeb Castle: Lucia Joyce: To Dance in the Wake . Bloomsbury, London 2004, ISBN 0-374-19424-6 .
- Edwin Williamson: Borges: A Life . Viking Adult, 2004, ISBN 0-670-88579-7 .
- Harry Blamires: The New Bloomsday Book: A Guide through Ulysses. 3rd ed. Routledge, London/New York 1996, ISBN 0-415-00704-6 .
- Michael Groden : Ulysses in Progress. Princeton UP, Princeton NJ 1986, ISBN 978-0-691-10215-3 .
- Hugh Kenner: Ulysses . George Allen and Unwin, London 1980, ISBN 0-04-800003-5 .
- Vincent B. Sherry: James Joyce: Ulysses . Cambridge UP, Cambridge/New York 2004, ISBN 0-521-53976-5 .
- Samuel Beckett , William Carlos Williams et al.: Our Exagmination Round His Factification For Incamination Of Work In Progress . Shakespeare and Company , 1929.
- Anthony Burgess (ed.): A Shorter 'Finnegans Wake' , 1969.
- Joseph Campbell , Henry Morton Robinson: A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake . New World Library, 1944; New Ed edition 2005, ISBN 1-57731-405-0 .
- William York Tindall: A Reader's Guide to Finnegans Wake . Syracuse UP, Syracuse NY 1969/1996, ISBN 978-0-8156-0385-6 .
Literature about James Joyce
German language literature
- Udo Benzenhöfer: Medicine and literature - James Joyce. Critical to Medicine in the Literature: Pindar, Poe, Flaubert . Ulm 2021, ISBN 978-3-86281-166-3
- Anthony Burgess : Joyce for Everyone . Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-518-45608-3
- Richard Ellman: James Joyce . Frankfurt am Main 1959, 1982, ISBN 3-518-39077-5
- Willi Erzgräber : James Joyce. Orality and writing in the mirror of experimental storytelling . Narr, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-8233-4485-4
- Thomas Faerber and Markus Luchsinger: Joyce in Zurich . Zurich 1988.
- A. Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael Patrick Gillespie: James Joyce A to Z . Oxford/New York 1955.
- Wilhelm Füger : James Joyce: Epoch - Work - Effect . Munich 1994.
- Wilhelm Füger (ed.): Critical heritage. Documents on the reception of James Joyce in the German language area during the author's lifetime . A reading book. Amsterdam 2000.
- Herbert Gorman: James Joyce. His Life and Work . Hamburg 1957.
- Stanislaus Joyce : My Brother's Keeper . Frankfurt am Main.
- Harry Levin: James Joyce. A Critical Introduction . Frankfort 1977.
- Jane Lidderdale: Dear Miss Weaver. A Life for James Joyce . Frankfort 1992.
- Udo Loll: James Joyce. Genius in Patriarchy . Stuttgart 1992.
- Brenda Maddox: Nora: The Passionate Love by James Joyce . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-442-72682-4 .
- Jacques Mercanton : The Hours of James Joyce . German by Markus Hediger . Lenos, Basle 1993.
- Hans Christian Oeser , Jürgen Schneider: James Joyce. Life. Plant. Effect. , Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-18221-5 .
- Kurt Palm : The Nausea of a Hottentot. A James Joyce Alphabet. Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-85409-389-6
- Friedhelm Rathjen : James Joyce , Reinbek near Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-499-50591-6 .
- Klaus Reichert : World everyday of the epoch. Essays on the Work of James Joyce. Frankfurt 2004.
- Klaus Reichert: Multiple sense of writing , Frankfurt am Main 1989.
- Fritz Senn: Nothing against Joyce , Zurich 1983, ISBN 3-251-00023-3 .
- Fritz Senn: Not just nothing against Joyce , Zurich 1999, ISBN 3-251-00427-1 .
- Andreas Weigel: James Joyce's stays in Austria . Innsbruck (1928), Salzburg (1928) and Feldkirch (1915, 1932). In: Michael Ritter (ed.): Present 2006 . The Austrian Literary Yearbook. Literary events in Austria from July 2004 to June 2005. P. 93-105. (2005).
- Hans Wollschläger : Joyce pro toto or deep patterns of language . In: protokolle , volume 2, 1978, p. 120 ff.
Literature for individual works
- Frank Budgen: James Joyce and the Making of Ulysses . Frankfort 1982.
- Jacques Derrida : Ulysses Gramophone. Two deuts for Joyce. Brinkmann and Bose, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-922660-28-2 .
- Umberto Eco : The open work of art. The Poetics of Joyce. From the Summa to Finnegans Wake . Frankfurt 1993.
- Therese Fischer-Seidel (ed.): James Joyce's "Ulysses" . Recent German essays. Frankfort 1977.
- Stuart Gilbert: The Riddle Ulysses , Frankfurt am Main.
English Language Literature
- Derek Attridge: The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . 2nd ed. Cambridge UP, Cambridge/New York 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-83710-1 .
- Bernard Benstock (ed.): Critical Essays on James Joyce . G. K. Hall, Boston 1985, ISBN 0-8161-8751-7 .
- Harold Bloom: James Joyce . Chelsea House, New York 1986, ISBN 0-87754-625-8 .
- Gordon Bowker: James Joyce: a biography , London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2011, ISBN 978-0-297-84803-5
- Julie Sloan Brannon: Who Reads Ulysses?: The Rhetoric of the Joyce Wars and the Common Reader . New York: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-0-415-94206-5 .
- Joseph Brooker: Joyce's Critics: Transitions in Reading and Culture . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19604-6 .
- Richard Brown (ed.): A Companion to James Joyce . Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4051-1044-0 .
- Eric Bulson: The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-84037-8 .
- Thomas Edmund Connolly: James Joyce's Books, Portraits, Manuscripts, Notebooks, Typescripts, Page Proofs: Together With Critical Essays About Some of His Works . Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1997, ISBN 0-7734-8645-3 .
- Edmund L. Epstein (ed.): Mythic Worlds, Modern Words: On the Art of James Joyce/Joseph Campbell . Novato, CA: Josephe Campbell Foundation, New World Library, 2003, ISBN 978-1-57731-406-6 .
- A. Nicholas Fargnoli, Michael Patrick Gillespie: Critical Companion to James Joyce: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work . Rev. ed. New York: Checkmark Books, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8160-6689-6 .
- Gisele Freund, VB Carleton: Preface by Simone de Beauvoir . James Joyce: His Final Years . Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1965. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 65-21029.
- Matthew Hodgart: James Joyce: A Student's Guide . London and Boston: Routledge, 1978, ISBN 0-7100-8817-5 .
- Ellen Carol Jones, Beja Morris (eds.): Twenty-First Joyce . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004, ISBN 978-0-8130-2760-9 .
- Sebastian DG Knowles et al. (ed.): Joyce in Trieste: An Album of Risky Readings . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8130-3033-3 .
- Frank C. Manista: Voice, Boundary, and Identity in the Works of James Joyce . Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7734-5522-1 .
- Laurent Milesi (ed.): James Joyce and the Difference of Language . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2003, ISBN 0-521-62337-5 .
- Nash, John. James Joyce and the Act of Reception: Reading, Ireland, Modernism . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-86576-0 .
- Patrick O'Neill: Polyglot Joyce: Fictions of Translation . Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8020-3897-5 .
- David Pierce: Reading Joyce . Harlow, England and New York: Pearson Longman, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4058-4061-3 .
- Jean-Michel Rabate: Palgrave Advances in James Joyce Studies . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4039-1210-7 .
- Robert Scholes: In Search of James Joyce . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 0-252-06245-0 .
- Michael Seidel: James Joyce: A Short Introduction . Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002, ISBN 0-631-22702-4 .
- Bruce Stewart: James Joyce . Very Interesting People series, no. 11. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-921752-6 .
- William York Tindall: A Reader's Guide to James Joyce . London: Thames & Hudson, 1959, 1960, and 1963.
- Bernard Benstock: Narrative Con/Texts in Dubliners . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-252-02059-9 .
- Harold Bloom: James Joyce's Dubliners . New York: Chelsea House, 1988, ISBN 978-1-55546-019-8 .
- Bosinelli Bollettieri, Rosa Maria, Harold Frederick Mosher (eds): ReJoycing: New Readings of Dubliners . Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998, ISBN 978-0-8131-2057-7 .
- Oona Frawley: A New & Complex Sensation: Essays on Joyce's Dubliners . Dublin: Lilliput, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84351-051-2 .
- Clive Hart: James Joyce's Dubliners: Critical Essays . London: Faber, 1969, ISBN 978-0-571-08801-0 .
- Earl G. Ingersoll: Engendered Trope in Joyce's Dubliners . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8093-2016-5 .
- Margot Norris (ed.): Dubliners: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism . New York: Norton, 2006, ISBN 0-393-97851-6 .
- Andrew Thacker (ed.): Dubliners: James Joyce . New Casebook Series. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 978-0-333-77770-1 .
A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man
- Harold Bloom: James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Chelsea House, 1988, ISBN 1-55546-020-8 .
- Philip Brady, James F. Carens (eds.): Critical Essays on James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: GK Hall, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7838-0035-6 .
- Gerald Doherty, Pathologies of Desire: The Vicissitudes of the Self in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Peter Lang, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8204-9735-8 .
- Julienne H. Empric: The Woman in the Portrait: The Transforming Female in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-89370-193-2 .
- Edmund L. Epstein: The Ordeal of Stephen Dedalus: The Conflict of Generations in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1971, ISBN 978-0-8093-0485-1 .
- Marguerite Harkness: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Voices of the Text . Boston: Twayne, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8057-8125-0 .
- William E Morris, Clifford A Nault (eds): Portraits of an Artist: A Casebook on James Joyce's Portrait . New York: Odyssey, 1962.
- David Seed: James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-312-08426-4 .
- Weldon Thornton: The Antimodernism of Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1994, ISBN 978-0-8156-2587-2 .
- Mark A. Wollaeger (ed.): James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: A Casebook . Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-515075-9 .
- Hiromi Yoshida: Joyce & Jung: The "Four Stages of Eroticism" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Peter Lang, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8204-6913-3 .
- Ruth Bauerle, Connie Jo Coker: A Word List to James Joyce's Exiles . New York: Garland, 1981, ISBN 978-0-8240-9500-0 .
- John MacNicholas: James Joyce's Exiles: A Textual Companion . New York: Garland, 1979, ISBN 978-0-8240-9781-3 .
- Bruce Arnold: The Scandal of Ulysses: The Life and Afterlife of a Twentieth Century Masterpiece. Rev. ed. Dublin: Liffey Press, 2004, ISBN 1-904148-45-X .
- Derek Attridge (ed.): James Joyce's Ulysses: A Casebook. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-515830-4 .
- Bernard Benstock: Critical Essays on James Joyce's Ulysses. Boston: G.K. Hall, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8161-8766-9 .
- Harry Blamires: The New Bloomsday Book. Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-13858-2
- Enda Duffy: The Subaltern Ulysses . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8166-2329-5 .
- Ellman, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York: Oxford UP, 1972, ISBN 978-0-19-519665-8 .
- Marilyn French: The Book as World: James Joyce's Ulysses. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1976, ISBN 978-0-674-07853-6 .
- Michael Patrick Gillespie, A. Nicholas Fargnoli (eds.): Ulysses in Critical Perspective . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8130-2932-0 .
- Samuel Louis Goldberg: The Classical Temper: A Study of James Joyce's Ulysses. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1961 and 1969.
- Suzette Henke: Joyce's Moraculous Sindbook: A Study of Ulysses . Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1978, ISBN 978-0-8142-0275-3 .
- Terence Killeen: Ulysses Unbound: A Reader's Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses . Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland: Wordwell, 2004, ISBN 978-1-869857-72-1 .
- Margaret MacBride: Ulysses and the Metamorphosis of Stephen Dedalus . Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2001, ISBN 0-8387-5446-5 .
- Bernard McKenna: James Joyce's Ulysses: A Reference Guide . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-313-31625-8 .
- John Mood: Joyce's Ulysses for Everyone: Or How to Skip Reading It the First Time . Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4184-5105-9 .
- Niall Murphy: A Bloomsday Postcard . Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84351-050-5 .
- Margot Norris: A Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses: Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays From Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives . Boston: Bedford Books, 1998, ISBN 978-0-312-21067-0 .
- William M. James Schutte: Index of Recurrent Elements in James Joyce's Ulysses . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1982, ISBN 978-0-8093-1067-8 .
- Jeffrey Segall, Joyce in America: Cultural Politics and the Trials of Ulysses . Berkeley: University of California, 1993, ISBN 978-0-520-07746-1 .
- Paul Vanderham: James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8147-8790-8 .
- Thornton Weldon: Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968 and 1973, ISBN 978-0-8078-4089-4 .
- Richard Beckman: Joyce's Rare View: The Nature of Things in Finnegans Wake . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8130-3059-3 .
- Sheldon Brivic: Joyce's Waking Women: An Introduction to Finnegans Wake . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-299-14800-3 .
- Luca Crispi, Sam Slote (eds): How Joyce Wrote Finnegans Wake: A Chapter-By-Chaper Genetic Guide . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-299-21860-7 .
- Roland McHugh: Annotations to Finnegans Wake . 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8018-8381-1 .
- Len Platt: Joyce, Race and Finnegans Wake . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-86884-6 .
- Works by James Joyce in Project Gutenberg
- Literature by and about James Joyce in the German National Library catalogue
- Works by and about James Joyce in the German Digital Library
- Cordula Gehse: James Joyce. Tabular curriculum vitae in LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- James Joyce from Dublin to Ithaca Exhibition from the collections of Cornell University
- A James Joyce Bibliography - bibliography for Joyce and his major works
- Asked why he was afraid of thunder when his children weren't, "'Ah,' said Joyce in contempt, 'they have no religion.' His fears were part of his identity, and he had no wish, even if he had had the power to slough any of them off.” (Ellmann, p. 514).
- Richard Ellman: James Joyce . Oxford University Press, 1959, revised edition 1983, ISBN 0-19-503381-7 , p. 132.
- Ellmann, p. 30, 55.
- Ellmann, pp. 128-129.
- Ellmann, p. 129, 136.
- Feis Ceoil: Our History , accessed March 1, 2015.
- Ellmann, p. 162.
- Ellmann, p. 230.
- Ellmann, p. 175.
- John McCourt: The Years of Bloom: James Joyce in Trieste, 1904-1920 . The Lilliput Press, 2001, ISBN 1-901866-71-8 .
- Veronika Eckl: Trieste - From life in cafes and between book covers. FAZ of January 17, 2008.
- Ellmann, p. 272.
- Ellmann p. 213
- Ellmann, pp. 311-313.
- Franz Karl Stanzel: James Joyce in Kakanien (1904-1915). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-8260-6615-3 , p. 29.
- Eric Bulson: The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce . Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 14.
- Castle, p. 278
- Stephen Joyce, The Private Live of Writers . In: The New York Times
- Report in the Swiss Week , January 1991 edition
- Myra Russel: Chamber Music . Words by Joyce, Music by Molyneux Palmer . In: ICarbS. Volume 5. No.1 (Spring-Summer 1985). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 1985, pp. 31–44, p. 43.
- Myra Teicher Russel: James Joyce's Chamber Music: The Lost Song Settings . Indiana University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-253-34994-1 .
- Hermione Lee: Virginia Woolf , p. 513
- Andreas Weigel: Fragmentary biographies. Searching for and securing traces: Adolph Johannes Fischer and Fritz Willy Fischer-Güllern. in: Michael Ritter (ed.): present 2011. The Austrian literary yearbook. Literary events in Austria from July 2009 to June 2010. Vienna, present 2010, pp. 21-36. ISBN 978-3-7069-2010-0 .
- Terence Matthews: An Emendation to the Joycean Canon: The Last Hurrah for "Politics and Cattle Disease" . In: James Joyce Quarterly , Vol. 3, Spring 2007, p. 441-453.
- Hugh MacDiarmid and his influence on modern Scottish poetry - language and national identity. GRIN Publishing, Examination Thesis
- Melvin J. Friedman: A review of Barbara Reich Gluck's "Beckett and Joyce: friendship and fiction" . ( Memento of September 27, 2006 at the Internet Archive ) Bucknell University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-8387-2060-9 , retrieved December 3, 2006.
- S. Williamson, 123-124, 179, 218.
- For example, Hopper, p. 75, writes "In all of O'Brien's work the figure of Joyce hovers on the horizon...".
- My hero: Eimear McBride on James Joyce , The Guardian 6 June 2014
- Interview with Salman Rushdie, by Margot Dijkgraaf for Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad, translated by K. Gwan Go. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- Edited transcription by David A. Banton of an interview with Robert Anton Wilson. Aired April 23, 1988 on HFJC 89.7 FM, Los Altos Hills, California. Retrieved December 1, 2015
- About Joseph Campbell . ( December 5, 2006 memento at Internet Archive ) Joseph Campbell Foundation. Retrieved December 3, 2006
- pearl diver.de
- "(...) Radio Telefis Éireann was to join the BBC on 2 February, Joyce's Birthday, in presenting my own tribute to a writer I have known longer than most of the Joyce professors – a musical version of Ulysses". amazon.com pp. 370-371.
- James Joyce. Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
- Vincent Canby: Film: 'The Dead,' by Huston . In: The New York Times . 17 December 1987, ISSN 0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed 1 September 2019]).
- Andreas Weigel: Leopold Bloom and Pop. James Joyce's life and work in popular music. In: ORF , Ö1 , " Playrooms ". 15 Jun 2008 5:30-5:56 p.m.
- Minor Planet Circ. 34621
- And then buttermilk every day! in FAZ of June 13, 2013, page 32
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Joyce, James Augustine Aloysius (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Irish writer|
|BIRTH DATE||February 2, 1882|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rathgar , Dublin , United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 13, 1941|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Zurich , Switzerland|