The Hungarian parliament , from 1867 Hungarian parliament , Hungarian Magyar Országgyűlés was as predecessor of the Hungarian Parliament , the Legislative Assembly of the Kingdom of Hungary until 1918. The Reichstag consisted of two chambers, the Upper House in which the magnates and the high clergy were sitting, and the Board of Representatives (Ablegatentafel), the House of Representatives to which the counties , free districts and cities sent deputies. The two-chamber system established itself permanently from 1608. The Principality of Transylvania had its own state parliament until 1865; the Croatian state parliament, the Sabor , met until 1918.
The parliament had since the early Middle Ages, a traditional -sized Assembly, usually in Pressburg (Pozsony), sometimes in other cities such as Sopron or Buda met (oven). The Landtag has only become institutionalized since the middle of the 15th century. From the 1290s, the nobility gathered after the royal court days. Since the 14th century, in addition to members of the royal council, delegates from the counties and free cities have also attended the meetings to negotiate taxes and military campaigns.
The state parliament never met by itself, but was convened by the king or his representative. Until 1526 the nobility was represented in the state parliaments by envoys. However, the state parliament and its state constitution did not ensure independence and independence for Hungary. Army affairs, foreign trade, customs and foreign affairs were decided by the imperial central organs in Habsburg Hungary after 1526 .
The state parliament met at irregular intervals, for example from September 11, 1825 to August 28, 1827, from September 8 to December 20, 1830, from December 16, 1832 to May 2, 1836 and from June 2, 1839 to May 13, 1840 .
During the Hungarian uprising in 1848/49 , the state parliament was moved to Pest and was to be transformed into a modern representative body that would control the Hungarian government. On October 3, 1848, King Ferdinand I declared the state parliament to be dissolved by decree. In the course of the revolution against the Habsburgs , the Hungarian Diet met on April 14, 1849 in the Great Reformed Church of Debrecen , which proclaimed the dethronement of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine and the independence of Hungary, and Lajos Kossuth was elected imperial administrator . As a result of the overthrow of the Hungarian Revolution, the National Assembly was dissolved again.
After Austria's defeat in the Italian War in 1859, the old constitution of Hungary from the period before 1848 was essentially restored with the October diploma of 1860 and the February patent of 1861, and the state parliament was appointed to deliberate on a new electoral law that should allow representation of all classes. When the National Assembly demanded the Pragmatic Sanction and the laws of 1848 as the basis for an agreement with Vienna and made Franz Joseph's coronation dependent on the reunification of the neighboring countries with Hungary, but refused to appoint the Vienna Imperial Council , the Vienna government broke off all further negotiations . "We can wait," declared Prime Minister Anton von Schmerling in the hope that Hungary will eventually submit to the February constitution. The state parliament was dissolved again on August 21, 1861, and there was again an absolutist rule. On December 14, 1865, the Hungarian Parliament was reopened.
After the Austro-Hungarian settlement , Prime Minister Gyula Andrássy had the state parliament proclaim the restoration of the Hungarian constitution of 1848 with only minor modifications on February 18, 1867. On February 27, 1867, the state parliament was officially reinstated.
Since Hungary was no longer one of the crown lands of Austria, which had received a state parliament in 1861 , but its parliament had become a legislative body of equal rank to the Austrian Imperial Council , which had existed since 1861 and was now only responsible for Cisleithanien , the previous Hungarian state parliament became now named Reichstag. Confusion with the cisleithan parliament, the Reichsrat , was not possible, since in Austria the term Reichstag was only used in 1848/1849.
The name of the Hungarian parliament was not uniform and even contradicting itself. Once there was talk of the joint Hungarian-Croatian Reichstag , then again only the Hungarian Reichstag . From 1868 to 1870 the passed laws appeared as enacted by the joint Hungarian-Croatian Reichstag . From 1871 it was only called the “Hungarian Reichstag”, although it was still a joint organ of both countries and in this capacity passed common laws. According to the Hungarian-Croatian settlement, the Croatian state parliament only received legislative sovereignty in the area of culture and education.
From 1875 to the Hungarian crisis in 1905 , the Liberal Party founded by Kálmán Tisza always had the majority in the Reichstag. The government of Géza Fejérváry ruled after the election victory of the opposition in 1905 with the help of the king, who adjourned parliament several times, bypassing the Reichstag. On February 19, 1906, Franz Joseph and Fejérváry had the Reichstag occupied by the Honvéd militarily. In 1905/06 the Independence Party was the strongest parliamentary group, and since the 1910 election the Liberals again with the newly founded National Labor Party under István Tisza .
In 1902 the Reichstag moved into the newly built parliament building in Budapest.
With the help of the Reichstag, the reactionary structure of the multi-ethnic state of Hungary was cemented through a census suffrage , which only allowed a privileged section of the population to vote - in 1913 only 7.7% of the total population were eligible to vote (or were allowed to hold public offices) . In contrast to the Austrian Reichsrat, where non-German MPs clearly announced in the spring of 1917 what they were planning to do after the end of the war, there were hardly any discussions in the Hungarian Reichstag about the objectives of the non-Magyar nationalities in Hungary after the end of the war. They rejected the then usual Magyar dominance and reorganized outside Hungary in 1918/19.
- Pressburg and the Hungarian Parliament. I. Topographical and historical . In: Illustrirte Zeitung . No. 32 . J. J. Weber, Leipzig February 3, 1844, p. 84-86 ( books.google.de ).
- ↑ a b Márta Fata, Franz Brendle (ed.): Hungary, the kingdom of the St. Stephen's crown, in the age of the Reformation and confessionalization. Multiethnicity, country and denomination 1500 to 1700. Aschendorff, Münster 2000, ISBN 3-402-02981-2 , p. 2.
- ↑ a b Edgar Hösch , Karl Nehring, Holm Sundhaussen (ed.): Lexicon for the history of Southeast Europe. Böhlau Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-205-77193-1 , p. 493.
- ^ Adam Wandruszka , Peter Urbanitsch (ed.): The Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Volume 2: Administration and Legal. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1975, ISBN 3-7001-0081-7 , p. 503.
- ^ László Révész: The beginnings of Hungarian parliamentarism. (= Southeast European Works 68) Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 1968, p. 205.
- ↑ Éva Somogyi: From centralism to dualism. The way of the German-Austrian liberals to the compensation of 1867. Steiner publishing house, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-515-03856-6 , p. 23.
- ^ Peter Berger: The Austro-Hungarian Compensation of 1867. Research Institute for the Danube Region, Herold Verlag, Vienna 1967, p. 99.
- ↑ Ernst Rudolf Huber : German constitutional history since 1789. Volume 3: Bismarck and the empire. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-17-010099-8 , p. 610.
- ^ László Révész: Parliament and parliamentarism in the Kingdom of Hungary. The Hungarian Reichstag 1848 to 1918. Legal basis and practical implementation. In: Helmut Rumpler, Peter Urbanitsch (ed.): The Habsburg Monarchy 1848–1918. Volume VII / 2: Constitution and Parliamentarism. The regional representative bodies. Publishing house of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 2000, ISBN 3-7001-2871-1 , pp. 1007-1060, here: 1015.
- ^ Géza Andreas von Geyr: Sándor Wekerle. 1848-1921. The political biography of a Hungarian statesman of the Danube Monarchy. (= Southeast European Works 91) Munich 1993, ISBN 3-486-56037-9 , p. 212ff.
- ↑ Wolfdieter Bihl : The way to collapse. Austria-Hungary under Karl I. (IV.) In: Erika Weinzierl , Kurt Skalnik (Hrsg.): Austria 1918-1938: History of the First Republic . Graz / Vienna / Cologne 1983, Volume 1, ISBN 3-222-11456-0 , pp. 27–54, here p. 44.