Chula Sakarat ( Pali : Culasakarāja , "little time calculation"; also written Chulasakaraj or Chulasakarat , mostly abbreviated as "CS") is a traditional annual calculation that was used in many parts of continental Southeast Asia .
The Chula Sakarat count began in 639 AD. In that year, the Buddhist patriarch Buppasoranhan in Sri Ksetra (now Myanmar ) proclaimed the year 1 after he had left the monastic state and taken the royal throne for himself. Until then, the annual calculation was carried out according to the Buddhist calendar during the "era of religion" . The Chula Sakarat era has also been called the "Common Era" since then. The name Chula Sakarat is derived from the Pali and means “small calendar” - in contrast to the so-called “large calendar” of the Indian Saka era .
To convert a year of the Chula Sakarat into the Gregorian calendar , add 638 to the year of the CS: CS 1272 was the year 1910 AD, the year of death of King Chulalongkorn . It should be noted, however, that the first day of a new Chula-Sakarat year does not fall on the first of January, but on the full moon day in April, more precisely on the first day of the waning moon.
The type of annual bill, analogous to Chula Sakarat, is simply called "Sakkaraj" in Myanmar . In English usage the term “Myanmar Era” is used, it is abbreviated as “ME”.
Chula Sakarat ( Thai : จุลศักราช , RTGS : Chunlasakkarat; pronunciation: [t͡ɕunláʔsàkkàrâːt] ; abbreviated จ.ศ. , Cho So) was used in Siam until the beginning of the 20th century. Under King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) , Thai coins were initially minted with years according to the Chula-Sakarat calendar.
Other countries in which the annual calculation was based on the Chula-Sakarat calendar:
- Visudh Busyakul: ปฏิทิน และ ศักราช ที่ ใช้ ใน ประเทศไทย [Patithin lae Sakkarat thi chai nai Prathet Thai; Calendar and timekeeping in use in Thailand.] In: Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand , Volume 29, No. 2, 2004, pp. 468-478.
- Sao Saimöng: Cuḷa Sakarāja and the Sixty Cyclical Year Names. In: Journal of the Siam Society , Volume 69, 1981, pp. 4-13.
References and comments
- Other spellings u. a. Chulasakkarat, Culasakaraja, Chula Sakkarat, Chula Sakaraj, Culasakkaraja, Culasakaraj, Chula Sakkaraj, Cula Sakaraja.
- http://www.thisismyanmar.com/nibbana/tawsein5.htm The Introduction of Buddhism into Burma (in English)