Since the high Middle Ages, several lines of the noble family of the same name have ruled over different principalities in southwest Germany, which have "Baden" in their name. During the Napoleonic period until 1806, the Grand Duchy of Baden was established as a sovereign state with Karlsruhe as its capital, with a significant increase in territory . When the empire was founded in 1871, Baden became a federal state within the German Empire . As a Grand Duchy, Baden was a monarchy (initially absolutist, then constitutional) until 1918, a democratic republic from 1918 to 1933 and part of the Hitler regime in the National Socialist Reich from 1933 to 1945 . The borders remained in place until the end of World War II . From 1947 to 1952 there was also a state of Baden with the capital Freiburg im Breisgau , which, however, as a result of the Allied occupation of Germany, only comprised the southern half of historic Baden. During this time, North Baden was part of Württemberg-Baden . In 1952, Südbaden and Württemberg-Baden merged with Württemberg-Hohenzollern in the newly created state of Baden-Württemberg.
While the current layout of the Baden-Württemberg government districts and administrative districts deviates from the historical boundaries, the name “Baden” is still widely used as a designation for the region of the formerly independent state. The historical limits can still be found today at numerous organizations such as sports associations, churches and social associations.
Population and area
In May 1939, Baden had 2,518,103 inhabitants on 15,070 km².
Baden is located in the southwest of Germany. The central landscape of Baden with most of the large cities is the southeastern Upper Rhine Plain . Bounded in the west and south by the Rhine and Lake Constance , the state extends on the right bank of the Rhine from Linzgau via Lörrach , Freiburg and Karlsruhe , the largest city, to Mannheim and on to the Main and Tauber .
It borders in the west on Alsace , in the south on Switzerland , in the north-west on the Palatinate , in the north on Hesse and in the north-east on Bavaria . The eastern border to Württemberg runs through Kraichgau and the Black Forest ; from there to the Rhine, Baden was only 30 kilometers wide in the middle. The narrowest point ("wasp waist") was only 17.2 kilometers (distance from the Württemberg border in the area of the Gaggenau-Michelbach district to the Rhine).
Cities and regions
Karlsruhe was the royal seat from 1715 , first the Margrave of Baden-Durlach, then from 1771 of the united margraves of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden and later the Grand Dukes of Baden and until the end of the Second World War the capital of the (Democratic) Republic of Baden founded in 1918 . In addition to Karlsruhe, Baden's largest city, Mannheim , bore the title “Residenzstadt” or “Capital” .
Larger medium- sized towns in Baden are (from north to south): Weinheim , Sinsheim , Bruchsal , Ettlingen , Rastatt , Baden-Baden , Kehl , Offenburg , Lahr , Emmendingen , Villingen-Schwenningen (Baden but only the western district of Villingen), Lörrach , Weil on the Rhine , Rheinfelden , Singen (Hohentwiel) , Radolfzell on Lake Constance and Constance .
Landscapes in Baden (ordered from north to south):
The name comes from the margraves of Baden , an aristocratic family established in the 12th century who were related to the dukes of Zähringen . Baden was never a mark ; the title of margrave was originally connected to the margrave of Verona , which was also ruled by the Zähringers. They transferred the title and from then on called themselves Margraves of Baden . Hermann II. Was the first Zähringer who called himself Margrave of Baden after the new ancestral seat, Hohenbaden Castle high above the thermal baths of the then city of Baden (today Baden-Baden).
From 1535 to 1771 the rule was divided into the lines of Baden-Durlach ( Protestant ) and Baden-Baden ( Catholic ). Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm of Baden-Baden , the so-called "Türkenlouis" (from 1677 to 1707), made Rastatt his residence. Charles III Wilhelm von Baden-Durlach chose Karlsruhe, built in 1715, as his new residence. In 1771 Karl Friedrich von Baden-Durlach inherited the possessions of the expired line of Baden-Baden, which reunited the two margraves.
Electorate and Grand Duchy of Baden during the Napoleonic period
The modern state of Baden emerged at the beginning of the 19th century under the protection of Napoleon and through the skillful diplomacy of the Baden ambassador Sigismund Freiherr von Reitzenstein , who is considered the real creator of modern Baden.
As a result of the Napoleonic reorganization, Baden achieved considerable territorial gains in the years 1803 to 1810 - territories on the right bank of the Rhine of many small principalities, spiritual areas and imperial cities - many times its previous size:
- In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, Baden received nominal compensation for areas on the left bank of the Rhine lost to France
- Parts of the Kurpfalz on the right bank of the Rhine (with Mannheim and Heidelberg)
- the right bank of the Rhine property of the dioceses of Constance , Basel , Strasbourg and Speyer ,
- the free imperial cities of Ortenau ( Offenburg , Gengenbach , Zell am Harmersbach and also the Reichstal Harmersbach) and Linzgau ( Überlingen and Pfullendorf ) as well as Wimpfen, which, however, was immediately assigned to Hessen-Darmstadt ,
- the areas of many abbeys and monasteries, u. a. the Reichsstift Petershausen .
- In the Peace of Pressburg in 1805, large parts of Upper Austria fell to Baden, in particular
- the Breisgau (with Freiburg im Breisgau),
- the city of Constance.
- In the Rheinbund act 1806 came u. a. to bathe
- In the border treaty of Paris between Württemberg and Baden in 1810 (Württemberg was compensated by Bavaria, this in turn by former Prussian territories) were u. a. assigned to Baden
With the new acquisitions, Baden, which until then had no higher educational institution of its own, also came into the possession of the two universities in Freiburg im Breisgau and Heidelberg . With the expansion of the territory, the margrave was raised in rank. In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss , Karl Friedrich received one of the four electoral degrees that had become vacant . Until the establishment of the Rhine Confederation, Baden was briefly the Electorate of Baden . In the Peace of Pressburg, Karl Friedrich received full sovereignty within the empire to the same extent as only Prussia and Austria until then. When he joined the Confederation of the Rhine , he was finally raised to the position of Grand Duke to compensate for the electoral dignity that was no longer applicable . Baden was thus a sovereign state and had the territorial extent that was essentially to last until 1945.
The Baden Confederation contingent then fought alongside France against Prussia , on the Iberian Peninsula , against Austria and in the Russian campaign in 1812 . In 1812 Napoleon's retreat from Moscow via the Beresina was covered by Baden and Swiss troops. Of the 7,000 Baden residents in the Grande Armée , only a few hundred returned. Baden also stood on Napoleon's side in the Battle of Leipzig . Despite Napoleon's defeat at Leipzig, Grand Duke Karl obtained confirmation of his new acquisitions at the Congress of Vienna , thus securing the country's existence as a member of the German Confederation. In 1819, in the course of the Vienna Congress Act in the Frankfurt Territorial Recess, Baden also received the County of Hohengeroldseck, which lies in the middle of its territory .
Grand Duchy of Baden in the 19th century
In the 19th century, democracy and parliamentarism could develop more freely in Baden than elsewhere. In 1818 the Grand Duchy received a liberal constitution that was very progressive for the time , which made Baden a constitutional monarchy . With the Baden Estates Assembly, it provided for a two-chamber parliament , the second chamber of which was given great political importance. This was not corporately organized, but staffed by elected representatives by district. Despite the censorship, the debates were published in full, which allowed citizens to participate in political issues. This led to repeated conflicts with the conservative forces in the German Confederation under the leadership of Austrian State Chancellor Klemens Metternich , but also with the more conservative Grand Dukes Karl and Ludwig . In 1832, the liberal Grand Duke Leopold gave in to the demands for unrestricted freedom of the press , but had to withdraw the law that same year under pressure from Metternich.
In 1835, Baden joined the German Customs Union and subsequently experienced an economic boom. Large infrastructure projects were started with the correction of the Rhine according to plans by Johann Gottfried Tulla in 1815 and the construction of the railway from 1840 .
After the death of the liberal Interior Minister Ludwig Georg von Winter in 1838, Foreign Minister Blittersdorf gained significant influence on Baden politics. Only now could the conservative-reactionary tendency that had prevailed in the German Confederation since 1833 after the Hambach Festival and the Frankfurt Wachensturm also have its full effect in the Grand Duchy. Blittersdorf tried to curtail the influence of the liberal Second Chamber. The pressure of the government produced a politicization of the population and provoked the formation of political camps, which, due to the greater freedom of rights, created a higher potential for dissatisfaction than in many countries with a more reactionary government system.
In 1843, as part of the holiday dispute , in which the Baden government wanted to refuse public officials who were elected to the second chamber for the opposition and thus the exercise of their mandate, the deputy Friedrich Daniel Bassermann organized the rejection of the government budget and forced it with the first parliamentary motion of censure in German history the resignation of the conservative ministry under Blittersdorf. When the opposition was able to achieve a clear majority in the elections of 1845/46 and the political mood was exacerbated by the dispute over German Catholicism , Grand Duke Leopold appointed the liberal Johann Baptist Bekk as Minister of the Interior and Minister of State.
Bad harvests and economic difficulties in the years 1846/47 also caused social tensions, which increased dissatisfaction with the lack of co-determination rights and the fragmentation of Germany.
A popular assembly in Offenburg , which passed a catalog of demands on September 12, 1847, was another trigger for the Baden Revolution of 1848 and the March Revolution in the states of the German Confederation . On February 12, 1848, Bassermann demanded a representative elected by the people at the Bundestag in Frankfurt am Main in the Second Chamber of the Estates Assembly . This demand finally led to the first freely elected parliament for Germany, the Frankfurt National Assembly , via the Heidelberg Assembly and the Pre- Parliament .
A first attempt at a republican coup by Friedrich Hecker , Gustav Struve and Georg Herwegh was suppressed by federal troops and a second uprising around Gustav Struve by the Baden military. After the failure of the Frankfurt National Assembly, the military also joined the Republicans in May 1849 as part of the Reich constitution campaign in Baden . With the flight of Grand Duke Leopold, the formation of a provisional government and new elections, Baden became a de facto republic .
The Baden Republic and the allied Palatinate Republic were finally overthrown by force , primarily through the Prussian and Württemberg military (Leopold returned in Prussian uniform) . In July, the last Baden troops had to surrender after being locked in for three weeks in the Rastatt fortress . As a result, there were arrests and 23 executions. The emigration of around 80,000 people from Baden (5% of the population), mainly to America, can be traced back to the defeat of the revolution in addition to the economic hardship of the 1850s. Baden remained occupied by the Prussian Army until 1851 .
Despite the occupation and the appointment of a conservative ministry under Friedrich Adolf Klüber , the counter-reaction in the field of politics was comparatively mild overall. Baden remained a constitutional state and, with a few exceptions, the bureaucracy remained in the hands of the old civil service.
The disputes between the Grand Duchy and the Catholic Church in the Baden Kulturkampf , which had been going on with interruptions since 1853, led to the formation of a liberal government in 1860, with members of the Second Chamber under the leadership of Anton von Stabel . Significantly shaped by Franz von Roggenbach , the government initiated a liberal change of course and brought its working method closer to that of a democratic parliament by shaping politics together with the majority of the Second Chamber of the Estates Assembly. With the establishment of administrative courts by law of October 5, 1863, Baden was the first of the German states to introduce administrative jurisdiction .
In 1862, Baden was one of the first German states to grant almost complete formal equality to the 24,000 Jews of Baden, with the exception of poor relief and common land use, one year after Hamburg. As early as 1868, Moritz Ellstätter, as Baden's finance minister, became the first Jew in Germany to hold a ministerial post . Also in 1862 the freedom of trade, the abolition of the guild order and the conditional freedom of establishment were proclaimed.
Bathing in the Empire
In 1871, Baden joined the German Empire , in whose founding Grand Duke Friedrich I played a key role: after Wilhelm's proclamation as German Emperor , the Grand Duke gave the first hurray to the emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Palace . In the German Empire , Baden was a stronghold of the Liberals and the Center Party . After the defeat of the German Empire in World War I , the last Grand Duke Friedrich II abdicated on November 22, 1918. Baden became a republic.
With the 70 kV line from Mulhouse to Freiburg , one of the first high-voltage overhead lines in the country was built in 1913.
Republic of Baden 1918–1945
On November 8th, soldiers ' councils were formed in Lahr and Offenburg , a day later workers' and soldiers' councils were formed in Mannheim and Karlsruhe, and welfare committees were formed in Karlsruhe and Mannheim. The Karlsruhe Welfare Committee and the soldiers' council there formed a provisional government from party representatives on November 10th , which took over governance. This was confirmed on November 11th by a meeting of the Baden workers 'and soldiers' councils. The provisional government proclaimed the Free People's Republic of Baden on November 14 and set the election date for a state constitutional assembly on January 5, 1919. On November 22, 1918, the Grand Duke finally relinquished the throne.
On January 5, 1919, the election for the Baden Constituent National Assembly took place, which was called to its constituent session on January 15. On March 21, 1919, the Baden National Assembly unanimously passed the new Baden constitution , which was adopted in a referendum on April 13 . At the beginning of April 1919, the Landtag (= previous National Assembly) formed a government from the parties of the Weimar coalition ( Zentrum , SPD , DDP ) which ruled the Republic of Baden until November 21, 1929. After the state elections in October 1929, the center and the SPD continued to run the government without the DDP. In November 1930 the basis of the government coalition was broadened with the entry of the DVP . In the dispute over the Baden Concordat , the SPD left the coalition at the end of November 1932.
With the provisional law for the alignment of the states with the Reich , the states became administrative units of the unitary state. On March 8, 1933, the Reich Minister of the Interior appointed Robert Wagner ( NSDAP ) as Reich Commissioner , the state government was deposed and the state parliament was replaced by an appointed state parliament. By a second law for the alignment of the states with the Reich ("Reichsstatthaltergesetz"; "Altes Reichsstatthaltergesetz") of April 7th, 1933 the office of the state president was abolished and on May 5th, 1933 Wagner was appointed Reichsstatthalter for Baden.
post war period
After the Second World War, Baden was divided by an occupation border.
- North Baden (with the district of Karlsruhe as the southernmost area) and North Württemberg formed the state of Württemberg-Baden (capital Stuttgart) in the US zone.
- South Baden (with the district of Rastatt as the northernmost area) formed the state of Baden with the capital Freiburg and was part of the French occupation zone . President of this country was Leo Wohleb .
Rising in the southwest state
→ Note: The historical processes can also be found in detail in the section The Origin of Baden-Württemberg in the Württemberg-Hohenzollern article .
Some found the situation of the national borders defined by the occupation zones to be unsatisfactory. The fathers and mothers of the Basic Law also saw the situation with three federal states as a temporary measure that could not last.
Thus, Article 118 of the Basic Law contained the provision:
“The reorganization in the areas comprising the states of Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern can be carried out in deviation from the provisions of Article 29 by agreement of the states involved. If an agreement does not come about, the reorganization is regulated by federal law, which must provide for a referendum. "
This made it clear that a reorganization had to take place, even if no time specifications were given or a proposal was made as to what a solution could look like.
As a result, there were renewed considerations to found a " Southwest State " from the old states of Baden, Württemberg and the Hohenzollern Lands . In central and southern Baden, on the other hand, there were many who feared that the new federal state would dominate the federal state through Württemberg in the event of a merger. The government of the state of Baden , which belonged to the French occupation zone and had chosen the official designation "Free State of Baden" in the constitution passed in 1947, fought for the restoration of Baden within its historical borders. “From the lake to the Maines beach, the voice of you, my Badnerland” could be read on the 1951 election posters.
The voting mode was decisive. Through a trial vote, it was known that only a thin majority was to be expected for the south-western state in northern Baden, but that the strong rejection in southern Baden would result in a rejection for the whole of Baden. That is why the supporters of the south-western state pleaded for a count according to voting districts, the opponents unsuccessfully demanded a count according to the old countries. The Federal Constitutional Court , which was newly founded in 1951 and has its seat in the former residence of Karlsruhe, could not commit itself to a stance against the modalities of the referendum (majority in three of four voting districts) in the event of a tie .
In the referendum, the proponents of independent bathing lost. It is true that 52% of all votes cast in pre-war Baden voted for the restoration of the state of Baden; The decisive factor, however, was the voting behavior of the densely populated North Baden , where 57% voted for the "south-western state". In particular, the city and district of Pforzheim and regions of the old Electoral Palatinate such as Mosbach, Sinsheim, Mannheim and Heidelberg, but also the district of Überlingen were against Baden. The population in the regional district of (North) Württemberg and in Württemberg-Hohenzollern also voted for unification . By majorities in three of four sub-areas, the unification to the "Southwest State" was decided, which took place in 1952.
“The final decision was made by the affected populations themselves in a referendum, the validity of which was contested by the southern Baden government, which was the main opponent of the southwestern state for mainly religious reasons. She feared the influence that Wuerttemberg Protestantism might gain in the new state, while South Baden with its 70% Catholics lived under a rather clerical regime. "
On the basis of a lawsuit by the Heimatbund Baden, the Federal Constitutional Court decided in 1956 that the population of Baden was allowed to vote again, because their will in the 1951 vote had been "overshadowed" by the separation of the state of Baden after 1945. Since the vote was delayed again and again, especially by Kurt Georg Kiesinger , a new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court was required in 1969, which ordered the vote by 30 June 1970 at the latest. It was not until 1970 that there was another referendum, in which this time the people of Württemberg were not allowed to take part. In keeping with the times, only a few were still enthusiastic about the restoration of a historic country; the overwhelming majority (81.9%) of the population of Baden voted on June 7, 1970 to remain in Baden-Württemberg .
Borders in the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg
The administrative districts of North Baden and South Baden , formed in 1952 , took up the borders of the old state of Baden: in the north they border Hesse and Bavaria , in the south on Lake Constance only 30 km away from Bavaria and in the middle sometimes only 30 km, at the narrowest point only 17.2 km narrow, the eastern border of the state bordered the territory of Württemberg like a sickle. With the district reform , which was carried out on January 1, 1973, the historical boundaries of the administrative districts were lifted and the names of the parts of the country disappeared. The areas of all four administrative districts Freiburg , Karlsruhe , Stuttgart and Tübingen were mainly redefined according to geographical expediency, but also with the political intention of interlinking the three former parts of the country and thus strengthening the unity of the country in the long term. The old borders on the administrative level finally disappeared: The former Württemberg part of the Black Forest has since belonged to the administrative districts of Karlsruhe and Freiburg and the former Baden districts now belong to the administrative districts of Stuttgart and Tübingen.
coat of arms
The trunk of Baden's coat of arms is a red sloping bar on a yellow (gold) background. In the course of the country's history, other components, such as griffins or a crown , became part of the coat of arms.
Baden in the state of Baden-Württemberg
Although the current administrative districts no longer correspond to the old state borders and are officially only named after the seat of the regional council, they are still often referred to as North or South Baden. On the other hand, residents of places that today belong to the administrative districts of Tübingen or Stuttgart (e.g. on Lake Constance) usually continue to insist on being Baden. The old borders of the state of Baden are also reflected in the fact that there are two independent Baden sports federations ( Badischer Sportbund Nord and Badischer Sportbund Freiburg ), as well as numerous independent Baden sports associations (e.g. Badischer Fußballverband (in the north), Südbadischer Fußball-Verband) and Badischer Turner-Bund ) and an independent Evangelical Church in Baden . The division of the Catholic dioceses ( Archdiocese of Freiburg or Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart ) also corresponds to the old borders. Other associations are also still separated according to the old borders. The former borders have also been preserved in the organization of the judiciary. Some media are still based on the old borders of Baden and Württemberg: For example, the SWR organizes regional radio programs such as "Baden Radio" or "Radio Südbaden" in the SWR4 Baden-Württemberg program or the private radio station Radio Regenbogen . A strong regional feeling is still present today or has even become stronger. This can also be seen in the role of the Badnerlied , one of the most popular regional anthems in southern Germany, which is documented from the end of the 19th century.
Background of an independent Baden regional identity
Development of a special consciousness in Baden
The awareness of an independent Baden way of life and regional identity , which distinguishes itself from Württemberg with phrases such as “Schwôbe create, Badner think”, has only been beginning to be observed since the late 19th century. With ethnicity as well as identity principle is accompanied by a demarcation, carried out for Baden this preference to " Schwaben " (in Württemberg ), although ethnically and linguistically both regions form a unit, the historical first in the Duchy of Alemannia , then in the Duchy of Swabia , in the Swabian League and is clearly pronounced in the Swabian Empire until 1806. The often ideologically inflated search for identity and the difficult demarcation from the similar can also be traced back to the fact that both states, Württemberg and Baden, are actually Napoleonic creations, whose monarchs first had to create the identification of a large part of the population with the new state structures. The Alemannendiskourse initiated by Johann Peter Hebel in 1803 functioned as an ideological bracket for the newly created Grand Duchy of Baden.
There are other historical reasons for the persistent perception of differences and local rivalries. The denomination exercised a special formative power from the Reformation on, as Württemberg became pietistic and the later state of South Baden was Catholic. The preponderance of the “Swabians” who were “predominantly ascetic Protestants and who were classified as extremely capable (“ industrious ”)” was and is perceived as threatening. However, there is also an over-generalization of the Baden image of Württemberg to all Swabians, as, for example, Upper Swabia, which is strongly Catholic, does not fit in with “Pietist asceticism”. In addition, especially since the 19th century, there have been different developments in the economic, cultural and political areas. The different hereditary customs have also proven to be of lasting importance. Altwuerttemberg knew almost exclusively the real division, i.e. the division of the entire inheritance in equal parts among all children. In other parts of the country, in Hohenlohe, in the Black Forest or in Upper Swabia, the inheritance law existed. Here the property passed to an heir. In Altwuerttemberg this supported characteristics such as thrift and diligence.
Baden, not Württemberg, was still regarded as a model country in the 19th century and, thanks to the Upper Rhine Plain, had the warmest climate in Germany, fertile volcanic soils, medicinal springs and health resorts that were partly used in Roman times, excellent transport connections and proximity to France and Switzerland significantly better development requirements than Württemberg or even Bavaria. However, this was reversed by the situation after the First World War, when Baden was hit harder than Württemberg by the new border location through the loss of the Reichsland Alsace-Lorraine , the demilitarization of the Rhineland , reparations and unemployment. As early as the 19th century, the Catholic majority of the population in Baden had built up resentments against successful Protestant climbers in their own country, who - like the Jews - were clearly overrepresented in high schools and university studies. In the 1920s, these anti-Protestant stereotypes carried over to the envied Swabians.
The Baden cuisine is considered lighter and more French than other German regional cuisines. Baden has the highest regional density of starred restaurants in Germany, similar to neighboring Alsace in France. Baden also shares specialties with Alsace such as Baeckeoffe and tarte flambée , fine sauerkraut or Schäufele , without the otherwise typical excessive addition of fat and flour. Vegetable asparagus , chestnuts , offal and snails are also typically processed. Special crops such as tobacco, wine, fruit and horticulture as well as vegetable crops are of national economic importance in addition to the culinary ones and offer the residents, the gastronomy as well as a large number of tourists and spa guests a wide selection of local products.
A specifically Baden progressiveness, also expressed by the proverbial Baden liberalism to this day , was also reflected in the early abolition of serfdom in 1783, the first German technical university in Karlsruhe, the progressive constitution of 1818 and the first German democratic state parliament at all in 1849.
As Volker Rödel explains, the constitution of 1818 soon ensured an internal cohesion of the state and became “the most important reason for the integration of the geographically and historically so diverse, narrow-bodied Grand Duchy which, in contrast to Württemberg, lacked a larger traditional core.” Carl von Rotteck (1775 –1840) called the constitution "birth certificate of the Baden people".
Associations also played an important role. In addition to a large number of gymnasts and early sports clubs, Baden also has an intensive local music tradition with a disproportionately high number of choirs and orchestras.
The industrialization - among other things favored by the better capitalization by foreign investors from Switzerland and France, the favorable traffic situation and - started late and slowly, but faster and more successfully than in Wuerttemberg, because it was not the Wuerttemberg, but the Badeners who provided the until the First World War higher savings. Heavy industry did not develop here or there, but in the textile industry Baden was in 4th place in 1858, one place ahead of Württemberg.
The autonomy of the towns and communities in Baden was confirmed by the Baden municipal code of 1831. It is characterized by political peculiarities such as the strong role of municipal special-purpose associations or the first "green" mayors in Germany since the 1980s. A multitude of regional city festivals and local carnival traditions , important cultural institutions and places known as international travel destinations such as Freiburg, Baden-Baden, Karlsruhe, Schwetzingen and Heidelberg stand for the self-confidence of the region.
This positive development was radically reversed after the First World War - the consequences of the war and the global economic crisis had a greater impact in Baden, which was now a border region, than in Württemberg. This was reflected in the development of Daimler - Benz - initially a merger of equals, which went out in favor of the Württembergians from 1931 - as well as in Württemberg's metal industry in general. The latter benefited from migration away from the border as well as from armaments projects leading up to World War II. The more serious destruction of many Baden cities in the bombing war as well as the reparations of the tougher French occupation in southern Baden left the Baden part of the country further behind.
The economic hardship after the war and the de facto division of the old state of Baden by the occupation zones allowed plans for the establishment of a "south-west state" to mature, which in 1951 in a referendum - against the votes of the population in south Baden, whose state government under Leo Wohleb even established it challenged before the newly established Federal Constitutional Court - were approved. In 1952 the new federal state was founded.
The reason for the merger, the original disadvantage and peripheral location of Baden, is no longer given today due to the European and German-French unification, there are many contacts in neighboring Alsace as well as in north-western Switzerland. Long after the conflict over the south-western state, a strong regional Baden identity and the associated demarcation from “the Swabians” and the state government in Stuttgart has established itself again. One of the key events for a renewed demarcation from the state government in Stuttgart can be seen, among other things, the resistance against the nuclear power plant planned in 1974, but prevented by regional citizens' initiatives in Wyhl in Baden .
In addition to the BFsBW network, founded in 1977 with stronger separatist tendencies, the Baden in Europe regional association , which was established in 1993, is particularly committed to federalism within the state of Baden-Württemberg and to decentralized, regional structures instead of an Elles, elles Stuckert zu mentality (“Alles für Stuttgart "), which downgraded Baden to a" Württemberg colony ".
"Badeners are Badeners above all when they are mistaken for Swabians north of the Main."
"The Grand Duchy with its liberal constitution and a liberal Grand Duke as the representative of a constitutional monarchy made Baden a 'model country', allowed citizens to participate in political issues, thereby creating a self-confident citizenship with a sense of home, identity building, community spirit and ethnicity as rooted nationwide, practiced virtues and idiosyncrasies. "
“… There is a certain attitude towards life that is also based on history. There are pragmatic Baden solutions. You have to chat and find a way to get along. There is certainly also such a thing as Baden liberality. This has to do with the constitutional patriotism of the 19th century. And then there is life on the border - near France and Switzerland. That has already shaped the Baden mentality. "
Awareness and maintenance of tradition
Particularly in the south and in the Karlsruhe area, the existing awareness with which people refer to themselves as Badeners or Badners is particularly evident - often simply to differentiate themselves from the state government in Stuttgart in Württemberg. In this context, for example, the Badnerlied is used, which has a higher status and level of awareness in Baden than the other state anthems. This is how it has been playing in the stadiums of SC Freiburg , Karlsruher SC and TSG 1899 Hoffenheim before the start of the games since the 1990s . Traditionally, it was also played at the international horse races in Iffezheim before the main race. You can still see many flags of Baden in southern Baden , and Baden wine also carries the identity of the country.
Part of Baden's regional pride is based on the democratic and revolutionary tradition of the Bundschuh movement and the Peasants' War , as well as the Baden Revolution of 1848. The Baden Forty-Eighters and German-Americans , above all the radical republicans Friedrich Hecker , Franz Sigel and Gustav Struve , as well as the later American Interior Minister Carl Schurz had a significant influence on American history as well as German-American relations.
Furthermore, those influences that have culturally enriched the Baden region continue to be affirmed and cultivated by the people of Baden. Examples are the relationships between the former Free Imperial Cities, the exchange of ideas between the countries of the Alemannic culture and the cross-border community feeling within geographical units (Lake Constance, Black Forest, Upper and Upper Rhine).
The designation of the locals as " bathers " is generally unpopular, although according to Duden it is considered correct. Those who express themselves in this way are usually taught the "correct" pronunciation immediately (in a Baden-friendly manner).
The word play S 'gives Baden and there are unsymbadic underscores the sometimes differentiated relationship in self-perception.
Traditional Baden associations
A traditional Baden association in the region of the former state of Baden is the Landesverein Badische Heimat e. V. from 1909. It has its seat in Freiburg and is represented by 13 regional groups from Mannheim to Waldshut-Tiengen in the entire old state of Baden. There is also the Landesvereinigung Baden in Europa e. V. from 1992 in Karlsruhe with over 11,000 members, the Bund Freiheit statt Baden-Württemberg e. V. (BFsBW) from 1977 in Karlsruhe and the Badischer Chorverband 1862 e. V. in Karlsruhe as an umbrella organization of 1,500 clubs in 22 singing circles.
Outside the region of the former state of Baden there are also people from Baden who hold on to their culture and way of life. Baden associations outside the Baden region are the Badener Verein München e. V. of February 10, 1894 and the Association of Badeners of Hamburg and Surroundings e. V. of October 15, 1913.
The dialects of the German language to be found in Baden include very different dialects, which also belong to the various main dialect groups Middle German and Upper German:
- Middle German dialects: Around Mannheim and Heidelberg, a Palatinate dialect is spoken with Kurpfälzischen .
- Upper German dialects: Alemannic dialects are spoken in most parts of central and southern Baden ( Upper Rhine-German , High- Alemannic , Lake Constance and Swabian ). East Franconian dialects are at home in the northeast (on the Main and Tauber) . The dialects around Karlsruhe are also Franconian ( southern Franconian dialects )
Between the purely Franconian and purely Alemannic dialect areas, there are sometimes broader transition areas, especially in the regions around Rastatt, Baden-Baden (both South Franconian-Alemannic) and Pforzheim (Swabian-South Franconian).
The German dialects native to Baden are documented in the Baden dictionary .
The languages spoken in Central and South Baden Alemannic and partly some southFrankish dialects are sometimes called Badisch referred. From a linguistic point of view, however, there is no such thing as a “Baden dialect” or “Baden dialects”, only dialects in Baden.
The Bollenhut is a trademark of Baden's folk costumes , but it is only found in the vicinity of Gutach in the Black Forest . In the first half of the 20th century, the card game Cego or Zego was only the most popular card game in Baden and in some areas bordering Württemberg and Hohenzollern and is therefore typically Baden. Carnival , which lasts from fat Thursday to Ash Wednesday, is of great importance throughout the year . During this time, offices and shops are closed in many areas of Baden because parades and celebrations take place in every place. Parades and carnival sessions are also common from Epiphany. And even after Ash Wednesday, the “Buurefaasned” begins in the depths of the southern Black Forest on the Thursday afterwards, which traditionally ends with a “Schiibefüer” up to four days later, depending on the location.
The Schiibefüer (disc fire ) or spark fire is lit in the mountainous regions of northwestern Switzerland and southern Baden to drive away winter. In some areas, the so-called disc slapping is practiced: Wooden discs with a central hole, similar to a discus disc , are heated or glowed in a large campfire and skewered on hazelnut rods. The aim of the traditional ceremony is then for the guests of the drama to throw these panes into the valley over wooden ramps year after year.
- Hans Jakob Christoffel of Grimmelshausen
- Heinrich Hansjakob
- Johann Peter Lever
- Joseph Victor von Scheffel
- Balthasar Venator
- Martin Walser
- Carl Benz : inventor of the automobile
- Karl Drais : Bicycle, Draisine
- Felix Wankel : inventor of the Wankel engine
Heads of state
- Karl Friedrich (1728–1811), May 12, 1738–10. June 1811. Margrave, Elector from May 5, 1803, Grand Duke from May 5, 1806
- Carl Ludwig Friedrich (1786–1818), June 10, 1811–8. December 1818, Grand Duke
- Ludwig I (1763–1830), December 8, 1818–30. March 1830, Grand Duke
- Leopold (1790–1852), March 30, 1830–24. April 1852, Grand Duke
- Ludwig II. (1824-1858), April 24, 1852-22. January 1858, Grand Duke (nominal)
- Friedrich I. (1826-1907), September 5, 1858-28. September 1907, Grand Duke (already regent since 1852, from 1856 also with the title of Grand Duke)
- Friedrich II. (1857–1928), September 28, 1907–14. November 1918, Grand Duke
The Presidents of the Republic of Baden 1918–1933:
- Anton Geiß (1858–1944), SPD , November 10, 1918–14. August 1920
- Gustav Trunk (1871–1936), center , August 14, 1920–23. November 1921
- Hermann Hummel (1876–1952), DDP , November 23, 1921–23. November 1922
- Adam Remmele (1877-1951), SPD, November 23, 1922-23. November 1923
- Heinrich Köhler (1878–1949), center, November 23, 1923–23. November 1924
- Willy Hellpach (1877–1955), DDP, November 23, 1924–23. November 1925
- Gustav Trunk (second term), Center, November 23, 1925–23. November 1926
- Heinrich Franz Köhler (2nd term of office), Center, November 23, 1926–3. February 1927
- Gustav Trunk (third term), Zentrum, February 3, 1927–23. November 1927
- Adam Remmele (second term of office), SPD, November 23, 1927–23. November 1928
- Josef Schmitt (1874–1939), Zentrum, November 23, 1928–20. November 1930
- Franz Josef Wittemann (1866–1931), center, November 20, 1930–10. September 1931
- Josef Schmitt (second term of office), Zentrum, September 18, 1931–11. March 1933
With the provisional law for the alignment of the states with the Reich , the states lost their sovereignty and on March 11, 1933 Robert Wagner (1895-1946, NSDAP ) was appointed Reich governor. Walter Köhler (1897–1989, NSDAP) was appointed Minister-President of Baden from May 8, 1933 to April 1945.
Senior Minister of State until 1918
The function of President of the State Ministry , which roughly corresponded to that of the current Prime Minister , existed officially only in the years 1820 to 1842, 1844 to 1846 and 1861 to 1918. From 1846 to 1861 either the Grand Duke himself or the most senior minister presided over the State Ministry. In addition to Reitzenstein's term of office from 1832 to 1842, the respective President of the State Ministry also headed a specialist department (Ministry).
Leading ministers of state in the capacity of Head of Government of the Grand Duchy were:
- 1809–1810: Sigismund von Reitzenstein
- 1810–1810: Conrad Karl Friedrich von Andlau-Birseck
- 1810–1812: Christian Heinrich Gayling von Altheim
- 1812–1817: Karl Christian von Berckheim
- 1817–1818: Sigismund von Reitzenstein
- 1818–1831: Wilhelm Ludwig Leopold Reinhard von Berstett (Foreign Minister, President of the State Ministry 1820–1831)
- 1832–1842: Sigismund von Reitzenstein ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1833–1838: Ludwig Georg von Winter (Minister of the Interior)
- 1838–1839: Karl Friedrich Nebenius (Minister of the Interior)
- 1839–1843: Friedrich Landolin Karl von Blittersdorf (Minister of the Grand Ducal House, Foreign Minister)
- 1843–1846: Christian Friedrich von Boeckh (Minister of Finance, President of the State Ministry 1844–1846)
- 1845–1846: Karl Friedrich Nebenius (Minister of the Interior)
- 1846–1848: Johann Baptist Bekk (Minister of the Interior)
- 1848–1849: Karl Georg Hoffmann (Minister of Finance)
- 1849–1850: Friedrich Adolf Klüber (Minister of the Grand Ducal House, Foreign Minister)
- 1850–1856: Ludwig Rüdt von Collenberg-Bödigheim (Minister of the Grand Ducal House, Foreign Minister)
- 1856–1860: Franz von Stengel (Minister of the Interior)
- 1861–1866: Anton von Stabel ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1866–1868: Karl Mathy ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1868–1876: Julius Jolly ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1876–1893: Ludwig Turban the Elder ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1893–1901: Franz Wilhelm Nokk ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1901–1905: Carl Ludwig Wilhelm Arthur von Brauer ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1905–1917: Alexander von Dusch ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1917–1918: Heinrich von Bodman ( President of the State Ministry )
- 1918–1933: President of the Republic of Baden, s. O.
Other well-known politicians from Baden
- Prince Max von Baden , last Chancellor of the German Empire
- Friedrich Ebert , first Reich President of the Weimar Republic
- Constantin Fehrenbach , Chancellor of the Weimar Republic
- Joseph Wirth , Chancellor of the Weimar Republic
- 100 years of Baden. Traveling exhibition of the Landesverein Badische Heimat e. V. from February 28, 2009 to April 17, 2009 in the Freiburg im Breisgau regional council ( Basler Hof ).
- To bathe! 900 years - stories of a country. Large state exhibition from June 16 to November 11, 2012, Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe.
- Noble life - 900 years of the Baden House. Documentation, Germany 2012, shown in: "SWR / SR", June 10, 2018, 9:00 p.m. - 9:45 p.m.
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (ed.): Baden 1789–1918. Guide through the regional and cultural history department . Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2001, ISBN 3-88190-273-2 .
- Badisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe (Ed.): Baden! 900 years - stories of a country. Info-Verlag, Karlsruhe 2012, ISBN 978-3-937345-56-7 (catalog for the major state exhibition)
- Hermann Bausinger: The better half. From people of Baden and Württemberg . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart / Munich 2002, ISBN 3-421-05591-2 .
- Frank Engehausen: A short history of the Grand Duchy of Baden . DRW-Verlag Weinbrenner, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2005, ISBN 3-7650-8328-3 .
- Helmut Engler: Great Badeners. Creation from 1200 years . Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-421-06676-0 .
- Hans Fenske: The Liberal Southwest. Freedom and democratic traditions in Baden-Württemberg . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1981, ISBN 3-17-007089-4 .
- Rolf Gustav Haebler : Baden history . Battert Verlag, no location 1987, ISBN 3-87989-142-7 .
- Heinrich Hauß, Adolf J. Schmid : Badisches Kalendarium from day to day - from year to year, people and events . G. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-7650-8326-7 .
- Amalie Heck: Paths of Destiny in Baden History. Upper Rhine roads, regional traffic routes and lines of defense in their significance for the regional historical development. Badenia Verlag, Karlsruhe 1996. ISBN 3-7617-0331-7 .
- Wolfgang von Hippel: Revolution in the German Southwest . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-17-014039-6 .
- Wolfgang Hug: History of Baden . Theiss, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-8062-1022-5 .
- Armin Kohnle : Brief history of the margraviate of Baden , Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2007, ISBN 978-3-7650-8346-4 .
- Karl Moersch, Peter Hoelzle counterpoint Baden-W… On the prehistory and history of the south-western state , DRW Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87181-478-4
- Uwe A. Oster: The Grand Dukes of Baden 1806–1918 . Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-7917-2084-5 .
- Karl-Heinz Ott : Local history Baden . Hoffmann & Campe Verlag, Hamburg 2007. ISBN 978-3-455-38024-8
- Hansmartin Schwarzmaier : History of Baden in Pictures 1100–1918 . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1993, ISBN 3-17-012088-3 .
- Wolfgang Hug: Baden (D). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Cultural studies online: Baden
- Regional texts
- Government system, election results and events in the Free State of Baden
- Grand Duchy of Baden (districts and municipalities) 1910
- Topographic atlas of the Grand Duchy of Baden . Maps created 1838–1849, digital copies : Freiburg University Library - mapire.eu (railway lines drawn in later)
- City of Mannheim, Michael Caroli, Ulrich Nieß (eds.): History of the city of Mannheim: Bd 2 1801-1914. Ubstadt-Weiher 2007, ISBN 978-3-89735-471-5 , p. 7.
- "Master agreement between the Kingdom of Würtemberg and the Grand Duchy of Baden of October 2, 1810" on the website documentArchiv.de
- Lothar Gall : Bourgeoisie in Germany . Siedler, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-88680-259-0 , p. 249.
- Fenske, Der liberale Südwesten , ISBN 3-17-007089-4 , p. 110 f.
- Fenske, p. 126.
- Werner Frotscher, Bodo Pieroth : Verfassungsgeschichte , 5th edition, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-53411-2 , Rn 422.
- Arno Herzig: 1815-1933: Emancipation and Acculturation . Website of the Federal Agency for Civic Education from August 5, 2010, accessed on June 5, 2016.
- Karlsruher Zeitung with the announcements of the Grand Duke and the provisional government of November 10, 1918
- Karlsruher Zeitung with the announcements of the Grand Duke and the provisional government of November 14, 1918
- see Gerhard Kaller: The abdication of Grand Duke Friedrich II of Baden in November 1918. In: Ekkhart-Jahrbuch 1969, pp. 81–82 Print of the declaration of abdication and picture of the handwritten declaration ( Memento of March 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Karlsruher Zeitung of November 24, 1918; Reprint of the abdication and announcement of the provisional Baden people's government
- Baden Law and Ordinance Gazette from January 10, 1919
- Minutes of the 13th public meeting on March 21, 1919. In: Negotiations of the Baden State Parliament. I. Parliament period (January 15, 1919 to October 15, 1921), Session I (January 15 to October 15, 1919) , p. 43
- Freiburg newspaper of May 6, 1933
- Referendum in the Southwest State. Retrieved January 4, 2018 .
- Map with the election results in the individual districts. In: http://www.fg.vs.bw.schule.de/ . Retrieved January 4, 2018 .
- Alfred Grosser: History of Germany since 1945. A balance sheet. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG, Munich, 9th edition June 1981. ISBN 3-423-01007-X , p. 145.
- Hans-Georg Wehling: Baden-Württemberg. In: Hans-Georg Wehling (Ed.): The German countries. 2nd edition Opladen: Leske + Budrich, 2002, pp. 17–34, here p. 24
- Journal Regions in Baden-Württemberg BAUSTEIN A Regional Identity in Everyday Life Issue 1/2001, Ed .: LpB, relationship of singing along with the Badnerlied at soccer games and regional identification
- Karl Moersch, Peter Hoelzle: Counterpoint Baden-Württemberg. On the prehistory and history of the Southwest State . DRW Verlag, Leinfelden-Echterdingen 2002, ISBN 3-87181-478-4 .
- Hermann Bausinger: The better half. From people of Baden and Württemberg. Stuttgart, Munich 2002, p. 39 ff.
- State Center for Political Education Baden-Württemberg (Ed.): Regions in Baden-Württemberg , Module D, Paths to State Identity , Section “State Identity”. In: Zeitschrift Politik & Studium , issue 1/2001 ( online ). Regions are evidently increasingly viewed positively as building blocks of a country's identity.
- Alfons Zettler: History of the Duchy of Swabia. Stuttgart 2003.
- Horst Ossenberg: Haus + Hof: In the language and cultural area of Alemannia and Swabia from the Stone Age to the Modern Age. Norderstedt 2004, p. 14.
- Klaus Graf: Regional identity in the southern Baden area around 1800. In: Achim Aurnhammer (Ed.): Between Josephinism and early liberalism. Freiburg 2002, pp. 35–47 ( PDF ; 2,330 kB).
- Land Baden-Württemberg in the concise dictionary of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany
- http://www.lpb-bw.de/publikationen/politischelandeskunde/territorien.pdf , p. 13.
- Steffen Rompel: Schwobe create, Badener think. On the function and origin of certain Swabian images in Baden. In: Brieschke, Angelika (Red.): Schwabenbilder. To construct a regional character . Accompanying volume for the exhibition "Schwabenbilder" in the Haspelturm of the Tübingen Castle, April 18 to June 1, 1997. Tübingen Association for Folklore, Tübingen 1997, p. 49 f. ( Digitized version )
- Baden, The 100 best restaurants by Max Anders and Hans-Albert Stechl , Ellert & Richter, 2002, ISBN 3-8319-0012-4 .
- Source: Edited version from the section on state history, in: Das Land Baden-Württemberg. Official description by districts and communities, ed. by the Baden-Württemberg State Archives Directorate, Volume I, Stuttgart, 2nd edition 1977
- Is it possible to swim? About identities, centralism and other nonsense ( memento of July 10, 2004 in the Internet Archive ), Wolfgang Fritz, lecture at the BfSBW, February 4, 2000.
- See Engels, The Resistance Against the Wyhl Nuclear Power Plant (PDF; 3.6 MB).
- Amadeus Siebenpunkt, Germany, Your Badener , Verlag Regionalkultur, 1997, ISBN 3-89735-355-5 .
- Quotation in Rudolf Rolli: The importance of bathing and Baden and its presence in the Badischer Sängerbund / Choir Association. In: in this country. The regional magazine of Rhein, Neckar & Main. Number 42, 2009, p. 14
- Niels Köhler interviews Sven von Ungern-Sternberg. In: Südkurier of December 15, 2012, p. 2
- See keyword Badenser on duden.de , accessed on June 29, 2016.
- Website of the Landesverein Badische Heimat e. V. , members' magazine Badische Heimat 1/2009.
- Der Badener , bulletin of the Association of Badeners from Hamburg and the surrounding area, April / May 2009, p. 6.
- The regional association Badische Heimat. In: in this country . The regional magazine of Rhein, Neckar & Main , No. 42, 2009, p. 12.
- Website of the Baden in Europe regional association. V.
- Homepage of the Bund Freiheit instead of Baden-Württemberg ( Memento from February 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Statutes of the Bund Freedom instead of Baden-Württemberg ( Memento from July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Website of the Badischer Chorverband 1862 e. V. (former Badischer Sängerbund)
- The Badeners in Munich - an association in transition. In: Badisches Weinhaus Munich, Munich, approx. 2008, p. 6 as well as the website of the Baden Association of Munich
- Monthly newsletter Der Badener (from Hamburg); also the website of the Association of Badeners of Hamburg
- Michael Dietrich: Ripple with homesickness. In: Lahrer Hinkender Bote 2013, pp. 98–101.
- 1832 Reitzenstein was reactivated as minister, but due to illness, he could no longer assert himself in the cabinet. Therefore, despite the official position of President of the State Ministry, he stepped increasingly into the background and the actual leading figures of the Baden government were successively the Ministers Winter, Nebenius and Blittersdorf.