Calendar overview 1856
|Heinrich Heine dies in exile in Paris.||Alexander II and Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt are crowned Tsar and Tsarina of Russia .|
|Paris Peace is the Crimean War ended.|
|1856 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1304/05 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1848/49 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||12/13 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1261/62 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2399/2400 (southern Buddhism); 2398/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||75th (76th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1218/19 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4189/90 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1234/35 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1272/73 (August 31st / September 1st)|
|Jewish calendar||5616/17 (September 29/30)|
|Coptic Calendar||1572/73 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1271/72 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2166/67 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2167/68 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1912/13 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Crimean War / Ottoman Empire
- January 29th: The British Queen Victoria donates the Victoria Cross . It wants to honor soldiers who stood out in the Crimean War through bravery or special achievements.
- February 18: The Hatt-ı Hümâyûn ("Grand Manorial Writing"), an edict of the Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid I , which further developed the reforms of the Tanzimat , is proclaimed by the Sublime Porte .
- March 30th: The Paris Peace Treaty is signed. The Crimean War is over.
- April 16: Piracy is outlawed internationally in the Paris Declaration .
Switzerland / Prussia
- January 1: Jakob Stämpfli becomes President of Switzerland .
- September 2: The Swiss canton of Neuchâtel experiences a coup attempt by royalists . They want the Prussian king to be their sovereign again.
- December 13: Prussia breaks off diplomatic relations with Switzerland because of the dispute over the Principality of Neuchâtel and orders the mobilization of 150,000 men for January 2, 1857. France takes sides with Prussia and Napoléon III. mediates negotiations between the conflicting parties after Great Britain signaled support for the Swiss Confederation. Only in May 1857 can the Neuchâtel trade be settled with the Treaty of Paris .
Brazil, Switzerland, Prussia
- On December 26th, in the so-called Ibicaba uprising, German-speaking settlers, led by Thomas Davatz , revolted against the slave-like working and living conditions at the Ibicaba Fazenda in the province of São Paulo. They are demanding an investigation by the Brazilian central government or by envoys from the settlers' countries of origin. You get Swiss ambassadors, first Jakob Christian Heusser , then in 1861 Johann Jakob von Tschudi as Swiss special envoy, also mandated by Prussia, to carry out investigations in Brazil and to negotiate with the Brazilian central government. Among other things, there is a consular convention. This leads in particular to the improved legal position of the Reformed (recognition of the marriage of the Reformed in accordance with the Reformed Church and thus recognition of Reformed families whose children were previously considered illegitimate ).
- August 26th: The coronation and anointing of the “Liberator Tsar” Alexander II and his wife Marie von Hessen-Darmstadt takes place around one and a half years after the accession to the throne in Moscow.
- June 6: Change of government in Portugal ; King Peter V dismisses the Duke of Saldanha as Prime Minister and appoints the Duke of Loulé as his successor. For the first time since 1842, the Liberals are ruling Portugal again.
- August 7th: In the battle of Tres Forcas between Prussian naval units and the Berber tribe of the Rifkabylen , one of the first examples of German gunboat policy , the Prussians are repulsed by the Berbers.
Sultanate of Oman
- October 19: After the death of Said ibn Sultan , Sayyid , Imam and Sultan of Muscat , Oman and Zanzibar, his sons Thuwaini ibn Said and Majid bin Said disputed the succession to the throne, which ultimately led to the sultanate of Oman being divided . Thuwaini receives Oman with the capital Muscat, Majid remains ruler of the Zanzibar archipelago, which he already controls . As a result, Oman is becoming impoverished because it is cut off from the customs revenue of the African ports. At the same time, Thuwaini has to fend off another brother Turki ibn Said's claims to the throne .
- Shogun Tokugawa Iesada is married to Atsuhime (the later Tenshōin ) at the instigation of the daimyo of Satsuma , Shimazu Nariakira .
- April 21st: Stonemasons and building workers in Melbourne are the first workers in the world to succeed in enforcing the statutory eight-hour day .
- May 1: Protests with numerous participants in Melbourne call for the introduction of the 8-hour working day. The events are thus the oldest known May demonstrations, which are celebrated worldwide from 1890 as Labor Day and similar designations in other languages on May 1st.
United States of America
- November 4: In the presidential election in the United States , the Democratic candidate James Buchanan wins against the candidate of the newly formed Republican Party , John C. Frémont , and the Know-Nothing / American Party candidate, Millard Fillmore .
- Peak of Bleeding Kansas
- March 21: Irish and Belgian investors enable the Shamrock coal mine to be founded in Herne .
- April 12th: The stock corporation of the Bavarian Eastern Railways is founded after the formation of private railway companies in Bavaria was again permitted by law on March 19th .
- May 12: The Association of German Engineers (VDI) is founded in Alexisbad .
- July 5: Alfred Escher founds the Schweizerische Kreditanstalt in Zurich, making the city the leading banking location and economic center in Switzerland.
- August: Franz Rudolph Wurlitzer founds a music equipment retailer .
- October 1st: Gustav Langenscheidt founds the publishing house of the same name in Berlin, which today operates under the name of Langenscheidt KG.
- October 15: The Norddeutsche Bank is founded in Hamburg after its shareholders abandon their original plans to also issue banknotes . In 1929, the credit institution issuing the bonds was merged with the Deutsche Bank .
- December 14th: The Monte-Carlo casino starts operations in a villa on the port of Monaco . The license was awarded on April 26th by Prince Florestan to the French Napoléon Langlois and Albert Aubert.
- January 5: The Egyptian viceroy Muhammad Said grants Ferdinand de Lesseps the approval for the construction and operation of the Suez Canal and the establishment of the joint-stock company intended for this with the second, detailed concession .
- May 8: The Dransfelder Rampe , part of the Hanover Southern Railway , is opened. On September 23, the Volkmarshausen tunnel will also be opened to traffic.
- OCTOBER 28: Lisbon witnessed the opening of the first Portuguese railway line between the Santa Apolonia train station and the terminus at the train station in Carregado .
- November 4th: The first Danube conference of the European powers begins in Galatz , which advises on questions of shipping on the Danube and initiates the Commission of the Danube Bank States .
- November 25: The Chaumont viaduct commissioned by the Chemin de fer de l'Est is completed as part of the Paris – Mulhouse railway line .
- March 21: The stonemasons in the Australian state of Victoria enforce the first eight-hour day for male industrial workers.
- Ludwig Meyn carries out the first oil wells in Germany.
- Postal money orders are introduced in Great Britain .
science and technology
- January 8: Chemist John Allen Veatch discovers the first borax deposit in the United States.
- The French physician Claude Bernard discovered glycogen in the liver of a mammal .
- The British chemist William Henry Perkin synthesizes the dye mauvein by oxidizing aniline with potassium dichromate .
- The French physiologist Edmé Félix Alfred Vulpian discovered a substance in the adrenal cortex that was later identified as the hormone adrenaline .
- The rise of Chicago begins.
- Camille Pissarro paints Two Women by the Sea, deep in conversation, St. Thomas . The picture is part of a group of nine signed works with "tropical" motifs from 1856.
- Harriet Beecher Stowes second novel Dred; a tale of the great Dismal Swamp appears.
- Gustave Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary appears in the Parisian magazine La Revue de Paris .
Music and theater
- February 1: The chamber musician Tröstler founds a private conservatory in Dresden , from which the Carl Maria von Weber University of Music emerges.
- February 23: The Opéra-comique Manon Lescaut by Daniel-François-Esprit Auber with the libretto by Eugène Scribe has its world premiere in the Salle Favart of the Opéra-Comique in Paris. Although the first performance of the setting of the novel of the same name by Antoine-François Prévost from 1731 was well received and the opera was performed 63 times, it cannot remain in the repertoire in the long term.
- June 12: World premiere of the operetta La Rose de Saint-Flour by Jacques Offenbach at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris
- August 8: World premiere of the operetta Deux Vieilles Gardes by Léo Delibes at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris
- August 15: The Thalia Theater in the Vienna suburb of Neulerchenfeld , built by Ferdinand Fellner the Elder , opens with Josef Böhm's posse From the Viennese Life .
- August 25: The Teatro Solís , built in the style of historic eclecticism , opens in Montevideo .
- November 12: World premiere of the operetta Six Demoiselles à marier by Léo Delibes at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens in Paris
- First dated shadow play with paper cutouts by Adolf Tannert
In fashion, the crinoline coming from England comes in a version with steel straps.
- December 6th: The Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations is founded.
- March 17: In the encyclical Singulari quidem , Pope Pius IX praises . the Concordat concluded with the Austrian Empire . He also advises the clergy of evil machinations that threaten the progress of the Church.
- January 23: The passenger paddle steamer Pacific disappears without a trace on its way from Liverpool to New York with up to 240 people on board.
- August 10: A hurricane wreaks severe damage in Louisiana . Over 200 people were killed in the flooding of Last Island alone .
- September 24: The American paddle steamer Niagara sinks on Lake Michigan a few miles from Port Washington after a fire. 60 to 70 passengers die in the accident.
- November 2: The French passenger steamer Lyonnais collides with a barque near Nantucket and sinks the following day. 130 of the 146 people on board die.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .
- The first lacrosse club, the Montréal Lacrosse Club, is founded in the province of Canada .
- Isaac Spratt publishes the first printed rulebook for croquet .
- Clara Anhuth , German writer and librarian († after 1920) January 3:
- William Goebel , American politician († 1900) January 4:
- Anton Aškerc , Slovenian poet and priest († 1912) January 9:
- J. Franklin Bell , American officer, major general in the US Army († 1919) January 9:
- January 11: Christian Sinding , Norwegian composer († 1941)
- January 12: John Singer Sargent , American painter († 1925)
- January 12: Charles W. Gates , American politician († 1927)
- January 13: Rudolf Bullerjahn , German musician († 1911)
- January 17: Jens Bratlie , Norwegian lawyer, officer and conservative politician († 1939)
- January 19: Clemens von Delbrück , German politician († 1921)
- January 20: Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch , American suffragette and publicist († 1940)
- January 22nd: Martha Nopitsch , German painter († 1939)
- January 25: Pierre Decourcelle , French writer († 1926)
- January 29: Aleksander Brückner , Polish Slavist († 1939)
- January 31: Hermann von François , German general in World War I († 1933)
- Robert Latham Owen , American politician († 1947) February 2:
- Georg Winter , German archivist and historian († 1912) February 3:
- Otto Brahm , German critic, theater director and director († 1912) February 5:
- Alfredo Valenzuela Puelma , Chilean painter († 1909) February 8:
- February 10: Eugen Nägele , German conservationist, educator and local researcher († 1937)
- February 12: Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli , Austrian field marshal and military leader († 1941)
- February 14: Frank Harris , Irish-English author and editor († 1931)
- February 15: Emil Kraepelin , German psychiatrist († 1926)
- February 16: Rudolph Karstadt , German textile entrepreneur († 1944)
- February 20: Jean Fernand-Lafargue , French writer († 1903)
- February 25: Alfred Biese , German literary historian († 1930)
- February 25: Karl Lamprecht , German historian and professor († 1915)
- February 25: Miguel Oquelí Bustillo , Honduran politician and chairman of the government junta from 1907 († 1938)
- February 25: Mathias Zdarsky , Austrian ski pioneer († 1940)
- February 27: Alfred Einhorn , German chemist († 1917)
- February 27: Mattia Battistini , Italian opera and concert singer († 1928)
- Gustav Davis , Austrian journalist and newspaper editor († 1951) March 3:
- Ellen Andrée , French stage actress († 1933) March 7:
- Violet Manners, Duchess of Rutland , British art patron and artist († 1937) March 7th:
- Edward Goodrich Acheson , American chemist and technician († 1931) March 9:
- Hermann Iseke , German poet († 1907) March 9:
- March 11: Gotthold Gundermann , German classical philologist († 1921)
- March 15: Achille Locatelli , Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1935)
- March 16: Heinrich Albrecht , German social politician and housing reformer († 1931)
- March 16: Jean Antoine Tancrède Auguste , Haitian general, politician and president († 1913)
- March 17th: Michail Wrubel , Russian painter († 1910)
- March 20: Gaetano Bisleti , Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1937)
- March 20: Frederick Winslow Taylor , American engineer († 1915)
- March 21: David Lorenz , German painter († 1907)
- March 23: Ferdinand Lachner , Czech violinist and music teacher († 1910)
- March 24th: Martin Faßbender , German professor, publicist and politician († 1943)
- March 25: Max Uhle , German founder of Andean archeology († 1944)
- March 30th: Dora Hitz , German painter and court painter to the Romanian royal family († 1924)
- March 31: Alexander Vvedensky , Russian philosopher and psychologist († 1925)
- March 31: José Benjamin Zubiaur , Argentine educator († 1921)
- Bill Traylor , Afro-American self-taught draftsman and painter († 1949) April 1:
- Carl Johann Becker-Gundahl , German church painter and draftsman († 1925) April 4:
- April 5: Maximilian Reichel , German fire service officer († 1924)
- Booker T. Washington , American educator, social reformer and black rights activist († 1915) April 5:
- Arthur von Gwinner , German banker, politician and patron of the arts († 1931) April 6:
- April 12: Ernst Maass , German classical philologist († 1929)
- April 13: Avedis Petrus XIV. Arpiarian , Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia († 1937)
- April 13: Franciszek Ludwik Neugebauer , Russian gynecologist († 1914)
- April 14: Lamartine Griffin Hardman , American politician († 1937)
- April 15: Jean Moréas , French-Greek poet († 1910)
- April 17: Federico Cattani Amadori , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1943)
- April 17: Edward Jakobowski , English composer († 1929)
- April 20: Richard Buchmayer , German pianist and music historian († 1934)
- April 24: Philippe Pétain , French general and President († 1951)
- April 27: Tongzhi , Chinese Emperor († 1875)
- Helene von Druskowitz , Austrian philosopher, literary and music critic († 1918) May 2:
- Lucia True Ames Mead , American pacifist and feminist († 1936) May 5:
- Robert Edwin Peary , American engineer and polar explorer († 1920) May 6:
- Sigmund Freud , Austrian neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis († 1939) May 6:
- Victor Attinger , Swiss photographer and publisher († 1927) June 7:
- May 10: Florian Berndl , Austrian naturopath († 1934)
- May 12: Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper , German botanist († 1901)
- May 13: Paul Felix Aschrott , German lawyer, criminal law and social reformer († 1927)
- May 13: Reinhard Mannesmann , German inventor and entrepreneur († 1922)
- May 14: Georg Asmussen , German writer († 1933)
- May 15: Lyman Frank Baum , American writer († 1919)
- May 18: Antonio Chiattone , Swiss sculptor († 1904)
- May 19: Oreste Giorgi , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1924)
- May 20: Henri Edmond Cross , French painter († 1910)
- May 21: José Batlle y Ordóñez , Uruguayan journalist and President († 1929)
- May 26: Alexander Bernewitz , German-Baltic provost and Protestant martyr († 1919)
- May 28: Philipp Rinaldi , Italian Salesian, beatified by Pope John Paul II in Rome in 1990 († 1931)
- May 30: Adolf Chelius , German painter († 1923)
- Ernst Lecher , Austrian physicist († 1926) June 1:
- June 12: Edouard Montet , Franco-Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1934)
- June 14: Dimityr Blagoew , Bulgarian politician and Marxist theorist († 1924)
- June 14: Andrei Markow , Russian mathematician († 1922)
- June 15: Otto von Herff , German doctor and professor († 1916)
- June 16: Gustav Denhardt , German Africa explorer († 1917)
- June 16: Karl Gundelach , German sculptor († 1920)
- June 17: Franz Roubaud , Russian painter († 1928)
- June 18: Friedrich Karl Paul Gustav von Arnim , Prussian officer († 1932)
- June 21: Chū Asai , Japanese painter († 1907)
- June 21: Franz Ewald Bachmann , German physician and natural scientist († after 1916)
- June 21: Friedrich Kluge , German linguist († 1926)
- June 22: Henry Rider Haggard , British writer († 1925)
- June 30th: Gerrit Kalff , Dutch native († 1923)
- Georg von der Marwitz , Prussian cavalry general († 1929) July 3:
- George Washington Appo , American criminal († 1930) July 4th:
- Ion Keith-Falconer , British cyclist, scholar and missionary († 1887) July 5:
- Otto Puchstein , German archaeologist († 1911) July 6:
- July 10: Stefan Augsburger , Austrian poet, priest and politician († 1893)
- July 10: Nikola Tesla , Serbian inventor and electrical engineer († 1943)
- July 12: Gisela of Austria , Austrian Archduchess († 1932)
- July 18: Alfred Wiedemann , German Egyptologist († 1936)
- July 21: Wilhelm Geiger , German Indologist and Iranist († 1943)
- July 22: Kamran Mirza , prince of the Qajar dynasty in Persia and prime minister († 1929)
- July 24: Émile Picard , French mathematician († 1941)
- July 26: Edward Anseele , Belgian politician († 1938)
- July 26: George Bernard Shaw , Irish playwright and Nobel Prize for Literature († 1950)
- July 28: Karl Heinrich Gisbert Gillhausen , German engineer and politician († 1917)
- July 30: Richard Haldane , British politician and philosopher († 1928)
- July 31: Albert Grünwedel , German Indologist and Tibetologist († 1935)
- July 31: John Oliver , Canadian politician († 1927)
- Hermann Rodewald , German agricultural scientist († 1938) August 2:
- Alfred Deakin , Australian Prime Minister († 1919) August 3:
- William E. Purcell , American politician († 1928) August 3:
- Eduard Hahn , German agrarian ethnologist, geographer and economic historian († 1928) August 7th:
- August 11: Hermann Ambronn , German botanist and physicist († 1927)
- August 15: Charles E. Townsend , American politician († 1924)
- August 18: Ascher Hirsch Ginsberg , Zionist activist, journalist and main representative of cultural Zionism († 1927)
- August 18: Ove Christensen , Danish composer, violinist and pianist († 1909)
- August 18: Jan Gall , Polish composer, choir director and music teacher († 1912)
- August 20: Jakub Bart-Ćišinski , Sorbian poet († 1909)
- August 22: Emanuel von Seidl , German architect and engineer († 1919)
- August 23: Leonti Nikolajewitsch Benois , Russian architect († 1928)
- August 24: Felix Mottl , Austrian conductor and composer († 1911)
- August 24: Wilhelm Neumann-Torborg , German sculptor († 1917)
- August 25: Louis Aubert , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1936)
- August 27: Ivan Franko , Ukrainian poet and writer († 1916)
- August 30: Carl Runge , German mathematician († 1927)
- Louis-Ernest Dubois , Archbishop of Paris and Cardinal († 1929) September 1:
- Ernst Marcus , German lawyer and philosopher († 1928) September 3:
- William B. McKinley , American politician († 1926) September 5:
- Archibald Hunter , British general († 1936) September 6:
- Karl Ludwig Jühlke , German African explorer († 1886) September 6:
- Richard R. Kenney , American politician († 1931) September 9:
- September 12: Eugen Scheuermann , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant martyr († 1919)
- September 23: William Archer , Scottish theater critic, stage poet and Ibsen translator († 1924)
- September 23: Karl Krumbacher , German Byzantine († 1909)
- September 25: Theodor Schneller , German theologian and missionary († 1935)
- September 26: Leo Graetz , German physicist († 1941)
- September 27: Carl Peters , German politician, publicist, colonialist and Africa researcher († 1918)
- September 28: Kate Douglas Wiggin , American educator and author († 1923)
- September 29: Miguel R. Dávila , President of Honduras († 1927)
- Hedwig Arendt , German theater actress († 1917) October 4:
- Hermann Brandt , German settler and farmer († 1925) October 5:
- William A. Massey , American politician († 1914) October 7:
- Sietze Douwes van Veen , Dutch church historian († 1924) October 7:
- Johannes Kuhlo , German theologian and composer († 1941) October 8:
- October 12: Henry F. Lippitt , American politician († 1933)
- October 15: Robert Nivelle , French general († 1924)
- October 15: John Franklin Alexander Strong , American politician († 1929)
- October 17: July Schokalsky , Russian oceanographer and cartographer († 1940)
- October 18: Eduard Ameseder , Austrian painter († 1938)
- October 18: James B. Frazier , American politician († 1937)
- October 18: Edmond Haraucourt , French writer († 1941)
- October 19: Rudolf Koch , German press illustrator († 1921)
- October 20: Alcibiade Béique , Canadian organist and music teacher († 1896)
- October 21: Josef Noa , Austro-Hungarian chess player († 1903)
- October 25: Paul d'Ivoi , French writer († 1915)
- October 27: Amanda Courtaux , French music teacher and composer († 1941)
- October 27: Kenyon Cox , American painter and writer († 1919)
- October 31: Carlos Antonio Mendoza , Panamanian President († 1916)
- Augustinus Kilian , German Bishop of Limburg († 1930) November 1:
- Hermann von Kuhl , German general and military historian († 1958) November 2:
- Foster MacGowan Voorhees , American politician († 1927) November 5:
- November 12: Felix Auerbach , German physicist († 1933)
- November 13: Mikhail Ilyinsky , Russian chemist († 1941)
- November 14: Ludwig Kandler , German portrait, history and genre painter († 1927)
- November 17: Thomas Taggart , American politician († 1929)
- November 19: Simon Alapin , Russian chess player († 1923)
- November 22: Helene Böhlau , German writer († 1940)
- November 22: Felix Genzmer , German builder and architect († 1929)
- November 25: Sergei Tanajew , Russian composer († 1915)
- November 27: Adolph Larsen , Danish landscape painter († 1942)
- November 28: Belisario Porras Barahona , Panamanian President († 1942)
- November 28: Patrick Joseph O'Donnell , Irish clergyman, Archbishop of Armagh and Cardinal († 1927)
- November 29: Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg , German politician and Reich Chancellor († 1921)
- Georg Hummel , German electrical engineer, inventor and entrepreneur († 1902) December 1:
- Karl Rathgen , German economist († 1921) December 6:
- Ernst Brenner , Swiss politician († 1911) December 9:
- December 12: Wilhelm Baldensperger , French Protestant theologian († 1936)
- December 13: Svetozar Boroević von Bojna , Austrian field marshal († 1920)
- December 13: Abbott Lawrence Lowell , American lawyer, political scientist and President of Harvard University († 1943)
- December 14: Julius Ackerknecht , German professor († 1932)
- December 18: Joseph John Thomson , British physicist, discoverer of the electron († 1940)
- December 20: Ferdinand Avenarius , German poet († 1923)
- December 20: Reginald Blomfield , British landscape architect († 1942)
- December 21: Giulio del Torre , Italian painter († 1932)
- December 22nd: Frank Billings Kellogg , American lawyer and diplomat († 1937)
- December 24th: Árpád Feszty , Hungarian painter († 1914)
- December 25: Hans von Bartels , German painter († 1913)
- December 26: John Harper Long , American chemist († 1918)
- December 27: André Gedalge , French music teacher and composer († 1926)
- December 28: Woodrow Wilson , American President and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1924)
- December 29: Thomas Jean Stieltjes , Dutch mathematician († 1894)
- December 30th: Conradine Stinde , German author († 1925)
- December 31: Hildegard Voigt , German writer († 1936)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Pierro Arrigoni , Italian architect († 1940)
- Alberto Ceradelli , Italian violinist and music teacher (date of death unknown)
- Morteza Qoli Chan Hedayat , Iranian politician († 1911)
- Verkine Karakaschian , Armenian actress († 1933)
- José Mercedes Ortega , Chilean painter († 1933)
- Samuel T. Strang , American organist and composer († 1921)
Born around 1856
January to April
- Robert Nicolas-Charles Bochsa , French composer and harp virtuoso (* 1789) January 6th:
- Karl Friedrich Klöden , German historian and geographer (* 1786) January 9:
- January 11th: Friedrich Wilhelm Schneidewin , German classical philologist (* 1810)
- January 12: Ľudovít Štúr , Slovak philologist, writer and politician (* 1815)
- January 16: Johann Albrecht Friedrich von Eichhorn , Prussian statesman and minister of culture (* 1779)
- January 19: Ernst von Seherr-Thoß , German officer and landowner (* 1786)
- January 20: Joseph Marshall Walker , American politician (* 1784)
- January 21: Benedictus Gotthelf Teubner , German bookseller and founder of the publishing house (* 1784)
- January 22nd: Charles Victor Prévôst , French writer (* 1789)
- January 22nd: Georg Wilhelm von Wedekind , German forester (* 1796)
- January 28: Helmina von Chézy , German poet (* 1783)
- January 29th: Otto von Erxleben , German officer and landowner (* 1788)
- Nikolaus Aumüller , Bavarian politician (* 1775) January:
- Eduard Vogel , German astronomer and Africa explorer (* 1829) February 8th:
- February 12: Alexandre Montfort , French composer (* 1803)
- February 14: Peter Heinrich August von Salviati , Prussian diplomat (* 1786)
- February 17th: John Braham , English opera singer (* 1774)
- February 17: Heinrich Heine , German poet and journalist (* 1797)
- February 24: Nikolai Lobachevsky , Russian mathematician (* 1792)
- Johann Konrad Zeller , Swiss painter (* 1807) March 1:
- Gebhard Adolph Friedrich von Krosigk , German landowner and civil servant (* 1799) March 3:
- March 18: Sir Henry Pottinger , British colonial administrator (* 1789)
- March 28: Pyotr Turchaninov , Russian composer (* 1779)
- March 29: Julius Ambrosch , German classical philologist (* 1804)
- Adolphe Monod , Swiss Reformed revival preacher (* 1802) April 6:
- April 18: Joseph Menter , German cellist and music teacher (* 1808)
- April 26: George Troup , American politician (* 1780)
- April 27: Friederike Julie Lisiewska , German portrait painter (* 1772)
May to August
- Adolphe Adam , French opera composer (* 1803) May 3:
- Adolfo Fumagalli , Italian pianist and composer (* 1828) May 3:
- May 13: Jean Zuléma Amussat , French doctor and surgeon (* 1796)
- May 16: Karl Ernst Christoph Schneider , German classical philologist (* 1786)
- May 18: Georg Simon von Sina , Austrian banker and entrepreneur (* 1783)
- May 20: Johan Lorentz Aschan , Swedish entrepreneur (* 1772)
- May 22: Augustin Thierry , French historian (* 1795)
- May 23: Alfred Gustav Friedrich von Domhardt , Prussian landowner (* 1792)
- May 25: Rudolph Bay , Danish composer (* 1791)
- May 31: John Milton Niles , American politician (* 1787)
- Leopold Ferdinand Eduard Dietrich von Arnim , Prussian Lieutenant General (* 1794) June 1:
- June 11: Friedrich Heinrich von der Hagen , German Germanist (* 1780)
- June 13: Ernst Alban , German ophthalmologist, mechanical engineer and pioneer of steam engine construction (* 1791)
- June 14th: William Palmer , British serial killer (* 1824)
- June 20: Florestan I , Prince of Monaco (* 1785)
- June 20: Hanzo Njepila , Sorbian folk writer (* 1766)
- June 25: Max Stirner , German philosopher (* 1806)
- June 27: Joseph Meyer , German publisher (* 1796)
- Amedeo Avogadro , Italian physicist and chemist (* 1776) July 9:
- Alfred Cuthbert , American politician (* 1785) July 9:
- July 11: Josef Kajetán Tyl , Czech theater dramatist (* 1808)
- July 16: Friedrich Wilhelm von Schubert , German Lutheran theologian, clergyman, Scandinavian and university professor (* 1788)
- July 21: Emil Aarestrup , Danish poet (* 1800)
- July 29: Karel Havlíček Borovský , Czech poet, prose writer, literary critic, translator, politician and journalist (* 1821)
- July 29: Robert Schumann , German composer (* 1810)
- July 30th: Georg Weerth , German businessman and writer (* 1822)
- August 13: José María Estrada , President of Nicaragua (* 1802)
- August 19: Anna Maria Rüttimann-Meyer von Schauensee , Swiss patrician (* 1772)
- August 21: Peter Joseph von Lindpaintner , German composer and conductor (* 1791)
- August 24th: Carl Heyer , German forestry practitioner, teacher and scientist (* 1797)
- August 24: William Buckland , English geologist and paleontologist (* 1784)
- August 30: John Ross , British rear admiral and polar explorer (* 1777)
- August 31: Giuseppe Pioda , Swiss architect and engineer (* 1810)
September to December
- Christoph Karl Julius Asschenfeldt , German hymn poet (* 1792) September 1:
- Christian Friedrich Bernhard Augustin , German theologian, writer and historian (* 1771) September 1:
- Louis Marie Baptiste Atthalin , French officer, politician and painter (* 1784) September 3:
- Paul von Haugwitz , Prussian soldier, district administrator, landowner and writer (* 1791) September 8:
- September 12: Emil Braun , German archaeologist (* 1809)
- September 12th: Johann Majoleth ( Gigerhannesli ), Swiss folk music pioneer, broom-maker and "Bündner Münchhausen" (* 1774)
- September 15: Hans Detlef Friedrich Asschenfeldt , German publisher and member of parliament (* 1787)
- September 15: Heinrich LXIV. , Paraglider of Reuss-Köstritz (* 1787)
- September 15: Severin Løvenskiold , Norwegian governor (* 1777)
- September 17th: Ninomiya Sontoku , Japanese agricultural reformer (* 1787)
- September 21: Michail Wielhorski , Russian composer, cellist and patron (* 1787)
- Christian zu Leiningen-Westerburg , Austrian Lieutenant Field Marshal (* 1812) October 1:
- Alfred V. du Pont , American industrialist (* 1798) October 4:
- Wilhelm Eilert Schmid , German organ builder (* 1791) October 4th:
- William Hall , American politician (* 1775) October 7:
- October 12: Richárd Guyon , General (* 1803)
- October 14: Johann Kaspar Mertz , Austrian composer and guitar virtuoso (* 1806)
- October 19: Karl Heinrich Hermes , German journalist and historian (* 1800)
- October 19: William Sprague , American politician (* 1799)
- October 21: Hendrik Tollens , Dutch writer of Flemish origin (* 1780)
- October 22: Bernhard Brand von Lindau , Prussian lawyer (* 1805)
- October 26: Christian Wilhelm Schweitzer , German lawyer, Minister of State in the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (* 1781)
- Paul Delaroche , French history painter (* 1797) November 4th:
- Étienne Cabet , French publicist, politician and revolutionary (* 1788) November 8:
- Friedrich von Klinckowström , Prussian landowner and politician (* 1775) November 9th:
- November 10th: Johann Kaspar Zeuss , German philologist (* 1806)
- November 17: John Henry Eaton , American politician (* 1790)
- November 17: Carl Uhde , German merchant and collector (* 1792)
- November 18: Mikhail Voronzow , Russian commander, governor general and viceroy (* 1782)
- November 20: Farkas Wolfgang Bolyai , Hungarian mathematician (* 1775)
- November 21: Carl von Steuben , French painter (* 1788)
- November 23: Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall , Austrian diplomat (* 1774)
- November 28: Hirose Tansō , Japanese scholar, educator and writer (* 1782)
- November 30th: Charles-Alexandre Fessy , French organist and composer (* 1804)
- December 13: Otto von der Groeben , Prussian manor owner and politician (* 1797)
- December 22nd: Maximilian Speck von Sternburg , German businessman, entrepreneur and art collector (* 1776)
- December 26: Jakob Friedrich Binder , First Mayor of Nuremberg from 1821 to 1853 (* 1787)