|Region :||Western Transdanubia|
|Small area until December 31, 2012 :||Szombathely|
|District since 1.1.2013 :||Szombathely|
|Area :||97.52 km²|
|Residents :||79,590 (Jan. 1, 2011)|
|Population density :||816 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||(+36) 94|
|Postal code :||9700|
|Structure and administration (as of 2019)|
|Community type :||city|
|Mayor :||András Nemény (Éljen Szombathely! Egyesület)|
|Postal address :||Kossuth L. et al. 1-3
|(Source: A Magyar Köztársaság helységnévkönyve 2011. január 1st at Központi statisztikai hivatal )|
Szombathely [ ˈsombɒthɛj ] ( German Steinamanger , older also Stein am Anger , Croatian Sambotel , Slovenian Sombotel ) is a town in western Hungary near the border with Austria . The city is the seat of the Vas (Eisenburg) county and the Szombathely district , it has county rights itself .
In an area of 9,753 hectares , the city had 17,055 inhabitants in 1880 and 78,407 inhabitants in 2019.
Antiquity and Migration Period
According to some researchers, Szombathely, the ancient Savaria , probably emerged from a fort built during the Roman occupation of Pannonia from 9 AD. Little is known from the earliest phase, however. Also, no pre-Roman settlement sites have been discovered in the area of the historical city area. The expansion of the Amber Road, which was presumably already started during the reign of Emperor Tiberius (14–37 AD), was probably a decisive factor in the emergence of the Amber Road at an unknown point in time during the reign of Emperor Claudius (41–54 AD) founded Colonia . The city was named " Colonia Claudia Savaria " .
The name is already mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his third volume of the Naturalis historia . Later, the name variant Sabaria prevailed. Szombathely is most likely the oldest Roman city founding in the Roman province of Pannonia and thus the oldest on today's Hungarian territory. During the reign of Emperor Trajan (98–117), Savaria was appointed the capital of the province of Upper Pannonia and retained this status - later for the province of Pannonia prima - until late antiquity.
In 303 Quirinus , the bishop of Siscia , was executed in the city as part of the persecution of Christians . In 316/317 St. Martin of Tours was probably born in Szombathely. On the other hand, the Territorial Abbey of Pannonhalma claims that the saint was born near it, as there was an ancient place there called Savaria . In the 5th century, the city was gradually abandoned by its residents (mostly Ostrogoths ) who moved to safer regions of the Roman Empire. In addition, the city was badly damaged by an earthquake on September 7, 456 .
In the empire of the Carolingians
In 791 the name Sabaria reappeared in the chronicles. Charlemagne visited the city on his campaign against the Avars . In the early 9th century Sabaria marked the southernmost end point of the Franconian Avar principality and was possibly developed into a secular or ecclesiastical center at that time. After the dissolution of the Avar principality, the East Franconian county of Steinamanger was created , and Steinamanger became a suburb of a political unit again. As a result, German settlers coined the name of the town “Stein am Anger” - today “Steinamanger” - which referred to the ancient ruins that were found everywhere at the time. The county that stretched between Rabnitzbach and Raab was likely to have existed as early as 844. It can be traced back to the year 860, when Count Odolrich is named as the holder of two diplomas from King Ludwig the German . In this function he succeeded Count Rihheri , who was deposed in 857 by the new administrator of the East Bavarian region, Karlmann . In 869 Count Odolrich fought near Baden in the army of his lord Karlmann. The last namable lord of the county is likely to have been Count Ernst (mentioning 877), who was subordinate to the Margrave Arbo . But later Counts of Steinamanger in the Carolingian era cannot be ruled out either.
Kingdom of Hungary
From the 11th century the town belonged to the bishops of Győr . In 1407 she received a letter of privilege and thus the town charter . In 1578 the city rose to the seat of the county . In 1605 Szombathely was sacked by the captain of Heiduck, Gergely Némethy. On May 3, 1716, a conflagration partially destroyed the city.
Queen Maria Theresa founded the diocese of Szombathely in 1777 , and the settlement was expanded into an elegant small town in the years that followed. In the second half of the 19th century, the city was in the middle of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy and became an important transport and light industrial center. The two railway lines Budapest – Graz ( Hungarian Western Railway ) and Vienna – Agram crossed here .
After the end of the kingdom
After the First World War , Hungary's new western border was drawn only 12 km west of the city on the basis of the Treaty of Trianon in 1921, which affected the city's central functions. One of the most modern hospitals in Hungary was built here in 1928, and Szombathely remained the county seat.
In 1944 and 1945, the city and town were bombed several times during the day by aircraft of the 15th US Army Air Force. Air raids were carried out at night with aircraft belonging to the Royal Air Force 205 Group. Around 300 people were killed and four fifths of all buildings were destroyed. The following years of the Cold War were considered to be a time of recession due to the proximity of the “ Iron Curtain ”.
After 1989, the city began to develop positively, reinforced by Hungary's accession to the EU in 2004 and the abandonment of controls at the border with Austria in 2007 due to the Schengen Agreement .
In 2000, a tradition from the 1960s was revived in Szombathely - the Historical Carnival, which usually takes place on the penultimate weekend in August. This event has now established itself as a tourist attraction far beyond the borders of Hungary.
With the entry into force of the Schengen Agreement on December 21, 2007, border controls between Hungary and Austria were completely eliminated. Since then, Szombathely and the Austrian Burgenland have also been connected by various side roads where there was no border crossing.
Culture and literature
"After the lifting of all confidentiality, what was your parentage?
Bloom, the only, male, transubstantial heir of Rudolf Virag (later Rudolph Bloom) from Szombathely, Vienna, Budapest, Milan, London and Dublin [...] "
The city honored the author with a statue in the main square. The Bloomsday is celebrated in the cultural program of Szombathely annually.
The Lamantin Jazz Fesztivál has been taking place in Szombathely for 15 years now .
Szombathely has been connected to the Steinamanger expressway since June 28, 2014 . With the completion of the gap to Csorna on October 25, 2016, Szombathely and Budapest are now continuously connected via expressways.
The first railway line was opened in 1865 from Wiener Neustadt - Ödenburg -Szombathely to Nagykanizsa . The Styrian Eastern Railway or the Hungarian Western Railway - depending on your point of view - connects Szombathely with the Styrian capital Graz . The continuation to Graz was officially opened on May 1st, 1873. In autumn 1872, the Hungarian Western Railway, together with a consortium of industrialists, applied for approval of technical preparatory work for the construction of the Graz - Knittelfeld line. A line to Kőszeg was opened in 1883, the Pinkatalbahn in 1883 , to Pressburg in 1891 , to Rum in 1894 , and to Murska Sobota via Körmend in 1907 .
The direct rail connection via the Pinkatalbahn to the Austrian suburb of Oberwart was interrupted after the Second World War. Reconstruction was already underway on the Austrian side as far as Großpetersdorf near the state border. After the cessation of passenger traffic on the Friedberg –Oberwart line in September 2011, revitalization is considered unlikely.
Passenger traffic towards Rum was given up on May 25, 1974 and on the Pinkatalbahn to Bucsu on January 1, 1960.
Szombathely is a transport hub where nine different railway lines meet. InterCity trains run 8 times a day from Szombathely via Győr to Budapest Keleti pályaudvar and 7 times back, of which Rába IC runs to and from Graz main station .
The railway lines Szombathely – Sopron (Steinamanger – Ödenburg) and Szombathely – Szentgotthárd (Steinamanger – St. Gotthard) are no longer operated by the Hungarian state railway MÁV , but by the Austro-Hungarian Raaberbahn (Raab-Oedenburg-Ebenfurter Eisenbahn = ROeEE or Győr-Sopron) -Ebenfurti Vasút = GySEV) operated. The Hungarian Ministry for National Development decided on June 18, 2011 to transfer the operational management of all MÁV lines in the Szombathely area to the Raaberbahn from December 2011. Today the Szombathely Central Station is the largest and busiest station on the Raaberbahn.
The Szombathely tram was started by the Vas County Electricity Company, founded in 1895. The electricity required for their operation came from the Ikervár hydroelectric power station. The bell signaled the start of the first train on June 4, 1897. Operations ended on August 20, 1974.
Today Szombathely is a city according to Central European standards, it hardly reminds of the time of socialism . The city is an industrial and commercial city with good residential and shopping opportunities. Some supermarket chains and other shops have settled. There is industry in the areas of electronics, vehicle construction, wood and textile processing. The largest industrial companies are: LUK (2,500 employees), Epcos (1,700 employees), BPW (1,300 employees). Here is the location of the Hungarian emergency number -112, with 400 employees. The national traffic police administration center with 800 employees is located in Szombathely - this is where speeding mandates from all of Hungary are processed. The land around Szombathely is mainly used for agriculture.
The city is also known for the so-called "dentist tourism". Many Austrians, Germans or even Swiss and French have been coming to Szombathely for years because of the much cheaper treatment costs.
The wage level in Szombathely in 2010 is around 50% of an average EU citizen, but prices for food, clothing, etc. are already EU levels.
The 2011 census determined 78,884 inhabitants, of whom 75,850 declared themselves to be ethnic Hungarians (96%), 1,574 as Hungarian-Germans (2%) and 441 as Croatians (0.55%). The proportions of religions in 2011 were as follows: 52.15% Roman Catholic, 2% Lutheran, 2.7% Calvinist, 1.2% atheist , 40.6% without an answer, 1.35% other. Unemployment in 2011 was 3.7%.
- Gyöngyösszőllős (German customs )
- Zarkaháza (German Zargahof )
- Kámon ( Eng . Kaming )
- Herény (German herring )
- Gyöngyöshermán (German Hermannsdorf )
- Szentkirály (German Gundelsdorf )
- Zanat (German Gnadenstein )
- Perint (Eng. Brenten )
- Óperint (German old Brenten )
Szombathely is the location of a medium wave transmitter on the frequency of 1251 kHz with 25 kW transmission power at 47 ° 12 '2 N 16 ° 39' 43 E, which uses two 60 meter high self-radiating transmission masts as a transmitting antenna , which were built in 1954/55. The transmitter mast shown in the picture on the right is designed as a transmitter mast isolated from earth, the left mast is earthed at the base and is fed in the middle via externally guided wire ropes.
- Zoltán Szarka, the 1968 Olympic soccer champion in Mexico City, has been an honorary citizen of the city since 2012.
- Krisztián Pars , 2012 Olympic champion in London and European champion in Helsinki, World Championship - second in Daegu in 2011 in hammer throwing.
- Gábor Hatos Olympia - third in the wrestling (freestyle, 74 kg) in London
- The city is home to Olympic players in hammer and discus throwing: Zsolt Németh, Attila Horváth, Katalin Divós, Adrián, Annus and Róbert Fazekas
- The world-famous throwing club DOBÓ SE, founded by Pál Németh.
- The football team Szombathelyi Haladás currently plays in the Nemzeti Bajnokság , Hungary's 1st league.
- The Falco KC basketball team won the national championship in 2008.
- Other important sports in the city are table tennis and volleyball
sons and daughters of the town
- Martin of Tours (≈316 / 17–397), saint of the Catholic Church
- Stefan Kazó (≈1655–1721), theologian, archdeacon and titular bishop
- László Magyar (1818–1864), explorer and traveler
- Eugen von Gothard (1857–1909), astronomer
- Hugo Klein (1873–1931), officer and painter
- Edmund Blum (1874–1938), dentist and writer
- László Bárdossy (1890–1946), politician
- János Hoffmann (1895–1944), lawyer, victim of the persecution of the Jews
- Stefan Szende (1901–1985), political scientist, journalist and politician
- Eugene Lukacs (1906–1987), Hungarian-American mathematician
- Sándor Weöres (1913–1989), writer
- József Asbóth (1917–1986), tennis player
- Péter Vályi (1919–1973), chemical engineer, politician and finance minister
- János Brenner (1931–1957), priest and martyr
- István Seregély (1931–2018), Archbishop of Eger
- Karl Wegrath (1932–2018), Austrian table tennis player
- László Blazovich (* 1943), historian
- Endre Tóth (* 1944), archaeologist and historian
- Pál Rózsa (* 1946), composer
- Mária Kelemen (* ≈1960), literary scholar, holder of the Knight's Cross
- Róbert Fazekas (* 1975), athlete
- Gábor Király (* 1976), football goalkeeper
- Péter Halmosi (* 1979), football player
- István Szili (* 1982), boxer
- Oliver Pusztai (* 1981), soccer player
- Júlia Bezsenyi (* 1984), soccer player
- György Garics (* 1984), football player
- Norbert Kiss (* 1985), automobile racing driver
- Ágota Bauer (* 1986), soccer player
- Nóra Horváth (* 1986), football player
- Fanny Nemeth-Weiss (* 1987), cellist
- Veronika Tájmel (* 1987), soccer player
- Richárd Guzmics (* 1987), football player
- Virág Vörös (* 1999), ski jumper
City partnerships exist
Cathedral , bishop's palace and ruins garden
- Önkormányzat 2019 - Tízezernél több lakosú települések polgármesterei - Vas megye - Eredmény. Webrádió, October 14, 2019, accessed November 5, 2019 (Hungarian).
- Péter Kiss, Réka Mladoniczki, Jörg Scheuerbrandt , Eszter Harsányi: The Colonia Claudia Savaria from the middle of the 1st to the 3rd century AD Colonia Claudia Savaria a Kr. U. 1. sz. közepe és a 3rd sz. között. In: On behalf of the eagle. A római sas szolgálatában. Publius Ferrasius Avitus. Book accompanying the German-Hungarian special exhibition 2012, ISBN 978-3-00-037759-4 , p. 41.
- László Barkóczi, András Mócsy : The Roman Inscriptions of Hungary (RIU). Savaria, Scarbantia and Limes route ad Flexum-Arrabona. Adolf M. Hakkert. Amsterdam 1972, p. 13.
- Endre Tóth : Roman roads in Hungary. In: From Augustus to Attila. Limes Museum Aalen. Konrad Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8062-1541-3 , p. 53 ff .; here: p. 55.
- Elmar Csaplovics: On the topochronology of the landscape around Lake Neusiedl up to the end of the 16th century. Office of the Burgenland Provincial Government 2005, ISBN 3-901517-50-2 , p. 37.
- Elmar Csaplovics: On the topochronology of the landscape around Lake Neusiedl up to the end of the 16th century. Office of the Burgenland Provincial Government 2005, ISBN 3-901517-50-2 , p. 57.
- Manfred Kandler: The Auxiliary Fort Carnuntum, research 1977–1988. Austrian Archaeological Institute, Vienna 1997, p. 138.
- Szilveszter Solymos: Pannonhalma. A travelguide. Archabbey of Pannonhalma, 2010, ISBN 978-963-9053-86-1 , p. 7.
- Béla Miklós Szőke: The Danube and the last days of the Avar Khaganate , in "TEN THOUSAND YEARS ALONG MIDDLE DANUBE", Varia Archaeologica Hungarica XXVI, Archaeolingua, Budapest 2011.
- Uta von Freeden, Herwig Friesinger, Egon Wamers (ed.): Faith, cult and rule. Phenomena of the Religious. Colloquia on prehistory and early history. Volume 12, Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute, Frankfurt am Main 2009, ISBN 978-3-7749-3663-8 , p. 400ff.
- Association for regional studies of Lower Austria and Vienna: Our homeland, volumes 62–63 , Krnstall-Verlag, Vienna 1991.
- Herwig Wolfram: Salzburg, Bavaria, Austria. The Conversio Bagoarium et Carantanorum and the sources of their time. Verlag Oldenbourg, Vienna, Munich, Oldenbourg 1996.
- James Joyce: Ulysses , (c) Rhein-Verlag, Zurich 1956 (translation: Georg Goyert); quoted from the edition: Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag (dtv sr 50), Munich 1967, Volume II, p. 696.
- Lamantin Jazz Fesztivál
- Megindult a forgalom az új Szombathely-VAT szakaszon. (No longer available online.) June 30, 2014, archived from the original on July 14, 2014 ; accessed on June 30, 2014 (Hungarian, road clearance M86 Szombathely-Vát). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- 2017–2018. évi belföldi közforgalmú menetrend. Retrieved March 25, 2018 (Hungarian).
- 2011 census - Religions (Hungarian) (PDF; 1.9 MB)
- Historical population of Vas (Hungarian Central Statistical Office) (PDF; 1.9 MB)
- Fritz Zimmerman: Historical-ethnographic analysis of the German settlement areas of western Hungary . 1974.
- Vita - Chair for Finno-Ugric Studies - LMU Munich. Retrieved August 17, 2018 .
- Ms. Mária Kelemen receives the Knight's Cross of the Hungarian Order of Merit - Chair for Finno-Ugric Studies - LMU Munich. Retrieved August 17, 2018 .