Friedrich Kluge

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Friedrich Kluge around 1890

Friedrich Kluge (born June 21, 1856 in Cologne , † May 21, 1926 in Freiburg im Breisgau ) was a German linguist and lexicographer . His name is best known for his Etymological Dictionary of the German Language (often simply called “the clever”) published in 1883 , which has seen numerous new editions to date (most recently in the 25th edition in 2011) and is a standard work on German etymology .


Editions of Kluge's Etymological Dictionary , 1883-2011

Friedrich Kluge studied comparative linguistics as well as classical and modern philology at the universities of Leipzig , Strasbourg and Freiburg im Breisgau from 1874 . He received his doctorate in Strasbourg in 1878 and completed his habilitation there in 1880 in the subjects of German and English .

From 1884 he was an associate professor at the University of Jena , and from 1886 a full professor . In 1893 he accepted a call to the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, where he succeeded his teacher Hermann Paul as professor of German language and literature.

As one of the first German scholars, he dealt intensively both in his dictionary and in individual publications with professional and special languages, such as the seaman's language , the rogue languages and the student language .

In the years 1894/95, Kluge, together with Fridrich Pfaff and Elard Hugo Meyer, carried out a written survey on Baden folklore. This formed the first basis for the Baden dictionary , which his pupil Ernst Ochs began in 1914.

In 1900, Kluge founded the magazine for German word research, which was published until 1914. Since 1892 he was a full member of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig . In 1910 he became an extraordinary member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences .

His estate is in the archive of the Freiburg University Library.

One of Kluge's contemporary was the linguist Ernst Wasserzieher .


Publications (selection)

  • Etymological dictionary of the German language . Trübner, Strasbourg 1883 (nine further editions up to 1926 during Kluge's lifetime, the last 25th edition posthumously. De Gruyter, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-11-022364-4 ).
  • From Luther to Lessing. Linguistic essays. Trübner, Strasbourg 1888 (and another three editions up to 1904; 5th edition: Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1918).
  • German student language. Trübner, Strasbourg 1895 (new edition: Student History Association of the CC , Nuremberg 1984–1985).
  • Rotwelsches Quellebuch . Trübner, Strasbourg 1901 (reprint: de Gruyter, Berlin 1987, ISBN 3-11-010783-X ) - the only published volume in a planned Rotwelsch series . Sources and vocabulary of rogue language and related secret languages .
  • Our German. Introduction to the mother tongue. Lectures and essays. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1907 (and another five editions up to 1958).
  • Sailor's language. Verbatim history handbook of German boatman expressions of older and more recent times. Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, Halle ad Saale 1908 (reprint of the 1911 edition: Hain, Meisenheim 1973, ISBN 3-920307-10-0 ).
  • Word research and word history. Essays on the German vocabulary. Quelle & Meyer, Leipzig 1912.
  • Nominal root formation theory of the old Germanic dialects. Max Niemeyer, Halle (Saale) (3rd edition, edited by Ludwig Sütterin and Ernst Ochs) 1926.


Web links

Commons : Friedrich Kluge  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Friedrich Kluge  - Sources and full texts