Baden dictionary

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Badische Dictionary is one of the great scenic Dictionary of German .


The Baden dictionary is an alphabetical dictionary of meanings for the Alemannic and Franconian dialects spoken in the former state of Baden . In addition to dialect, it also includes technical and regional language and - to a lesser extent - historical vocabulary from the field of study.

The main addressees are German scholars, historians and folklorists as well as laypeople interested in linguistic and folklore.

The neighboring large-scale dictionaries are the Palatinate dictionary and the dictionary of Alsatian dialects towards the west, the Swiss Idiotikon towards the south, the Swabian dictionary towards the east and the Franconian dictionary and the South Hessian dictionary towards the north .


At the end of the 19th century, the plan arose to conduct a large-scale folklore survey in the Grand Duchy of Baden. The initiators, Freiburg university teachers Friedrich Kluge , Fridrich Pfaff and Elard Hugo Meyer , had questionnaires sent to more than three thousand school locations, one of which, the last of thirteen, also concerned language. The material received - representations on folklore were sent back from around six hundred places - was so extensive that the idea for a dictionary of Baden was considered more closely. Friedrich Kluge, whose area of ​​responsibility was the linguistic evaluation, was busy with other projects, so that it was not possible to continue working as planned until 1907, when the German studies specialist and librarian Alfred Götze took on the idea. Well detailed instructions were issued for collecting vernacular documents in which the later in the journal Teuthonista presented phonetic alphabet was proposed for transcription of phonetics. In 1914 a full-time worker was finally hired: the high school professor and Kluge student Ernst Ochs . Due to the First World War , however, he was only able to really start working at the Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg in 1919.

The material was initially expanded by the dialect collections of several dialect researchers such as Otto Heilig, Philipp Lenz and Othmar Meisinger . In addition, a group of dialect-speaking students met every week at Freiburg University to provide Professors Kluge and Götze with information on the dialect of their hometown. In addition, Ochs et al. Incorporated examination and doctoral theses into the archive, which were written about individual local dialects or larger sections of the catchment area. During the entire processing time to date, regional dictionaries and excerpts from dialect literature written by laypeople, as well as collections of notes provided by collectors, have also been transferred to the archive.

Publication began in 1925 in single deliveries. Work was interrupted from 1940 to 1945 and 1966/67.

After Ernst Ochs 'death in 1961, Karl Friedrich Müller , Ochs' longtime volunteer, became his successor. Müller retired in 1968 and was replaced by Gerhard Wolfram Baur . Baur expanded the collections considerably, above all making extensive photography trips through the central and southern Black Forest and the areas bordering east and south-east, as well as through the Franconian north-eastern part of Baden between Neckar and Main, in order to close gaps in phonetic geography. Baur completed the second volume in 1974 and the third volume in 1997 when he retired. From 1998 to 2009 Rudolf Post , the former editor of the Palatinate Dictionary , was Baur's successor in the office of the Baden Dictionary. Tobias Streck has been working on the fifth and final volume since September 2009.

Sources and material base

The documentary material of the Baden dictionary comprises around 2 million single notes, many of them with multiple references. Were evaluated

  • Answers to mainly folklore-oriented questionnaires from 1894/95
  • Printed and unprinted word collections by lay researchers who have often been active for many years as well as recognized experts (such as Ph. Lenz, O. Heilig, O. Meisinger , A. Götze, EC Roedder )
  • Word geographical representations
  • Dialectological studies and monographs on phonetics and forms, syntax and word formation of individual places or landscapes (especially in the form of state examination theses and dissertations)
  • Linguistic atlases and language and folklore atlas material
  • already transcribed and published tape recordings
  • Studies of specialist (e.g. winemaker, woodmaker, watchmaker terminology) and special languages ​​(e.g. trader and crooks language)
  • own exploration in 180 locations with word lists

Only selected excerpts and recorded were:

  • Dialect literature (e.g. Hebel , Burte , Nadler ) and regional literature (e.g. Grimmelshausen , letters from Elisabeth Charlotte, H. Hansjakob )
  • historical sources (e.g. city rights and edited land registers)
  • Tradition of names (person, place and field names)

Publication status

Baden dictionary, started by Ernst Ochs, continued by Karl Friedrich Müller, Gerhard W. Baur, Rudolf Post and Tobias Streck, Walter de Gruyter Verlag, Berlin / Munich / Boston (or 1925–1999 Moritz Schauenburg Verlag, Lahr / Black Forest and 2000 –2012 R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich).

  • Volume 1 (A - E) 1940
  • Volume 2 (F - H) 1974
  • Volume 3 (J-M) 1997
  • Volume 4 (N - Schw) 2009
  • Volume 5 (se -) 2012 ff.


  • Ernst Ochs: Baden dictionary (report). In: Journal for German Dialects. 16, 1921, pp. 180f.
  • Ernst Ochs: Samples of the Baden dictionary with the structure of the Baden dialects. 2nd Edition. Karlsruhe 1923.
  • Gerhard W. Baur: Dialect dictionaries in the Alemannic language area. In: Alemannica. Regional studies contributions. Festschrift for Bruno Boesch for his 65th birthday (= Alemannisches Jahrbuch 1973/75 ). Bühl / Baden 1976, pp. 62-72.
  • Gerhard W. Baur: The Baden dictionary. In: Dialect Lexicography. Ceremony for Luise Berthold on her 85th birthday on January 27, 1976 (= ZDL supplements. NF 17). Wiesbaden 1976, pp. 25-35.
  • Gerhard, W. Baur: The Baden dictionary. In: Symposium Ernst Christmann. Lectures on dialect lexicography, linguistic geography and folk research on West Central German. Edited by W. Kleiber. Stuttgart 1987, pp. 61-72.
  • Rudolf Post: The surveys on the collection of folk traditions of Baden 1894/95 and the beginnings of the "Baden dictionary". In: Rudolf Bentzinger, Damaris Nübling, Rudolf Steffens (eds.): History of language, dialectology, onomastics, folklore. Wolfgang Kleiber on his 70th birthday (= ZDL supplement. 115). Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-515-07549-6 , pp. 259-275.
  • Rudolf Post: Baden dictionary. In: Thomas Städtler (Ed.): Scientific lexicography in German-speaking countries. Heidelberg 2003, pp. 319-322.

Web links