History of Hungary

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of Hungary encompasses the events in the Pannonian Plain up to the land conquest at the end of the 9th century by the Magyars and their history from the origin to the Kingdom of Hungary to today's Hungary within the European Union .

After the end of the threat to Central and Western Europe from the Magyar cavalry armies after the battle on the Lechfeld , following the Christianization and establishment of the Kingdom of Hungary, nomadic Magyars consolidated and settled in the Pannonian lowlands south and west of the Carpathian Arc. A personal union with Croatia began in the 12th century , and Bosnia and Little Wallachia were also under Hungarian rule for a long time. Under Matthias Corvinus , Hungary reached its greatest extent, eastern Austria , Moravia andSilesia was briefly Hungarian.

In the battle of Mohács against the Ottomans in 1526 , Hungary lost its independence due to the death of King Ludwig II and a large part of the nobility. More than two thirds of the country became Ottoman, including Transylvania as a vassal of the Porte. The rest of Royal Hungary , consisting of a narrow strip in the west, Upper Hungary and the west of Croatia, fell to the Habsburgs as inheritance. For a long time Hungary remained the battlefield between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg monarchy . Large stretches of land were depopulated as a result, and some areas were later repopulated by German and Serbian settlers.

After the Second Siege of Vienna by the Turks in 1683 , the Habsburg army, with German and Polish support , succeeded in recapturing Ottoman Hungary. Against the Habsburg rule there were protracted, ultimately unsuccessful uprisings such as the Kuruc uprisings or the revolution of 1848/49 . Due to the external weakness of the Austrian Empire , Emperor Franz Josef was forced to compromise with Hungary in 1867 . As part of Austria-Hungary , the country was largely independent, but was a multi-ethnic empire, as the Magyars only made up around half of the population. After the defeat of the dual monarchy in World War I , Hungary lost around two thirds of its territory and population in the Peace of Trianon . These included three million Magyars in Transylvania , southern Slovakia and Vojvodina .

The revision of the Trianon borders became the defining element in Hungarian politics. In the alliance with National Socialist Germany, Hungarian-settled and other areas were re-incorporated into the national territory between 1938 and 1941. When the German defeat in World War II became apparent, the government tried to switch to the side of the Allies , whereupon the German army took control and around 500,000 Hungarian Jews fell victim to the Holocaust. After the invasion of the Red Army, Hungary fell under the Soviet sphere of influence and the Hungarian People's Republic was proclaimed, again within the borders of Trianon. After the bloody suppression of the popular uprising in 1956 , the system of so-called goulash communism emerged in the country under János Kádár . In 1989, among other things, the fall of the Iron Curtain came from Hungary and with it the end of the Warsaw Pact in 1991. Today Hungary is a member of the EU and faces economic and political problems.

Carpathian Basin before the land conquest by the Magyars

The oldest archaeological finds from excavations in the Carpathian Basin date from the Paleolithic , the Paleolithic Age. One of the most important discovery sites was in the context of the place Vértesszőlős where debris Industries of Homo erectus were discovered. For the period up to the early Iron Age , there are hardly any reliable indications and finds that point to the inhabitants of the Carpathian Basin. The first written records about peoples who settled in what is now Hungary are from the 6th century BC at the earliest. Known. Herodotus - a Greek historian, geographer and ethnologist - first mentioned peoples who spoke a northern Iranian language and belonged to the steppe peoples of the Scythians . Later the Celts tried to gain a foothold in the Carpathian Basin, which they did until the second half of the 4th century BC. Chr. Succeeded. From then on, the Celts undertook their extensive expeditions of conquest from the Carpathian Basin.

Roman provinces in Southeast Europe

29 BC Roman legions entered the Carpathian Basin for the first time . Large parts of Pannonia were devastated by the Dacian Wars that followed , and Rome conquered large parts of Illyria as far as the Drava . A little later, in the first Pannonian War from 12 to 9 BC. BC, the brothers Tiberius and Drusus conquered Pannonia completely. The decisive factor for the Roman Empire's urge to expand towards the Carpathian Mountains was, on the one hand, the need to secure the borders of the empire against the Dacians and the Teutons . On the other hand, there were economic considerations as the Pannonia region was known for its iron production and the yield from its agriculture. However, it was only after Tiberius put down the Pannonian uprising that Rome succeeded in making Pannonia one of its provinces. The city of Carnuntum, east of Vienna , became the capital of the new province, which extended to what is now Transdanubia and the area between the Drava and Sava . Until 103/6 AD Pannonia was divided into two and later under Diocletian into four provinces. Pannonia enjoyed many advantages through its incorporation into the Roman Empire and its organization. Cities like Savaria ( Szombathely ), Sopianae ( Pécs ) and Aquincum were equipped with large-scale buildings, central heating, thermal baths and amphitheatres . In the course of the introduction of the Roman legal system , the literature also spread rapidly, because from now on public affairs were dealt with on the basis of written law. Christianity also found its way into Pannonia around 400.

The next major event in the Carpathian Basin happened in the 430s when the Roman Empire ceded control of Pannonia to the Huns . Attila , King of the Huns, had ambitious plans, which he tried to implement in 451 through the battle of the Catalaunian fields against the Roman Empire. The battle ended with Attila's defeat, after which the Huns had to withdraw. After Attila's death in 453, the Huns quickly disintegrated, especially as the peoples of the Carpathian Basin began to rebel against the Huns in Pannonia. From this point on, the Gepids , a Germanic tribe, who defeated the Huns under Ardarich in the Battle of Nations on the Nedoa River in 455, forced them to leave the Carpathian Basin, dominated the western Carpathian Basin . The western Carpathian Basin was then ruled by the Ostrogoths and later by the Lombards . Soon, however, conflicts arose between the Gepids living in the east and the Lombards, exploited by the Avars , who spread throughout the Carpathian Basin in the 560s. The Avars were a Central Asian cavalry people who for the next 200–250 years led campaigns of conquest against Central Europe from the Pannonian Plain and represented an important power factor between the Franconian Empire and the Byzantine Empire at this time.

Because there were frequent revolts of the Slavs and the Bulgarians in the Avar Empire, who were able to break away from the Avars over time, Charlemagne and the Bulgarian Khan Krum found it easy to destroy the Avars in their campaigns between 791 and 803. After the Avar empire had perished, mainly Slavs moved to the Carpathian Basin and formed the dominant ethnic group there until the Hungarians conquered the land.

Origin of the Magyars

Assumed course of the migration of the (proto-) Magyars

Mainly due to the linguistic relationship, it is reconstructed that the " original home " of the Magyars , whose language is assigned to the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric language family , could have been east of the Ural Mountains . The Ugric language community probably broke up in the first half of the first millennium BC. Chr. On.

At which stage of the migration movements of the (proto) Magyars to the west the ethnogenesis , i.e. the formation of an ethnic identity of the Magyars or Hungarians, took place is controversial. Some authors argue that it took place around the 6th to 7th centuries in a region that was later called Magna Hungaria and is located east of the Volga , in what is now Bashkiria . Others argue that the ethnic unity of the Hungarians did not develop until the middle of the 9th century, in the decades before the conquest of the Pannonian Basin, in the " Intercurrent Land " (Hungarian Etelköz ; probably between Dnieper and Dniester in the south of today's Ukraine). There the Ugric element of the Proto-Magyars mixed with the Turkic-speaking groups of the Kawars and Onogurs (the foreign name "Hungarians" is derived from the latter ), which gave rise to the Hungarians. A minority of researchers assume that the equestrian tribes that invaded Pannonia at the end of the 9th century were not Magyars at all, but that they had already resided there since the 5th or 6th century. The "invaders" led by Grand Duke Árpád were therefore only a small minority and gradually assimilated to the majority population found. However, this is rejected by the majority of researchers.

Attacked by Bulgarians and Pechenegs , the Magyars fled Etelköz between 894 and 897 and reached the Carpathian Basin. After crossing the Eastern Carpathians , they first settled on the upper Tisza . The number of immigrating Magyars is estimated at 400,000–500,000. The area was already populated by around 200,000 members of non-Magyar peoples ( Slavs , (proto-) Bulgarians , Moravljanes , possibly Avars and others). Some of them fled, joined the Magyars or were subjugated. The term “land grab” thus arouses false associations, as the area was by no means uninhabited.

Land grab time

Society building

Detail of the Feszty panorama (1894) with Prince Árpád

The Magyar tribes were organized in a tribal union before the conquest. This was led by double princes (taken over by the Khazars). The two princes, the " kende " and the " gyula ", shared government and military duties . However, this system dissolved in the first decade of the 10th century shortly after the conquest of the land. The main reason was the death of the then Gyula Kurszán, who the Kende Árpád used to take over the sole rule.

In the following time the organization of the tribes changed, so that the individuals more and more followed their own interests in political affairs. This can be seen from the fact that the forays were not undertaken together at the beginning of the 10th century and that the individual tribes, after unsuccessful forays, looked for new means to make their forays more efficient. The trip to Constantinople in 950 by a prince of the tribe that was settling in the area of ​​today's Transylvania at the time is evidence that the tribes now increasingly went their own way in religious matters. Undertaken was the prince of the trip to the capital of the former Byzantine Empire to there Greek Orthodox to be baptized and so his tribe to the Greek Orthodox Church and the Byzantine Empire to bind. For this he also brought a mission bishop from Constantinople back to his homeland.

On the other hand, there were the Árpáden, who claimed sole rule over all Hungarians. However, they were only able to gradually enforce this claim after the lost battle on the Lechfeld in 955, by politically extending their power to the other Hungarian tribes and thus dominating large parts of the western Carpathian Basin by the end of the millennium. To the north of their territory was the area of ​​influence of the Kabars. In the east the rulers changed again and again, as tribes united and separated again. All of these tribes were organized similarly in four stands:

  • Aristocracy : Rich, elegant families and “clans” who held leadership positions
  • Citizens or middle class: families in the service of the nobility, some of them wealthy
  • Lower class: Free people who also had common property, hardly wealthy
  • Servants: unfree , owned by the nobility

The boundaries between the various classes and groups were fluid, and they were linked by a complicated structure of duties and rights. Marriage mattered to all groups. The nobility in particular used the opportunity to expand their power through weddings in order to establish and consolidate long-lasting “alliances” with other families and clans. As armed men, the members of the middle class were often responsible for protecting the nobility. This service was voluntary, but the middle class received maintenance and accommodation from the nobility for their services. The lower class had to bear the burden of the expenses of the nobility and did this in the form of natural goods and labor service. It was mainly the "common" who performed labor service; they were obliged to serve their masters in various ways. Although these lower classes, like the middle class and the nobility, were free and also formally equal, they became more and more dependent on the nobility; many lost their freedom and sank into the group of servants. This group also included the prisoners brought along from forays and the Slavs living in the conquered Carpathian Basin, from whom the Hungarians learned agriculture and about 1500 basic words from the field of state administration (county, king), agriculture (cherry), religion (priest , Engel), handicrafts (miller, blacksmith) and others (Wednesday, Thursday, street, window, plate, lunch, dinner) into their language. In the southeast of the Pannonian Plain there were still some remains of the Avars.

On a political level, it was thanks to Prince Géza , Árpád's great-grandson, that relations with Germany improved and stabilized after the battle on the Lechfeld. It was also he who brought Christian missionaries to Hungary for the first time in order to bring his country closer to Christian Europe. He was also the first Hungarian ruler to be baptized in the Christian faith. At the same time, however, he did not completely renounce the pagan beliefs of his ancestors. He pursued a double strategy: On the one hand, he tried to achieve peace with Christian Europe, especially with the then Western Empire . On the other hand, he did not deny his roots. At the end of his efforts there was finally the inheritance for his son Vajk, who was baptized in the Christian faith with the name Stephan I (Hungarian: István ) and later married the Duchess Gisela of Bavaria .

Forays into the air, land grabbing and building a state

Hungarian forays

In the romantic Hungarian historiography of the 19th century, the forays are often unrealistic portrayed as great adventures ("kalandozások"). But to this day kalandozások is associated with the forays that reached far into Central and Western Europe and with which the Hungarians were very successful at the time. If one looks at all reports available today, one can assume at least 50 forays by the Hungarian tribes in the period from 900 to 970. The first forays hit the neighboring areas in the west of the Hungarian tribal areas.

From 862 the nomadic Hungarians (Magyars), who at that time still undertook their sporadic campaigns in the west from the region behind the Carpathians, appeared for the first time in the Carpathian Basin. They invaded a second time in 881. In these two campaigns they were subject to Eastern Franconia . In 889 the Hungarians were more successful when they sacked Moravia and parts of the East Franconian Empire. In 892 they were recruited from the East Franks against Moravia.

The Hungarians did not settle in what is now Hungary until 895/896. They first penetrated into the middle and upper Tisza region of Moravia in 895 . To the north and north-west of this area was the territory of the Neutra principality , which was part of Moravia, to the west of it the East Franconian duchies of Bavaria and Franconia , which halted further expansion. Also archaeological finds indicate the upper Tisza region as an initial princely settlement area suggest.

Around 900 the Hungarians moved to Transdanubia and brought it under their rule, with several events facilitating their conquest. The Moravian prince Svatopluk I died in 894. The ensuing throne disputes increasingly weakened his empire, so that in the same year Moravia lost the area of ​​Transdanubia to Eastern Franconia after the Hungarian pillage. The East Franconian King Arnulf even entered into an alliance with the Hungarians in 892 against the Lombards under Guido von Spoleto and struck them together with them. When King Arnulf died a short time later, the Hungarians saw the right time to expand their territory. The choice of the areas to be conquered was primarily based on strategic considerations, so that the Hungarians mainly settled on waters, river valleys or areas protected by swamps . According to some chronicles, an important center of the Hungarian tribes was at that time on the island of Csepel in the central section of the Danube (around the present-day city of Budapest ).

With the battles of Pressburg in 907 the Hungarians defeated Bavarian troops, conquered the eastern parts of today's Austria by 955 and destroyed the central power of the Moravian Empire. Around 925 a group of Hungarian tribes under the leadership of Lél conquered what is now southwestern Slovakia (see Neutra Principality ).

In the second half of the 10th century, the areas ruled by Hungarians consisted of a number of Hungarian tribal areas, of which that of the main line of the Árpáds , i.e. the core of the later Hungarian state, was only in northern Transdanubia. Since about the 1070s, according to the available sources, the situation was such that the Árpáds, in addition to the area already mentioned , were indirectly subject to the feudal principalities of Neutra and Bihar as well as Transylvania, ruled by relatives . The remaining areas were ruled by hostile Hungarian tribal leaders and only later gradually conquered and unified by King Stephen . However, the Hungarians did not rule an ethnically homogeneous country. The subjugated Slavic and Germanic peoples in the country were an essential part of the Hungarian armies and the state apparatus, which can be understood from the countless Slavic and German loanwords in Hungarian.

The defense of the Hungarian territories had to be directed mainly to the east and north, since the Magyars always carried out their attacks and campaigns to the west, often as an ally of a western state. In the 10th century, these campaigns determined all of Hungarian foreign policy. They procured luxury items and expensive goods - including prisoners - by raids and raids across Europe. The armies of western states at that time consisted largely of heavily armored cavalry, while the riders of the Magyars were fast and always agile, an advantage that guaranteed their success for a long time. Their tactics were quite unusual for the time: They tried to encircle the enemy’s army and fire arrows from their horses. After a while they faked the escape, only to turn around in the moment of surprise and lure the enemy into the trap. With this tactic they managed to plunder many culturally and technically highly developed regions of Europe. Other factors also favored the successes of the Magyars: the grueling wars between the individual European states, but also feudalism, which was weakening from within . In Hungary, the forays resulted in a further differentiation of the population. The ruling class of the state became more and more wealthy, mainly through spoils of war such as silver , animals and expensive materials, later also through tribute payments .

Also in 933 the Hungarians wanted to demand tribute from the East Franconian King Heinrich I and went to war against the East Franconia. Heinrich, however, expected an attack and was able to muster a strong force. The Hungarians were defeated in the Battle of Riyadh . Belief in the invincibility of Hungarians was shaken. However, the raids by the Hungarians continued. Only with the devastating defeat in 955 at the battle of the Lechfeld near Augsburg were the Hungarians put to a halt. After this battle three Hungarian leaders ( Bulcsú , Lél , Súr), who had been captured, were hanged, Austria fell back to the Eastern Franks and the Principality of Neutra to the Arpad.

In terms of foreign policy, a new course was taken as a result of this defeat. The new Grand Duke Taksony put an end to the attacks in the west. He was ready to maintain peace with Eastern Franconia, even at the expense of losing territory. In the meantime, however, the attacks continued to the south. Byzantium stopped paying tribute to Hungary, so Taksony 959 decided to campaign against Byzantium, which was not decided until 11 years later. The Magyars, even in alliance with Pechenegs , Bulgarians and Russians , could not win the decisive battle of Arkadiopolis and had to surrender. This sealed the end of the Magyar forays, Grand Duke Géza (949-997), who had inherited the throne from his father Taksony, was forced to stop the attacks, otherwise the great powers of Europe would have attacked Hungary. He also had to address problems within. The forays as a source of income had dried up, which is why other income had to be developed. The foreign and domestic political situation made the establishment of a state more and more urgent.

Géza and his son Vajk (Stephan I.) brought East Franconian missionaries and knights into the country, including missionaries from Byzantium, and built up an administration. With the growing number of followers, they eliminated internal rivals ( Koppány ), so that Stephan I could be crowned king in the winter of 1000/1001.

Kingdom of Hungary

The Christianization of the country began with the reign of Stephen I. In 1030 he fended off the attack of the Roman-German Emperor Konrad II and thus secured the existence of his state. Stephan I was canonized in 1089. In 1102 the Kingdom of Croatia came to Hungary through a personal union.

Hungary's domestic policy in the centuries that followed was determined by the struggle between the king and the nobility, which reached its climax in the 13th century. The foreign policy of Hungary was characterized by far-reaching marriage alliances and, after the fall of power by Byzantium from 1180 on the Balkan peninsula, took on the character of a great power policy.

In 1241 the Mongols under Batu Khan devastated the country after their victory in the Battle of Muhi and killed about half of the population, so that King Béla IV (1235-1270) again many immigrants through regionally determined tax privileges and the right of internal self-administration had to bring to the depopulated country through its own legal traditions. Among them were many German-speaking “Saxons”, mainly in Transylvania (see Transylvanian Saxony ) and in today's Slovakia , the Spiš region ( Zipserdeutsch- speaking Zipser Sachsen), but also Cumans and Jassen who fled the Mongols . After the Mongol invasion , the Hungarian oligarchs expanded their power, which eventually led to the emergence of the small Hungarian kingdoms after the death of King Andrew III. led in 1301. In the 1320s, King Charles I Robert ended the power of the oligarchs in a series of campaigns and restored central power.

In 1396 a French-Hungarian army of knights under King Sigismund lost the battle of Nicopolis against the Ottomans . 1370–1386 and 1440–1444 Hungary and Poland were ruled in personal union by the Anjou and Jagiellonians . Also in 1444 - under the military leader Johann Hunyadi - there was another heavy defeat, this time with the United Poland against the Ottoman Empire in the battle of Varna .

Towards the end of the Middle Ages, Hungary flourished under the rule of Sigismund from Luxembourg (king since 1387) or Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), who was elected by the petty nobility . From the middle of the 15th century there were wars between Matthias Corvinus and the Habsburgs . After Corvinus' death Hungary was ruled from 1490 to 1526 by the Polish-Lithuanian Jagiellonians in personal union with Bohemia. This personal union ended in 1526 with the death of Ludwig II in the Battle of Mohács . As a result, a large part of Hungary was conquered by the Ottomans under Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent .

Turkish Wars - Hungary "divided into three parts"

The Tabula Hungarie (1528), part of the
World Document Heritage , is now in the Széchényi National Library in Budapest
Map of the "tripartite" Hungary in the middle of the 16th century

The double election of 1526 after the death of Ludwig II became decisive for the further fate of Hungary in the next 150 years. The majority of the Hungarian estates elected Prince Johann Zápolya as Hungarian king in Tokaj and a little later in the old Hungarian coronation town Stuhlweissenburg . But also the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria , who would have succeeded in the Kingdom of Hungary according to the mutual inheritance agreement of 1515, was elected King of Hungary by an assembly of mainly western and upper Hungarian nobles in Pressburg in 1526 . At that time a very precise map of Hungary was printed, namely the Tabula Hungarie (1528), designed by Lazarus Secretarius and his teacher Georg Tannstetter .

In the following civil war (1527-1538) against Johann Zápolya, Ferdinand's troops initially proved to be superior and were able to occupy the most important cities of western and central Hungary. Zápolya saw itself thrown back to its base in Transylvania. Nevertheless, Ferdinand recognized Zápolya as King of Hungary in the Peace of Oradein in 1538 (also in view of the impending Turkish threat), but had the right of succession assured in the event of his death. However, Zápolya changed his mind after his son and successor Johann Sigismund was born from his marriage to Isabella of Poland in 1539 , to whom he bequeathed the kingdom in 1540. The death of Johann Zápolyas and the immaturity of his son now called the Ottomans on the scene, who conquered Buda - Ofen in 1541 and were able to occupy the most important cities of Central Hungary with Gran , Stuhlweissenburg and Fünfkirchen by 1543 .

After Zápolya's death in 1540, the tripartite division of the Kingdom of Hungary was cemented for almost 150 years: The areas that were still ruled by the Habsburgs - today's Burgenland , today's Slovakia, western Croatia and parts of today's north-west and north-east Hungary - became de facto a province of the rulers in Vienna under the name Royal Hungary , who from then on competed with the Turks for possession of the land. Formally, the Habsburgs were still crowned as Hungarian kings, but initially in competition with Johann Sigismund Zápolya , who resided in Transylvania as an opposing king until his abdication in 1570. Pressburg became the capital of Royal Hungary . Of the remaining former territories, the Principality of Transylvania became a Turkish vassal state, which, however, under its ambitious princes (often from the House of Báthory ) understood how to operate a clever rocking policy between Turkish supremacy and the Habsburg claims on Hungary and thus to the military stalemate to use his favor. Central Hungary - d. i. most of what is now Hungary - became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The Magyars made up 80% of the population of 3.5 to 4 million before 1526, but their share fell sharply due to the constant wars and devastation, which were responded to with resettlements. Around 1600 the total population was estimated at around 2.5 million, after the withdrawal of the Turks at around 4 million.

The end of Turkish rule in Hungary and with it the end of the independence of Transylvania came shortly after the failed siege of Vienna in 1683 by the Turks. In the same year the Habsburgs succeeded in conquering Grans, and after taking Buda and Ofen in 1686 and defeating an Ottoman army in 1687 in the Battle of Mount Harsány (also known as the Second Battle of Mohács) and the subsequent occupation of further parts of Hungary and In Transylvania, the Hungarian estates recognized the nine-year-old Archduke Joseph , the son of Leopold I , as the hereditary king of Hungary during his lifetime. The coronation on December 9, 1687 in Pressburg signified an "essential step towards the connection of Hungary with the Austro-Bohemian conglomerate ruled by the emperor as sovereign and the internal development of the great power of Austria". In the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, the Ottoman Empire finally had to acknowledge the loss of Hungary.

From the Kuruc uprising to the settlement with Austria

The Hungarians disapproved of the absolutist rule of the Habsburgs, so that 1703–1711 came the Kuruc uprising under Prince Rákóczi . After its defeat, in the Peace of Szatmár in 1711, the traditional freedoms of the nobles in the Kingdom of Hungary were renewed and the Habsburgs were again recognized as kings of Hungary. This peace and the subsequent parliamentary sessions in Pressburg in 1712 and 1714 ended the uprising.

During the reign of Maria Theresa , Germans resettled in the Kingdom of Hungary, such as the Danube Swabians . During the Napoleonic Wars , the Austro-Hungarian relationship was largely free of tension. In the first decades of the 19th century, however, a strong liberal and national movement developed in Hungary. In 1825, Hungarian replaced Latin as the state language. In 1848/49 there was a revolution against the Habsburgs under the leadership of Lajos Kossuth , during which the Hungarian Diet met in the Great Reformed Church of Debrecen on April 14, 1849 and Lajos Kossuth announced the dethronement of the House of Habsburg and the independence of Hungary. After the bloody suppression of the Hungarian freedom struggle to August 1849 with Russian support, and a phase of repression ( execution of Hungarian Prime Minister Batthyány and 13 other revolutionary leaders on October 6, 1849), it came in 1867 under Emperor Franz Joseph I to compensation Austria with Hungary in order to put the multi-ethnic state on a broader basis.

See also: Hungarian Revolution 1848/1849 , Slovak Uprising , Reform Period in Hungary

Part of Austria-Hungary

Hungary (No. 16) as part of Austria-Hungary , Croatia and Slavonia (No. 17)

The equalization took place on the Hungarian side with the participation of Ferenc Deák ("The Wise One"). Hungary was now until 1918 the second major component of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary . The liberal party , which emerged from Deák's political camp, determined Hungarian politics in the following decades. The government in Hungary negotiated the Hungarian-Croatian Compromise in 1868 , which regulated the autonomy of the Kingdom of Croatia within the Hungarian part of the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy. From 1879, however, the increasing Magyarization policy in the Hungarian part of the empire led to considerable tensions with other ethnic groups.

As Prime Minister (1875–1890), Kálmán Tisza carried out extensive reforms to modernize the country in the areas of economy, justice, social affairs and politics. With Finance Minister Sándor Wekerle , he was able to avert national bankruptcy. A tax reform, which also included large land holdings, multiplied state revenues. His government also increased its independence from the Austrian part of the Empire, Cisleithanien , and Hungarian influence on the monarchy's common foreign policy increased significantly. The considerable economic successes during Tisza's reign "established the country's prestige and modified the self-image of Hungarian politics".

The long reign of Tisza gave the impression of great stability, especially compared to the Austrian part of the dual monarchy, where eleven governments replaced each other during this period. However, social development has not been able to keep pace with the country's relatively constant economic development. Unrest and growing anti-Semitism were the result.

Ethnographic map of the Kingdom of Hungary

Under the Tisza government began the policy of Magyarization of Hungary, the non-Magyar population should adopt the Magyar language and nationality by applying more or less gentle pressure . Between 1880 and 1910 the percentage of citizens of Hungary (excluding Croatia ) who professed to be Magyars rose from 45 to over 54 percent.

Prime Minister Dezső Bánffy (1895–1899) institutionalized and bureaucratized the nationality policy, combined with reprisals for the minorities in the kingdom. Bánffy raised the idea of ​​the Hungarian nation-state to the government program: "The nation-state should, among other things, be realized through the Magyarization of place names, family names and intensive language lessons." For him, the language dispute with the minorities was just a pretext: "The question of language is only a means, the real goal is to introduce a federalist policy in Hungary". The dualism was by no means a stable political situation; there were frequent conflicts with Vienna, as in the Hungarian crisis of 1905/06 or during the regular (financial) settlement negotiations.

Kálmán's son István Tisza led Hungary into the First World War . Hungary provided almost 4 million soldiers in it and had 600,000 dead and 700,000 prisoners to mourn. Under Prime Minister Tisza and Stephan Burián , who was alternately the Imperial and Royal Finance Minister and the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister in the Council of Ministers for Common Affairs in Vienna , Hungary achieved greater influence on Austria-Hungary's foreign policy than ever before. Hungary's influence in Europe was as great as it was at the end of the Middle Ages.

Between the wars and the Second World War (1918–1945)

The territorial division of Austria-Hungary after the First World War in the Treaty of Trianon
Territorial acquisitions 1938–1941

After the defeat in 1918, Hungary was re-established as a completely independent state, initially as a democratic republic under Mihály Károlyi ( Hungarian National Council - People's Republic of Hungary). After the peaceful civil revolution of 1918, the government of the new republic enacted People's Law Number 1 , which for the first time in Hungarian history guaranteed equal voting rights for both sexes, exercised through party lists. However, no elections were held on this basis. The conservative wing of the nationalist movement overthrew Prime Minister Mihály Károlyi in a counter-revolution and women's suffrage was abolished.

In 1919 a soviet republic was established under the leadership of Béla Kun , but it perished after the defeat in the war against Romania . The post-revolutionary electoral law of November 1919, which was contained in government decree 5985/1919 / ME, again guaranteed a gradually expanded right to vote. Yet the 1920 elections were shaken by intimidation and corruption. Women and men over 24 had the right to vote if they had been Hungarian for six years and had lived in Hungary for at least six months. Women's suffrage was limited to women who could read and write. Men were exempt from the age limit if they had served at the front for at least twelve weeks. A serious setback followed in 1922: an electoral reform raised the voting age for women to 30. A certain level of schooling was also a requirement: four years of elementary school for men and six for women (four if they had at least three children or were their own income and head of household) .

Hungary transformed into an authoritarian, conservative state, which in 1920 lost two thirds of its territory through the Treaty of Trianon : Burgenland, Croatia and Slavonia , Slovakia, Transylvania, Carpathian Ukraine , Banat and Vojvodina . Thus Hungary shrank from 279,090 km² by 186,060 to 93,030 km². According to this treaty, 63 percent of the former lands of the Holy Crown of St. Stephen were outside the new borders, including almost 30 percent of Hungarians. It lost almost all raw material areas. As the successor state of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Hungary, like Austria, was obliged to make reparation payments, which were to be paid off over a period of 33 years. The strength of the army was limited to 32,000 men. In nominal terms, Hungary was still a kingdom, but it was ruled by Miklós Horthy as imperial administrator . In 1921 , the former King Charles IV tried unsuccessfully to take over the rule again.

Through revisionist propaganda, Hungary came closer and closer to the National Socialist leadership in Germany. On February 21, 1934, an economic agreement was signed between Hungary and Germany. On March 17, 1934, Hungary, Italy and Austria signed the Protocolli di Roma ; this resulted in an economic bloc between these countries. Anti-Jewish discrimination laws followed in May 1938 (tightened in May 1939) and 1941.

In March 1939, Hungarian troops occupied the Carpathian Ukraine in the course of the smashing of the rest of the Czech Republic . Previously - in the First Vienna Arbitration (November 2, 1938) - Hungary had already received an area with over 1 million inhabitants. Hungary joined the Anti-Comintern Pact in 1939 and the Three-Power Pact in 1940. In 1941 it supported the German Reich in the Balkan campaign against Yugoslavia and finally took part in the war against the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1945. With this policy, it regained Carpathian Ukraine and the northern part of Transylvania. In the Hungarian-Romanian conflict on the Transylvania question, however, Hitler showed sympathy for Romania, on whose oil reserves the German Reich was dependent. In January 1943, the 2nd Hungarian Army with 200,000 men was surrounded by the Red Army in the Voronezh-Kharkiv operation . It was a turning point that made it clear to the government of Miklós Kállay that it was better to side with the Allies .

In August 1943, parts of the Hungarian government first made contact with the Allies, whereupon the country was occupied by German troops from March 19, 1944 (" Margarethe case "). On March 23, 1944, a new government was formed under Prime Minister Döme Sztójay . Within a very short time, the Jews were completely disenfranchised with the help of 107 laws . Subsequently, on April 27, 1944 , under the direction of Adolf Eichmann , the mass deportation of Jews from the Hungarian provinces to the extermination camps began. After foreign protests, Horthy did not stop the evacuation of the last 200,000 or so Jews from Budapest until the beginning of July 1944 and was temporarily suspended on July 9th. By then (according to a telegram from the German envoy and Reich Plenipotentiary Edmund Veesenmayer on July 11), 437,402 Jews had been deported within just over two months.

Coat of arms of Hungary during the fascist Arrow Cross dictatorship.

In October 1944 the Red Army crossed the Hungarian border and occupied the east of the country. On October 15, Horthy was overthrown by the " Operation Panzerfaust " and power was transferred to the fascist Arrow Cross movement by Ferenc Szálasi , which resumed the deportation of the Jews. In Budapest ghetto and the death marches - the railway network had collapsed - died of thousands of Jews in November.

Budapest, which was the target of Anglo-American bombing raids several times during the year, was surrounded by Soviet forces at the end of December 1944. In the battle , which lasted until the beginning of February 1945 , the besiegers as well as the trapped German and Hungarian troops who withdrew to the Buda side of the pocket and others. all bridges over the Danube were blown up, large parts of the capital destroyed. 38,000 Budapest civilians died in the fighting. The Budapest ghetto was liberated by the Red Army on January 18, 1945. The last fighting on Hungarian territory ended on April 4, 1945, and some Hungarian units continued to fight in Austria and Bavaria until the beginning of May.

See also: Shoes on the Danube Bank

Hungarian People's Republic (1949–1989)

National coat of arms of Hungary during the Stalinist dictatorship Mátyás Rákosis (1949–1956)

First of all, the Allies envisaged a democratic constitution for Hungary after the war. In 1945 unrestricted suffrage was restored. After suffering a severe defeat in the parliamentary elections on November 4, 1945, the communists began to use unclean methods to reach for power. Even after the Independent Party of Small Farmers, Agricultural Workers and the Bourgeoisie (FKgP) was crushed, the Communist Party of Hungary (MKP) only received 22.3% of the vote in the parliamentary elections on August 31, 1947 . On June 12, 1948, the forced unification of the MKP and the Social Democratic Party to form the “ Party of the Hungarian Working People ” (Hungarian Magyar Dolgozók Pártja or MDP) was formally carried out. Soon afterwards the other parties were disbanded; in the parliamentary elections on May 15, 1949 , only one party - the MDP - was allowed. In 1948 the country was subjected to communism based on the Soviet model. The same right to vote for both sexes has been degraded to a formal right. On August 20, 1949, a constitution based on the Soviet model was adopted. From 1948 to 1953, the Hungarian communists under Mátyás Rákosi followed a Stalinist course.

Several show and secret trials were held until 1953, e . B. against Cardinal József Mindszenty , Paul Esterházy and László Rajk . The Hungarian political police Államvédelmi Hatóság (ÁVH) began to pursue political opponents in 1945. It was feared also and especially among the communists' own ranks. For the arrest of Laszlo Rajk was János Kádár responsible. In 1951, Kádár was also accused of supporting Tito and arrested. A final secret trial in 1953 was supposed to “prove” the murder of the Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg by Zionist conspirators; Károly Szabó was arrested in April 1953 and imprisoned for six months.

After Stalin's death in June 1953, Prime Minister Imre Nagy began a period of cautious liberalization. With Nagy's disempowerment in 1955 by the largely unchanged party leadership, a restoration went hand in hand. The political situation remained tense. Rajk was rehabilitated and solemnly buried on October 6, 1956 with great public sympathy (details here ).

A popular uprising began on October 23, 1956, during which Imre Nagy was reappointed Prime Minister. The uprising was bloodily suppressed by the Soviet army . A total of five Soviet divisions were involved between November 1 and November 4; around 100,000 Soviet soldiers remained in Hungary as the occupying army. Imre Nagy was sentenced to death in a secret trial in June 1958 and hanged the same day. By 1963 around 400 people, mostly workers, had been executed in retaliation for the uprising. Over 200,000 Hungarians left the country after the failed popular uprising and emigrated to Western Europe and North America. From 1956 János Kádár was the new head of the party and government. His term of office lasted 32 years until May 1988 (→ Kádár era ).

National coat of arms of the People's Republic under János Kádár .

After the suppressed popular uprising of 1956, Hungary's relations with the United States deteriorated dramatically. On November 4, 1956, the United Nations General Assembly, convened at the instigation of the USA, condemned in resolution 1004 (ES-II) by 50 votes to 8 ( Russian Soviet Republic , Ukrainian Soviet Republic , Belarusian Soviet Republic , Romania , Bulgaria , Czechoslovakia , Poland , Albania ) with 15 abstentions (Afghanistan, Burma, Ceylon, Egypt, Finland, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Libya, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen and Yugoslavia) Soviet intervention in Hungary. From 1960 onward, secret negotiations between the USA and the Kádár government in Hungary resulted in a non-written agreement on October 20, 1962. As a result, the Hungarian government issued a general amnesty for those convicted after 1956 in 1963, and in return the United States made no further efforts to bring the Hungarian question to the General Assembly of the United Nations. Another strain on the US-Hungarian relationship was the case of József Mindszentys . The archbishop and cardinal had been released from prison in the 1956 popular uprising and had fled to the US embassy in Budapest in the final phase of the uprising . After 15 years in the embassy, ​​Mindszenty finally left the embassy at the urging of the Pope and went into exile. From the 1960s onwards, domestic political liberalization was cautious, followed by economic reforms from 1968 and the era of goulash communism . In March 1973 there was also an agreement on the previously disputed property issues and in the following years Hungary serviced old loan claims from the post-war years 1921/22 and paid compensation for American property nationalized in 1947/48. The question of the return of the Hungarian crown insignia, including the St. Stephen's Crown, the centuries-long state symbol of Hungary, which had fallen into American hands in 1945 after the end of the war, became a point of controversy of deeper symbolic value. The USA took the position, especially after 1956, and were also encouraged by the Hungarian exile associations, that the return could only be made to a free Hungary. In view of the increasing domestic political détente in Hungary and the largely constructive foreign policy of the Kádár government from the point of view of the USA, the crown insignia was returned in 1977.

In 1988 the peaceful system change began with the formation of the first opposition groups. On May 27, 1988, Kádár gave up his post as General Secretary of the Communist Party for reasons of age and health, as well as in view of the growing economic difficulties in Hungary . Károly Grósz (1930–1996) was his successor. On January 1, 1988, Hungarians were also granted freedom to travel to western countries. Economic reformers took power in the party at the end of 1988, and Miklós Németh became prime minister in November 1988 (Grósz had held this post since 1987). Németh cut - one of his first official acts - the budget item “maintenance of the signaling system” on the border with Austria. At that time, Hungary had an external debt of around US $ 17 billion. On July 6, 1989 Imre Nagy was rehabilitated and on October 23, 1989 the third Hungarian Republic was proclaimed.

On May 2, 1989, Hungary began to dismantle the border fortifications with Austria. One factor for this was probably cost reasons; The Hungarian government found it too expensive to repair the dilapidated border fence.

Hungary's accession to the Geneva Refugee Convention took effect on June 12, 1989. Hungary was now able to refuse the deportation of refugees to their home countries with reference to internationally binding agreements. At Lake Balaton and in Budapest, campsites, parks and the German embassy area filled with tens of thousands of GDR citizens in the weeks that followed.

The symbolic opening of a border gate between Austria and Hungary at the Pan-European Picnic on August 19, 1989 with the consent of both governments was and is considered the first “official” opening of the Iron Curtain . The effects of this measure, initially little noticed by the world public, were dramatic and made a decisive contribution to the fall of the Iron Curtain , the fall of the Wall , the collapse of the Soviet Union , the collapse of the Eastern Bloc and the Warsaw Pact, and the democratization of Eastern Europe and German reunification .

The first free parliamentary elections since November 1945 took place in Hungary on March 25 and April 8, 1990 .

Liberal Democracy and Western Integration (1989-2010)

On October 23, 1989 - the anniversary of the Hungarian people's uprising - the incumbent head of state Mátyás Szűrös proclaimed the Republic of Hungary a democratic and parliamentary republic. Free elections were held on March 25, 1990 (second round on April 8), which the Hungarian Democratic Forum ( MDF ) won with 24.72 percent of the vote. It formed the government together with the Independent Party of Small Farmers ( FKGP ) and the Christian Democratic People's Party ( KDNP ). The chairman of the MDF, József Antall , was elected Prime Minister on May 23, 1990. The primary goal of government policy was the introduction of a market economy and the integration of Hungary into the European Union . A first step was the decision on June 26, 1990 to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact . The parliament elected Árpád Göncz as president on August 3rd . Based on an agreement from 1990, the 50,000 stationed soldiers of the Soviet army left the country by the end of 1991. On February 8, 1994, the country became a member of the Partnership for Peace , and in April the application for membership of the European Union was made.

The Hungarian Socialist Party ( MSZP ) won the parliamentary election on May 8, 1994 with 53 percent of the vote. She formed the government together with the Free Democrats ( SZDSZ ). Gyula Horn became the new Prime Minister . On March 19, 1995 the Slovak-Hungarian and on September 16, 1996 the Hungarian-Romanian basic treaty were signed. Accession negotiations with the European Union began on March 31, 1998, and in the same year an application for membership in NATO was made.

Parliamentary elections were held on May 10, 1998, and an alliance of the Federation of Young Democrats ( FIDESZ ) and the Hungarian Civic Party ( MPP ) won with 38.3 percent of the vote. This alliance formed a coalition with the Independent Party of Farmers ( FKGP ) and the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF). Prime Minister was the chairman of FIDESZ, Viktor Orbán . On March 12, 1999, Hungary became a member of NATO. In 2000 Ferenc Mádl was elected President.

The parliamentary elections on April 7, 2002 were won by the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) with 41.5 percent of the vote. Together with the Free Democrats (SZDSZ), it formed a government, and the non-party Péter Medgyessy became the new Prime Minister. On April 12, 2003, there was a referendum on Hungary's accession to the European Union , with 83.8 percent of the voters voting in favor. The accession agreements were signed on April 16, 2003, and Hungary has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004 as part of the EU's eastward expansion . In the presidential election on June 6th and 7th, 2005, the former President of the Hungarian Constitutional Court, László Sólyom, prevailed over Parliamentary President Katalin Szili in the third ballot with 185 to 182 votes. His inauguration took place on August 5th.

In Hungary up until 2006 there was a victory for the opposition in every parliamentary election and thus a change of government. An incumbent government was not re-elected until the April 2006 elections.

The Prime Ministers since 1990:

"Illiberal State" under Viktor Orbán (since 2010)

Viktor Orbán giving a speech (2020)
Viktor Orbán at a meeting with Jarosław Kaczyński in September 2017

In the parliamentary elections on April 11 and 25, 2010 , Orbán's national-conservative electoral alliance Fidesz -KDNP received 52.73 percent of the vote; The faction community of both parties had 263 of the 386 seats in the Hungarian parliament and thus a two-thirds majority necessary for constitutional amendments. The MSZP (socialists) received 19.3 percent of the vote and 59 seats; the right-wing extremist Jobbik received 16.67 percent of the vote and 47 seats. With a respectable success and 17 mandataries, the green-liberal LMP, which was only founded in 2009, moved into parliament and formed the smallest parliamentary group there. The two major, moderate parties of the time of reunification, the left-liberal SzDSz and the bourgeois MDF, failed because of the 5 percent hurdle; this favored the landslide victory of Fidesz.

In parliament, the result of the elections resulted in a shift in power to the right-wing parties, with around 70% of voters voting for right-wing or right-wing extremist parties. Viktor Orbán was able to quickly realize his ideas about the creation of a "central political force field" in the guise of victorious Fidesz in view of the preponderance of 80 percent of right-wing and extreme right-wing forces in parliament and a “successful revolution at the ballot box”. Right at the beginning of his term of office, Orbán had a new, restrictive media law drawn up, which allows those in power to severely punish journalists if they do not - as stated, inter alia. in the text of the law means - publish “balanced, relevant and objective information” on Hungarian government policy. The assessment of the content is the responsibility of the media council, which is part of the NMHH media authority, which was newly created by the Orbán government. According to the Austrian journalists Roland Androwitzer and Ernst Gelegs, with the media law Orbán laid the foundation for bringing public broadcasting under the total control of the government. The Prime Minister merged the television stations M1, M2 and Duna-TV as well as the three national radio stations Petöfi, Kossuth and Bartók and also the Hungarian news agency MTI under one roof called MTVA. Around 1,000 employees were dismissed and newsrooms were merged to form a “super editorial team”. So there is only one editorial team that produces for all channels. As a result, diversity of opinion and pluralism in public broadcasting would no longer exist, according to Androwitzer and Gelegs.

In economic terms, the new Orbán government relied on a so-called “unorthodox economic policy”, which is primarily directed against large foreign corporations. The previous government of socialists and left-wing liberals was able to prevent a state bankruptcy with a 20 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), but Hungary's macroeconomic data were poor. The total debt amounted to 80 percent of the gross domestic product, the budget deficit was more than four percent at the end of 2009, economic output fell sharply and the unemployment rate rose rapidly. The first measure taken by the new Prime Minister, a bank tax of 0.45% of total assets, took place just two months after he took office. In autumn 2010, three more industries were added to taxation: energy companies, telecommunications companies and supermarket chains. The majority of these three industries are in foreign hands. The national-conservative government also resorted to typical socialist economic instruments of centralization and nationalization. Universities, schools and hospitals were deprived of their autonomy.

On February 7, 2011, Viktor Orbán stated in a State of the Union address that Hungary needed a new constitution because the current one was not based on the Hungarian constitution, but based on the Soviet model. In fact, the old Basic Law of Hungary was drawn up in 1949 according to the Soviet model, but after the fall of the Wall in 1989 there was a comprehensive constitutional amendment in which Hungary defined itself as a parliamentary democracy and constitutional state based on the Western model. The Basic Law, now drawn up by the national conservative government, was passed through parliament in nine days without prior national and social, political and legal discussion and officially came into force on January 1, 2012. The preamble to the new Basic Law, with its "national creed" and the concept of the holy Hungarian crown of St. Stephen, should approve the completion of change. The constitution proclaimed the ethnic understanding of the nation and defined the "Hungarian nation" as a Christian community. The St. Stephen's Crown is considered to be the bearer of Hungarian sovereignty and a sacred symbol, the insult of which is punishable by penalties. The “family” is referred to as the basis of the “Hungarian nation” and is clearly defined as the coexistence of man, woman and child.

In the parliamentary elections in April 2014 , Orbán's national-conservative Fidesz party again clearly won the election with just under 45 percent. However, compared to the 2010 election, the party had lost around 600,000 votes, almost a quarter of its voters. Nevertheless, thanks to a new majority vote, Fidesz achieved a two-thirds majority in parliament, which was lost again due to the results of a by-election. After another election victory at the end of July 2014, Orbán gave a speech in Transylvania, Romania, a total rejection of liberal democracy and announced the creation of an “ illiberal state ” based on the model of Russia, Turkey and China. In the 2018 parliamentary elections , Orbán's Fidesz party again achieved a close two-thirds majority in parliament.

See also

Individual evidence

  1. Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, ​​1999, pp. 11-13.
  2. Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, ​​1999, pp. 16, 291.
  3. ^ Martin Eggers: Contributions to the formation of tribes and land acquisition of the Hungarians. Part 2: The Hungarian tribal formation. In: Ungarn-Jahrbuch , Volume 23, 1997/1998, pp. 1–64, with further references.
  4. ^ Nora Berend, Przemysław Urbańczyk, Przemysław Wiszewski : Central Europe in the High Middle Ages. Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c. 900-c. 1300. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2013, Chapter Hungarian 'pre-history' or 'ethnogenesis' , pp. 61–82.
  5. Nándor Dreisziger: When did Hungarians Settle In Their Present Homeland? Thoughts on the Dual Conquest Theory of Hungarian Ethnogenesis. In SJ Magyaródy: Hungary and the Hungarians. Matthias Corvinus Publishers, Buffalo (NY) 2012, pp. 212-218.
    The same: The Hungarian Conquest of the Carpathian Basin, ca. 895-900. The Controversies Continue. In: Journal of Eurasian Studies , Volume 5, No. 2, 2013, pp. 30–42.
  6. Holger Fischer: A Little History of Hungary. Edition Suhrkamp, ​​1999, p. 19.
  7. Harald Roth (Ed.): Study Guide Eastern Europe. Volume 1: History of East Central and Southeastern Europe , Böhlau, Cologne 1999, ISBN 978-3-412-13998-8 .
  8. Hermann Kellenbenz (Ed.): European economic and social history in the Middle Ages. (= Handbook of European Economic and Social History, Volume 2) Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, ISBN 3-12-904740-9 , p. 627.
    Rudolf Andorka: Introduction to sociological analysis of
    society. A study book on Hungarian society in European comparison. Leske + Budrich, Opladen 2001, ISBN 3-8100-2548-8 , p. 250.
  9. Akadémiai Verlag (ed.): Magyar Néprajzi Lexikon . ISBN 963-05-1285-8 (Hungarian, mek.niif.hu ).
  10. ^ Martin Eggers: Contributions to the formation of tribes and land acquisition of the Hungarians. Part 2: The Hungarian conquest. In: Hungary Yearbook , Volume 25, 2000/2001, pp. 1–34.
  11. Herwig Wolfram : Hungary and the Empire during the reign of Emperor Conrad II. 1024 / 27-1039. In: Ungarn-Jahrbuch , 26 (2002/2003), pp. 5–12, p. 6.
  12. Edgar Hösch , Karl Nehring, Holm Sundhaussen (ed.): Lexicon for the history of Southeast Europe. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2004, ISBN 3-205-77193-1 , p. 459.
  13. ^ Paul Lendvai: The Hungarians. A thousand year history. Goldmann, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-15122-8 , p. 117.
  14. ^ Harm Klueting: Das Reich and Austria 1648-1740 . Lit-Verlag, Münster 1999, ISBN 3-8258-4280-0 , p. 78.
  15. ^ András Gerő: Modern Hungarian society in the making. The unfinished experience . Central European Univ. Press, Budapest 1995, ISBN 1-85866-024-6 , pp. 115-122 and 129-136.
  16. ^ Anikó Kovács-Bertrand: The Hungarian revisionism after the First World War. The journalistic struggle against the Trianon Peace Treaty (1918–1931) . Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 1997, ISBN 3-486-56289-4 , p. 25
  17. ^ Rolf Fischer: Development stages of anti-Semitism in Hungary 1867-1939. The destruction of the Magyar-Jewish symbiosis. Verlag Oldenbourg, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-486-54731-3 , p. 93.
  18. ^ Robert Bideleux, Ian Jeffries: A history of Eastern Europe. Crisis and change . Routledge, London 1998, ISBN 0-415-16111-8 , p. 365.
  19. Wolfdieter Bihl : The way to collapse. Austria-Hungary under Charles I (IV.) . In: Erika Weinzierl , Kurt Skalnik (ed.): Austria 1918–1938: History of the First Republic . Graz / Vienna / Cologne 1983, Volume 1, pp. 27–54, here p. 44.
  20. ^ Adjustment crisis of the Saxon and Romanian national movement ; and Gerald Volkmer: The Transylvanian Question 1878–1900. The influence of the Romanian national movement on diplomatic relations between Austria-Hungary and Romania . Verlag Böhlau, Cologne / Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-412-04704-X , p. 229.
  21. Ákos Moravánszky: The architecture of the turn of the century in Hungary and its relationship to the Viennese architecture of the time . Vienna 1983, ISBN 3-85369-537-X , p. 48.
  22. ^ Zoltán Horváth (ed.): The turn of the century in Hungary. History of the second generation of reforms (1896–1914). Corvina Publishing House, Budapest 1966, p. 55.
  23. ^ Norman Stone: Hungary and the Crises of July 1914. In: The Journal of Contemporary History 1, No 3 (1966), pp. 153-170, here: p. 155.
  24. a b c d e f g h i j Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky: Development Defined by Paradoxes: Hungarian Historx and Female Suffrage. In: Blanca Rodríguez-Ruiz, Ruth Rubio-Marín: The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe. Voting to Become Citizens. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden and Boston 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-22425-4 , pp. 421-437, pp. 428-429.
  25. a b June Hannam, Mitzi Auchterlonie, Katherine Holden: International Encyclopedia of Women's Suffrage. ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, Denver, Oxford 2000, ISBN 1-57607-064-6 , p. 123.
  26. Erhard Forndran et al. (Ed.): Domestic and foreign policy under National Socialist threat. West German Verlag 1977, ISBN 978-3-531-11334-0 , p. 155 ( books.google.de ).
  27. ^ Iván T. Berend : Market and economy: economic orders and economic development in Europe . V&R 2007, ISBN 978-3-525-36805-3 , p. 58 f. ( Books.google.de )
  28. ^ Jews in Hungary
  29. ^ Martin Gilbert: The Routledge Atlas of the Holocaust. Routledge, New York 2002, ISBN 0-415-28145-8 , p. 249.
  30. Randolph L. Braham , Scott Miller: The Nazis' Last Victims. Indiana University Press 2002, ISBN 0-253-21529-3 , p. 423.
  31. a b Csilla Kollonay-Lehoczky: Development Defined by paradox: Hungarian HistoRx and Female Suffrage. In: Blanca Rodríguez-Ruiz, Ruth Rubio-Marín: The Struggle for Female Suffrage in Europe. Voting to Become Citizens. Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden and Boston 2012, ISBN 978-90-04-22425-4 , pp. 421-437, p. 430.
  32. www.verfassungen.eu: full text
  33. Resolution 1004 (ES-II) adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (November 4, 1956). November 4, 1956, accessed January 7, 2018 .
  34. ^ Gábor Búr: Hungarian Diplomacy and the Non-Aligned Movement in the Cold War . In: István Majoros, Zoltán Maruzsa, Oliver Rathkolb (eds.): Austria and Hungary in the Cold War . ELTE Új- és Jelenkori Egyetemes Történeti Tanszék - University of Vienna, Institute for Contemporary History, Vienna - Budapest 2010, ISBN 978-3-200-01910-2 , p. 353–372 (English, online [PDF]). online ( Memento from September 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Márta Fata (University of Tübingen): The return of the St. Stephen's crown to Hungary: symbol of the nation . In: Back then . No. 1 , 2008, p. 8–11 ( online [PDF]).
  36. Hans-Hermann Hertle (1999): Chronicle of the fall of the wall: The dramatic events around November 9, 1989. Ch. Links Verlag, p. 62 ff. ( Online )
  37. ^ Herder Institute: Proclamation of the Republic of Hungary by Mátyás Szűrös. (No longer available online.) In: www.herder-institut.de. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017 ; accessed on September 11, 2015 .
  38. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, pp. 60–61; Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, p. 95.
  39. ^ Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, p. 97.
  40. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, p. 65.
  41. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, p. 70.
  42. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, pp. 100-102.
  43. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, p. 115.
  44. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, pp. 145–147;
    Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, p. 112.
  45. Roland Androwitzer, Ernst Gelegs: Greetings from the Orbán country. The right revolution in Hungary. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2013, p. 150;
    Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, p. 112 f.
  46. ^ Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, pp. 141 and 142 ff.
  47. ^ By-election in Hungary: Orbán party loses two-thirds majority , Spiegel-Online from February 22, 2015
  48. FAZ.net February 23, 2015: Cracks in the block
  49. ^ Paul Lendvai: Orbáns Hungary. Kremayr and Schleriau, Vienna 2016, p. 154.


  • Thomas von Bogyay: Outlines of the history of Hungary. 4th, revised. Edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1990, ISBN 3-534-00690-9 .
  • Lász1ó Borhy, Pál Raczky, Gábor V. Szabó, Miklós Szabó, Tivadar Vida:  Hungary. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 31, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2006, ISBN 3-11-018386-2 , pp. 444-468.
  • Gyorgy Dalos: Hungary in a nutshell. History of my country. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 978-3-406-52810-1 .
  • Pál Engel: The Realm of St Stephen. A History of Medieval Hungary, 895-1526. IB Tauris, London / New York 2001.
  • Holger Fischer , Konrad Gündisch: A Little History of Hungary. edition suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 1999, ISBN 3-518-12114-6 .
  • Árpád von Klimó : Nation, Denomination, History. On the national historical culture of Hungary in the European context (1860–1948) (= Southeast European Works . Volume 117). (also habilitation thesis, Free University Berlin 2001) R. Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 978-3-486-56746-5 .
  • Árpád von Klimó: Hungary since 1945 (= European contemporary history . Volume 2). Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-525-03751-5 .
  • István Lázár: A Brief History of Hungary. Corvina, Budapest 1989, ISBN 963-13-4293-X .
  • Paul Lendvai : The Hungarians. A thousand year history. Goldmann, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-442-15122-8 .
  • Miklós Molnár : History of Hungary. From the beginning to the present. Edited and translated by Bálint Balla . Krämer, Hamburg 2004, ISBN 3-89622-031-4 .
  • Andreas Schmidt-Schweizer: Political History of Hungary. From liberalized one-party rule to democracy in the consolidation phase. Oldenbourg, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-57886-7 .
  • Istvan György Toth (ed.): History of Hungary. Corvina, Budapest 2005, ISBN 963-13-5268-4 .

Web links

Commons : History of Hungary  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files