|Region :||Western Transdanubia|
|Small area until December 31, 2012 :||Sopron-Fertőd|
|District since 1.1.2013 :||Sopron|
|Area :||169.06 km²|
|Residents :||60,755 (Jan. 1, 2011)|
|Population density :||359 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code :||(+36) 99|
|Postal code :||9400|
|Structure and administration (as of 2020)|
|Community type :||city|
|Mayor :||Ciprián Farkas (Fidesz-KDNP)|
|Postal address :||Fő tér 1
|(Source: A Magyar Köztársaság helységnévkönyve 2011. január 1st at Központi statisztikai hivatal )|
Sopron [ ˈʃɔprɔn ] ( German Ödenburg , Burgenland - Croatian Šopron ) is a city with county law in northwestern Hungary , southwest of Lake Neusiedl . It has about 60,000 inhabitants and is located in County Győr-Moson-Sopron (German equivalent: County Raab-Wiesel-Sopron). The Ikva flows through the urban area and juts out like a spur into Austrian territory.
Sopron is located about 70 kilometers south of Vienna and 210 km west of Budapest, is one of the oldest cities in Hungary and is considered a bridge between Hungary and its western neighbors. Sopron is a university town ; the West Hungarian University was founded here in 1735. Because of its role in the Reformation, Sopron was awarded the honorary title “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
One of the earliest mentions of the settlement dates back to the records Geographia of Ptolemy (* 100, † 175 n. Chr.) Under the name of ancient Greek Σχαρβαντία (transkr. Scharbantia / Scharbantía) or ancient Greek Σκαρβαντία ( transkr. Skarbantia / Skarbantía) according to the source also ancient Greek Σακαρβαντία (transkr. Sakarbantia / Sakarbantía), from Latin sources Latin Scarbantia or Scarabantia .
The Hungarian place name Sopron is of German origin and was originally written Suprun . It was not until the middle of the 14th century that the spelling with o caught on. The place name can be derived from the old Bavarian Sûprun (Sauprunn), the earlier name of the area between the villages of Fertőrákos (Kroisbach) and Balf (Wolfs). The German place name Ödenburg, on the other hand, probably goes back to the Roman ruined city of Scarbantia, which was found deserted at the beginning of German-speaking settlement.
The area around Sopron was already populated in the early Iron Age. The calendar mountain urns , which made the place known in the archaeological world, date from the Hallstatt period . The Romans founded the settlement Scarbantia on the site of today's Sopron , a trading center on the Amber Road . Instead of the Roman fortifications, the city walls were built in the Middle Ages. Today's market square was the former Roman forum .
After the Migration Period , the city was a desert that was very sparsely inhabited. At the end of the 8th century, the former city became part of the Carolingian Empire , which was accompanied by extensive settlement and Christianization activities. With the victory of the Hungarians over the Bavarians in the Battle of Pressburg in 907, the Magyar conquest finally began here as well . The Hungarians built a border fortress in the ruins of the Roman city.
From 1459 to 1462 the city was temporarily part of the Habsburg family , but was given back to Hungary with the Peace of Ödenburg in 1463.
In 1526, together with Hungary, Ödenburg also fell to Habsburg by inheritance. Ödenburg remained in the Hungarian part of the Habsburg monarchy .
In 1529, during the first Turkish siege of Vienna , the city successfully defended itself against occupation by the Ottoman troops, while the surrounding area was plundered by the besieging troops.
Sopron is one of the centers of the Reformation in Hungary.
A fire destroyed large parts of the city in 1676. As a result, the city was rebuilt in the baroque style, which still shapes the cityscape today.
During the second Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683, the city of Ödenburg surrendered to the Ottoman forces under Kara Mustafa . After the victory of the imperial troops (HRR) over the Ottoman armed forces, the city fathers of Ödenburg paid homage to the Roman-German emperor in Vienna.
In 1896 the town hall was built on the occasion of the celebrations for the one thousandth return of the immigration of the Magyars under Grand Duke Árpád in 896 (Hungarian Millennium) .
In July 1944, in 1885, Jewish citizens were deported to Auschwitz. The Orthodox Jewish community ceased to exist after 1956. The Balf camp was located in the Balf district in 1944/45 . On April 1, 1945, Red Army troops occupied Sopron.
Many former Ödenburgers came to Bad Wimpfen , where Ödenburg home meetings took place in the post-war years, so that as early as 1951 a sponsorship and later a town twinning between the towns developed. The cultural association for Ödenburg and the surrounding area was also formed in Bad Wimpfen , which set up the Ödenburg local history museum under Eugen Schusteritsch .
The Pan-European Picnic took place near Sopron on August 19, 1989 , at which 661 GDR citizens were released across the border into Austria. Commemorations are held annually at the site of this event.
Today Sopron is an up-and-coming business location in western Hungary, which is economically closely linked to neighboring Austria. In the 1990s, the city was an attractive shopping destination for residents of the Vienna metropolitan area .
In 1910 Sopron had 33,932 inhabitants (51.0% German , 44.3% Hungarians , 4.7% other). The religious affiliations were: 64.1% Roman Catholic , 27.8% Lutheran , 6.6% Jewish , 1.2% Calvinist , 0.3% other.
The 2001 census showed 56,175 inhabitants (92.8% Hungarians, 3.5% Germans / Austrians, 3.7% others), while the 2011 census showed 60,548 inhabitants, of whom 51,456 were ethnic Hungarians (85%) and 3448 were Hungarian Germans (5.7%) stated.
The proportions of religions in 2001 were as follows: 69% Roman Catholic, 7% Lutheran, 3% Calvinist, 8.1% atheist , 11.9% without an answer, 1% other.
Since the 19th century the Ponzicht group developed an economic activity. Despite the evictions in 1945, there was a Hungarian-German presence in the city , which today is reflected , among other things, in the elected German self-government in Ödenburg (Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Önkormányzat) , in bilingual place and street signs, most recently in the 2011 census of 5.7 % is recognizable as German declaring city residents as well as at the German Nationality School Ödenburg in the district of Sopronbánfalva (Wandorf). At the nationality school, German is taught five hours per week from the 1st grade onwards, and some other subjects in the bilingual classes. The West Hungarian University also offers courses in German, for example in economics.
|1833||11,216||"The local residents, who live in 2251 houses, [...] are Germans"|
|1857||18,211||16,861 German speakers (93%)|
|1880||23,222||16,425 German speakers (70%)|
|1910||33,932||17,318 German speakers (51%)|
|1920||35,248||16,911 German speakers (48%)|
|1941||42,255||12,633 German speakers (30%)|
|1949||32,726||1,179 German speakers (3.6%)|
|2001||56,175||1,963 German speakers (3.5%)|
|2011||60,548||3,448 German speakers (5.7%)|
Significant secular buildings are the medieval fire tower (landmark of the city), various medieval and baroque patrician houses on Fő tér (main square in the old town), the Gambrinus house and today's town hall , the town's conference and cultural center Franz Liszt , the Art Nouveau Petőfi Theater or the post office . Rákóczistraße shows monumental buildings in the style of historicism and eclecticism, including the former K. u. k. Officer's Daughter Education Institute , the semi-detached house at Rákóczi Street 37-39 and the Museum at Rákóczi Street 53.
Significant sacred buildings are:
- Goat Church
- Ursuline Church
- St. George Church
- St. Jude Thaddeus Church
- St. Michaelskirche with Jakobskapelle
In the Balf district there are healing springs containing hydrogen sulfide, which were already known to the Romans. Therefore, a therapeutic bath was created here, which offers exercise, tub, carbonic acid and underwater traction baths as well as underwater jet massage, therapeutic gymnastics, electrotherapy and Kneipp treatments. Orthopedic and neurological symptoms can be treated here .
Museums and art collections
One of the Sopron museums is the collection of the watercolor artist József Soproni Horváth (1891–1961). In the Balfi u. 11 is the Zettl-Langer private collection, which documents the artistic and collecting activities of the liqueur manufacturer Gustav Zettl (1852–1917). It has been open to the public since 1955 and offers an almost intact example of the lifestyle of the Sopron bourgeoisie around 1890.
Economy and Infrastructure
In the early Middle Ages, the Sopron area was a center of iron smelting. Today the most important branches of the economy in the region are tourism, forestry, timber industry and viticulture. Two industrial and innovation parks have settled in Sopron.
Sopron can be reached on the road side via the Hungarian trunk road 84 from the directions Szombathely (southeast) and Eisenstadt (northwest). After the border crossing in Klingenbach , this road in Austria joins Ödenburger Strasse B 16 or the southeast motorway A 3 in the direction of Vienna. In the direction of Győr (east), trunk road 85 runs, which only begins a few kilometers east of the city at Nagycenk . From the south, the Austrian Deutschkreutzer Strasse B 62 near Deutschkreutz reaches the Hungarian trunk road 861, which also joins trunk road 84 near Kophaza . The plan is to connect the Hungarian motorway network to the Austrian A3 motorway by building the M85 motorway near Sopron.
Five railway lines reach the Sopron railway station, which is also the main operating point of the Raaberbahn (RÖEE; Hungarian GySEV):
- from the north-west: Ebenfurth – Wulkaprodersdorf – Sopron railway line (RÖEE, single-track, electrified 25 kV / 50 Hz)
- from the west: Wiener Neustadt – Mattersburg – Sopron railway line ("Mattersburger Bahn", ÖBB, single-track, not electrified)
- to the south: Sopron – Deutschkreutz – Oberpullendorf railway (“Burgenlandbahn”, ÖBB, single-track, electrified 25 kV / 50 Hz to Deutschkreutz)
- to the southeast: Sopron – Bűk – Szombathely railway line (RÖEE, single-track, electrified 25 kV / 50 Hz)
- to the east: Sopron – Csorna – Győr railway line (RÖEE, single-track, electrified 25 kV / 50 Hz)
This means that the ÖBB-Burgenlandbahn route through Hungarian territory forms a corridor route .
- to the north: In 1918 there was the (unrealized) plan to build a standard-gauge railway from the local station of the Raab-Oedenburg-Ebenfurter railway via Mörbisch am See to Rust .
- Bad Wimpfen , Germany (1990)
- Bozen , South Tyrol, Italy (July 12, 1990)
- Eilat , Israel
- Eisenstadt , Austria (2002)
- Kazuno , Japan (2002)
- Kempten (Allgäu) , Germany (1987)
- Mediaș , Romania (1994)
- Rorschach , Switzerland (1991)
- Seinäjoki , Finland (1986)
- Banská Štiavnica , Slovakia (2008)
- Sparta , Greece (2008)
sons and daughters of the town
- Johann Baptist Röschel (1652–1712), physicist and Lutheran theologian
- Georg Serpilius (1668–1723), Protestant theologian and song poet
- Otto Ferdinand von Abensperg and Traun (1677–1748), Austrian field marshal
- Maciej Kamieński (1734–1821), Polish composer
- Ferdinand Josef Schmidt (1791–1878), Austro-Hungarian merchant and naturalist in Carniola
- Ludwig von Benedek (1804–1881), Austrian general
- Georg Bauhofer (1806–1864), Lutheran theologian and publicist
- Johannes von Gruber (1807–1875), German classical philologist, high school teacher in Stralsund
- Heinrich von Angeli (1840–1925), Austrian painter
- Julius Fényi (1845–1927), Jesuit and astronomer
- Alfred Pallavicini (1848–1886), Austrian mountaineer
- Carl Friese (1855–1912), German actor
- Nikolaus Széchényi von Sárvár-Felsövidék (1868–1923), Roman Catholic clergyman and bishop
- Rudolf Burgmann (1874–1943), teacher and politician
- Imre Payer (1888–1956), Hungarian football player and coach
- David-Zwi Pinkas (1895–1952), Israeli government minister
- Margaret Mahler (1897–1985), pediatrician and psychoanalyst
- Károly Pap (1897–1945), Hungarian writer
- Richard Karpellus (1897–1971), Austrian engineer in the energy industry in Burgenland
- John Alton , born Johann Altmann (1901–1996), American cameraman, Oscar winner
- Alexa von Porembsky (1906–1981), German stage and film actress, singer
- Illona Wieselmann (1911–1963), Danish actress
- Eugen Schusteritsch (1913–1994), expellee official
- Lajos Sipeki-Balás (1913–2003), modern pentathlete
- Mihály Kubinszky (1927–2016), professor at the University of Sopron, architect and author
- Kálmán Renner (1927–1994), medalist
- Karl Schügerl (1927–2018), Professor of Technical Chemistry, University of Hanover
- Géza Ankerl (1933), professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Péter Horváth (* 1937), founder of the management consulting company Horváth & Partners
- András Gergely (* 1946), historian
- Zsuzsa Rakovszky (* 1950), writer
- József Szájer (* 1961), politician
- István Hiller (* 1964), Minister of Education
- Terézia Mora (* 1971), writer and translator
- Kitti Varga (* 1984), soccer player
- Tímea Babos (* 1993), tennis player
Other people associated with the city
- Franz Storno (1821–1907), painter, architect, restorer and art collector, lived in Ödenburg from 1845.
- Hedwig Mechle-Grosmann (1857–1928), lived in Ödenburg.
- Johann Neubauer (1880–1970), dialect poet, was a teacher in Ödenburg for 20 years.
- Elza Brandeisz (1907–2018), dance teacher and Righteous Among the Nations , lived and died in Sopron.
The main belt asteroid (157141) Sopron , discovered in 2004, was named after the city.
- Official website of the city (Hungarian, German, English)
- Sopron. In: A Pallas nagy lexikona (Hungarian)
- History of the city of Sopron / Ödenburg and its surroundings. In: oedenburgerland.de
- Historical city map of Sopron, 19th century. In: A Pallas Nagy Lexikona
- Sopron Chat Közösségi Portál. In: sopronchat.hu
- Sopron special issue (= Geographical Yearbook Burgenland 2009 ). Edited by the Association of Burgenland Geographers in cooperation with the University of West Hungary (Sopron), Faculty of Economics, Institute for International and Regional Economics, , Neutal 2009 (PDF; 39 MB) (settlement - with maps -, trade , Economy, urban geographic problems, spatial planning)
- Helyi önkormányzati választások 2019 - Sopron (Győr-Moson-Sopron megye). Nemzeti Választási Iroda, accessed February 29, 2020 (Hungarian).
- Sopron, the city of the Reformation. Hungary. In the shadow of Vienna. City portrait of the project Reformation Cities of Europe. In: reformation-cities.org/cities/, accessed on March 9, 2017. For the significance of soprons in the history of the Reformation and the history of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation, see also the city portrait ( memento of July 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) of the European project Station path. In: r2017.org/europaeischer-stationsweg, accessed on July 19, 2016.
- Claudii Ptolemei Geographia I-III. 3 volumes. Edited by Karl Friedrich August Nobbe . Leipzig 1843–45, reprographic reprint, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1966, OCLC 952935308 , Volume 1, p. 129, scan in the Google book search; Volume 2, p. 203, scan in the Google book search (Greek text edition).
- Alfred Stückelberger , Gerd Graßhoff (ed.): Ptolemaios. Handbook of Geography. Schwabe Verlag, Basel 2006, ISBN 3-7965-2148-7 , p. 244 f.
- Elemér Moór: Western Hungary in the Middle Ages as reflected in the place names (= Acta litterarum ac scientiarum Regiae Universitatis Hungariae Francisco-Josephinae. Sectio philologica. T. 10). Ed. By Sodalitas amicorum Reg. Univ. Hung. Francisco-Josephinae. Szeged City Druckerei und Buchverlags-AG, Szeged 1936, , pp. 74-77.
- Geographical Yearbook Burgenland. 2009. Association of Burgenland Geographers, Neutal 2009, , pp. 112–118.
- Tóth Imre: History of the city of Sopron. ( Memento from August 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: sopron.hu, accessed on March 9, 2017.
- According to Eszter Kalmár: The expulsion of the Hungarian Germans from Sopron. 2014, p. 114, more than 14,000 people of German origin were expelled from the Sopron region ( univie.ac.at [PDF; 1.7 MB, accessed on March 9, 2017]).
- Cultural association for Ödenburg and the surrounding area (Ed.): 50 years of loyalty to Ödenburg. Self-published by the publisher, Bad Wimpfen 1996.
- Robert Grünbaum , Vicco von Bülow : A short chronicle of the events and their prehistory. ( Memento from August 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: 20 years of peaceful revolution. Materials for church services and community events (= EDK texts ). Published by the EKD Church Office , Hanover 2009, accessed on July 19, 2016.
- Sopron 1910 census ( Memento from March 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: talmamedia.com, accessed July 19, 2016 (English).
- 2001 census - nationalities. In: nepszamlalas2001.hu, accessed on July 15, 2017 (Hungarian).
- Népszámlálás 2011. In: ksh.hu, accessed on July 15, 2017 (PDF; 1.9 MB), pp. 194, 189 (Hungarian).
- 2001 census - religions (Hungarian).
- Historical population of Győr-Moson-Sopron. ( Memento of July 16, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (Hungarian Central Statistical Office).
- Sopron (official website of the city): Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Önkormányzat (= German self-government in Ödenburg, Hungarian), accessed on September 28, 2014; Sopron - the city of loyalty and freedom, accessed on July 19, 2016.
- Annemarie Prinz: Picture with double place name sign in Hungarian / German, accessed on July 19, 2016.
- German Nationality School Ödenburg (Soproni Német Nemzetiségi Általános Iskola): About our school, accessed on September 28, 2014.
- University of Freiburg: West Hungarian University of Sopron. In: uni-freiburg.de, accessed on September 28, 2014.
- West Hungarian University: Faculty of Economics, Bachelor's degree in Business Administration and Management. Reason for the basic course in business administration and management in German. In: ktk.nyme.hu, accessed on September 28, 2014.
- JC von Thiele: The Kingdom of Hungary. A topographical-historical-statistical panorama, encompassing the whole of this country in more than 12400 articles. 6th volume. Thiele'sche Erben, Kaschau 1833, OCLC 923629635 , p. 3.
- Ernő Deák: Changes in the ethnic composition of the population in today's Burgenland. In: Hungary Yearbook . Volume 25 (2000/2001), , pp. 79–96, here: p. 87 ( oszk.hu [PDF; 1.6 MB; accessed on September 5, 2016]).
- Arnold Suppan : "Germans" in the Habsburg Empire. Language, Imperial Ideology, National Identity, and Assimilation. In: Charles W. Ingrao, Franz A. J. Szabo u. a .: The Germans and the East (= Central European studies ). Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, Ind. 2008, ISBN 978-1-55753-443-9 , p. 182.
- Index of cultural and historical buildings. In: index.sopron.hu, accessed on July 19, 2016 (Hungarian).
- Railway construction news. (...) Railway construction in Sopron (Oedenburg). In: Der Bauinteressent , issue 12/1918, No. 28/1918 (XXXV. Vol.), P. 221 (online at ANNO ).
- E. Buzási: Austrian Biographical Lexicon 1815–1950 (ÖBL). Volume 13, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2007–2010, ISBN 978-3-7001-6963-5 , p. 330 f. (Direct links on , ). In: