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Buda Castle mountain of plague seen from

Buda ( German  oven ) is the district of the Hungarian capital Budapest, west of the Danube , on the right bank of the river . Budapest was created in 1873 through the amalgamation of the two previously independent cities Buda (German furnace; with Óbuda , old furnace incorporated in 1849 ) and Pest (Pesth). Buda today takes up about a third of the city's area.


Buda was the most important city in the medieval Kingdom of Hungary . It owes its creation to the favorable geographical conditions. The city arose in the center of the then empire ( "medium regni" ) at the crossroads of important trade routes of the time. The location of the (today's) castle hill offered extremely favorable conditions for the defense of the city. In addition, the cave system in the castle hill was successfully used for strategic purposes. The area around Buda was good for agriculture, including viticulture .

In the area around Buda, especially in today's Óbuda , there were already settlements in Roman times such as B. " Aquincum ", but not in the area of ​​Buda itself. For communication and crossing the Danube, the cities of Pesth ( "Minor Pest" ) and Alt-Ofen were more important than the castle hill. Oven Castle only acquired greater strategic importance during the Mongol storms in the 13th century. When King Béla IV saw the enormous damage that the Mongols caused almost all over the kingdom, he wanted to settle the population in safe places. Therefore he ordered the predominantly German and Hungarian population of Pesth and (Alt-) Ofen at that time to settle on the castle hill. In 1243, the name was changed: the "old" furnace was given the name Old Furnace ( "Vetus Buda" ) and as early as 1247 the name Novus Mons Budensis was introduced for the castle hill . In the year 1259 three cities were already clearly mentioned: Old oven ( "Vetus Buda" ), ("New") oven ( "Nova Buda" ) and Pesth ( "castrum Pest" ).

According to the “Etymological Dictionary of Geographical Names” (Földrajzi nevek etimológiai szótára) by Lajos Kiss, the word Buda is probably of Slavic origin. The Slavic name Budim or Budín means "what belongs to Buda" (Hungarian quote: Budáé ). The thesis that the name can be traced back to the personal name Buda or Bleda , a brother of the Hun king Attila , has not been proven.

Jakab Rupp, in his work “The Local History of Buda- Pest and its Surroundings” (Buda-Pest és környékének helyrajzi története) from 1868, was of the opinion that the Roman city of Aquincum  , located in today's Óbuda - due to the Slavic translation of the first part of the name Aqu (a )  - Voda was named. This designation was then adopted by the Hungarians as Buda .


Buda 1493
The capture of Buda, 1686
See also: History of Budapest
The victorious military leaders after the Battle of Buda (historical painting by Gyula Benczúr from 1896)

The city was the capital of the Hungarian Empire from 1361 to 1541 before it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire . It was not until 140 years later in the Great Turkish War , after the relief of Vienna in 1683, that the allied troops of the relief army , led by the Polish King Jan Sobieski , advanced east and reached the city of Buda in 1684. The siege led by Ernst Rüdiger von Starhemberg had to be abandoned , as the morale of the besiegers deteriorated as the siege dragged on and a Turkish relief army harassed the imperial and Polish siege troops. Only in the second siege of 1686 could Buda be recaptured by troops of the Holy League . Only after a 75-day siege did the troops of the Holy League, under the leadership of Archduke Karl von Lorraine , Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria and Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden , capture the town and the castle hill of Ofen on September 2, 1686. This victory was celebrated euphorically all over Europe because it was interpreted as the beginning of the end of Turkish rule in Europe. In Vatican special services were held, the victory with the hymn "Buda expugnata! Victoria! Hallelujah! ”Celebrated and glorified frenetically. Pope Innocent XI. rang the bells all over Rome.

From 1723 Pest was the seat of the administrative administration of the kingdom until it was united with Buda and Óbuda (formerly Alt-Ofen ) to form Budapest.


  • 1715: 1,539 houses, of which: 769 Serbian , 701 German and 68 Magyar (Hungarian)
  • 1720: 1,468 houses, of which: 851 German , 559 Serbian, 68 Magyar, 5 Slovak
  • 1821: 25,228 inhabitants, basically all of them German except for 1,100 Serbs and a few hundred Magyars
  • 1851 (for Buda + Óbuda + Pest): 178,062 inhabitants, of which 56.4% Germans, 36.6% Magyars, 5% Slovaks, 2% others
  • 1881 (for the whole of Budapest): 370,767 inhabitants, 55.1% of them Magyars, 33.3% Germans, 6% Slovaks
  • 1891 (for the whole of Budapest): 506,384 inhabitants, of which 326,533 (67.1%) Magyars, 115,573 (23.7%) Germans, 27,126 (5.6%) Slovaks, 1,699 Serbs, 1,125 Croats, 14,615 others


See: List of Sons and Daughters of the City of Budapest


  • Gustáv Beksics : Magyarosodás és magyarositás különös tekintettel városainkra, Budapest, 1883 (Hungarian)
  • Ágnes R. Várkonyi: Buda visszavívása 1686 ("The Recapture of Buda 1686"), Budapest 1984, ISBN 963-11-3489-X
  • Budapest Lexicon, 2 volumes, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest 1993, ISBN 963-05-6409-2 (Hungarian)

Individual evidence

  1. a b Budapest Lexikon, Vol. 1, p. 156ff
  2. On April 11, 1241, the Hungarian army under the leadership of King Béla IV was defeated in the battle of Muhi . As a lesson from this defeat, the king ordered the building of castle fortresses on the territory of the entire Kingdom of Hungary. In an order from 1243, he also issued the building of Buda Castle.
  3. Jakab Rupp: Buda-Pest és környékének helyrajzi története , Pest 1868, p. 2
  4. In the middle of the painting (on a white horse) Archduke Karl of Lorraine, next to it on the left Elector Max Emanuel and Margrave Ludwig von Baden (sitting on horses). The face of Prince Eugene of Savoy can be seen in the background. In the foreground with sword and eingebundener hand is Kuruc Kapitän David Petneházy (* ~ 1645 † ~ 1687) visible. In the foreground lies the defeated Abdurrahman Abdi Pascha on the ground
  5. The Turkish Wars continued until 1697. Prince Eugene of Savoy succeeded in decisively defeating the Ottoman army in the Battle of Zenta . The subsequent peace treaty in Karlowitz marked a turning point in European history. After the peace, the Ottoman Empire had to cede all of Hungary including Transylvania (but without the Banat and Temesburg ) to Austria, which developed into a major European power.

Web links

Wikivoyage: Buda  - travel guide

Coordinates: 47 ° 29 ′ 44 ″  N , 19 ° 2 ′ 23 ″  E