James Joyce

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James Joyce (ca.1918)
Joyce's signature

James Joyce [ ˌdʒeɪmz ˈdʒɔɪs ], fully James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (born  February 2, 1882 in Rathgar , Dublin , † January 13, 1941 in Zurich , Switzerland ) was an Irish writer . His pioneering works Dubliner , Ulysses and Finnegans Wake in particular made him well known. He is considered one of the most important representatives of literary modernism . James Joyce lived mainly in Dublin, Trieste , Paris and Zurich.


Dublin 1882-1904

James Joyce as a child, 1888

James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was born on February 2, 1882, the first child of John Stanislaus Joyce and Mary Jane Murray in the Dublin suburb of Rathgar . Two of his twelve siblings died of typhus . His father, who originally came from Fermoy in County Cork , previously owned a small salt works and a lime works . Both his father and his paternal grandfather had married into wealthy families. In 1887 his father was hired as a tax collector with the Dublin Corporation . The family was able to move to the up-and-coming town of Bray , twelve kilometers from Dublin . At the same time, Joyce was bitten by a dog, and he developed a fear of dogs that lasted his life. Joyce also suffered from a fear of thunderstorms, which a deeply religious aunt had described to him as a sign of God's wrath.

In 1891, nine-year-old Joyce wrote the poem Et Tu Healy , which deals with the death of Charles Stewart Parnell . His father criticized the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church and the mistakes in relation to the Irish Home Rule . In his later years, Joyce had the poem printed and sent a copy to the Vatican Library . In November of that year, John Joyce was inscribed on the Stubs Gazette , an official bankruptcy register, and suspended from duty. Although John Joyce received a pension in 1893, the family slipped into poverty in the years that followed, mainly due to heavy alcohol consumption and John Joyce's poor financial planning.

From 1888 James Joyce attended the Jesuit- run Clongowes Wood College, a boarding school in Clane , County Kildare . In 1892 he had to leave school after his father could no longer pay the school fees. Joyce then studied at home and briefly attended the O'Connel School in Dublin operated by the Christian Brothers . In 1893 Joyce was given a place at the Jesuit-run Belvedere College in Dublin. The Jesuits expected Joyce to join the order. From the age of 16, Joyce rejected Catholicism, although the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas influenced him for life.

In 1898 Joyce entered the recently established University College Dublin , where he studied modern languages, particularly English, French and Italian. For the first time he became active in literary and theater circles. The first published work was the article Ibsen's New Drama in 1900 . Henrik Ibsen then sent Joyce a thank you letter. During his college years, Joyce wrote several articles and at least two unpredictable plays. Many of his friends at the university became role models for the characters in his work. Joyce was an active member of the Literary and Historical Society of Dublin University and published his magazine Drama and Life in 1900 .

James Joyce in 1904

After graduating, Joyce moved to Paris on the pretext of wanting to study medicine, where he spent the hard work raised by his family on a hedonistic lifestyle. Joyce returned to Dublin in April 1903 after alleged cirrhosis of his mother's liver turned out to be cancer. Fearing her son's wickedness, she unsuccessfully asked him to take communion and make confession. She passed out and died on August 13th. James Joyce had previously refused to pray over the deathbed with the rest of the family. After her death, Joyce continued his high alcohol consumption while the family's situation worsened. In 1904 Joyce won the bronze medal in the tenor competition at the Feis Ceoil music festival . On January 7, 1904, Joyce attempted to publish an essay-like narrative entitled Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , which was rejected by the freethinking magazine Dana . On his twenty-second birthday, Joyce decided to revise the narrative and publish it under the title Stephen Hero . After another revision of the book was published under the title Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man ( the artist as a young man portrait ).

On June 16, 1904, Joyce met his future partner Nora Barnacle for the first time, Joyce later had the plot of his novel Ulysses set on this date. After a drinking bout, Joyce got involved in a scuffle because of a misunderstanding, whereupon Alfred H. Hunter, an acquaintance of his father's, took him home. Hunter was said to be Jewish but to have an unbelieving wife. Hunter is one of the models for Leopold Bloom, the protagonist of Ulysses . Joyce befriended Oliver St. John Gogarty , who formed the basis for the Buck Mulligan character in Ulysses . After Joyce spent six nights at Gogarty's Martello Tower in Dún Laoghaire , an argument broke out between the two men in the course of which Gogarty fired a pistol at several pans hanging over Joyce's bed. Joyce walked to Dublin at night, where he stayed with relatives. A friend got Joyce's belongings from Martello Tower the following day. Shortly thereafter, he moved to mainland Europe with Nora Barnacle.

Trieste and Pola 1904–1915

The '' Stella Polare '' café in Trieste, often visited by Joyce (2020)
Interior of San Nicolò in Trieste (2020)

Joyce and Barnacle went into a self-chosen exile. First they tried to gain a foothold in Zurich, where Joyce believed to have arranged a teaching post at the Berlitz language school through an agent in England. It turned out that the agent had been deceived, but the school principal sent him to Trieste with the promise of a post . After it turned out that there were again no vacancies, Almidano Artifonti, director of the Berlitz language school in Trieste, placed him in Pola , an Austro-Hungarian naval base in Istria , where Joyce mainly taught naval officers from 1904 to 1905. After a spy ring was discovered in 1905, all foreigners were expelled from the city.

With Artifoni's support, he moved back to Trieste for the next ten years and began teaching English there. James Joyce, the voluntary exile, did in Trieste mainly what is recommended to every tourist today: he wandered through the city, soaked up the atmosphere on his inquiries and walks, sat in the coffee houses and drank with workers in the taverns . Joyce was so fascinated by the gloomy golden impression of the Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò that he incorporated it into the Dublin stories. But he was also looking for inspiration in the brothels in Via della Pescheria. There are literary scholars who believe that Joyce erected a monument in Ulysses Trieste and not Dublin.

From 1905 to 1906 he lived in Trieste at 30 Via San Nicolo on the 2nd floor, and Barnacle gave birth to their first child there on July 2, 1905, their son Giorgio. His students in Trieste included Ettore Schmitz, known as Italo Svevo , whom Joyce first met in 1907. He had a long-standing friendship with Schmitz, and the two authors also judged each other. Schmitz, a Jewish free thinker who married into a Catholic family of Jewish descent, is considered the main model for Leopold Bloom. Schmitz advised Joyce in many details about the Jewish faith that Joyce used in Ulysses . After Giorgio's birth, Joyce persuaded his brother Stanislaus to move to Trieste to also teach at the language school. In support of his request, Joyce stated that a more interesting life could be led in his company in Trieste than that of a secretary in Dublin. In fact, Joyce had hoped for financial support from his brother. Stanislaus allowed James Joyce to collect his salary to "make things easier". The relationship between Stanislaus and James Joyce was tense throughout the stay in Trieste. The cause of the conflict was James Joyce's negligent use of money and his high alcohol consumption. The conflicts reached their peak in July 1910. Also in 1906, Joyce completed work on Dubliners . In the following years he dealt with Ulysses , which was planned in pre-forms as part of Dubliners .

After getting used to life in Trieste, Joyce moved to Rome later in 1906, where he was employed by a bank. When he disliked Rome earlier in 1907, he moved back to Trieste. His daughter Lucia Joyce was born in the summer of 1907. In the summer of 1909 he and his son Giorgio visited their father in Dublin and prepared the publication of Dubliners . In Galway he visited the parents of his partner Nora Barnacle for the first time. While preparing for his return he managed to get his sister Eva to move to Trieste, where she was supposed to help Barnacle with the household. After a month in Trieste, he traveled back to Dublin, where he tried to open a cinema as the representative of a cinema owner. The venture was successful, but dissolved after his departure. His sister Eileen traveled with him to Trieste. While Eva Joyce returned to Dublin after a few years, Eileen spent the rest of her life on the European mainland, where she married the Czech bank teller František Schaurek.

In the summer of 1912 Joyce stayed in Dublin for a short period of time in order to advance the publication of Dubliners, which had been hampered by a long-standing conflict with his publisher George Roberts. After being unsuccessful, he wrote the poem Gas from a Burner on the return trip , an open attack against Roberts. Joyce never returned to Ireland, although his father asked him several times and he was invited by various Irish writers who were friends, including William Butler Yeats . Joyce tried several times to become self-employed, including opening a cinema in Dublin or the ultimately unsuccessful plan to import Irish tweed fabric to Trieste. His income was well below what he had earned as a teacher at the Berlitz language school and from private lessons. During his stay in Trieste, Joyce fell ill for the first time from an eye disease that required numerous treatments and cures.

Zurich and Trieste 1915–1920

In 1915 Joyce moved to Zurich because, as a British citizen in Austria-Hungary during the First World War, he was threatened with imprisonment as an enemy foreigner . When he left, he often had to rely on the support of his private students. In Zurich he came into contact with August Suter , Siegfried Lang and Frank Budgen , who advised and supported him in writing Ulysses and Finnegans Wake . Also in Zurich, through the mediation of Ezra Pound , he came into contact with the English feminist and publisher Harriet Shaw Weaver , who supported him financially for the next 25 years, making him no longer dependent on teaching. After the end of the war, Joyce returned to Trieste, but no longer felt at home, also because the city had now changed nationally and economically. Looking back, before 1915, Joyce had come into contact with a cosmopolitan, prosperous port city in a multiethnic state in Trieste and many parameters had changed after 1918, whereby he later described the lost state of Austria-Hungary with “They called the Austrian Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires ”.

In 1916, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man was published. The relationship with his brother Stanislaus, who had been interned in an Austro-Hungarian POW camp because of his pro-Italian political stance, was very tense. In 1918 Joyce published his only surviving play Exiles . Several volumes of poetry followed in the next few years.

Paris and Zurich 1920–1941

In 1920, after an invitation from Ezra Pound, Joyce traveled to Paris for a week, where he lived for the next 20 years. On February 2, 1922, his 40th birthday, Joyce finished working on Ulysses according to a self-imposed deadline . He was so tired of working on Ulysses that he did not write for more than a year. On March 10, 1923, he wrote in a letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver that he had begun the novel Finnegans Wake on March 9 as the first text after Ulysses . In 1926 he had completed the first two parts of the book. In the following years he continued to work on this work, which was initially referred to as work in progress , but in the 1930s his workforce slackened. Maria and Eugene Jolas supported James Joyce while he wrote Finnegans Wake . In their literary magazine Transitions they published various parts of Finnegans Wake under the heading Work in Progress . It is believed that Joyce would not have completed or published many of his works without the constant support of the Jolas couple.

In 1931 Joyce married Barnacle in London. In the same year his father died. During this time Joyce traveled frequently to Switzerland, where he received treatment for his eye condition and where his daughter Lucia, who, according to Joyce, was suffering from schizophrenia , was treated. Lucia was examined by Carl Gustav Jung , among others , who, after reading Ulysses , had come to the conclusion that James Joyce also suffered from schizophrenia. Details of the relationship between James Joyce and his daughter are not known, as the grandson Stephen Joyce burned several thousand letters between Lucia and James Joyce, which fell to him after Lucia's death in 1982. Stephen Joyce stated that he only destroyed letters from his aunt Lucia which were addressed to him and his wife and which were only written after the death of his grandparents.

James Joyce's grave in Zurich

After the Wehrmacht invaded France and occupied Paris in June 1940, Joyce wanted to return to Zurich. However, the Swiss authorities were reluctant to accept the famous man. After months of tough negotiations between the Aliens Police and a small group of his admirers, the entry permit was granted in December. On January 11, 1941, he was admitted to the Rotkreuz Hospital in Zurich with severe upper abdominal complaints, where a perforated ulcer of the duodenum was found and treated. After his condition initially improved, he worsened the following day. Despite multiple transfusions, Joyce passed out. On January 13, 1941, he woke up around 2 a.m. and asked a nurse to fetch his wife and son. Joyce died 15 minutes later.

He was buried in a simple grave at the Fluntern cemetery in Zurich. Although two senior Irish diplomats were in Switzerland at the time of the funeral, no Irish official was present at the funeral. The Irish government denied Nora Barnacle's request to have the bones transferred. While preparing for James Joyce's funeral, a Catholic priest tried to convince Barnacle of the need for a funeral mass. She declined to attend mass because she "couldn't do this" to Joyce. The Swiss tenor Max Meili sang “Addio terra, addio cielo” from Claudio Monteverdi's opera L'Orfeo at the funeral .

Nora Barnacle lived under modest circumstances in Zurich until her death in 1951. She, too, was buried on a flounder. In 1966 the two graves were merged into an honor grave erected by the city of Zurich. Their son Giorgio Joyce († 1976) and his wife Asta Jahnke-Osterwalder Joyce († 1993) were also buried in the grave of honor.


Chamber music

James Joyce statue in Dublin

His first published book is the volume of poems Chamber Music (1907) (German chamber music ), whose poems have often been set to music and recorded. Of all the settings that have become known to Joyce, he liked Geoffrey Molyneux Palmer's best, which is why Joyce agreed to publish them with the composer Palmer and the publisher Jan Slivinski around 1927/28 . The publication did not materialize to Joyce's regret, which is why Palmer's settings were not published from the estate until 1993.


Dubliners , 1914

It was not until 1914 that the Dubliners (dt. Dubliner ), a collection of fifteen stories set in Dublin at the turn of the century, followed. Linguistically, the book remains largely conventional, but the first publication in the newspaper The Irish Homestead was discontinued after a few stories. The book, which was completed around 1907, did not find a publisher until 1914. The story The Dead (dt. The dead ) is one of the brillantesten stories in English .

Dubliner provides critical insights into Dublin and Irish urban society at the time. Joyce shows a country between national awakening and colonial discouragement, aspiring bourgeoisie and emigration , the cramped Dublin houses and families and the longing for the “wide world”. Many of the characters are back at the starting point at the end of the story.


In 1918, the drama appeared Exiles (dt. Exiled ), a largely autobiographical stage play dyed issues such as jealousy and trust.

A portrait of the artist as a young man

Two years later, the first novel was published in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (English A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , in the first translation by Georg Goyert : Jugendbildnis ). This is a new treatment of the themes of his earlier, but only fragmentarily preserved and only posthumously published work Stephen Hero (German: Stephen the hero ).

In the five chapters of the novel, James Joyce describes the childhood, youth and adolescence of Stephen Dedalus, who found an artistic identity in conflicts with his family and spiritual and secular authorities in Ireland at the turn of the century. Parallels between the biography of the literary character Stephen Dedalus and Joyce's youth are obvious, but sometimes misleading. This portrait is an example of a Catholic youth in Dublin who ends up in voluntary exile .

In this work, Joyce's characteristic spelling emerges more clearly than in Dubliner , inventing new words and using onomatopoeic words to put noises into words. However, this determines the overall impression far less than in the later works. Stephen Dedalus reappears as one of the main characters in Ulysses .


Bust of James Joyce in St. Stephen's Green Park in Dublin

Joyce's most famous work is the novel Ulysses , excerpts of which were preprinted in The Little Review 1918–1920, and which were published as a book in 1922 by the Shakespeare and Company publishing house in Paris . It was written in the years 1914 to 1921. Harriet Weaver submitted the first chapters to the Hogarth Press in April 1918 , but the publisher and writer couple Virginia and Leonard Woolf could not make up their minds to publish it, as they did not have any due to the sometimes obscene content Found Drucker willing to take the risk. Joyce influenced the history of the modern novel with his Ulysses just as significantly as did Marcel Proust with A la recherche du temps perdu (German: In search of lost time ) (1913–1927).

Joyce 'bedeutendster contribution to modern literature was in use of stream of consciousness ( stream of consciousness ) or the inner monologue . Joyce had not invented this literary technique, but applied it consistently for the first time and developed it significantly. For example, the last chapter of the novel consists exclusively of the thoughts of Marion ("Molly") Bloom, the wife of the main character Leopold Bloom, written in eight sentences without punctuation marks.

After the protagonist of the novel, June 16 (the novel only takes place during this one day and in the morning hours of the following in 1904 ) is now called Bloomsday in literary circles - also increasingly for tourist reasons .

Finnegans Wake

The novel Finnegans Wake (1939) is, even more so than Ulysses , one of the most complicated literary works of the 20th century, both are considered untranslatable. The Ulysses was nevertheless translated into over thirty languages, in some cases several times. Finnegans Wake was only presented in full in a German complete translation in 1993, after partial German versions already existed. Full translations were also published in French (1982), Italian (1982), Japanese (1993 and another in 2004), Spanish (1997), Korean (1998) and Dutch (2002).

The so-called quarks , subatomic particles that make up part of matter, owe their name to one passage in the book . The extremely networked text by Finnegans Wake is considered a literary analogy to the semantic web of the Internet. In a certain sense, Arno Schmidt's work Zettels Traum offers a German counterpart to this .

Incorrect work attributions

"Seal" as well as "Foot" and "Lobster":
two of the four Fluviana photographs,
transition no. 16/17 (1929)

Joyce's canon of works, the article “Politics and Cattle Disease” (1912) and the black and white photographs called “ Fluviana ” (1928), have long been attributed to two works that have only recently been recognized and verified as erroneous attributions.


Since 1974 the art historian Werner Spies , the Germanist Harald Weinrich and the art historian Christa-Maria Lerm Hayes have mistakenly attributed the four “Fluviana” photographs published in 1929 in the Paris avant-garde magazine transition to James Joyce and his work. These pictures were taken as an opportunity to stylize Joyce as a concept or object artist, which he is not, since the photos of the floating debris exhibits were made by the Salzburg painter, writer and art collector Adolph Johannes Fischer and the photographed showpieces and their names were made by Johann Baptist Pinzinger, who exhibited the curious flotsam exhibits in his “Salzach Museum” in Raitenhaslach , which Joyce visited with Fischer in the summer of 1928. The Joyce researcher Andreas Weigel has comprehensively documented that neither Joyce himself nor the editors of transition have ever claimed the “Fluviana” as Joyce's work.

"Politics and Cattle Disease"

Another miscalculation was made by the well-known James Joyce biographer Richard Ellmann, who mistakenly included the newspaper article "Politics and Cattle Disease" in his edition of James Joyce: Critical Writings , which was then regarded for decades as the work of Joyce and also in Kevin Barry's Edition James Joyce: Occasional, Critical and Political Writing .

The American Joyce researcher Terence Matthews was able to conclusively prove in 2007 that the text mentioned did not come from Joyce and should be deleted from his canon of works.

Impact in literature, music, film, astronomy and physics

Joyce's work became the object of humanities occupation in all areas. His work influenced many authors, including Hugh MacDiarmid , Samuel Beckett , Jorge Luis Borges , Flann O'Brien , Máirtín Ó Cadhain , Eimear McBride Salman Rushdie , Robert Anton Wilson and Joseph Campbell . An avowed Joyceaner was Anthony Burgess , author of A Clockwork Orange , in 1962 an introduction to Joyce Factory Here comes everybody (dt. Joyce for everyone published) and 1982 Broadway musical of Ulysses commissioned by the BBC a Blooms of Dublin composed and has composed.

James Joyce's works have so far been adapted in over 50 film productions, mostly lesser-known television plays and short films. The first film and television adaptation of one of his works, The Boarding House as a television play, did not take place until 1956. Probably the most famous and renowned Joyce film adaptation is Die Toten (1987, after the short story The Dead ), the last film by director John Huston . Director Joseph Strick shot the novel adaptations Ulysses (1967) and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1977). In 2003 the film Bloom , an adaptation of Ulysses , was released with Stephen Rea in the leading role.

Joyce has also left its mark on music. His life and work has not only inspired musicians such as Samuel Barber , Luciano Berio , Pierre Boulez , John Cage , Luigi Dallapiccola and Jan Steele to write compositions, but also numerous folk, jazz, pop and rock musicians, including Susanne Abbuehl , Joan Baez , Syd Barrett , Black 47, Kate Bush , Jefferson Airplane , Norma Winstone , Andy White and Robin Williamson (from the Incredible String Band ) were encouraged to set music and engage with music.

The phrase Three Quarks for Muster Mark inspired the physicist Murray Gell-Mann when naming the subatomic quarks he postulated .

The psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan used Joyce's work as an explanation for his concept of the Sinthome .

In 1999 the asteroid (5418) Joyce was named after him. Every year on June 16, Joyce is celebrated worldwide on Bloomsday .

The James Joyce Society was founded in February 1947 at Gotham Book Mart in Manhattan. Its first member was T. S. Eliot , Joyce 'bibliographer John Slocum became the president and Frances Steloff , owner and founder of Gotham Book Mart treasurer.

Joyce's estate is managed in part by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas . The Harry Ransom Center owns several thousand manuscripts, correspondence pieces, drafts, evidence, notes, fragments, poems, song lyrics, scores, limericks, and translations by Joyce. The University of Buffalo has the largest individual collection with over ten thousand pages of manuscripts, notebooks, correspondence and the like, and also has Joyce's private library, passport, glasses and walking stick.

The main library at Joyce 'University, University College Dublin and the library at Clongowes Wood College are named after Joyce.


James Joyce plaque in Saint Patrick's Park, Dublin; named as the most important works on it: Dubliners , Ulysses , Finnegans Wake .
Szombathely - A plaque on the wall of the house where a Blum family from Ulysses lived in the mid-19th century
A statue of James Joyce in Szombathely

In the original

  • The Holy Office (1904)
  • Chamber Music (1907)
  • Gas from a Burner (1912)
  • Dubliners (1914)
  • A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York 1916, London 1917), was published in Germany in 1926 under the title Jugendbildnis , new in 1972 under the title A portrait of the artist as a young man
  • Exiles (London 1918)
  • Ulysses (Paris 1922, Hamburg 1932, New York 1934, London 1936)
  • Pomes Penyeach (Paris 1927)
  • Collected Poems (1936)
  • Finnegans Wake (London / New York 1939)
  • Stephen Hero (1944)
  • Letters (Vol. 1 1957; Vol. 2-3 1966)
  • Critical Writings (1959)
  • Giacomo Joyce (1968)
  • Selected Letters (1975)


  • Pre-war translations
  • Frankfurt edition
    • Works 1 Dubliner translated by Dieter E. Zimmer
    • Works 2 Stephen the Hero , A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, translated by Klaus Reichert
    • Works 3 Ulysses translated by Hans Wollschläger
    • Works 4.1 Small writings translated by Hiltrud Marschall and Klaus Reichert
    • Works 4.2 Collected poems (English and German) translated by Hans Wollschläger; Anna Livia Plurabelle (English and German) (= part from Finnegans Wake) translated by Wolfgang Hildesheimer and Hans Wollschläger
    • Works 5, 6, 7 letters I, II, III translated by Kurt Heinrich Hansen
  • Finnegans Wake translated into French by Philippe Lavergne. Gallimard, Paris 1982
  • Finnegans Wehg. Kainäh ÜbelSätzZung des Wehrkeß fun Schämes Scheuss , translated into German by Dieter H. Stündel. Publishing house Häusser, Darmstadt 2002.
  • A portrait of the artist as a young man , in German by Friedhelm Rathjen . Manesse, Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7175-2222-5 .
  • The Cats of Copenhagen , German by Harry Rowohlt , illustrated by Wolf Erlbruch . Hanser, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-446-24159-6 .
  • Finn's Hotel , edited by Danis Rose; German by Friedhelm Rathjen . Suhrkamp, ​​Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-518-42454-4 .
  • Giacomo Joyce , appropriations by Helmut Schulze and Alban Nikolai Herbst , etkBooks, Bern 2013, ISBN 978-3-905846-25-6 .
  • Chamber music / chamber music , adaptations by Helmut Schulze and Alban Nikolai Herbst, Arco, Vienna & Wuppertal 2017, ISBN 978-3-938375-82-2 .

Reference literature


Finnegans Wake

Literature on James Joyce

German-language literature

General literature

  • Anthony Burgess : Joyce for Everyone . Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-518-45608-3
  • Richard Ellmann: James Joyce . Frankfurt am Main 1959, 1982, ISBN 3-518-39077-5
  • Willi Erzgräber : James Joyce. Orality and writing in the mirror of experimental storytelling . Narr, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-8233-4485-4
  • Thomas Faerber and Markus Luchsinger: Joyce in Zurich . Zurich 1988.
  • A. Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael Patrick Gillespie: James Joyce A to Z . Oxford / New York 1955.
  • Wilhelm Füger : James Joyce: Epoch - Work - Effect . Munich 1994.
  • Wilhelm Füger (ed.): Critical legacy. Documents on the reception of James Joyce in the German-speaking area during the author's lifetime . A reader. Amsterdam 2000.
  • Herbert Gorman: James Joyce. His life and work . Hamburg 1957.
  • Stanislaus Joyce : My brother's keeper . Frankfurt am Main.
  • Harry Levin: James Joyce. A critical introduction . Frankfurt 1977.
  • Jane Lidderdale: Dear Miss Weaver. A life for James Joyce . Frankfurt 1992.
  • Udo Loll: James Joyce. Genius in patriarchy . Stuttgart 1992.
  • Brenda Maddox: Nora: The passionate love of James Joyce . Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-442-72682-4 .
  • Jacques Mercanton : The Hours of James Joyce . German by Markus Hediger . Lenos, Basel 1993.
  • Hans-Christian Oeser , Jürgen Schneider: James Joyce. Life. Plant. Effect. , Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-18221-5 .
  • Kurt Palm : The nausea of ​​a Hottentot. A James Joyce alphabet. Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-85409-389-6
  • Friedhelm Rathjen : James Joyce , Reinbek bei Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-499-50591-6 .
  • Klaus Reichert : Everyday life in the world of the era. Essays on the work of James Joyce. Frankfurt 2004.
  • Klaus Reichert: Multiple Sense of Writing , Frankfurt am Main 1989.
  • Fritz Senn: Nothing against Joyce , Zurich 1983, ISBN 3-251-00023-3 .
  • Fritz Senn: Not just nothing against Joyce , Zurich 1999, ISBN 3-251-00427-1 .
  • Andreas Weigel: James Joyce's stays in Austria . Innsbruck (1928), Salzburg (1928) and Feldkirch (1915, 1932). In: Michael Ritter (Ed.): Praesent 2006 . The Austrian Literature Yearbook. Literary events in Austria from July 2004 to June 2005. pp. 93–105. (2005).
  • Hans Wollschläger : Joyce pro toto or depth pattern of language . In: protocols , Volume 2, 1978, pp. 120 ff.

Literature on individual works

  • Frank Budgen: James Joyce and the making of "Ulysses" . Frankfurt 1982.
  • Jacques Derrida : Ulysses gramophone. Two Deut for Joyce. Brinkmann and Bose, Berlin 1998, ISBN 3-922660-28-2 .
  • Umberto Eco : The open work of art. Joyce's Poetics. From Summa to Finnegans Wake . Frankfurt 1993.
  • Therese Fischer-Seidel (Ed.): James Joyce's "Ulysses" . Newer German essays. Frankfurt 1977.
  • Stuart Gilbert: The Ulysses Riddle , Frankfurt am Main.

English-language literature

General literature

  • Derek Attridge: The Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . 2nd ed. Cambridge UP, Cambridge / New York 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-83710-1 .
  • Bernard Benstock (Ed.): Critical Essays on James Joyce . GK Hall, Boston 1985, ISBN 0-8161-8751-7 .
  • Harold Bloom: James Joyce . Chelsea House, New York 1986, ISBN 0-87754-625-8 .
  • Gordon Bowker: James Joyce: a biography , London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2011, ISBN 978-0-297-84803-5
  • Julie Sloan Brannon: Who Reads Ulysses ?: The Rhetoric of the Joyce Wars and the Common Reader . New York: Routledge, 2003, ISBN 978-0-415-94206-5 .
  • Joseph Brooker: Joyce's Critics: Transitions in Reading and Culture . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19604-6 .
  • Richard Brown (Ed.): A Companion to James Joyce . Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4051-1044-0 .
  • Eric Bulson: The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-84037-8 .
  • Thomas Edmund Connolly: James Joyce's Books, Portraits, Manuscripts, Notebooks, Typescripts, Page Proofs: Together With Critical Essays About Some of His Works . Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1997, ISBN 0-7734-8645-3 .
  • Edmund L. Epstein (Ed.): Mythic Worlds, Modern Words: On the Art of James Joyce / Joseph Campbell . Novato, CA: Josephe Campbell Foundation, New World Library, 2003, ISBN 978-1-57731-406-6 .
  • A. Nicholas Fargnoli, Michael Patrick Gillespie: Critical Companion to James Joyce: A Literary Reference to His Life and Work . Rev. ed. New York: Checkmark Books, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8160-6689-6 .
  • Gisele Freund, VB Carleton: Preface by Simone de Beauvoir . James Joyce: His Final Years . Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1965. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 65-21029.
  • Matthew Hodgart: James Joyce: A Student's Guide . London and Boston: Routledge, 1978, ISBN 0-7100-8817-5 .
  • Ellen Carol Jones, Beja Morris (Eds.): Twenty-First Joyce . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004, ISBN 978-0-8130-2760-9 .
  • Sebastian DG Knowles et al. (Ed.): Joyce in Trieste: An Album of Risky Readings . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8130-3033-3 .
  • Frank C. Manista: Voice, Boundary, and Identity in the Works of James Joyce . Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2006, ISBN 978-0-7734-5522-1 .
  • Laurent Milesi (Ed.): James Joyce and the Difference of Language . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2003, ISBN 0-521-62337-5 .
  • Nash, John. James Joyce and the Act of Reception: Reading, Ireland, Modernism . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-521-86576-0 .
  • Patrick O'Neill: Polyglot Joyce: Fictions of Translation . Toronto and Buffalo: University of Toronto Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8020-3897-5 .
  • David Pierce: Reading Joyce . Harlow, England and New York: Pearson Longman, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4058-4061-3 .
  • Jean-Michel Rabate: Palgrave Advances in James Joyce Studies . New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4039-1210-7 .
  • Robert Scholes: In Search of James Joyce . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992, ISBN 0-252-06245-0 .
  • Michael Seidel: James Joyce: A Short Introduction . Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002, ISBN 0-631-22702-4 .
  • Bruce Stewart: James Joyce . Very Interesting People series, no.11. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2007, ISBN 978-0-19-921752-6 .
  • William York Tindall: A Reader's Guide to James Joyce . London: Thames & Hudson, 1959, 1960, and 1963.


  • Bernard Benstock: Narrative Con / Texts in Dubliners . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-252-02059-9 .
  • Harold Bloom: James Joyce's Dubliners . New York: Chelsea House, 1988, ISBN 978-1-55546-019-8 .
  • Bosinelli Bollettieri, Rosa Maria, Harold Frederick Mosher (Eds.): ReJoycing: New Readings of Dubliners . Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998, ISBN 978-0-8131-2057-7 .
  • Oona Frawley: A New & Complex Sensation: Essays on Joyce's Dubliners . Dublin: Lilliput, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84351-051-2 .
  • Clive Hart: James Joyce's Dubliners: Critical Essays . London: Faber, 1969, ISBN 978-0-571-08801-0 .
  • Earl G. Ingersoll: Engendered Trope in Joyce's Dubliners . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1996, ISBN 978-0-8093-2016-5 .
  • Margot Norris (Ed.): Dubliners: Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism . New York: Norton, 2006, ISBN 0-393-97851-6 .
  • Andrew Thacker (Ed.): Dubliners: James Joyce . New Casebook Series. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006, ISBN 978-0-333-77770-1 .

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

  • Harold Bloom: James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Chelsea House, 1988, ISBN 1-55546-020-8 .
  • Philip Brady, James F. Carens (Eds.): Critical Essays on James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: GK Hall, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7838-0035-6 .
  • Gerald Doherty: Pathologies of Desire: The Vicissitudes of the Self in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Peter Lang, 2008, ISBN 978-0-8204-9735-8 .
  • Julienne H. Empric: The Woman in the Portrait: The Transforming Female in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-89370-193-2 .
  • Edmund L. Epstein: The Ordeal of Stephen Dedalus: The Conflict of Generations in James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1971, ISBN 978-0-8093-0485-1 .
  • Marguerite Harkness: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: Voices of the Text . Boston: Twayne, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8057-8125-0 .
  • William E. Morris, Clifford A. Nault (Eds.): Portraits of an Artist: A Casebook on James Joyce's Portrait . New York: Odyssey, 1962.
  • David Seed: James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992, ISBN 978-0-312-08426-4 .
  • Weldon Thornton: The Antimodernism of Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 1994, ISBN 978-0-8156-2587-2 .
  • Mark A. Wollaeger (Ed.): James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man: A Casebook . Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2003, ISBN 978-0-19-515075-9 .
  • Hiromi Yoshida: Joyce & Jung: The "Four Stages of Eroticism" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man . New York: Peter Lang, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8204-6913-3 .


  • Ruth Bauerle, Connie Jo Coker: A Word List to James Joyce's Exiles . New York: Garland, 1981, ISBN 978-0-8240-9500-0 .
  • John MacNicholas: James Joyce's Exiles: A Textual Companion . New York: Garland, 1979, ISBN 978-0-8240-9781-3 .


  • Bruce Arnold: The Scandal of Ulysses: The Life and Afterlife of a Twentieth Century Masterpiece. Rev. ed.Dublin : Liffey Press, 2004, ISBN 1-904148-45-X .
  • Derek Attridge (Ed.): James Joyce's Ulysses: A Casebook. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 2004, ISBN 978-0-19-515830-4 .
  • Bernard Benstock: Critical Essays on James Joyce's Ulysses. Boston: GK Hall, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8161-8766-9 .
  • Harry Blamires: The New Bloomsday Book. Routledge, 1996, ISBN 0-415-13858-2
  • Enda Duffy: The Subaltern Ulysses . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8166-2329-5 .
  • Ellmann, Richard. Ulysses on the Liffey. New York: Oxford UP, 1972, ISBN 978-0-19-519665-8 .
  • Marilyn French: The Book as World: James Joyce's Ulysses. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1976, ISBN 978-0-674-07853-6 .
  • Michael Patrick Gillespie, A. Nicholas Fargnoli (Eds.): Ulysses in Critical Perspective . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8130-2932-0 .
  • Samuel Louis Goldberg: The Classical Temper: A Study of James Joyce's Ulysses. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1961 and 1969.
  • Suzette Henke: Joyce's Moraculous Sindbook: A Study of Ulysses . Columbus: Ohio State UP, 1978, ISBN 978-0-8142-0275-3 .
  • Terence Killeen: Ulysses Unbound: A Reader's Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses . Bray, County Wicklow, Ireland: Wordwell, 2004, ISBN 978-1-869857-72-1 .
  • Margaret MacBride: Ulysses and the Metamorphosis of Stephen Dedalus . Lewisburg, PA: Bucknell UP, 2001, ISBN 0-8387-5446-5 .
  • Bernard McKenna: James Joyce's Ulysses: A Reference Guide . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-313-31625-8 .
  • John Mood: Joyce's Ulysses for Everyone: Or How to Skip Reading It the First Time . Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2004, ISBN 978-1-4184-5105-9 .
  • Niall Murphy: A Bloomsday Postcard . Dublin: Lilliput Press, 2004, ISBN 978-1-84351-050-5 .
  • Margot Norris: A Companion to James Joyce's Ulysses: Biographical and Historical Contexts, Critical History, and Essays From Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives . Boston: Bedford Books, 1998, ISBN 978-0-312-21067-0 .
  • William M. James Schutte: Index of Recurrent Elements in James Joyce's Ulysses . Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1982, ISBN 978-0-8093-1067-8 .
  • Jeffrey Segall: Joyce in America: Cultural Politics and the Trials of Ulysses . Berkeley: University of California, 1993, ISBN 978-0-520-07746-1 .
  • Paul Vanderham: James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8147-8790-8 .
  • Thornton Weldon: Allusions in Ulysses: An Annotated List . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1968 and 1973, ISBN 978-0-8078-4089-4 .

Finnegans Wake

  • Richard Beckman: Joyce's Rare View: The Nature of Things in Finnegans Wake . Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007, ISBN 978-0-8130-3059-3 .
  • Sheldon Brivic: Joyce's Waking Women: An Introduction to Finnegans Wake . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-299-14800-3 .
  • Luca Crispi, Sam Slote (Eds.): How Joyce Wrote Finnegans Wake: A Chapter-By-Chaper Genetic Guide . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-299-21860-7 .
  • Roland McHugh: Annotations to Finnegans Wake . 3rd ed.Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8018-8381-1 .
  • Len Platt: Joyce, Race and Finnegans Wake . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-86884-6 .

See also

Web links

Commons : James Joyce  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: James Joyce  - Sources and full texts (English)

Individual evidence

  1. Asked why he was afraid of thunder when his children weren't, "'Ah,' said Joyce in contempt, 'they have no religion.' His fears were part of his identity, and he had no wish, even if he had the power, to slough any of them off. "(Ellmann, p. 514).
  2. ^ Richard Ellmann: James Joyce . Oxford University Press, 1959, revised edition 1983, ISBN 0-19-503381-7 , p. 132.
  3. Ellmann, pp. 30, 55.
  4. Ellmann, pp. 128-129.
  5. Ellmann, pp. 129, 136.
  6. Feis Ceoil: Our History , accessed on March 1, 2015.
  7. Ellmann, p. 162.
  8. Ellmann, p. 230.
  9. Ellmann, p. 175.
  10. ^ John McCourt: The Years of Bloom: James Joyce in Trieste, 1904–1920 . The Lilliput Press, 2001, ISBN 1-901866-71-8 .
  11. Veronika Eckl: Triest - From life in cafes and between book covers. FAZ of January 17, 2008.
  12. Ellmann, p. 272.
  13. Ellmann p. 213
  14. Ellmann, pp. 311-313.
  15. ^ Franz Karl Stanzel: James Joyce in Kakanien (1904-1915). Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-8260-6615-3 , p. 29.
  16. ^ Eric Bulson: The Cambridge Introduction to James Joyce . Cambridge University Press, 2006, p. 14.
  17. ^ Castle, p. 278
  18. ^ Stephen Joyce, The Private Live of Writers . In: The New York Times
  19. ^ Report in the Swiss Week , January 1991 edition
  20. ^ Myra Russel: Chamber Music . Words by Joyce, Music by Molyneux Palmer . In: ICarbS. Volume 5. No.1 (Spring-Summer 1985). Southern Illinois University, Carbondale 1985, pp. 31-44, p. 43.
  21. ^ Myra Teicher Russel: James Joyce's Chamber Music: The Lost Song Settings . Indiana University Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-253-34994-1 .
  22. Hermione Lee: Virginia Woolf , p. 513
  23. Andreas Weigel: fragmentary biographies. Searching for and securing clues: Adolph Johannes Fischer and Fritz Willy Fischer-Güllern. in: Michael Ritter (Hrsg.): praesent 2011. The Austrian Literature Yearbook. The literary event in Austria from July 2009 to June 2010. Vienna, präsens 2010, pp. 21–36. ISBN 978-3-7069-2010-0 .
  24. ^ Terence Matthews: An Emendation to the Joycean Canon: The Last Hurray for "Politics and Cattle Disease" . In: James Joyce Quarterly , Vol. 44, No. 3, Spring 2007, p. 441-453.
  25. ^ Hugh MacDiarmid and his influence on modern Scottish poetry - language and national identity. GRIN Publishing, Examination Thesis
  26. ^ Melvin J. Friedman: A review of Barbara Reich Gluck's "Beckett and Joyce: Friendship and Fiction" . ( Memento of 27 September 2006 at the Internet Archive ) Bucknell University Press, 1979, ISBN 0-8387-2060-9 , accessed on 3 December of 2006.
  27. ^ S. Williamson, 123-124, 179, 218.
  28. for example Hopper, p. 75, writes “In all of O'Brien's work the figure of Joyce hovers on the horizon…”.
  29. My hero: Eimear McBride on James Joyce , The Guardian, June 6, 2014
  30. Interview with Salman Rushdie, by Margot Dijkgraaf for the Dutch newspaper NRC Handelsblad, translated by K. Gwan Go. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  31. ^ Edited transcription by David A. Banton of an interview with Robert Anton Wilson. Aired April 23, 1988 on HFJC 89.7 FM, Los Altos Hills, California. Retrieved December 1, 2015
  32. About Joseph Campbell . ( December 5, 2006 memento on the Internet Archive ) Joseph Campbell Foundation. Retrieved December 3, 2006
  33. perlentaucher.de
  34. “(…) Radio Telefis Éireann was to join the BBC on February 2, Joyce's Birthday, in presenting my own tribute to a writer I have known longer than most of the Joyce professors - a musical version of Ulysses”. amazon.com pp. 370-371.
  35. James Joyce. Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
  36. Vincent Canby: Film: 'The Dead,' by Huston . In: The New York Times . December 17, 1987, ISSN  0362-4331 ( nytimes.com [accessed September 1, 2019]).
  37. Andreas Weigel: Leopold Bloom and Pop. James Joyce's Life and Work in Pop Music. In: ORF , Ö1 , “ Playrooms ”. June 15, 2008, 5:30 p.m. - 5:56 p.m.
  38. Minor Planet Circ. 34621
  39. ^ Library.buffalo.edu
  40. And then buttermilk every day! in FAZ of June 13, 2013, page 32