Ludwig Wilhelm (Baden-Baden)

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Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden, 1705. Portrait of an unknown master, Heeresgeschichtliches Museum , Vienna

Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden-Baden , known as the Türkenlouis (born April 8, 1655 in Paris , † January 4, 1707 in Rastatt ), was margrave of the margraviate of Baden-Baden , builder of the Rastatt palace , lieutenant general of all imperial troops and a victorious general in the Turkish wars . The Turks called him the Red King because of his red uniform jacket, which could be seen far across the battlefields . He was first circle field marshal of the troops of the Swabian kingdom circle and Reich field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .

Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden
Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden
Badischer Hofmaler: Portrait of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm in a Turkish robe, around 1700–1725

Life and person

Early years

Ludwig Wilhelm was born on April 8, 1655, seven years after the end of the Thirty Years' War , in the Hôtel de Soissons in Paris , and died on January 4, 1707 in his unfinished palace in Rastatt . His name was chosen after his grandfather, Margrave Wilhelm (1593–1677), and his godfather Louis XIV , King of France . He was the son of the Hereditary Prince Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden-Baden (1625–1669) and Ludovica (Luise-Christine) of Savoy-Carignan (1627–1689), whose brother Eugène-Maurice de Savoie-Carignan, Count of Soissons, the father of famous Prince Eugene was.

It came about through a frivolous, insulting remark by the father, Prince Ferdinand Maximilian, to his wife, who was strongly under the influence of her mother and who also refused to follow the future margrave into "cold and misty Germania" and to leave Versailles for it Shortly after the birth of Ludwig Wilhelm, the parents broke up. As a result, the father left Paris and Versailles alone with his six-year-old son and moved back to Baden . Prince Ludwig Wilhelm's mother was replaced by the second wife of his grandfather, Countess Maria Magdalena von Öttingen .

Ludwig Wilhelm also lost his father at an early age. In 1669, he died after a hunting accident in Heidelberg to gangrene . A little later, in the fall of 1670, the grandfather sent his grandson, accompanied by his tutor Cosimo Medici Marzi and preceptor Vloßdorf on Grand Tour . This trip, which began quite early at the age of fifteen and a half, usually marked the end of the education and reflected the margrave's concern for a successor for himself after the Hereditary Prince Ferdinand Maximilian - the father of Ludwig Wilhelm - had died.

Cavalier journey

The first stop on the trip took Ludwig Wilhelm to the monastery de la Visitation in Besançon , where he visited his aunt Katharina Franziska Henriette von Baden, who was a nun there. In Besançon he attended law lectures and was instructed in military matters. The journey continued via Geneva , Milan and Florence to Rome , where he received an audience with Pope Clement X , who was dining with the Viceroy of Naples and a French envoy. The Viceroy of Naples was so taken with Ludwig Wilhelm that he offered him a soldier position, which Ludwig Wilhelm, out of consideration for his grandfather, refused. Ludwig Wilhelm concluded his visit to Rome with a visit to the Medici . The return journey led back to Baden-Baden via Venice and Innsbruck . When he got there again, he was nineteen years old.

Military career

The young Ludwig Wilhelm began his military career in 1674 at the age of 19 when he joined the imperial army. His military instructor was the famous Raimund von Montecuccoli . The Franco-Dutch War had been raging since 1672 , the beginning of Louis XIV's attempt to gain supremacy in Europe . From then on, Ludwig Wilhelm would be involved in the turmoil of war throughout his life. Because of his excellent behavior during the capture of the fortress Philippsburg , Emperor Leopold I awarded him an infantry regiment in 1676. When his grandfather died in 1677, he became the ruling margrave of Baden-Baden , but he did not manage to rule because he was always in the service of the emperor during the war.

After the Peace of Nijmegen , the Emperor Ludwig appointed Wilhelm Colonel field sergeant on horseback and on foot, which corresponded to the rank of major . He earned his nickname Türkenlouis as Reichsfeldmarschall through his successes in the fight against the Ottomans in the Great Turkish War of 1683–1699. At home he fought against the French on the Rhine since 1693 . The treasures he captured in the Turkish Wars are known as the Karlsruhe Turkish Loot, are now in Karlsruhe Castle and can be viewed there.

Ludwig Wilhelm drew attention to himself early on in his career in the imperial army as sergeant general during the liberation of Vienna in 1683 and was promoted to general of the cavalry on November 23, 1683. Already on December 12, 1686, at the age of only 31, he was field marshal and on September 6, 1689 was promoted to commander in chief of the Ottoman front. There he was able to demonstrate his strategic skills in over 20 battles and push back the Ottomans . At the same time, his own possessions in Baden were destroyed by the French in the War of the Palatinate Succession , including his headquarters in Baden-Baden in 1689 .

The Marquis de Villars assessed him as follows in 1687:

“He - Ludwig Wilhelm I, Margrave of Baden, the“ Turk Louis ”- has great courage, in battle he has a clear and sure eye. He is very active, vigilant, always on horseback, and of all the best suited to become a great soldier when self-conceit doesn't get in his way. He doesn't listen much to advice, and when he feels compelled to follow it, he doesn't do it until late and never without having made at least a few changes to make you believe it was his own thoughts. He wants to appear sociable, but is the opposite for someone who doesn't blindly obey him. [...] He is not very suitable for court life, since he speaks too freely and vehemently with the ministers. All in all, he has all the virtues that one must have if one day he wants to lead an army with dignity - but also all the faults that mislead the desire to entrust them to him. "

Because of his merits and the devastation of his possessions that had arisen in his absence, Emperor Leopold I arranged a very lucrative marriage for him with one of the daughters of the late Duke Julius Franz von Lauenburg (1641–1689). Contrary to what Leopold I had planned, Ludwig Wilhelm fell in love with the younger of the two sisters, who was actually intended for his cousin Prince Eugene of Savoy . Since the affection was mutual, they quickly came to an agreement, which the older of the two sisters greatly disliked. Deeply offended, she turned down Prince Eugene as a partner on the grounds that he was not a ruling prince.

Lead medal for the Battle of Slankamen 1691 by Georg Hautsch , obverse, with the portrait of Turks Louis.

Shortly after his marriage to Sibylla Augusta , Ludwig Wilhelm had to go back to war against the Ottomans. In 1691 he achieved his greatest triumph in the Battle of Slankamen and was appointed lieutenant general of all imperial troops by Emperor Leopold I. This title was awarded only five times in the 17th century. Later, Ludwig Wilhelm was awarded the Order of the Golden Fleece in recognition of his achievements in the fight against the Ottomans .

Due to the events of the Palatinate War of Succession, the emperor had to call him back to his home front on the Rhine , and his cousin succeeded him in the war against the Ottomans. Prince Eugene was no less successful and won the battle of Zenta (Senta) on September 11, 1697 over Sultan Mustafa II. With this he finally achieved the desired success in the Peace of Karlowitz . From then on, Ludwig Wilhelm was always in the shadow of his cousin Prinz Eugen.

Ludwig Wilhelm, meanwhile, fought on the Rhine against the French, who had to return their territorial gains on the right bank of the Rhine in the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697 .

After his castle in Baden-Baden was destroyed, Ludwig Wilhelm moved his residence from Baden-Baden to Rastatt . There he built Rastatt Palace from 1697–1707 based on the model of Versailles . Rastatt is considered to be the first residence built in Germany based on the French model. Domenico Egidio Rossi was hired as the architect from 1679 to 1715.

Garden facade of the Rastatt Palace

Following the successes, there was a falling out with the emperor when he refused Ludwig Wilhelm an increase in rank. In 1697 he knocked out the high command in Hungary in favor of his cousin Eugene. Although the emperor did not want to grant him the electoral dignity , they agreed again, and the margrave fought again for the emperor in the War of Spanish Succession . Ludwig Wilhelm was seriously wounded in the Battle of Schellenberg (see also Battle of Höchstädt ) against the French and died at the age of 51 in his unfinished castle in Rastatt as a result of his injuries.

The main courtyard of the Rastatt Palace, composite panoramic photo

Battles, skirmishes and sieges

Memorial stone for the battle near Friedlingen

The Türkenlouis had never been defeated in the 57 battles, skirmishes and sieges of his life and mostly emerged victorious. These were among others:

Worth seeing buildings of his work

The remains of up to 200 baroque hills in the Black Forest over a distance of 200 km in north-south direction are evidence of his work in national defense.

Marriage and offspring

On March 27, 1690, the margrave married Princess Franziska Sibylla Augusta von Sachsen-Lauenburg, who was 20 years his junior . She was born on January 21, 1675 in Ratzeburg in Holstein and died at the age of 58 on July 10, 1733 in Ettlingen .

The couple had little luck with their children; it had to take many blows of fate. The first pregnancy ended in a miscarriage, the first child lived half a year, the second four years, the third six years, the fourth three years. The fifth died after four months. In all, there were nine children that emerged from the marriage, of which only three reached the age of ten, a daughter and two sons. The daughter died in bed at the age of 22, the sons were 59 and 65 years old. The following children resulted from the marriage:

  • Miscarriage († between 1690 and 1695)
  • Leopold Wilhelm (born November 28, 1695 in Günzburg; † May 19, 1696 there), Hereditary Prince of Baden-Baden
  • Charlotte (* August 7, 1696 in Günzburg; † January 16, 1700 there (?))
  • Karl Joseph (born September 30, 1697 in Augsburg; † March 9, 1703 in Schlackenwerth), Hereditary Prince of Baden-Baden
  • Wilhelmine (born August 14, 1700 in Nuremberg; † May 16, 1702 in Schlackenwerth)
  • Luise (* May 8, 1701 in Nuremberg; † September 23, 1707)
  • Ludwig Georg Simpert (1702–1761), Margrave of Baden-Baden
  • Wilhelm Georg Simpert (born September 5, 1703 in Aschaffenburg; † February 16, 1709 in Baden-Baden)
  • Augusta Marie Johanna (1704–1726) ⚭ July 13, 1724 Ludwig, Duke of Orléans (1703–1752)
  • August Georg Simpert (1706–1771), Margrave of Baden-Baden


lili rere
Epitaph Ludwig Wilhelm
Heldenberg Memorial

Ludwig Wilhelm's tomb can be found in the collegiate church in Baden-Baden, the burial place of the margravial family. There his epitaph is depicted in the form of a baroque altar, surrounded by figures that are supposed to symbolize justice, bravery and wisdom. His heart and internal organs were buried in the Lichtenthal monastery , which in earlier times was the burial place of the margraves.


Through the imperial resolution of Franz Joseph I of February 28, 1863 Ludwig Wilhelm was added to the list of the "most famous warlords and generals of Austria worthy of perpetual emulation" , in their honor and memory there was also a life-size statue in the general hall of the then new The Imperial and Royal Court Weapons Museum (today: Heeresgeschichtliches Museum Wien ) was built. The statue was created in 1872 by the sculptor Anton Schmidgruber (1837–1909) from Carrara marble and was dedicated by Emperor Franz Joseph himself. A bust designed by Max von Widnmann was placed in the Walhalla , and one is located in the Heldenberg memorial in Lower Austria Further.

See also



  • Philipp Röder von Diersburg (ed.): War and state writings of the Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden on the War of the Spanish Succession. From the archives of Karlsruhe, Vienna and Paris. With a historical introduction and facsimile. 2 volumes (Vol. 1: 1700-1703. Vol. 2: 1704-1707. ). Müller, Karlsruhe 1850. (Online in the Google Book Search : Vol. 1700–1703 and Vol. 1704–1707 , accessed on January 19, 2013)
  • Philipp Röder von Diersburg: The Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden's campaigns against the Turks , Carlsruhe, 1839, available as a digitized version at the Munich Digitization Center
  • Adolf SchinzlLudwig Wilhelm (Margrave of Baden-Baden) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, pp. 485-491.
  • Hans Schmidt:  Ludwig Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden-Baden. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 15, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-428-00196-6 , pp. 350-354 ( digitized version ).
  • Aloys Schulte : Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden and the Imperial War against France 1693–1697. 2 volumes (presentation and sources), J. Bielefeld, Karlsruhe 1892; 2nd edition Winter, Heidelberg 1901.
  • Otto Flake : Türkenlouis. Painting of a time (= Fischer 5788). Unabridged edition, 6. – 7. Thousand. Fischer-Taschenbuch-Verlag 1988, ISBN 3-596-25788-3 . Google Books
  • Christian Greiner: Ludwig Wilhelm, Margrave of Baden. 1655-1707 . In: Life pictures from Baden-Württemberg . tape 18 , 1994, ISSN  0948-0374 , pp. 64-94 .
  • Max Plassmann: War and Defension on the Upper Rhine. The Vordere Reichskreise and Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden (1693–1706) (=  historical research . Volume 66 ). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-428-09972-9 (also: Mainz, University, dissertation, 1998).
  • C. Macklot, Universal-Lexicon vom Großherzogthum Baden, 1844, Geschichte des Badisches Haus, pp. 121–123 (Google Book Search Online )
  • Uwe A. Oster: Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden. The "Türkenlouis". General in the shadow of Prince Eugene (= Bastei Lübbe. Bd. 61467 biography ). Bergisch Gladbach 2000, ISBN 3-404-61467-4 .
  • Wolfgang Froese, Martin Walter (ed.): Der Türkenlouis. Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden and his time. Casimir Katz Verlag, Gernsbach 2005, ISBN 3-925825-88-6 .
  • Daniel Hohrath , Christoph Rehm (Hrsg.): Between sun and half moon. The Turks Louis as a baroque prince and general . Association of Friends of the Historisches Museum Schloss Rastatt, Rastatt 2005, ISBN 3-9810460-0-5 .
  • Adolf J. Schmid : Between the sun and the half moon - The "Türkenlouis": Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden (1655–1707). In: Badische Heimat. Vol. 85, No. 3, 2005, ISSN  0930-7001 , p. 417f.
  • Johann Jakob Schmauß : Curieuses book cabinet or message of historical, state and gallant things, I. The life of the Marckgrafen Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden, former Käys. General-Lieutenants Cölln, Franckfurt am Mayn, 1714 digitized at the Munich digitalization center
  • Articles by Christian Greiner in the journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. Vol. 132, 1984, pp. 227-237; Vol. 150, 2002, pp. 209-251; Vol. 155, 2007, pp. 265-288; Vol. 157, 2009, pp. 223-248
  • Johann Christian Sachs : Introduction to the history of the Marggravschaft and the Marggravial old princely house of Baden . Third part. Lotter, Carlsruhe 1769, p. 489–646 ( limited preview in Google Book search). , complete digitization at Munich digitization center
  • Karl J. Bauer: The Turks Louis. A picture of life. . Speech to celebrate the birthday of Sr. Maj. The German Emperor. Heidelberg, 1904.
  • Hans-Joachim Böttcher : The Turkish Wars in the Mirror of Saxon Biographies , Gabriele Schäfer Verlag Herne 2019, ISBN 978-3-944487-63-2 .
  • Paul Usleber: Wunder-Voller Lebens-Lauff, and Höchst-Seeliger Entry, The Most Illuminated Prince and Lord, Mr. Ludovici Wilhelmi , Durlach (Baden-Baden), 1707 digitized , Badische Landesbibliothek Karlsruhe
  • Ludwig Wilhelm I. , in: Biographical Lexicon for the History of Southeast Europe. Vol. 3rd ed. Mathias Bernath / Felix von Schroeder. Munich 1979, p. 56 Online edition, accessed on September 4, 2019

Web links

Commons : Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Virtual Museum Karlsruher Türkenbeute ( Memento from November 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  2. Battle of Mount Harsan at Röder of Diersburg
  3. JIŘÍ BORITZKA: The Turkish Wars in Hungary in the years 1684–1688: The Emperor and his allies in the fight against the “hereditary enemy” in: West Bohemian Historical Review. 2012, no. 1, p. 91–114 at: Digitální knihovna Západočeské univerzity v Plzni
  4. Felix Philipp Kanitz : The Kingdom of Serbia and the Serbenvolk; Volume 2, Leipzig 1909, p. 140.
  5. Ludwig Wilhelm I. in Biographical Lexicon for the History of Southeast Europe, p.56
  6. ^ History of Horkheim
  7. a b c Heinz Musall and Arnold Scheuerbrand: Destruction of settlements and fortifications in the late 17th and early 18th centuries (1674-1714) in: HISTORICAL ATLAS OF BADEN-WÜRTTEMBERG 6.12
  8. Jörg Julius Reisek: The Sieges of Ebernburg from 1692 and 1697, accessed on August 16, 2018
  9. a b Landau in the War of the Spanish Succession Historical Association of the Palatinate eV - Landau district group
  10. Ingolstadt in the War of the Spanish Succession Förderverein Bayerische Landesfestung Ingolstadt
  11. Johann Christoph Allmayer-Beck : The Army History Museum Vienna. The museum and its representative rooms . Kiesel Verlag, Salzburg 1981, ISBN 3-7023-0113-5 , p. 33
predecessor Office successor
Wilhelm I. Margrave of Baden-Baden
Ludwig Georg Simpert (Margrave)
Sibylla Augusta (Regent)
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on March 31, 2005 .