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Bust on Heine's grave in the North Cemetery in Paris
The German poet and journalist Heinrich Heine dies in exile in Paris.
Coronation of Alexander II and Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt
Alexander II and Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt are crowned Tsar and Tsarina of Russia .
Paris Congress 1856
With the Paris Peace is the Crimean War ended.
1856 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1304/05 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1848/49 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 12/13 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1261/62 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2399/2400 (southern Buddhism); 2398/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the fire dragon丙辰 ( at the beginning of the year wooden rabbit 乙卯)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1218/19 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4189/90 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1234/35 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1272/73 (August 31st / September 1st)
Jewish calendar 5616/17 (September 29/30)
Coptic Calendar 1572/73 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1031/32
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1271/72 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2166/67 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2167/68 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1912/13 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Crimean War / Ottoman Empire

Switzerland / Prussia

Brazil, Switzerland, Prussia

  • On December 26th, in the so-called Ibicaba uprising, German-speaking settlers, led by Thomas Davatz , revolted against the slave-like working and living conditions at the Ibicaba Fazenda in the province of São Paulo. They are demanding an investigation by the Brazilian central government or by envoys from the settlers' countries of origin. You get Swiss ambassadors, first Jakob Christian Heusser , then in 1861 Johann Jakob von Tschudi as Swiss special envoy, also mandated by Prussia, to carry out investigations in Brazil and to negotiate with the Brazilian central government. Among other things, there is a consular convention. This leads in particular to the improved legal position of the Reformed (recognition of the marriage of the Reformed in accordance with the Reformed Church and thus recognition of Reformed families whose children were previously considered illegitimate ).


The coronation portraits
  • August 26th: The coronation and anointing of the “Liberator Tsar” Alexander II and his wife Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt takes place around one and a half years after the accession to the throne in Moscow.



Sultanate of Oman



  • April 21st: Stonemasons and building workers in Melbourne are the first workers in the world to succeed in enforcing the statutory eight-hour day .
  • May 1: Protests with numerous participants in Melbourne call for the introduction of the 8-hour working day. The events are thus the oldest known May demonstrations, which are celebrated worldwide from 1890 as Labor Day and similar designations in other languages ​​on May 1st.

United States of America

Official portrait of James Buchanan in the White House
Electoral votes per state


Business start-ups


1856: The Hanover Southern Railway: The Kragenhof Bridge near Kassel ;
Wood engraving from the Illustrirten Zeitung
Opening of the first railway line in Portugal


science and technology


Visual arts

Two women ...


First edition: Dred

Music and theater


Mode 1856: Crinoline in a cross-sectional view from Punch magazine from August

In fashion, the crinoline coming from England comes in a version with steel straps.


Cartel contract



  • January 23: The passenger paddle steamer Pacific disappears without a trace on its way from Liverpool to New York with up to 240 people on board.
  • August 10: A hurricane wreaks severe damage in Louisiana . Over 200 people were killed in the flooding of Last Island alone .
  • September 24: The American paddle steamer Niagara sinks on Lake Michigan a few miles from Port Washington after a fire. 60 to 70 passengers die in the accident.
  • November 2: The French passenger steamer Lyonnais collides with a barque near Nantucket and sinks the following day. 130 of the 146 people on board die.

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .


  • The first lacrosse club, the Montréal Lacrosse Club, is founded in the province of Canada .
  • Isaac Spratt publishes the first printed rulebook for croquet .

Historical maps

St. Louis and Chicago 1856


January February

Alfred Einhorn, 1890

March April

Philippe Pétain, around 1930
  • April 24: Philippe Pétain , French general and President († 1951)
  • April 27: Tongzhi , Chinese Emperor († 1875)

May June

Sigmund Freud, 1921
Lyman Frank Baum

July August

Nikola Tesla, around 1890

September October

Carl Peters

November December

Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg
Joseph John Thomson
Woodrow Wilson

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1856


January to April

Heine's grave in the North Cemetery in Paris

May to August

Amedeo Avogadro
Robert Schumann

September to December

Web links

Commons : 1856  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files