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Coat of arms of Sopron (Ödenburg)
Sopron (Ödenburg) (Hungary)
Sopron (Ödenburg)
Basic data
State : Hungary
Region : Western Transdanubia
County : Győr-Moson-Sopron
Small area until December 31, 2012 : Sopron-Fertőd
District since 1.1.2013 : Sopron
Coordinates : 47 ° 41 '  N , 16 ° 36'  E Coordinates: 47 ° 40 '54 "  N , 16 ° 35' 30"  E
Area : 169.06  km²
Residents : 60,755 (Jan. 1, 2011)
Population density : 359 inhabitants per km²
Telephone code : (+36) 99
Postal code : 9400
KSH kódja: 08518
Structure and administration (as of 2020)
Community type : city
Mayor : Ciprián Farkas (Fidesz-KDNP)
Postal address : Fő tér 1
9400 Sopron
Website :
(Source: A Magyar Köztársaság helységnévkönyve 2011. január 1st at Központi statisztikai hivatal )

Sopron [ ˈʃɔprɔn ] ( German  Ödenburg , Burgenland - Croatian Šopron ) is a city ​​with county law in northwestern Hungary , southwest of Lake Neusiedl . It has about 60,000 inhabitants and is located in County Győr-Moson-Sopron (German equivalent: County Raab-Wiesel-Sopron). The Ikva flows through the urban area and juts out like a spur into Austrian territory.

Sopron is located about 70 kilometers south of Vienna and 210 km west of Budapest, is one of the oldest cities in Hungary and is considered a bridge between Hungary and its western neighbors. Sopron is a university town ; the West Hungarian University was founded here in 1735. Because of its role in the Reformation, Sopron was awarded the honorary title “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .


One of the earliest mentions of the settlement dates back to the records Geographia of Ptolemy (* 100, † 175 n. Chr.) Under the name of ancient Greek Σχαρβαντία (transkr. Scharbantia / Scharbantía) or ancient Greek Σκαρβαντία ( transkr. Skarbantia / Skarbantía) according to the source also ancient Greek Σακαρβαντία (transkr. Sakarbantia / Sakarbantía), from Latin sources Latin Scarbantia or Scarabantia .

The Hungarian place name Sopron is of German origin and was originally written Suprun . It was not until the middle of the 14th century that the spelling with o caught on. The place name can be derived from the old Bavarian Sûprun (Sauprunn), the earlier name of the area between the villages of Fertőrákos (Kroisbach) and Balf (Wolfs). The German place name Ödenburg, on the other hand, probably goes back to the Roman ruined city of Scarbantia, which was found deserted at the beginning of German-speaking settlement.


Aerial view
Austrian propaganda poster for the referendum in Ödenburg

The area around Sopron was already populated in the early Iron Age. The calendar mountain urns , which made the place known in the archaeological world, date from the Hallstatt period . The Romans founded the settlement Scarbantia on the site of today's Sopron , a trading center on the Amber Road . Instead of the Roman fortifications, the city walls were built in the Middle Ages. Today's market square was the former Roman forum .

After the Migration Period , the city was a desert that was very sparsely inhabited. At the end of the 8th century, the former city became part of the Carolingian Empire , which was accompanied by extensive settlement and Christianization activities. With the victory of the Hungarians over the Bavarians in the Battle of Pressburg in 907, the Magyar conquest finally began here as well . The Hungarians built a border fortress in the ruins of the Roman city.

In 1277 Sopron received the title of a royal free city when it opposed the siege by King Ottokar of Bohemia .

From 1459 to 1462 the city was temporarily part of the Habsburg family , but was given back to Hungary with the Peace of Ödenburg in 1463.

In 1526, together with Hungary, Ödenburg also fell to Habsburg by inheritance. Ödenburg remained in the Hungarian part of the Habsburg monarchy .

In 1529, during the first Turkish siege of Vienna , the city successfully defended itself against occupation by the Ottoman troops, while the surrounding area was plundered by the besieging troops.

Sopron is one of the centers of the Reformation in Hungary.

A fire destroyed large parts of the city in 1676. As a result, the city was rebuilt in the baroque style, which still shapes the cityscape today.

During the second Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683, the city of Ödenburg surrendered to the Ottoman forces under Kara Mustafa . After the victory of the imperial troops (HRR) over the Ottoman armed forces, the city fathers of Ödenburg paid homage to the Roman-German emperor in Vienna.

In the 17th century were in the Geißkirche the viceroys of Hungary crowned, also there the found Reichstag instead.

In 1896 the town hall was built on the occasion of the celebrations for the one thousandth return of the immigration of the Magyars under Grand Duke Árpád in 896 (Hungarian Millennium) .

After the First World War , Sopron (Ödenburg) was to become the capital of the newly formed Austrian state of Burgenland , which prevented a referendum in Ödenburg .

In July 1944, in 1885, Jewish citizens were deported to Auschwitz. The Orthodox Jewish community ceased to exist after 1956. The Balf camp was located in the Balf district in 1944/45 . On April 1, 1945, Red Army troops occupied Sopron.

After the Second World War , a large part of the city's Hungarian-German population was expelled .

Many former Ödenburgers came to Bad Wimpfen , where Ödenburg home meetings took place in the post-war years, so that as early as 1951 a sponsorship and later a town twinning between the towns developed. The cultural association for Ödenburg and the surrounding area was also formed in Bad Wimpfen , which set up the Ödenburg local history museum under Eugen Schusteritsch .

The Pan-European Picnic took place near Sopron on August 19, 1989 , at which 661 GDR citizens were released across the border into Austria. Commemorations are held annually at the site of this event.

Today Sopron is an up-and-coming business location in western Hungary, which is economically closely linked to neighboring Austria. In the 1990s, the city was an attractive shopping destination for residents of the Vienna metropolitan area .


In 1910 Sopron had 33,932 inhabitants (51.0% German , 44.3% Hungarians , 4.7% other). The religious affiliations were: 64.1% Roman Catholic , 27.8% Lutheran , 6.6% Jewish , 1.2% Calvinist , 0.3% other.

The 2001 census showed 56,175 inhabitants (92.8% Hungarians, 3.5% Germans / Austrians, 3.7% others), while the 2011 census showed 60,548 inhabitants, of whom 51,456 were ethnic Hungarians (85%) and 3448 were Hungarian Germans (5.7%) stated.

The proportions of religions in 2001 were as follows: 69% Roman Catholic, 7% Lutheran, 3% Calvinist, 8.1% atheist , 11.9% without an answer, 1% other.

Hungarian-German minority

Ödenburg (Sopron) is one of the few cities in Hungary with bilingual street signs .
bilingual place-name sign

Since the 19th century the Ponzicht group developed an economic activity. Despite the evictions in 1945, there was a Hungarian-German presence in the city , which today is reflected , among other things, in the elected German self-government in Ödenburg (Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Önkormányzat) , in bilingual place and street signs, most recently in the 2011 census of 5.7 % is recognizable as German declaring city residents as well as at the German Nationality School Ödenburg in the district of Sopronbánfalva (Wandorf). At the nationality school, German is taught five hours per week from the 1st grade onwards, and some other subjects in the bilingual classes. The West Hungarian University also offers courses in German, for example in economics.

Population development

year number Remarks
1833 11,216 "The local residents, who live in 2251 houses, [...] are Germans"
1857 18,211 16,861 German speakers (93%)
1880 23,222 16,425 German speakers (70%)
1910 33,932 17,318 German speakers (51%)
1920 35,248 16,911 German speakers (48%)
1941 42,255 12,633 German speakers (30%)
1949 32,726 1,179 German speakers (3.6%)
2001 56,175 1,963 German speakers (3.5%)
2011 60,548 3,448 German speakers (5.7%)


Secular buildings

Significant secular buildings are the medieval fire tower (landmark of the city), various medieval and baroque patrician houses on Fő tér (main square in the old town), the Gambrinus house and today's town hall , the town's conference and cultural center Franz Liszt , the Art Nouveau Petőfi Theater or the post office . Rákóczistraße shows monumental buildings in the style of historicism and eclecticism, including the former K. u. k. Officer's Daughter Education Institute , the semi-detached house at Rákóczi Street 37-39 and the Museum at Rákóczi Street 53.

Sacred buildings

Significant sacred buildings are:

Other sacred buildings are the Orthodox Synagogue , the Old Synagogue and the Evangelical Church .

Other buildings

In the Balf district there are healing springs containing hydrogen sulfide, which were already known to the Romans. Therefore, a therapeutic bath was created here, which offers exercise, tub, carbonic acid and underwater traction baths as well as underwater jet massage, therapeutic gymnastics, electrotherapy and Kneipp treatments. Orthopedic and neurological symptoms can be treated here .

Sopron is one in the geosciences known Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the GGRI (Geodetic and Geophysical Research Institute) .

Museums and art collections

One of the Sopron museums is the collection of the watercolor artist József Soproni Horváth (1891–1961). In the Balfi u. 11 is the Zettl-Langer private collection, which documents the artistic and collecting activities of the liqueur manufacturer Gustav Zettl (1852–1917). It has been open to the public since 1955 and offers an almost intact example of the lifestyle of the Sopron bourgeoisie around 1890.

Economy and Infrastructure

In the early Middle Ages, the Sopron area was a center of iron smelting. Today the most important branches of the economy in the region are tourism, forestry, timber industry and viticulture. Two industrial and innovation parks have settled in Sopron.


Local bus in Sopron

Sopron can be reached on the road side via the Hungarian trunk road 84 from the directions Szombathely (southeast) and Eisenstadt (northwest). After the border crossing in Klingenbach , this road in Austria joins Ödenburger Strasse B 16 or the southeast motorway A 3 in the direction of Vienna. In the direction of Győr (east), trunk road 85 runs, which only begins a few kilometers east of the city at Nagycenk . From the south, the Austrian Deutschkreutzer Strasse B 62 near Deutschkreutz reaches the Hungarian trunk road 861, which also joins trunk road 84 near Kophaza . The plan is to connect the Hungarian motorway network to the Austrian A3 motorway by building the M85 motorway near Sopron.

Five railway lines reach the Sopron railway station, which is also the main operating point of the Raaberbahn (RÖEE; Hungarian GySEV):

This means that the ÖBB-Burgenlandbahn route through Hungarian territory forms a corridor route .

The freight yard (left and center) and the terminal including loading point for the Rollende Landstrasse (right) in Sopron, which are operated by GySEV .

The nearest airport is in Fertőszentmiklós . The nearest commercial airports are Vienna and Bratislava .

Twin cities


sons and daughters of the town

Other people associated with the city


The main belt asteroid (157141) Sopron , discovered in 2004, was named after the city.

Web links

Commons : Sopron  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Helyi önkormányzati választások 2019 - Sopron (Győr-Moson-Sopron megye). Nemzeti Választási Iroda, accessed February 29, 2020 (Hungarian).
  2. a b Sopron, the city of the Reformation. Hungary. In the shadow of Vienna. City portrait of the project Reformation Cities of Europe. In:, accessed on March 9, 2017. For the significance of soprons in the history of the Reformation and the history of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation, see also the city ​​portrait ( memento of July 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) of the European project Station path. In:, accessed on July 19, 2016.
  3. Claudii Ptolemei Geographia I-III. 3 volumes. Edited by Karl Friedrich August Nobbe . Leipzig 1843–45, reprographic reprint, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1966, OCLC 952935308 , Volume 1, p. 129, scan in the Google book search; Volume 2, p. 203, scan in the Google book search (Greek text edition).
  4. ^ Alfred Stückelberger , Gerd Graßhoff (ed.): Ptolemaios. Handbook of Geography. Schwabe Verlag, Basel 2006, ISBN 3-7965-2148-7 , p. 244 f.
  5. ^ Elemér Moór: Western Hungary in the Middle Ages as reflected in the place names (= Acta litterarum ac scientiarum Regiae Universitatis Hungariae Francisco-Josephinae. Sectio philologica. T. 10). Ed. By Sodalitas amicorum Reg. Univ. Hung. Francisco-Josephinae. Szeged City Druckerei und Buchverlags-AG, Szeged 1936, DNB 364999330 , pp. 74-77.
  6. Geographical Yearbook Burgenland. 2009. Association of Burgenland Geographers, Neutal 2009, DNB 013046950 , pp. 112–118.
  7. ^ Tóth Imre: History of the city of Sopron. ( Memento from August 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In:, accessed on March 9, 2017.
  8. ^ According to Eszter Kalmár: The expulsion of the Hungarian Germans from Sopron. 2014, p. 114, more than 14,000 people of German origin were expelled from the Sopron region ( [PDF; 1.7 MB, accessed on March 9, 2017]).
  9. ^ Cultural association for Ödenburg and the surrounding area (Ed.): 50 years of loyalty to Ödenburg. Self-published by the publisher, Bad Wimpfen 1996.
  10. Robert Grünbaum , Vicco von Bülow : A short chronicle of the events and their prehistory. ( Memento from August 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: 20 years of peaceful revolution. Materials for church services and community events (= EDK texts ). Published by the EKD Church Office , Hanover 2009, accessed on July 19, 2016.
  11. ^ Sopron 1910 census ( Memento from March 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In:, accessed July 19, 2016 (English).
  12. a b 2001 census - nationalities. In:, accessed on July 15, 2017 (Hungarian).
  13. a b Népszámlálás 2011. In:, accessed on July 15, 2017 (PDF; 1.9 MB), pp. 194, 189 (Hungarian).
  14. 2001 census - religions (Hungarian).
  15. ^ Historical population of Győr-Moson-Sopron. ( Memento of July 16, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (Hungarian Central Statistical Office).
  16. ^ Sopron (official website of the city): Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Önkormányzat (= German self-government in Ödenburg, Hungarian), accessed on September 28, 2014; Sopron - the city of loyalty and freedom, accessed on July 19, 2016.
  17. Annemarie Prinz: Picture with double place name sign in Hungarian / German, accessed on July 19, 2016.
  18. German Nationality School Ödenburg (Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Általános Iskola): About our school, accessed on September 28, 2014.
  19. ^ University of Freiburg: West Hungarian University of Sopron. In:, accessed on September 28, 2014.
  20. West Hungarian University: Faculty of Economics, Bachelor's degree in Business Administration and Management. Reason for the basic course in business administration and management in German. In:, accessed on September 28, 2014.
  21. ^ JC von Thiele: The Kingdom of Hungary. A topographical-historical-statistical panorama, encompassing the whole of this country in more than 12400 articles. 6th volume. Thiele'sche Erben, Kaschau 1833, OCLC 923629635 , p. 3.
  22. ^ Ernő Deák: Changes in the ethnic composition of the population in today's Burgenland. In: Hungary Yearbook . Volume 25 (2000/2001), ISSN  0082-755X , pp. 79–96, here: p. 87 ( [PDF; 1.6 MB; accessed on September 5, 2016]).
  23. ^ A b c Arnold Suppan : "Germans" in the Habsburg Empire. Language, Imperial Ideology, National Identity, and Assimilation. In: Charles W. Ingrao, Franz A. J. Szabo u. a .: The Germans and the East (= Central European studies ). Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Ind. 2008, ISBN 978-1-55753-443-9 , p. 182.
  24. ^ Index of cultural and historical buildings. In:, accessed on July 19, 2016 (Hungarian).
  25. ^ Railway construction news. (...) Railway construction in Sopron (Oedenburg). In:  Der Bauinteressent , issue 12/1918, No. 28/1918 (XXXV. Vol.), P. 221 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / wbz
  26. ^ E. Buzási:  Storno, Ferenc d. Ä. (1821–1907), painter, architect, restorer and art collector. In: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 13, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2007–2010, ISBN 978-3-7001-6963-5 , p. 330 f. (Direct links on p. 330 , p. 331 ).